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Sample records for pure spin states

  1. Entanglement dynamics of spin systems in pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, G. B.; Meerovich, V. M.; Sokolovsky, V. L.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate numerically the appearance and evolution of entanglement in spin systems prepared initially in a pure state. We consider the dipolar coupling spin systems of different molecular structures: benzene C6H6 , cyclopentane C5H10 , sodium butyrate CH3(CH2)2CO2Na , and calcium hydroxyapatite Ca5(OH)(PO4)3 . Numerical simulations show that the close relationship exists between the intensity of second order (2Q) coherences and concurrences of nearest spins in a cyclopentane molecule.

  2. Pure quantum states of a neutrino with rotating spin in dense magnetized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzova, E. V.; Lobanov, A. E.; Murchikova, E. M.

    2010-02-01

    The problem of neutrino spin rotation in dense matter and in strong electromagnetic fields is solved in accordance with the basic principles of quantum mechanics. We obtain a complete system of wave functions for a massive Dirac neutrino with an anomalous magnetic moment which are the eigenfunctions of the kinetic momentum operator and have the form of nonspreading wave packets. These wave functions enable one to consider the states of neutrino with rotating spin as pure quantum states and can be used for calculating probabilities of various processes with the neutrino in the framework of the Furry picture.

  3. Pure valley- and spin-entangled states in a MoS2-based bipolar transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chunxu; Zou, Yonglian; Lou, Wen-Kai; Chang, Kai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we show that the local Andreev reflection not only can be tuned largely by the type of the normal metal electrode, it also is related to the electrostatic potential in the superconductor region in a MoS2-based n (p ) -type metal/superconductor junction. In a MoS2-based n -type metal/n (p ) -type superconductor/p -type metal (n Sp ) transistor, nonlocal pure valley- and spin-entangled current can be tuned by the length and local gate voltage of a superconductor region. In particular, switching the quasiparticle type in both structures results in a series of intriguing features. Such an effect is not attainable in a graphene-based junction where the electron-hole symmetry enables the symmetry results to be observed. Besides, we have shown that the crossed Andreev reflection exhibits a maximum around ξ /2 instead of the exponential decay behavior in conventional superconductors and a maximum around ξ in the graphene material. The proposed straightforward experimental design and pure valley- and spin-entangled state can pave the way for a wider use in the entanglement based on material group-VI dichalcogenides.

  4. Pure spin current and perfect valley filter by designed separation of the chiral states in two-dimensional honeycomb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Da-Ping; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Yu-Liang

    2016-10-01

    We propose a realization of pure spin currents and perfect valley filters based on a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, around which edge states with up spin and down spin circulate. By applying staggered sublattice potential on the strips along the edges of sample, the edge states with down spin can be pushed into the inner boundaries of the strips while the other edge states with up spin remain on the outer boundaries, resulting in spatially separated chiral states with perfect spin polarization. Moreover, a valley filter, which is immune to both long-range and short-range scatterers, can be engineered by additionally applying boundary potentials on the outmost lattices of the sample. We also find that the boundary potential can be used to control the size effect induced oscillation of the inner chiral states. The connection of the boundary potential to size effect is revealed.

  5. Observation of a single spin by transferring its coherence to a high level macroscopic pure state

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, Minaru

    2014-12-04

    We discuss about quantum measurement of a single spin in a superconducting RF resonator, where amplification of coherence of the spin is enabled by transferring its coherence to the harmonic oscillator in an non-coherent state with high energy level. This quantum amplification allows that a single spin can induce macroscopic current to permits observation of a single spin state in the number and phase uncertainty relation.

  6. Canonical Thermal Pure Quantum State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira

    2013-07-01

    A thermal equilibrium state of a quantum many-body system can be represented by a typical pure state, which we call a thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state. We construct the canonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the canonical ensemble of the conventional statistical mechanics. It is related to the microcanonical TPQ state, which corresponds to the microcanonical ensemble, by simple analytic transformations. Both TPQ states give identical thermodynamic results, if both ensembles do, in the thermodynamic limit. The TPQ states corresponding to other ensembles can also be constructed. We have thus established the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, according to which all quantities of statistical-mechanical interest are obtained from a single realization of any TPQ state. We also show that it has great advantages in practical applications. As an illustration, we study the spin-1/2 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

  7. Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, Vladislav E.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O.

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics. PMID:26818232

  8. Pure spin current transport in Alq3 by spin pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shengwei; Wang, Peng; Luan, Zhongzhi; Tao, Xinde; Ding, Haifeng; Wu, Di

    2015-03-01

    The use of organic semiconductors (OSCs) in spintronics has aroused considerable interests, owing to their much longer spin-relaxation times of OSCs than those of inorganic counterparts. The most studied example is the organic spin valve (OSV), in which magnetoresistance (MR) effect is frequently reported. However, studies on pure spin current injection and transport in OSCs are scarce. Recently, the pioneering work by Watanabe et al. demonstrated that pure spin current can be pumped into and propagates in semiconducting polymers. In the present work we extend the study to small molecule OSCs, and demonstrate that pure spin current can be injected into Alq3 from the adjacent magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) by spin pumping. The pure spin current is detected by inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in Pd after propagation through Alq3. From the ISHE voltage VISHE as a function of the Alq3 thickness, the spin diffusion length is determined to be ~ 50 nm and does not depend on temperature. This result indicates the MR decrease as increasing temperature in OSVs is not due to the reduced spin diffusion length.

  9. Optical pure spin current injection in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Julien; Burkard, Guido

    2013-03-01

    Pure spin current injection by optical methods is investigated in single-layer and bilayer graphene within the tight-binding model, including bias and interlayer coupling effects. Interlayer coupling in bilayer graphene has a distinct qualitative effect on the polarization dependence of the spin current injection. In combination with interlayer coupling, which induces trigonal warping of the electronic bands, the bias voltage allows to control the warping at the Fermi surface. The resulting implications for the spin current injection are presented. Unlike the previously presented charge current injection [J. Rioux et al., PRB 83, 195406 (2011)], the effect presented here relies on a single monochromatic beam.

  10. Pure spin current devices based on ferromagnetic topological insulators

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Matthias; Joppe, Michael; Dahm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional topological insulators possess two counter propagating edge channels with opposite spin direction. Recent experimental progress allowed to create ferromagnetic topological insulators realizing a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. In the QAH state one of the two edge channels disappears due to the strong ferromagnetic exchange field. We investigate heterostructures of topological insulators and ferromagnetic topological insulators by means of numerical transport calculations. We show that spin current flow in such heterostructures can be controlled with high fidelity. Specifically, we propose spintronic devices that are capable of creating, switching and detecting pure spin currents using the same technology. In these devices electrical currents are directly converted into spin currents, allowing a high conversion efficiency. Energy independent transport properties in combination with large bulk gaps in some topological insulator materials may allow operation even at room temperature. PMID:27782187

  11. Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Souma, Satofumi Ogawa, Matsuto

    2014-05-05

    We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated.

  12. The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, C. M.; Stein, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t \\to \\infty . We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture).

  13. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. A.; Figueroa, A. I.; Love, C. J.; Cavill, S. A.; Hesjedal, T.; van der Laan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α , in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co50 Fe50 layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni81 Fe19 layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices.

  14. Anisotropic Absorption of Pure Spin Currents.

    PubMed

    Baker, A A; Figueroa, A I; Love, C J; Cavill, S A; Hesjedal, T; van der Laan, G

    2016-01-29

    Spin transfer in magnetic multilayers offers the possibility of ultrafast, low-power device operation. We report a study of spin pumping in spin valves, demonstrating that a strong anisotropy of spin pumping from the source layer can be induced by an angular dependence of the total Gilbert damping parameter, α, in the spin sink layer. Using lab- and synchrotron-based ferromagnetic resonance, we show that an in-plane variation of damping in a crystalline Co_{50}Fe_{50} layer leads to an anisotropic α in a polycrystalline Ni_{81}Fe_{19} layer. This anisotropy is suppressed above the spin diffusion length in Cr, which is found to be 8 nm, and is independent of static exchange coupling in the spin valve. These results offer a valuable insight into the transmission and absorption of spin currents, and a mechanism by which enhanced spin torques and angular control may be realized for next-generation spintronic devices. PMID:26871353

  15. Pure spin current in lateral structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuhan

    Spintronics, a frontier academic research area, is advancing rapidly in recent years. It has been chosen as one of the promising candidates for overcoming the obstacles in continuing the "Moore's Law" of the electronics industry. Spintronics employs both spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons to reduce energy consumption and increase the flexibility of IC design. To achieve this, it is extremely important to understand the generation, transport, and detection of the spin polarized current (spin current). In this work we use a mesoscopic metallic spintronic structure-nonlocal spin valve (NLSV)-for fundamental studies of spintronics. A nonlocal spin valve consists of two ferromagnetic electrodes (a spin injector and a spin detector) bridged by a non-magnetic spin channel. A thin aluminum oxide barrier (~ 2 - 3 nm) has been shown to effectively enhance the spin injection and detection polarizations. We have studied spin injection and detection in these nanoscale structures. Several topics will be discussed in this work. In Chapter 4 we explore spin transport in NLSVs with Ag channels. Substantial spin signals are observed. The temperature dependence of the spin signals indicates long spin diffusion lengths and low surface spin-flip rate in the mesoscopic Ag channels. Chapter 5 will focus on the asymmetric spin absorption across the low-resistance AlOx barriers in NLSVs. This effect allows for a more simplified and efficient detection scheme for the spin accumulation. Then in Chapter 6 we report a large spin signal owing to a highly resistive break-junction. We have also developed a model to describe the spin-charge coupling effect which enables the large spin signal. In the end, Spin Hall Effect (SHE) is investigated in Chapter 7. A mesoscopic Pt film is utilized to inject a spin accumulation into a mesoscopic Cu channel via the SHE. The spin accumulation in Cu can be detected by the nonlocal method. The reciprocal effect -- the inverse Spin Hall Effect - (i

  16. Ultrahigh spin thermopower and pure spin current in a single-molecule magnet

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bo; Liu, Juan; Lü, Jing-Tao; Gao, Jin-Hua; Yao, Kai-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism within the sequential regime, we studied ultrahigh spin thermopower and pure spin current in single-molecule magnet(SMM), which is attached to nonmagnetic metal wires with spin bias and angle (θ) between the easy axis of SMM and the spin orientation in the electrodes. A pure spin current can be generated by tuning the gate voltage and temperature difference with finite spin bias and the arbitrary angle except of . In the linear regime, large thermopower can be obtained by modifying Vg and the angles (θ). These results are useful in fabricating and advantaging SMM devices based on spin caloritronics. PMID:24549224

  17. A measurement of. Delta. sigma. sub L (np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.

    1990-10-01

    A measurement off {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states, is described. The results will help determine the isospin-zero (I = 0) scattering amplitudes, which are not well known above laboratory energies of 500 MeV, whereas the isospin-one (I = 1) amplitudes are fairly well-determined to 1 GeV. Data points were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for five neutron beam energies: 484, 568, 634,720 and 788 MeV; they are the first in this energy range. Polarized neutrons were produced by charge-exchange of polarized protons on a liquid deuterium target (LD{sub 2}). Large-volume neutron counters detected the neutrons that passed through a polarized proton target. The counters subtended a range of solid angles large enough to allow extrapolation of the scattered neutrons to 0{degree}. Two modifications to the LAMPF accelerator system which were made for this work are described. They included a beam buncher,'' which modified the normal rf-time structure of the proton beam and allowed for the selection of peak-energy neutrons by time-of-flight means, and a computerized beam steering program, which reduced systematic effects due to beam motion at the LD{sub 2} target. The experimental values of {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) are found to be consistent with other np data, including preliminary data from SIN and Saclay, but not with some results from Argonne which used a polarized proton beam and a polarized deuteron target. The I = 0 component was extracted from {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) using existing pp data (I = 1), with the unexpected result that {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 0) was found to be essentially identical in shape to {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 1). The significance of this is not yet understood.

  18. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, M. M.; Galapon, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  19. Quantifying the coherence of pure quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Grogan, Shane; Johnston, Nathaniel; Li, Chi-Kwong; Plosker, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, several measures have been proposed for characterizing the coherence of a given quantum state. We derive several results that illuminate how these measures behave when restricted to pure states. Notably, we present an explicit characterization of the closest incoherent state to a given pure state under the trace distance measure of coherence. We then use this result to show that the states maximizing the trace distance of coherence are exactly the maximally coherent states. We define the trace distance of entanglement and show that it coincides with the trace distance of coherence for pure states. Finally, we give an alternate proof to a recent result that the ℓ1 measure of coherence of a pure state is never smaller than its relative entropy of coherence.

  20. Engineering arbitrary pure and mixed quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Pechen, Alexander

    2011-10-15

    Controlled manipulation by atomic- and molecular-scale quantum systems has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years. A fundamental problem is to provide deterministic methods for controlled engineering of arbitrary quantum states. This work proposes a deterministic method for engineering arbitrary pure and mixed states of a wide class of quantum systems. The method exploits a special combination of incoherent and coherent controls (incoherent and coherent radiation) and has two properties which are specifically important for manipulating by quantum systems: it realizes the strongest possible degree of their state control, complete density matrix controllability, meaning the ability to steer arbitrary pure and mixed initial states into any desired pure or mixed final state, and it is all-to-one, such that each particular control transfers all initial system states into one target state.

  1. New Formulation of Statistical Mechanics Using Thermal Pure Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Sho; Shimizu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    We formulate statistical mechanics based on a pure quantum state, which we call a "thermal pure quantum (TPQ) state". A single TPQ state gives not only equilibrium values of mechanical variables, such as magnetization and correlation functions, but also those of genuine thermodynamic variables and thermodynamic functions, such as entropy and free energy. Among many possible TPQ states, we discuss the canonical TPQ state, the TPQ state whose temperature is specified. In the TPQ formulation of statistical mechanics, thermal fluctuations are completely included in quantum-mechanical fluctuations. As a consequence, TPQ states have much larger quantum entanglement than the equilibrium density operators of the ensemble formulation. We also show that the TPQ formulation is very useful in practical computations, by applying the formulation to a frustrated two-dimensional quantum spin system.

  2. Revision of Spin Echoes in Pure Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriles, C. A.

    2001-04-01

    Goldman's spin-1/2 formalism has been used for describing the response of an I=3/2 spin system to a two-pulse sequence in a pure nuclear quadrupole resonance experiment. A detailed analysis of the polarization evolution and quadrupolar echo generation is carried out through the use of explicit expressions for secular homo- and heteronuclear dipolar interactions. In striking contrast with previous studies, it is predicted that Van Vleck's second moments governing a classical solid-echo or Hahn sequence differ from those obtained by equivalent means in magnetic resonance. In fact, it is shown that, although measured moments still complement each other, the combined use of standard sequences does not allow the separate determination of homo- and heteronuclear dipolar contributions to the linewidth, not even in an indirect manner. In this context, the importance and potential usefulness of a crossed coil probe are also briefly discussed.

  3. Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van

    2011-04-15

    We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.

  4. Entanglement-fluctuation relation for bipartite pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaruel, Aura Mae B.; Paraan, Francis N. C.

    2016-08-01

    We identify subsystem fluctuations (variances) that measure entanglement in an arbitrary bipartite pure state. These fluctuations are of observables that generalize the notion of polarization to an arbitrary N -level subsystem. We express this polarization fluctuation in terms of subsystem purity and other entanglement measures. The derived entanglement-fluctuation relation is evaluated for the ground states of a one-dimensional free-fermion gas and the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki spin chain. Our results provide a framework for experimentally measuring entanglement using Stern-Gerlach-type state selectors.

  5. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  6. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.

    2005-10-15

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  7. Generation and coherent control of pure spin currents via terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Schüler, Michael Berakdar, Jamal

    2014-04-21

    We inspect the time and spin-dependent, inelastic tunneling in engineered semiconductor-based double quantum well driven by time-structured terahertz pulses. An essential ingredient is an embedded spin-active structure with vibrational modes that scatter the pulse driven carriers. Due to the different time scales of the charge and spin dynamics, the spin-dependent electron-vibron coupling may result in pure net spin current (with negligible charge current). Heating the vibrational site may affect the resulting spin current. Furthermore, by controlling the charge dynamics, the spin dynamics and the generated spin current can be manipulated and switched on and off coherently.

  8. Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states

    SciTech Connect

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2015-12-15

    The Fock expansion of multimode pure Gaussian states is derived starting from their representation as displaced and squeezed multimode vacuum states. The approach is new and appears to be simpler and more general than previous ones starting from the phase-space representation given by the characteristic or Wigner function. Fock expansion is performed in terms of easily evaluable two-variable Hermite–Kampé de Fériet polynomials. A relatively simple and compact expression for the joint statistical distribution of the photon numbers in the different modes is obtained. In particular, this result enables one to give a simple characterization of separable and entangled states, as shown for two-mode and three-mode Gaussian states.

  9. Voltage-controllable generator of pure spin current: A three-terminal model

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zheng; Wu, Reng-Lai; Yu, Ya-Bin Wang, Miao

    2014-07-28

    Three-terminal devices have been frequently proposed to generate the pure spin current. However, the controllability and stability of pure spin current still needs to be improved. In this paper, a three-terminal device, composed of a ferromagnetic metallic lead and two nonmagnetic semiconductor leads coupled with a quantum dot, is employed to study the properties of electron spin transport. The results show that when the external voltage on one of nonmagnetic semiconductor leads is adjusted to a proper range, a pure spin current plateau or a fully spin-polarized current plateau appears in another nonmagnetic semiconductor lead. In a wide range of external voltage, the pure spin current or the spin-polarized current is kept unchanged. Since the change of temperature may considerably influence the spin-polarization of current and is inevitable actually, we studied the corresponding compensation to keep the pure spin current unchanged. Furthermore, the effect of device parameters on the pure spin current is also investigated.

  10. Direct evidence for suppression of the Kondo effect due to pure spin current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaya, K.; Kurokawa, T.; Oki, S.; Yamada, S.; Kanashima, T.; Taniyama, T.

    2016-10-01

    We study the effect of a pure spin current on the Kondo singlet in a diluted magnetic alloy using nonlocal lateral spin valve structures with highly spin polarized Co2FeSi electrodes. Temperature dependence of the nonlocal spin signals shows a sharp reduction with decreasing temperature, followed by a plateau corresponding to the low temperature Fermi liquid regime below the Kondo temperature (TK). The spin diffusion length of the Kondo alloy is found to increase with increasing spin accumulation. The results are in agreement with the intuitive description that the Kondo singlet cannot survive any more in sufficiently large spin accumulation even below TK.

  11. Ground State Studies of Spin Glass Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolan, Amy Joanne

    The ground state energy and degeneracy for a set of spin glass models, PQR models, has been studied in detail. For the pure frustration case, a subset of the general PQR case, we have studied the spacial distribution of frustrated plaquettes at T = 0. We investigated the "frustration -frustration" correlation function, which involved a series expansion analysis and a computer analysis, to examine a phase transition mechanism proposed by Schuster (1981). Schuster suggested that a pair of plaquettes is bound together above, and dissociated below a critical concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds. Our analysis, however, led us to conclude that there is no sharp "unbinding" of frustration pairs. We have developed an efficient algorithm to compute the ground state energy and degeneracy of sample PQR lattices and have studied the general PQR model numerically. Our algorithm is similar in essence to Morgenstern and Binder's (1980) transfer matrix approach used to calculate the partition function of a sample of spins in the pure frustration case. The algorithm involves computing times of order ALM 2('L), where L is the width of the lattice, M is the length, and A is a constant of proportionality. We have used the results of our analysis to investigate the possibility of a paramagnetic (<--->) spin glass phase transition in the PQR model at T = 0. Although scatter in our results for the ground state degeneracy/spin obscures evidence of a possible non-analyticity in this function, we do see evidence of a "break" in the curves for the ground state energy/spin. We have used this "break" to plot the phase transition line between the spin glass and paramagnetic regimes.

  12. Manipulation of pure spin current in ferromagnetic metals independent of magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Dai; Li, Yufan; Qu, D.; Huang, S. Y.; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chien, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    Upon the injection of a pure spin current, a ferromagnet, similar to a nonmagnetic metal, also exhibits inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). We show in Co/Cu/YIG, where the thin Cu layer allows transmission of spin current from YIG into Co but decouples the two ferromagnets, that the interaction between ISHE and ferromagnetic ordering in Co can be unambiguously investigated. By switching on and off the pure spin current contribution, we demonstrate that the ISHE in Co is independent of the direction of the Co magnetization, which clearly suggests that the ISHE in Co is dominated not by the extrinsic impurity scatterings, but from the intrinsic origin.

  13. Stable pure state quantum tomography from five orthonormal bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kech, Michael; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    For any finite-dimensional Hilbert space, we construct explicitly five orthonormal bases such that the corresponding measurements allow for efficient tomography of an arbitrary pure quantum state. This means that such measurements can be used to distinguish an arbitrary pure state from any other state, pure or mixed, and the pure state can be reconstructed from the outcome distribution in a feasible way. The set of measurements we construct is independent of the unknown state, and therefore our results provide a fixed scheme for pure state tomography, as opposed to the adaptive (state-dependent) scheme proposed by Goyeneche et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 115 (2015) 090401). We show that our scheme is robust with respect to noise, in the sense that any measurement scheme which approximates these measurements well enough is equally suitable for pure state tomography. Finally, we present two convex programs which can be used to reconstruct the unknown pure state from the measurement outcome distributions.

  14. Adiabatically twisting a magnetic molecule to generate pure spin currents in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Firoz; Benjamin, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The spin-orbit effect in graphene is too muted to have any observable significance with respect to its application in spintronics. However, graphene technology is too valuable to be rendered impotent to spin transport. In this communication we look at the effect of adiabatically twisting a single-molecule magnet embedded in a graphene monolayer. Surprisingly, we see that pure spin currents (zero charge current) can be generated from the system via quantum pumping. In addition we also see that spin-selective current can be pumped from the system. The pure spin current seen is quite resilient to temperature while disorder has a limited effect. Furthermore, the direction of these spin-pumped currents can be easily and exclusively controlled by the magnetization of the single-molecule magnet, with disorder having no effect on the magnetization control of the pumped spin currents.

  15. Decontaminating Solar Wind Samples with the Genesis Ultra-Pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2009-03-01

    The cleaning efficiency of the Genesis Ultra-pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner will be presented. Results show the effectiveness of the new cleaner removing particle contamination from Genesis silicon wafers implanted with solar wind.

  16. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  17. Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current

    PubMed Central

    Demidov, V. E.; Evelt, M.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.

    2016-01-01

    Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators. PMID:27608533

  18. Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. E.; Evelt, M.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; de Loubens, G.; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.

    2016-09-01

    Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators.

  19. Direct observation of dynamic modes excited in a magnetic insulator by pure spin current.

    PubMed

    Demidov, V E; Evelt, M; Bessonov, V; Demokritov, S O; Prieto, J L; Muñoz, M; Ben Youssef, J; Naletov, V V; de Loubens, G; Klein, O; Collet, M; Bortolotti, P; Cros, V; Anane, A

    2016-01-01

    Excitation of magnetization dynamics by pure spin currents has been recently recognized as an enabling mechanism for spintronics and magnonics, which allows implementation of spin-torque devices based on low-damping insulating magnetic materials. Here we report the first spatially-resolved study of the dynamic modes excited by pure spin current in nanometer-thick microscopic insulating Yttrium Iron Garnet disks. We show that these modes exhibit nonlinear self-broadening preventing the formation of the self-localized magnetic bullet, which plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the single-mode magnetization oscillations in all-metallic systems. This peculiarity associated with the efficient nonlinear mode coupling in low-damping materials can be among the main factors governing the interaction of pure spin currents with the dynamic magnetization in high-quality magnetic insulators. PMID:27608533

  20. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  1. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  2. Conversion of pure spin current to charge current in amorphous bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Emoto, H.; Ando, Y.; Shinjo, T.; Shiraishi, M.; Shikoh, E.; Fuseya, Y.

    2014-05-07

    Spin Hall angle and spin diffusion length in amorphous bismuth (Bi) are investigated by using conversion of a pure spin current to a charge current in a spin pumping technique. In Bi/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/Si(100) sample, a clear direct current (DC) electromotive force due to the inverse spin Hall effect of the Bi layer is observed at room temperature under a ferromagnetic resonance condition of the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} layer. From the Bi thickness dependence of the DC electromotive force, the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length of the amorphous Bi film are estimated to be 0.02 and 8 nm, respectively.

  3. Exchange-Dominated Pure Spin Current Transport in Alq3 Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S. W.; Liu, S.; Wang, P.; Luan, Z. Z.; Tao, X. D.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.

    2015-08-01

    We address the controversy over the spin transport mechanism in Alq3 utilizing spin pumping in the Y3Fe5O12/Alq3/Pd system. An unusual angular dependence of the inverse spin Hall effect is found. It, however, disappears when the microwave magnetic field is fully in the sample plane, excluding the presence of the Hanle effect. Together with the quantitative temperature-dependent measurements, these results provide compelling evidence that the pure spin current transport in Alq3 is dominated by the exchange-mediated mechanism.

  4. Direct Detection of Pure ac Spin Current by X-Ray Pump-Probe Measurements.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Shelford, L R; Shafer, P; Tan, A; Deng, J X; Keatley, P S; Hwang, C; Arenholz, E; van der Laan, G; Hicken, R J; Qiu, Z Q

    2016-08-12

    Despite recent progress in spin-current research, the detection of spin current has mostly remained indirect. By synchronizing a microwave waveform with synchrotron x-ray pulses, we use the ferromagnetic resonance of the Py (Ni_{81}Fe_{19}) layer in a Py/Cu/Cu_{75}Mn_{25}/Cu/Co multilayer to pump a pure ac spin current into the Cu_{75}Mn_{25} and Co layers, and then directly probe the spin current within the Cu_{75}Mn_{25} layer and the spin dynamics of the Co layer by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This element-resolved pump-probe measurement unambiguously identifies the ac spin current in the Cu_{75}Mn_{25} layer. PMID:27563981

  5. Direct Detection of Pure ac Spin Current by X-Ray Pump-Probe Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Shelford, L. R.; Shafer, P.; Tan, A.; Deng, J. X.; Keatley, P. S.; Hwang, C.; Arenholz, E.; van der Laan, G.; Hicken, R. J.; Qiu, Z. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent progress in spin-current research, the detection of spin current has mostly remained indirect. By synchronizing a microwave waveform with synchrotron x-ray pulses, we use the ferromagnetic resonance of the Py (Ni81Fe19 ) layer in a Py /Cu /Cu75Mn25/Cu /Co multilayer to pump a pure ac spin current into the Cu75Mn25 and Co layers, and then directly probe the spin current within the Cu75Mn25 layer and the spin dynamics of the Co layer by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. This element-resolved pump-probe measurement unambiguously identifies the ac spin current in the Cu75Mn25 layer.

  6. Squeezed spin states: Squeezing the spin uncertainty relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitagawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Masahito

    1993-01-01

    The notion of squeezing in spin systems is clarified, and the principle for spin squeezing is shown. Two twisting schemes are proposed as building blocks for spin squeezing and are shown to reduce the standard quantum noise, s/2, of the coherent S-spin state down to the order of S(sup 1/3) and 1/2. Applications to partition noise suppression are briefly discussed.

  7. State diagram of an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Li; Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Chaves-O'Flynn, Gabriel D.; Kent, Andrew D.

    2015-05-21

    We present the switching characteristics of a spin-transfer device that incorporates a perpendicularly magnetized spin-polarizing layer with an in-plane magnetized free and fixed magnetic layer, known as an orthogonal spin transfer spin valve device. This device shows clear switching between parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) resistance states and the reverse transition (AP → P) for both current polarities. Further, hysteretic transitions are shown to occur into a state with a resistance intermediate between that of the P and AP states, again for both current polarities. These unusual spin-transfer switching characteristics can be explained within a simple macrospin model that incorporates thermal fluctuations and considers a spin-polarized current that is tilted with respect to the free layer's plane, due to the presence of the spin-transfer torque from the polarizing layer.

  8. Note about a pure spin-connection formulation of general relativity and spin-2 duality in (A)dS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Thomas; Bekaert, Xavier; Boulanger, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the problem of finding a pure spin-connection formulation of general relativity with nonvanishing cosmological constant. We first revisit the problem at the linearized level and find that the pure spin-connection, quadratic Lagrangian, takes a form reminiscent to Weyl gravity, given by the square of a Weyl-like tensor. Upon Hodge dualization, we show that the dual gauge field in (A )dSD transforms under G L (D ) in the same representation as a massive graviton in the flat spacetime of the same dimension. We give a detailed proof that the physical degrees of freedom indeed correspond to a massless graviton propagating around the (anti-) de Sitter background and finally speculate about a possible nonlinear pure-connection theory dual to general relativity with cosmological constant.

  9. Sign structure and ground-state properties for a spin-S t-J chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Rui; Ye, Peng

    2014-07-01

    The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain of odd spin S is in the Haldane phase with several defining physical properties, such as thermodynamical ground-state degeneracy, symmetry-protected edge states, and nonzero string order parameter. If nonzero hole concentration δ and hole hopping energy t are considered, the spin chain is replaced by a spin-S t-J chain. The motivation of this paper is to generalize the discussions of the Haldane phase to the doped spin chain. The first result of this paper is that, for the model considered here, the Z2 sign structure in the usual Ising basis can be totally removed by two consecutive unitary transformations consisting of a spatially local one and a nonlocal one. Direct from the sign structure, the second result of this paper is that the Marshall theorem and the Lieb-Mattis theorem for pure spin systems are generalized to the t-J chain for arbitrary S and δ. A corollary of the theorem provides us with the ground-state degeneracy in the thermodynamic limit. The third result of this paper is about the phase diagram. We show that the defining properties of the Haldane phase survive in the small t /J limit. The large t /J phase supports a gapped spin sector with similar properties (ground-state degeneracy, edge state, and string order parameter) of the Haldane chain, although the charge sector is gapless.

  10. Enhancement of Pure Spin Currents in Spin Pumping Y3Fe5O12/Cu/metal Trilayers Through Spin Impedance Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, P. Chris; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan

    2014-03-01

    Spin pumping, driven thermally as well as by Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR), is being widely used to generate pure spin currents from ferromagnets (FM) into normal metals (NM). Typically, the NM is chosen to be a spin-sink-Pt, W or Ta, while lighter metals such as Cu are rarely used, except to decouple the FM and spin sink. The efficiency of spin pumping is largely determined by the spin mixing conductance of the FM/NM interface. Here, we report a comparative study of spin pumping in Y3Fe5O12 /Cu/Pt and Y3Fe5O12 /Cu/W trilayers with varying Cu thicknesses. Remarkably, we find that insertion of a Cu interlayer between YIG and W substantially improves (over a factor of 4) the spin current injection into W while similar insertion between YIG and Pt degrades the spin current. This is a consequence of a much improved YIG/Cu spin mixing conductance relative to that for YIG/W. This result shows that high quality multilayer FM/NM heterostructures can enable spin mixing conductances to be engineered to enable optimal spin pumping efficiency. We acknowledge the Center for Emergent Materials at OSU, a NSF MRSEC (DMR-0820414), the DOE through grant DE-FG02-03ER46054, LakeShore Cryotronics and NSL at OSU.

  11. Coherent-state transfer via highly mixed quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellaro, Paola; Viola, Lorenza; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    2011-03-15

    Spin chains have been proposed as quantum wires in many quantum-information processing architectures. Coherent transmission of quantum information in spin chains over short distances is enabled by their internal dynamics, which drives the transport of single-spin excitations in perfectly polarized chains. Given the practical challenge of preparing the chain in a pure state, we propose to use a chain that is initially in the maximally mixed state. We compare the transport properties of pure and mixed-state chains and find similarities that enable the experimental study of pure-state transfer via mixed-state chains. We also demonstrate protocols for the perfect transfer of quantum information in these chains. Remarkably, mixed-state chains allow the use of Hamiltonians that do not preserve the total number of single-spin excitations and are more readily obtainable from the naturally occurring magnetic dipolar interaction. We discuss experimental implementations using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and defect centers in diamond.

  12. Crystallographic elucidation of purely structural, thermal and light-induced spin transitions in an iron(II) binuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, A; Shepherd, H J; Fedaoui, D; Rosa, P; Goeta, A E; Rebbani, N; Létard, J F; Guionneau, P

    2010-03-21

    The intricate phase diagram of the binuclear iron(II) spin-crossover complex [{Fe(3-bpp)(NCS)(2)}(2)(4,4'-bypiridine)].2CH(3)OH where 3-bpp is 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine has been investigated by variable temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction including a study into the effect of photo-irradiation. This sample is known to exhibit an incomplete spin transition at low temperature. At room temperature, in phase I, iron ions are all crystallographically equivalent, adopting the high spin state (HS). X-Ray structural investigation has revealed two phase transitions in the range (300-30 K). The first transition (T approximately 161 K) leading to phase II is of a purely structural nature and corresponds to a break in symmetry as a result of a twist of the two rings of 4,4'-bipyridine; the two iron sites of the binuclear unit becoming crystallographically independent but remaining all HS. The second structural transition corresponds to the spin crossover, one of the two Fe(II) ions of the binuclear complex being in the low spin state (LS) in phase III. The crystal structure shows an ordered HS-LS crystal packing where HS and LS sites are clearly identified and not randomly distributed in the metal ion sites as often observed. Moreover, light irradiation of single crystals in phase III at 30 K, leading to phase III*, induces a light-induced spin-state trapping (LIESST) effect corresponding to the full conversion of all the iron sites to HS. The crystal packing in phase III* is closer to that of phase III than to those observed in the other HS phases, I and II. This reveals an unusual differentiation between the thermal and light-induced HS states. A deeper analysis of the structural properties first demonstrates the key role of the bipyridine bridge in the peculiar preliminary pure structural transition shown by the title compound. Elsewhere, it also shows that the molecular packing is strongly dependent on the nature of the external perturbation contrary to the

  13. Pure-state informationally complete and 'really' complete measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.

    2004-11-01

    I construct a positive-operator-valued measure (POVM) which has 2d rank-1 elements and which is informationally complete for generic pure states in d dimensions, thus confirming a conjecture made by Flammia, Silberfarb, and Caves (e-print quant-ph/0404137). I show that if a rank-1 POVM is required to be informationally complete for all pure states in d dimensions, it must have at least 3d-2 elements. I also show that, in a POVM which is informationally complete for all pure states in d dimensions, for any vector there must be at least 2d-1 POVM elements which do not annihilate that vector.

  14. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's. PMID:27575115

  15. Detection of pure inverse spin-Hall effect induced by spin pumping at various excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, H. Y.; Harii, K.; Ando, K.; Sasage, K.; Saitoh, E.

    2007-10-01

    Electric-field generation due to the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE) driven by spin pumping was detected and separated experimentally from the extrinsic magnetogalvanic effects in a Ni81Fe19/Pt film. By applying a sample-cavity configuration in which the extrinsic effects are suppressed, the spin pumping using ferromagnetic resonance gives rise to a symmetric spectral shape in the electromotive force spectrum, indicating that the motive force is due entirely to ISHE. This method allows the quantitative analysis of the ISHE and the spin-pumping effect. The microwave-power dependence of the ISHE amplitude is consistent with the prediction of a direct current-spin-pumping scenario.

  16. Information balance in quantum teleportation with an arbitrary pure state

    SciTech Connect

    Li Li; Chen Zengbing

    2005-07-15

    We study a general teleportation scheme with an arbitrary two-party pure state and derive a tight bound of the teleportation fidelity with a predesigned estimation of the unknown state to be teleported. This bound shows a piecewise balance between information gain and state disturbance. We also explain possible physical significance of the balance.

  17. Magnetic Moment Formation in Graphene Detected by Scattering of Pure Spin Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Adrian; McCreary, Kathy; Chen, Jen-Ru; Han, Wei; Fabian, Jaroslav; Kawakami, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Graphene's 2D nature and high surface sensitivity have led to fascinating predictions for induced spin-based phenomena through careful control of adsorbates, including the extrinsic spin Hall effect, band gap opening, and induced magnetism. By taking advantage of atomic scale control provided by MBE, we have investigated deposition of adsorbates and their interactions with graphene. Spin transport measurements performed in-situ during systematic introduction of atomic hydrogen demonstrated that hydrogen adsorbed on graphene forms magnetic moments that couple via exchange to the injected spin current. The observed behavior is quantitatively explained utilizing a phenomenological theory for scattering of pure spin currents by localized magnetic moments. Lattice vacancies show similar behavior, indicating that the moments originate from so called pz-orbital defects. On the other hand, experiments with charge impurity scatterers such as Mg and Au, are noticeably absent of features related to magnetic moment formation. Furthermore, we observe gate dependent effective exchange fields due to the spin-spin coupling between conduction electrons and magnetic moments, which are of interest for novel phenomena and spintronic functionality but have not been seen previously in graphene.

  18. Unitary transformations purely based on geometric phases of two spins with Ising interaction in a rotating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yu

    2010-06-15

    We consider how to obtain a nontrivial two-qubit unitary transformation purely based on geometric phases of two spin-1/2 's with Ising-like interaction in a magnetic field with a static z-component and a rotating xy-component. This is an interesting problem both for the purpose of measuring the geometric phases and in quantum computing applications. In previous approach, coupling of one of the qubit with the rotating component of field is ignored. By considering the exact two-spin geometric phases, we find that a nontrivial two-spin unitary transformation purely based on Berry phases can be obtained by using two consecutive cycles with opposite directions of the magnetic field and opposite signs of the interaction constant. In the nonadiabatic case, starting with a certain initial state, a cycle in the projected space of rays and thus Aharonov-Anandan phase can be achieved. The two-cycle scheme cancels the total phases, hence any unknown initial state evolves back to itself without a phase factor.

  19. Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.

    PubMed

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-02-20

    Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above. PMID:25763966

  20. Noninformative prior in the quantum statistical model of pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Fuyuhiko

    2012-06-01

    In the present paper, we consider a suitable definition of a noninformative prior on the quantum statistical model of pure states. While the full pure-states model is invariant under unitary rotation and admits the Haar measure, restricted models, which we often see in quantum channel estimation and quantum process tomography, have less symmetry and no compelling rationale for any choice. We adopt a game-theoretic approach that is applicable to classical Bayesian statistics and yields a noninformative prior for a general class of probability distributions. We define the quantum detection game and show that there exist noninformative priors for a general class of a pure-states model. Theoretically, it gives one of the ways that we represent ignorance on the given quantum system with partial information. Practically, our method proposes a default distribution on the model in order to use the Bayesian technique in the quantum-state tomography with a small sample.

  1. Fisher-Symmetric Informationally Complete Measurements for Pure States.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Ferrie, Christopher; Gross, Jonathan A; Kalev, Amir; Caves, Carlton M

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a new kind of quantum measurement that is defined to be symmetric in the sense of uniform Fisher information across a set of parameters that uniquely represent pure quantum states in the neighborhood of a fiducial pure state. The measurement is locally informationally complete-i.e., it uniquely determines these parameters, as opposed to distinguishing two arbitrary quantum states-and it is maximal in the sense of a multiparameter quantum Cramér-Rao bound. For a d-dimensional quantum system, requiring only local informational completeness allows us to reduce the number of outcomes of the measurement from a minimum close to but below 4d-3, for the usual notion of global pure-state informational completeness, to 2d-1. PMID:27203310

  2. Nonlocality in pure and mixed n-qubit X states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Farouk, Ahmed; Abdalla, S.

    2016-04-01

    Nonlocality for general multiqubit X states is studied in detail. Pure and mixed states are analyzed as far as their maximum amount of nonlocality is concerned, and analytic results are obtained for important families of these states. The particular form of nonzero diagonal and antidiagonal matrix elements makes the corresponding study easy enough to obtain exact results. We also provide a numerical recipe to randomly generate an important family of X states endowed with a given degree of mixture.

  3. Faithful Transfer Arbitrary Pure States with Mixed Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Lin; Ma, Song-Ya; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we show that some special mixed quantum resource experience the same property of pure entanglement such as Bell state for quantum teleportation. It is shown that one mixed state and three bits of classical communication cost can be used to teleport one unknown qubit compared with two bits via pure resources. The schemes are easily implement with model physical techniques. Moreover, these resources are also optimal and typical for faithfully remotely prepare an arbitrary qubit, two-qubit and three-qubit states with mixed quantum resources. Our schemes are completed as same as those with pure quantum entanglement resources except only 1 bit additional classical communication cost required. The success probability is independent of the form of the mixed resources.

  4. Magnetization dynamics in the presence of pure spin currents in magnetic single and double layers in spin ballistic and diffusive regimes.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosendz, O.; Woltersdorf, G.; Kardasz, B.; Heinrich, B.; Back, C. H.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Regensburg; Simon Fraser Univ.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the spin transport by using the spin-pumping effect in epitaxial magnetic single and double layer film structures. For the magnetic single layer sample we show the spin-pumping-induced interface damping increases and saturates with the Au capping layer thickness. In addition magnetic double layer structures allowed us to investigate both the spin-pump and spin-sink effects. Coupling of pure spin currents to the magnetization via spin-sink effect is studied using time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. These measurements were used to study the propagation of pure spin currents across a Au spacer layer between the two ferromagnets. The propagation of spin momentum density through the Au spacer layer was well described by spin-diffusion equation, which takes into account electron momentum and spin-flip scattering. The spin-diffusion theory was integrated into modified Landau-Lifshitz equations accounting in self-consistent manner for spin-pump/sink mechanism and spin momentum density propagation. Good agreement between theory and experimental data was found.

  5. Entropy for quantum pure states and quantum H theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao

    2015-06-01

    We construct a complete set of Wannier functions that are localized at both given positions and momenta. This allows us to introduce the quantum phase space, onto which a quantum pure state can be mapped unitarily. Using its probability distribution in quantum phase space, we define an entropy for a quantum pure state. We prove an inequality regarding the long-time behavior of our entropy's fluctuation. For a typical initial state, this inequality indicates that our entropy can relax dynamically to a maximized value and stay there most of time with small fluctuations. This result echoes the quantum H theorem proved by von Neumann [Zeitschrift für Physik 57, 30 (1929), 10.1007/BF01339852]. Our entropy is different from the standard von Neumann entropy, which is always zero for quantum pure states. According to our definition, a system always has bigger entropy than its subsystem even when the system is described by a pure state. As the construction of the Wannier basis can be implemented numerically, the dynamical evolution of our entropy is illustrated with an example.

  6. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2012-10-13

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.

  7. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2012-01-01

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

  8. Liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, Micah; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry; Romalis, Michael; Blanchard, John; Pines, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    We discuss liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers based on mixtures of mutually miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, thermally polarized ^1H and ^19F nuclear spins in a mixture of pentane and hexafluorobenzene are monitored in 1 mG fields using alkali-vapor magnetometers. In a second version, ^1H and ^129Xe spins in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon are monitored with a superconducting quantum interference device. In the former case, we show that magnetic field fluctuations can be suppressed by a factor of about 3400 and that frequency resolution of about 5x10-11 Hz may be realized in roughly one day of integration. We discuss the application of liquid-state nuclear spin comagnetometers to precision measurements such as a search for spin-gravity coupling or a permanent electric dipole moment, as well as to sensitive gyroscopes.

  9. Probabilistically Perfect Cloning of Two Pure States: Geometric Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerokhin, V.; Shehu, A.; Feldman, E.; Bagan, E.; Bergou, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    We solve the long-standing problem of making n perfect clones from m copies of one of two known pure states with minimum failure probability in the general case where the known states have arbitrary a priori probabilities. The solution emerges from a geometric formulation of the problem. This formulation reveals that cloning converges to state discrimination followed by state preparation as the number of clones goes to infinity. The convergence exhibits a phenomenon analogous to a second-order symmetry-breaking phase transition.

  10. Protecting a Solid-State Spin from Decoherence Using Dressed Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golter, D. Andrew; Baldwin, Thomas K.; Wang, Hailin

    2014-12-01

    We report experimental studies of dressing an electron spin in diamond with resonant and continuous microwave fields to protect the electron spin from magnetic fluctuations induced by the nuclear spin bath. We use optical coherent population trapping (CPT) to probe the energy level structure, optically induced spin transitions, and spin decoherence rates of the dressed spin states. Dressing an electron spin with resonant microwaves at a coupling rate near 1 MHz leads to a 50 times reduction in the linewidth of the spin transition underlying the CPT process, limited by transit-time broadening. Compared with dynamical decoupling, where effects of the bath are averaged out at specific times, the dressed spin state provides a continuous protection from decoherence.

  11. Pure spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Rh/Y3Fe5O12 hybrid.

    PubMed

    Shang, T; Zhan, Q F; Ma, L; Yang, H L; Zuo, Z H; Xie, Y L; Li, H H; Liu, L P; Wang, B M; Wu, Y H; Zhang, S; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall resistance (AHR) of Rh and Pt thin films sputtered on epitaxial Y(3)Fe(5)O(12) (YIG) ferromagnetic insulator films. For the Pt/YIG hybrid, large spin-Hall magne toresistance (SMR) along with a sizable conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance (CAMR) and a nontrivial temperature dependence of AHR were observed in the temperature range of 5-300 K. In contrast, a reduced SMR with negligible CAMR and AHR was found in Rh/YIG hybrid. Since CAMR and AHR are characteristics for all ferromagnetic metals, our results suggest that the Pt is likely magnetized by YIG due to the magnetic proximity effect (MPE) while Rh remains free of MPE. Thus the Rh/YIG hybrid could be an ideal model system to explore physics and devices associated with pure spin current. PMID:26639108

  12. Pure spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Rh/Y3Fe5O12 hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Li, H. H.; Liu, L. P.; Wang, B. M.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-12-01

    We report an investigation of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall resistance (AHR) of Rh and Pt thin films sputtered on epitaxial Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) ferromagnetic insulator films. For the Pt/YIG hybrid, large spin-Hall magne toresistance (SMR) along with a sizable conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance (CAMR) and a nontrivial temperature dependence of AHR were observed in the temperature range of 5-300 K. In contrast, a reduced SMR with negligible CAMR and AHR was found in Rh/YIG hybrid. Since CAMR and AHR are characteristics for all ferromagnetic metals, our results suggest that the Pt is likely magnetized by YIG due to the magnetic proximity effect (MPE) while Rh remains free of MPE. Thus the Rh/YIG hybrid could be an ideal model system to explore physics and devices associated with pure spin current.

  13. Pure spin-Hall magnetoresistance in Rh/Y3Fe5O12 hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Shang, T.; Zhan, Q. F.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. L.; Zuo, Z. H.; Xie, Y. L.; Li, H. H.; Liu, L. P.; Wang, B. M.; Wu, Y. H.; Zhang, S.; Li, Run-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We report an investigation of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall resistance (AHR) of Rh and Pt thin films sputtered on epitaxial Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) ferromagnetic insulator films. For the Pt/YIG hybrid, large spin-Hall magne toresistance (SMR) along with a sizable conventional anisotropic magnetoresistance (CAMR) and a nontrivial temperature dependence of AHR were observed in the temperature range of 5–300 K. In contrast, a reduced SMR with negligible CAMR and AHR was found in Rh/YIG hybrid. Since CAMR and AHR are characteristics for all ferromagnetic metals, our results suggest that the Pt is likely magnetized by YIG due to the magnetic proximity effect (MPE) while Rh remains free of MPE. Thus the Rh/YIG hybrid could be an ideal model system to explore physics and devices associated with pure spin current. PMID:26639108

  14. Generating non-classical states from spin coherent states via interaction with ancillary spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Shane; Joo, Jaewoo; Proctor, Timothy; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-02-01

    The generation of non-classical states of large quantum systems has attracted much interest from a foundational perspective, but also because of the significant potential of such states in emerging quantum technologies. In this paper we consider the possibility of generating non-classical states of a system of spins by interaction with an ancillary system, starting from an easily prepared initial state. We extend previous results for an ancillary system comprising a single spin to bigger ancillary systems and the interaction strength is enhanced by a factor of the number of ancillary spins. Depending on initial conditions, we find - by a combination of approximation and numerics - that the system of spins can evolve to spin cat states, spin squeezed states or to multiple cat states. We also discuss some candidate systems for implementation of the Hamiltonian necessary to generate these non-classical states.

  15. Quantum benchmarks for pure single-mode Gaussian states.

    PubMed

    Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-01-10

    Teleportation and storage of continuous variable states of light and atoms are essential building blocks for the realization of large-scale quantum networks. Rigorous validation of these implementations require identifying, and surpassing, benchmarks set by the most effective strategies attainable without the use of quantum resources. Such benchmarks have been established for special families of input states, like coherent states and particular subclasses of squeezed states. Here we solve the longstanding problem of defining quantum benchmarks for general pure Gaussian single-mode states with arbitrary phase, displacement, and squeezing, randomly sampled according to a realistic prior distribution. As a special case, we show that the fidelity benchmark for teleporting squeezed states with totally random phase and squeezing degree is 1/2, equal to the corresponding one for coherent states. We discuss the use of entangled resources to beat the benchmarks in experiments. PMID:24483875

  16. Bounds on probability of transformations between multipartite pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Wei; Helwig, Wolfram; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2010-01-15

    For a tripartite pure state of three qubits, it is well known that there are two inequivalent classes of genuine tripartite entanglement, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class and the W class. Any two states within the same class can be transformed into each other with stochastic local operations and classical communication with a nonzero probability. The optimal conversion probability, however, is only known for special cases. Here, lower and upper bounds are derived for the optimal probability of transformation from a GHZ state to other states of the GHZ class. A key idea in the derivation of the upper bounds is to consider the action of the local operations and classical communications (LOCC) protocol on a different input state, namely 1/sq root(2)[|000>-|111>], and to demand that the probability of an outcome remains bounded by 1. We also find an upper bound for more general cases by using the constraints of the so-called interference term and 3-tangle. Moreover, some of the results are generalized to the case in which each party holds a higher dimensional system. In particular, the GHZ state generalized to three qutrits; that is, |GHZ{sub 3}>=1/sq root(3)[|000>+|111>+|222>] shared among three parties can be transformed to any tripartite three-qubit pure state with probability 1 via LOCC. Some of our results can also be generalized to the case of a multipartite state shared by more than three parties.

  17. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Ana B; Garcia, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II) that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices. The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST) and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II), with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II) complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property. PMID:23504535

  18. Cooperative pulses for pseudo-pure state preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Daxiu; Chang, Yan; Glaser, Steffen J.; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-06-01

    Using an extended version of the optimal-control-based gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm, cooperative (COOP) pulses are designed for multi-scan experiments to prepare pseudo-pure states in quantum computation. COOP pulses can cancel undesired signal contributions, complementing and generalizing phase cycles. They also provide more flexibility and, in particular, eliminate the need to select specific individual target states and achieve the fidelity of theoretical limit by flexibly choosing appropriate number of scans and duration of pulses. The COOP approach is experimentally demonstrated for three-qubit and four-qubit systems.

  19. Cooperative pulses for pseudo-pure state preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Daxiu; Chang, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong E-mail: xiaodong.yang@sibet.ac.cn; Glaser, Steffen J. E-mail: xiaodong.yang@sibet.ac.cn

    2014-06-16

    Using an extended version of the optimal-control-based gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm, cooperative (COOP) pulses are designed for multi-scan experiments to prepare pseudo-pure states in quantum computation. COOP pulses can cancel undesired signal contributions, complementing and generalizing phase cycles. They also provide more flexibility and, in particular, eliminate the need to select specific individual target states and achieve the fidelity of theoretical limit by flexibly choosing appropriate number of scans and duration of pulses. The COOP approach is experimentally demonstrated for three-qubit and four-qubit systems.

  20. High Spin States in ^24Mg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, J.; Lister, C. J.; Wuosmaa, A.; Betts, R. R.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Fischer, S. M.; Hackman, G.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    1996-05-01

    The ^12C(^16O,α)^24Mg reaction was used at 51.5MeV to populate high angular momentum states in ^24Mg. Gamma-rays de-exciting high spin states were detected in a 20 detector spectrometer (the AYE-ball) triggered by the ANL Fragment Mass Analyser (FMA). Channel selection, through detection of ^24Mg nuclei with the appropriate time of flight, was excellent. All the known decays from high spin states were seen in a few hours, with the exception of the 5.04 MeV γ-decay of the J^π=9^- state at 16.904 MeV footnote A.E.Smith et al., Phys. Lett. \\underlineB176, (1986)292. which could not be confirmed. The potential of the technique for studying the radiative decay of states with very high spin in light nuclei will be discussed.

  1. Multiboson Correlation Interferometry with Arbitrary Single-Photon Pure States.

    PubMed

    Tamma, Vincenzo; Laibacher, Simon

    2015-06-19

    We provide a compact full description of multiboson correlation measurements of arbitrary order N in passive linear interferometers with arbitrary input single-photon pure states. This allows us to physically analyze the novel problem of multiboson correlation sampling at the output of random linear interferometers. Our results also describe general multiboson correlation landscapes for an arbitrary number of input single photons and arbitrary interferometers. In particular, we use two different schemes to demonstrate, respectively, arbitrary-order quantum beat interference and 100% visibility entanglement correlations even for input photons distinguishable in their frequencies. PMID:26196976

  2. Emergence of canonical ensembles from pure quantum states.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, M S

    2010-04-30

    We consider a system weakly interacting with a bath as a thermodynamic setting to establish a quantum foundation of statistical physics. It is shown that even if the composite system is initially in an arbitrary nonequilibrium pure quantum state, the unitary dynamics of a generic weak interaction almost always drives the subsystem into the canonical ensemble, in the usual sense of typicality. A crucial step is taken by assuming that the matrix elements of the interaction Hamiltonian have random phases, while their amplitudes are left unrestricted. PMID:20482093

  3. Regression relation for pure quantum states and its implications for efficient computing.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Tarek A; Fine, Boris V

    2013-02-15

    We obtain a modified version of the Onsager regression relation for the expectation values of quantum-mechanical operators in pure quantum states of isolated many-body quantum systems. We use the insights gained from this relation to show that high-temperature time correlation functions in many-body quantum systems can be controllably computed without complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonians, using instead the direct integration of the Schrödinger equation for randomly sampled pure states. This method is also applicable to quantum quenches and other situations describable by time-dependent many-body Hamiltonians. The method implies exponential reduction of the computer memory requirement in comparison with the complete diagonalization. We illustrate the method by numerically computing infinite-temperature correlation functions for translationally invariant Heisenberg chains of up to 29 spins 1/2. Thereby, we also test the spin diffusion hypothesis and find it in a satisfactory agreement with the numerical results. Both the derivation of the modified regression relation and the justification of the computational method are based on the notion of quantum typicality.

  4. Chimera states in purely local delay-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    We study the existence of chimera states in a network of locally coupled chaotic and limit-cycle oscillators. The necessary condition for chimera state in purely local coupled oscillators is discussed. At first, we numerically observe the existence of chimera or multichimera states in the locally coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. We find that delay time in the nonlinear local coupling reduces the domain of the coherent island in the parameter space of the synaptic coupling strength and time delay, and thus the coherent region can be completely eliminated once the time delay exceeds a certain threshold. We then consider another form of nonlinearity in the local coupling, and the existence of chimera states is observed in the time-delayed Mackey-Glass system and in a Van der Pol oscillator. We also discuss the effect of time delay in local coupling for the existence of chimera states in Mackey-Glass systems. The nonlinearity present in the coupling function plays a key role in the emergence of chimera or multichimera states. A phase diagram for the chimera state is identified over a wide parameter space.

  5. Thermal pure quantum states of many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyuga, Masahiko; Sugiura, Sho; Sakai, Kazumitsu; Shimizu, Akira

    2014-09-01

    We generalize the thermal pure quantum (TPQ) formulation of statistical mechanics, in such a way that it is applicable to systems whose Hilbert space is infinite dimensional. Assuming particle systems, we construct the grand-canonical TPQ (gTPQ) state, which is the counterpart of the grand-canonical Gibbs state of the ensemble formulation. A single realization of the gTPQ state gives all quantities of statistical-mechanical interest, with exponentially small probability of error. This formulation not only sheds new light on quantum statistical mechanics but also is useful for practical computations. As an illustration, we apply it to the Hubbard model, on a one-dimensional (1D) chain and on a two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattice. For the 1D chain, our results agree well with the exact solutions over wide ranges of temperature, chemical potential, and the on-site interaction. For the 2D triangular lattice, for which exact results are unknown, we obtain reliable results over a wide range of temperature. We also find that finite-size effects are much smaller in the gTPQ state than in the canonical TPQ state. This also shows that in the ensemble formulation the grand-canonical Gibbs state of a finite-size system simulates an infinite system much better than the canonical Gibbs state.

  6. Chimera states in purely local delay-coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bera, Bidesh K; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2016-05-01

    We study the existence of chimera states in a network of locally coupled chaotic and limit-cycle oscillators. The necessary condition for chimera state in purely local coupled oscillators is discussed. At first, we numerically observe the existence of chimera or multichimera states in the locally coupled Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. We find that delay time in the nonlinear local coupling reduces the domain of the coherent island in the parameter space of the synaptic coupling strength and time delay, and thus the coherent region can be completely eliminated once the time delay exceeds a certain threshold. We then consider another form of nonlinearity in the local coupling, and the existence of chimera states is observed in the time-delayed Mackey-Glass system and in a Van der Pol oscillator. We also discuss the effect of time delay in local coupling for the existence of chimera states in Mackey-Glass systems. The nonlinearity present in the coupling function plays a key role in the emergence of chimera or multichimera states. A phase diagram for the chimera state is identified over a wide parameter space.

  7. Antiferromagnetic Spin-S Chains with Exactly Dimerized Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Frédéric; Vernay, François; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Mila, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    We show that spin S Heisenberg spin chains with an additional three-body interaction of the form (Si-1·Si)(Si·Si+1)+H.c. possess fully dimerized ground states if the ratio of the three-body interaction to the bilinear one is equal to 1/[4S(S+1)-2]. This result generalizes the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 chain, to which the present model reduces for S=1/2. For S=1, we use the density matrix renormalization group method to show that the transition between the Haldane and the dimerized phases is continuous with a central charge c=3/2. Finally, we show that such a three-body interaction appears naturally in a strong-coupling expansion of the Hubbard model, and we discuss the consequences for the dimerization of actual antiferromagnetic chains.

  8. Monogamy of quantum correlations in three-qubit pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha; Devi, A. R. Usha; Rajagopal, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    The limitation on the shareability of quantum entanglement over several parties, the so-called monogamy of entanglement, is an issue that has received considerable attention from the quantum information community over the last decade. A natural question of interest in this connection is whether monogamy of correlations is true for correlations other than entanglement. This issue is examined here by choosing quantum deficit, proposed by A. K. Rajagopal and R. W. Rendell [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.66.022104 66, 022104 (2002)], an operational measure of correlations. In addition to establishing the polygamous nature of the class of three-qubit symmetric pure states characterized by two distinct Majorana spinors (to which the W states belong), those with three distinct Majorana spinors [to which Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states belong] are shown to either obey or violate monogamy relations. While the generalized W states can be monogamous or polygamous, the generalized GHZ states exhibit monogamy with respect to quantum deficit. The issue of using monogamy conditions based on quantum deficit to witness the states belonging to stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) inequivalent classes is discussed in light of these results.

  9. Passive interferometric symmetries of multimode Gaussian pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Natasha; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2016-05-01

    As large-scale multimode Gaussian states begin to become accessible in the laboratory, their representation and analysis become a useful topic of research in their own right. The graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states provides powerful tools for their representation, while this work presents a useful tool for their analysis: passive interferometric (i.e., number-conserving) symmetries. Here we show that these symmetries of multimode Gaussian states simplify calculations in measurement-based quantum computing and provide constructive tools for engineering large-scale harmonic systems with specific physical properties, and we provide a general mathematical framework for deriving them. Such symmetries are generated by linear combinations of operators expressed in the Schwinger representation of U (2 ) , called nullifiers because the Gaussian state in question is a zero eigenstate of them. This general framework is shown to have applications in the noise analysis of continuous-various cluster states and is expected to have additional applications in future work with large-scale multimode Gaussian states.

  10. Distribution of G concurrence of random pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Jürgen; Życzkowski, Karol

    2006-12-01

    The average entanglement of random pure states of an N×N composite system is analyzed. We compute the average value of the determinant D of the reduced state, which forms an entanglement monotone. Calculating higher moments of the determinant, we characterize the probability distribution P(D) . Similar results are obtained for the rescaled Nth root of the determinant, called the G concurrence. We show that in the limit N→∞ this quantity becomes concentrated at a single point G⋆=1/e . The position of the concentration point changes if one consider an arbitrary N×K bipartite system, in the joint limit N,K→∞ , with K/N fixed.

  11. Distribution of G concurrence of random pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Cappellini, Valerio; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-12-15

    The average entanglement of random pure states of an NxN composite system is analyzed. We compute the average value of the determinant D of the reduced state, which forms an entanglement monotone. Calculating higher moments of the determinant, we characterize the probability distribution P(D). Similar results are obtained for the rescaled Nth root of the determinant, called the G concurrence. We show that in the limit N{yields}{infinity} this quantity becomes concentrated at a single point G{sub *}=1/e. The position of the concentration point changes if one consider an arbitrary NxK bipartite system, in the joint limit N,K{yields}{infinity}, with K/N fixed.

  12. Cloning of spin-coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Kus, Marek; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    We consider optimal cloning of the spin coherent states in Hilbert spaces of different dimensionality d. We give explicit form of optimal cloning transformation for spin coherent states in the three-dimensional space, analytical results for the fidelity of the optimal cloning in d=3 and d=4 as well as numerical results for higher dimensions. In the low-dimensional case we construct the corresponding completely positive maps and exhibit their structure with the help of Jamiolkowski isomorphism. This allows us to formulate some conjectures about the form of optimal coherent cloning completely positive maps in arbitrary dimension.

  13. Quantum entanglement swapping of two arbitrary biqubit pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, ChuanMei; Liu, YiMin; Chen, JianLan; Yin, XiaoFeng; Zhang, ZhanJun

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the issue of swapping quantum entanglements in two arbitrary biqubit pure states via a local bipartite entangledstate projective measure in the middle node is studied in depth, especially with regard to quantitative aspects. Attention is mainly focused on the relation between the measure and the final entanglement obtained via swapping. During the study, the entanglement of formation (EoF) is employed as a quantifier to characterize and quantify the entanglements present in all involved states. All concerned EoFs are expressed analytically; thus, the relation between the final entanglement and the measuring state is established. Through concrete analyses, the measure demands for getting a certain amount of a final entanglement are revealed. It is found that a maximally entangled final state can be obtained from any two given initial entangled states via swapping with a certain probability; however, a peculiar measure should be performed. Moreover, some distinct properties are revealed and analyzed. Such a study will be useful in quantum information processes.

  14. Equation of state for pure fluids at critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Khasare, S.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we employ the concept of probability for creating a cavity with diameter d in fluid along with the perturbation and variation approach, and develop an equation of state (EOS) for a hard sphere (HS) and Lennard—Jones (LJ) fluids. A suitable axiomatic form for surface tension S(r) is assumed for the pure fluid, with r as a variable. The function S(r) has an arbitrary parameter m. S(r) = A + B(d/r)/[1 + m(d/r)]. We use the condition in terms of radial distribution function G(λd,η) containing the self-consistent parameter λ and the condition of continuity at r = d/2 to determine A and B. A different EOS can be obtained with a suitable choice of m and the EOS has a lower root-mean-square deviation than that of Barker—Henderson BH2 for LJ fluids.

  15. From pure superparamagnetic regime to glass collective state of magnetic moments in γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormann, J. L.; Cherkaoui, R.; Spinu, L.; Noguès, M.; Lucari, F.; D'Orazio, F.; Fiorani, D.; Garcia, A.; Tronc, E.; Jolivet, J. P.

    1998-08-01

    Studies of the frequency dependence of the temperature of the AC susceptibility peak, of the thermal variation of the nonlinear DC susceptibility, and of ageing effects on the magnetization relaxation in γ-Fe2O3 4.7 nm nanoparticle assemblies with interparticle interactions of varying strength, give evidence of three magnetic regimes: pure superparamagnetic, superparamagnetic modified by the interactions, and collective. The properties of the latter regime, called glass collective state, are close to those of a canonical spin glass.

  16. Entanglement of three-qubit pure states in terms of teleportation capability

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soojoon; Joo, Jaewoo; Kim, Jaewan

    2005-08-15

    We define an entanglement measure, called the partial tangle, which represents the residual two-qubit entanglement of a three-qubit pure state. By its explicit calculations for three-qubit pure states, we show that the partial tangle is closely related to the faithfulness of a teleportation scheme over a three-qubit pure state.

  17. Quantum computing with steady state spin currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Brian M.

    Many approaches to quantum computing use spatially confined qubits in the presence of dynamic fields to perform computation. These approaches are contrasted with proposals using mobile qubits in the presence of static fields. In this thesis, steady state quantum computing using mobile electrons is explored using numerical modeling. Firstly, a foundational introduction to the case of spatially confined qubits embodied via quantum dots is provided. A collection of universal gates implemented with dynamic fields is described using simulations. These gates are combined to implement a five-qubit Grover search to provide further insight on the time-dependent field approach. Secondly, the quantum dot description is contrasted with quantum computing using steady state spin currents. Leveraging the Non-Equilibrium Greens Function formalism to perform numerical simulations, the quantum aspects of steady state spin currents are explored by revisiting the Stern-Gerlach experiment using spin-polarized contacts on a one-dimensional channel. After demonstrating the quantum nature of mobile electrons at steady state, arbitrary single qubit operations using static fields are explored. The model is further extended to incorporate two-qubit interactions to realize the square root of SWAP gate. The two-qubit CNOT gate is used to prepare a Bell state, which is read via quantum state tomography. Finally, Grover's search is revisited to explore the performance benefits of steady state quantum computing. The described multi-particle model is applicable to mobile qubit quantum computing proposals leveraging synchronized electron transport in static fields to perform quantum computing.

  18. The Photonic Wheel - Demonstration of a State of Light with Purely Transverse Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzer, P.; Neugebauer, M.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, C.; Lindlein, N.; Bauer, T.; Leuchs, G.

    2013-05-01

    In classical mechanics, a system may possess angular momentum which can be either transverse (e.g. in a spinning wheel) or longitudinal(e.g. for a spiraling seed falling from a tree) with respect to the direction of motion. However, for light, a typical massless wave system,the situation is less versatile. Photons are well-known to exhibit intrinsic angular momentum which is longitudinal only: the spin angularmomentum defining the polarization and the orbital angular momentum associated with a spiraling phase front. Here we show that itis possible to generate a novel state of the light field that contains purely transverse angular momentum, the analogue of a spinningmechanical wheel. We realize this state by tight focusing of a polarization tailored light beam and measure it using an optical nano-probingtechnique. Such a novel state of the light field can find applications in optical tweezers and spanners where it allows for additionalrotational degree of freedom not achievable in single-beam configurations so far.

  19. Entanglement of spin coherent mixed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Mostafa; Hassouni, Yassine

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we quantify the amount of entanglement of bipartite mixed states represented by a statistical mixture of the more general type of two-qubit non-orthogonal states of the form: |ψi>=ui|χi>⊗|ηi>+vi|χi>⊗|ηi‧>+wi|χi‧>⊗|ηi>+zi|χi‧>⊗|ηi‧>, constructed by linearly independent spin coherent states. We use the concurrence as a measure of entanglement and we study its behavior in terms of the amplitudes of SU(2) coherent states.

  20. Geometric local invariants and pure three-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, Mark S.; Ericsson, Marie; Johansson, Markus; Sjoeqvist, Erik; Sudbery, Anthony; Vedral, Vlatko; Wootters, William K.

    2011-06-15

    We explore a geometric approach to generating local SU(2) and SL(2,C) invariants for a collection of qubits inspired by lattice gauge theory. Each local invariant or ''gauge'' invariant is associated with a distinct closed path (or plaquette) joining some or all of the qubits. In lattice gauge theory, the lattice points are the discrete space-time points, the transformations between the points of the lattice are defined by parallel transporters, and the gauge invariant observable associated with a particular closed path is given by the Wilson loop. In our approach the points of the lattice are qubits, the link transformations between the qubits are defined by the correlations between them, and the gauge invariant observable, the local invariants associated with a particular closed path, are also given by a Wilson looplike construction. The link transformations share many of the properties of parallel transporters, although they are not undone when one retraces one's steps through the lattice. This feature is used to generate many of the invariants. We consider a pure three-qubit state as a test case and find we can generate a complete set of algebraically independent local invariants in this way; however, the framework given here is applicable to generating local unitary invariants for mixed states composed of any number of d-level quantum systems. We give an operational interpretation of these invariants in terms of observables.

  1. Direct Measurement of the Flip-Flop Rate of Electron Spins in the Solid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarov, Ekaterina; Zgadzai, Oleg; Artzi, Yaron; Blank, Aharon

    2016-10-01

    Electron spins in solids have a central role in many current and future spin-based devices, ranging from sensitive sensors to quantum computers. Many of these apparatuses rely on the formation of well-defined spin structures (e.g., a 2D array) with controlled and well-characterized spin-spin interactions. While being essential for device operation, these interactions can also result in undesirable effects, such as decoherence. Arguably, the most important pure quantum interaction that causes decoherence is known as the "flip-flop" process, where two interacting spins interchange their quantum state. Currently, for electron spins, the rate of this process can only be estimated theoretically, or measured indirectly, under limiting assumptions and approximations, via spin-relaxation data. This work experimentally demonstrates how the flip-flop rate can be directly and accurately measured by examining spin-diffusion processes in the solid state for physically fixed spins. Under such terms, diffusion can occur only through this flip-flop-mediated quantum-state exchange and not via actual spatial motion. Our approach is implemented on two types of samples, phosphorus-doped 28Si and nitrogen vacancies in diamond, both of which are significantly relevant to quantum sensors and information processing. However, while the results for the former sample are conclusive and reveal a flip-flop rate of approximately 12.3 Hz, for the latter sample only an upper limit of approximately 0.2 Hz for this rate can be estimated.

  2. Spin-state chemistry of deuterated ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Harju, J.; Caselli, P.; Schlemmer, S.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: We aim to develop a chemical model that contains a consistent description of spin-state chemistry in reactions involving chemical species with multiple deuterons. We apply the model to the specific case of deuterated ammonia, to derive values for the various spin-state ratios. Methods: We applied symmetry rules in the context of the complete scrambling assumption to calculate branching ratio tables for reactions between chemical species that include multiple protons and/or deuterons. New reaction sets for both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry were generated using an automated routine that forms all possible spin-state variants of any given reaction with up to six H/D atoms, using the predetermined branching ratios. Both a single-point and a modified Bonnor-Ebert model were considered to study the density and temperature dependence of ammonia and its isotopologs, and the associated spin-state ratios. Results: We find that the spin-state ratios of the ammonia isotopologs are, at late times, very different from their statistical values. The ratios are rather insensitive to variations in the density, but present strong temperature dependence. We derive high peak values (~0.1) for the deuterium fraction in ammonia, in agreement with previous (gas-phase) models. The deuterium fractionation is strongest at high density, corresponding to a high degree of depletion, and also presents temperature dependence. We find that in the temperature range 5 K to 20 K, the deuterium fractionation peaks at ~15 K, while most of the ortho/para (and meta/para for ND3) ratios present a minimum at 10 K (ortho/para NH2D has instead a maximum at this temperature). Conclusions: Owing to the density and temperature dependence found in the abundances and spin-state ratios of ammonia and its isotopologs, it is evident that observations of ammonia and its deuterated forms can provide important constraints on the physical structure of molecular clouds. Appendix A is available in

  3. Spin-orbit states of neutron wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsofini, Joachim; Sarenac, Dusan; Wood, Christopher J.; Cory, David G.; Arif, Muhammad; Clark, Charles W.; Huber, Michael G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method to prepare an entangled spin-orbit state between the spin and the orbital angular momenta of a neutron wave packet. This spin-orbit state is created by passing neutrons through the center of a quadrupole magnetic field, which provides a coupling between the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. A Ramsey-fringe-type measurement is suggested as a means of verifying the spin-orbit correlations.

  4. Temperature-dependent remote control of polarization and coherence intensity with sender's pure initial state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.; Zenchuk, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    We study the remote creation of the polarization and intensity of the first-order coherence (or coherence intensity) in long spin-1/2 chains with one-qubit sender and receiver. Therewith we use a physically motivated initial condition with the pure state of the sender and the thermodynamical equilibrium state of the other nodes. The main part of the creatable region is a one-to-one map of the initial state (control) parameters, except the small subregion twice covered by the control parameters, which appears owing to the chosen initial state. The polarization and coherence intensity behave differently in the state creation process. In particular, the coherence intensity cannot reach any significant value unless the polarization is large in long chains (unlike the short ones), but the opposite is not true. The coherence intensity vanishes with an increase in the chain length, while the polarization (by absolute value) is not sensitive to this parameter. We represent several characteristics of the creatable polarization and coherence intensity and describe their relation to the parameters of the initial state. The link to the eigenvalue-eigenvector parametrization of the receiver's state space is given.

  5. The geometric measure of entanglement for a symmetric pure state with non-negative amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masahito; Markham, Damian; Owari, Masaki; Virmani, Shashank

    2009-12-15

    In this paper for a class of symmetric multiparty pure states, we consider a conjecture related to the geometric measure of entanglement: ''for a symmetric pure state, the closest product state in terms of the fidelity can be chosen as a symmetric product state.'' We show that this conjecture is true for symmetric pure states whose amplitudes are all non-negative in a computational basis. The more general conjecture is still open.

  6. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    PubMed Central

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction. PMID:25961513

  7. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-05-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction.

  8. Four-state ferroelectric spin-valve.

    PubMed

    Quindeau, Andy; Fina, Ignasi; Marti, Xavi; Apachitei, Geanina; Ferrer, Pilar; Nicklin, Chris; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Alexe, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Spin-valves had empowered the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) devices to have memory. The insertion of thin antiferromagnetic (AFM) films allowed two stable magnetic field-induced switchable resistance states persisting in remanence. In this letter, we show that, without the deliberate introduction of such an AFM layer, this functionality is transferred to multiferroic tunnel junctions (MFTJ) allowing us to create a four-state resistive memory device. We observed that the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface plays a crucial role in the stabilization of the exchange bias, which ultimately leads to four robust electro tunnel electro resistance (TER) and tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) states in the junction. PMID:25961513

  9. ℬ(H) has a pure state that is not multiplicative on any masa

    PubMed Central

    Akemann, Charles; Weaver, Nik

    2008-01-01

    Assuming the continuum hypothesis, we prove that ℬ(H) has a pure state whose restriction to any masa is not pure. This resolves negatively old conjectures of Kadison and Singer and of Anderson. PMID:18378909

  10. Equation of state, initiation, and detonation of pure ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, D. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Velisavljevic, N.; Stahl, D. B.

    2009-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive throughout the world. One of the more common explosives using AN is called ANFO, a mixture of AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. The AN prills are specially made to absorb the fuel oil, forming a mixture that reacts under shock loading through a diffusion-controlled process, resulting in a non-ideal explosive with detonation velocities around 4 km/s. While there are a number of studies on ANFO, there are only a few studies relating to the equation of state (EOS) and detonation properties of pure AN - resulting mainly from studies of accidents that have occurred during transportation of large quantities of AN. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed AN ranging in density from 1.72 to 0.9 g/cm^3. Several of the high density experiments were performed in front surface impact geometry, in which pressed AN disks were built into the projectile front and impacted onto LiF windows. Additional experiments at low density have been done in ``half cell'' multiple magnetic gauge gun experiments. From this work a complete unreacted EOS has been developed, as well as some initiation and detonation information. Additional high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells have provided a static isotherm for AN.

  11. Optimal pulse spacing for dynamical decoupling in the presence of a purely dephasing spin bath

    SciTech Connect

    Ajoy, Ashok; Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Suter, Dieter

    2011-03-15

    Maintaining quantum coherence is a crucial requirement for quantum computation; hence protecting quantum systems against their irreversible corruption due to environmental noise is an important open problem. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is an effective method for reducing decoherence with a low control overhead. It also plays an important role in quantum metrology, where, for instance, it is employed in multiparameter estimation. While a sequence of equidistant control pulses [the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence] has been ubiquitously used for decoupling, Uhrig recently proposed that a nonequidistant pulse sequence [the Uhrig dynamic decoupling (UDD) sequence] may enhance DD performance, especially for systems where the spectral density of the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff. On the other hand, equidistant sequences outperform UDD for soft cutoffs. The relative advantage provided by UDD for intermediate regimes is not clear. In this paper, we analyze the relative DD performance in this regime experimentally, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Our system qubits are {sup 13}C nuclear spins and the environment consists of a {sup 1}H nuclear spin bath whose spectral density is close to a normal (Gaussian) distribution. We find that in the presence of such a bath, the CPMG sequence outperforms the UDD sequence. An analogy between dynamical decoupling and interference effects in optics provides an intuitive explanation as to why the CPMG sequence performs better than any nonequidistant DD sequence in the presence of this kind of environmental noise.

  12. Coulomb energy averaged over the nl{sup N}-atomic states with a definite spin

    SciTech Connect

    Kibler, M.; Smirnov, Yu. F.

    1995-03-05

    A purely group-theoretical approach (for which the symmetric group plays a central role), based upon the use of properties of fractional-parentage coefficients and isoscalar factors, is developed for the derivation of the Coulomb energy averaged over the states, with a definite spin, arising from an atomic configuration nl{sup N}. 15 refs.

  13. Stability of high and low spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raebiger, Hannes; Fukutomi, Shuhei; Yasuhara, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Octahedral CoL6 complexes exhibit high or low spin states, depending on ligand L. We present an explicitly correlated first principles calculation of CoL6 with five different ligands, and show that the total energy difference ΔE between the high and low spin states is variationally determined in an intricate interplay of the interelectron repulsion Vee, internuclear repulsion Vnn, and electronuclear attraction Vne. This is in stark contrast to ``ligand field theory'', where ΔE is approximated as ΔE ~ ΔVee in a first order perturbation theory. Moreover, we show that ΔVee exhibits the opposite trend to ΔE and is three or four orders of magnitude greater than ΔE , which demonstrates the failure of ligand field theory both quantitatively and qualitatively. Correctly, the crossover of high and low spin states is a consequence of different Co-L bondings, ionic or covalent, which is found by an accurate treatment of Coulomb correlation between ligand p and cobalt d electrons in the present calculation. Funded by JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (A) No. 21686003.

  14. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  15. Connections of geometric measure of entanglement of pure symmetric states to quantum state estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lin; Zhu Huangjun; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2011-01-15

    We study the geometric measure of entanglement (GM) of pure symmetric states related to rank 1 positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) and establish a general connection with quantum state estimation theory, especially the maximum likelihood principle. Based on this connection, we provide a method for computing the GM of these states and demonstrate its additivity property under certain conditions. In particular, we prove the additivity of the GM of pure symmetric multiqubit states whose Majorana points under Majorana representation are distributed within a half sphere, including all pure symmetric three-qubit states. We then introduce a family of symmetric states that are generated from mutually unbiased bases and derive an analytical formula for their GM. These states include Dicke states as special cases, which have already been realized in experiments. We also derive the GM of symmetric states generated from symmetric informationally complete POVMs (SIC POVMs) and use it to characterize all inequivalent SIC POVMs in three-dimensional Hilbert space that are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl group. Finally, we describe an experimental scheme for creating the symmetric multiqubit states studied in this article and a possible scheme for measuring the permanence of the related Gram matrix.

  16. High-spin and low-spin states in Invar and related alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moruzzi, V. L.

    1990-04-01

    Total-energy band calculations that show the coexistence of a high-spin and low-spin state in fcc transition metals and alloys are presented. The energy difference between the two states is shown to be a function of the electron concentration and to vanish at 8.6. At larger electron concentrations the low-temperature state is the high-spin state, and the thermal expansion is shown to pause at a system-dependent characteristic temperature. At lower electron concentrations the low-temperature state is the low-spin state, and enhanced thermal expansion is expected. An analysis that leads to a qualitative understanding of the thermal properties of Invar and that implies a connection with martensitic transformations and spin glasses in related alloys is presented. For Invar a magnetic collapse from the high-spin to the low-spin state at a pressure of 55 kbar is predicted.

  17. Random pure states: Quantifying bipartite entanglement beyond the linear statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Pato, Mauricio P.; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of entangled random pure states of a quantum system partitioned into two smaller subsystems of dimensions N and M . Framing the problem in terms of random matrices with a fixed-trace constraint, we establish, for arbitrary N ≤M , a general relation between the n -point densities and the cross moments of the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix, i.e., the so-called Schmidt eigenvalues, and the analogous functionals of the eigenvalues of the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble of the random matrix theory. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for two-level densities, and also an exact expression for the variance of von Neumann entropy at finite N ,M . Then, we focus on the moments E {Ka} of the Schmidt number K , the reciprocal of the purity. This is a random variable supported on [1 ,N ] , which quantifies the number of degrees of freedom effectively contributing to the entanglement. We derive a wealth of analytical results for E {Ka} for N =2 and 3 and arbitrary M , and also for square N =M systems by spotting for the latter a connection with the probability P (xminGUE≥√{2 N }ξ ) that the smallest eigenvalue xminGUE of an N ×N matrix belonging to the Gaussian unitary ensemble is larger than √{2 N }ξ . As a by-product, we present an exact asymptotic expansion for P (xminGUE≥√{2 N }ξ ) for finite N as ξ →∞ . Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations whenever possible, with excellent agreement.

  18. Random pure states: Quantifying bipartite entanglement beyond the linear statistics.

    PubMed

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Pato, Mauricio P; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the properties of entangled random pure states of a quantum system partitioned into two smaller subsystems of dimensions N and M. Framing the problem in terms of random matrices with a fixed-trace constraint, we establish, for arbitrary N≤M, a general relation between the n-point densities and the cross moments of the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix, i.e., the so-called Schmidt eigenvalues, and the analogous functionals of the eigenvalues of the Wishart-Laguerre ensemble of the random matrix theory. This allows us to derive explicit expressions for two-level densities, and also an exact expression for the variance of von Neumann entropy at finite N,M. Then, we focus on the moments E{K^{a}} of the Schmidt number K, the reciprocal of the purity. This is a random variable supported on [1,N], which quantifies the number of degrees of freedom effectively contributing to the entanglement. We derive a wealth of analytical results for E{K^{a}} for N=2 and 3 and arbitrary M, and also for square N=M systems by spotting for the latter a connection with the probability P(x_{min}^{GUE}≥sqrt[2N]ξ) that the smallest eigenvalue x_{min}^{GUE} of an N×N matrix belonging to the Gaussian unitary ensemble is larger than sqrt[2N]ξ. As a by-product, we present an exact asymptotic expansion for P(x_{min}^{GUE}≥sqrt[2N]ξ) for finite N as ξ→∞. Our results are corroborated by numerical simulations whenever possible, with excellent agreement. PMID:27300829

  19. Canonical form of three-fermion pure-states with six single particle states

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lin; Ž Ðoković, Dragomir; Grassl, Markus; Zeng, Bei

    2014-08-01

    We construct a canonical form for pure states in Λ³(C⁶), the three-fermion system with six single particle states, under local unitary (LU) transformations, i.e., the unitary group U(6). We also construct a minimal set of generators of the algebra of polynomial U(6)-invariants on Λ³(C⁶). It turns out that this algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of polynomial LU-invariants of three-qubits which are additionally invariant under qubit permutations. As a consequence of this surprising fact, we deduce that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the U(6)-orbits of pure three-fermion states in Λ³(C⁶) and the LU orbits of pure three-qubit states when qubit permutations are allowed. As an important byproduct, we obtain a new canonical form for pure three-qubit states under LU transformations U(2) × U(2) × U(2) (no qubit permutations allowed)

  20. Complete solution for unambiguous discrimination of three pure states with real inner products

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.; Hayashi, A.

    2010-09-15

    Complete solutions are given in a closed analytic form for unambiguous discrimination of three general pure states with real mutual inner products. For this purpose, we first establish some general results on unambiguous discrimination of n linearly independent pure states. The uniqueness of solution is proved. The condition under which the problem is reduced to an (n-1)-state problem is clarified. After giving the solution for three pure states with real mutual inner products, we examine some difficulties in extending our method to the case of complex inner products. There is a class of set of three pure states with complex inner products for which we obtain an analytical solution.

  1. Spectroscopy of composite solid-state spin environments for improved metrology with spin ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Gill, Nir; Pham, Linh; Belthangady, Chinmay; Lesage, David; Cappellaro, Paola; Maze, Jeronimo; Lukin, Mikhail; Yacoby, Amir; Walsworth, Ronald

    2012-02-01

    For precision coherent measurements with ensembles of quantum spins the relevant Figure-of-Merit (FOM) is the product of spin density and coherence lifetime, which is generally limited by the dynamics of spin coupling to the environment. Significant effort has been invested in understanding the causes of decoherence in a diverse range of spin systems in order to increase the FOM and improve measurement sensitivity. Here, we apply a coherent spectroscopic technique to characterize the dynamics of a composite solid-state spin environment consisting of Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color centers in room temperature diamond coupled to baths of electronic spin (N) and nuclear spin (13C) impurities. For diamond samples with a wide range of NV densities and impurity spin concentrations we employ a dynamical decoupling technique to minimize coupling to the environment, and find similar values for the FOM, which is three orders of magnitude larger than previously achieved in any room-temperature solid-state spin system, and thus should enable greatly improved precision spin metrology. We also identify a suppression of electronic spin bath dynamics in the presence of a nuclear spin bath of sufficient nuclear spin concentration. This suppression could inform efforts to engineer samples with even larger FOM for solid-state spin ensemble metrology and collective quantum information processing.

  2. Transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in silicon and germanium conduction bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Abhinav; Rojas-Sanchez, Juan-Carlos; Cubukcu, Murat; Peiro, Julian; Le Breton, Jean-Christophe; Vergnaud, Céline; Augendre, Emmanuel; Vila, Laurent; Attané, Jean-Philippe; Gambarelli, Serge; Jaffrès, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Jamet, Matthieu

    2013-04-01

    Electrical spin injection into semiconductors paves the way for exploring new phenomena in the area of spin physics and new generations of spintronic devices. However the exact role of interface states in the electrical spin injection mechanism from a magnetic tunnel junction into a semiconductor is still under debate. Here we demonstrate a clear transition from spin accumulation into interface states to spin injection in the conduction band of n-Si and n-Ge using a CoFeB/MgO tunnel contact. We observe spin signal amplification at low temperature due to spin accumulation into interface states followed by a clear transition towards spin injection in the conduction band from approximately 150 K up to room temperature. In this regime, the spin signal is reduced down to a value compatible with the standard spin diffusion model. More interestingly, in the case of germanium, we demonstrate a significant modulation of the spin signal by applying a back-gate voltage to the conduction channel. We also observe the inverse spin Hall effect in Ge by spin pumping from the CoFeB electrode. Both observations are consistent with spin accumulation in the Ge conduction band.

  3. Computation of indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings with reduced complexity in pure and hybrid density functional approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luenser, Arne; Kussmann, Jörg; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2016-09-01

    We present a (sub)linear-scaling algorithm to determine indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constants at the Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional levels of theory. Employing efficient integral algorithms and sparse algebra routines, an overall (sub)linear scaling behavior can be obtained for systems with a non-vanishing HOMO-LUMO gap. Calculations on systems with over 1000 atoms and 20 000 basis functions illustrate the performance and accuracy of our reference implementation. Specifically, we demonstrate that linear algebra dominates the runtime of conventional algorithms for 10 000 basis functions and above. Attainable speedups of our method exceed 6 × in total runtime and 10 × in the linear algebra steps for the tested systems. Furthermore, a convergence study of spin-spin couplings of an aminopyrazole peptide upon inclusion of the water environment is presented: using the new method it is shown that large solvent spheres are necessary to converge spin-spin coupling values.

  4. Typical pure states and the analysis of nonequilibrium processes of mesoscopic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Takaaki; Sugita, Ayumu

    2016-05-01

    For isolated quantum many-body systems, we extend the availability of the intrinsic thermal nature of typical pure states to a class of nonequilibrium processes which start from an initial equilibrium. For concreteness, we calculate the spectral distribution of the work done on the system on the basis of a single pure state. It means that we can accurately calculate the entire fluctuation of the energy only from a single pure state instead of the thermodynamic ensembles.

  5. Correlations and Werner states in finite spin linear arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, P. R.; Chaves, C. M.; d'Albuquerque e Castro, J.; Koiller, Belita

    2013-10-01

    Pairwise quantum correlations in the ground state of an N-spins antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain are investigated. By varying the exchange coupling between two neighboring sites, it is possible to reversibly drive spins from entangled to disentangled states. For even N, the two-spin density matrix is written in the form of a Werner state, allowing identification of its single parameter with the usual spin-spin correlation function. The N = 4 chain is identified as a promising system for practical demonstrations of non-classical correlations and the realization of Werner states in familiar condensed matter systems. Fabrication and measurement ingredients are within current capabilities.

  6. Bidirectional teleportation of a pure EPR state by using GHZ states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Shima; Houshmand, Monireh

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, a novel bidirectional quantum teleportation protocol is proposed. By using entanglement swapping technique, two GHZ states are shared as a quantum channel between Alice and Bob as legitimate users. In this scheme, based on controlled-not operation, single-qubit measurement, and appropriate unitary operations, two users can simultaneously transmit a pure EPR state to each other, While, in the previous protocols, the users can just teleport a single-qubit state to each other via more than four-qubit state. Therefore, the proposed scheme is economical compared with previous protocols.

  7. Coexistence of pure and mixed states in nonlinear maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Yehuda

    2015-09-01

    Coherence and interaction are important concepts in physics. While interaction describes a relation between individual objects such as forces acting between distinguishable particles, coherent objects exist with the sole purpose of describing a single object. For example, each component of a vector provides us with only partial information. The whole picture is revealed only when the components are coherently related to their generating vector. Another example is a singlet of two spin ½- particles. The true nature of these two coherent particles is described by a spin-less single particle. Apparently it seems that objects can be either coherent or lion-coherent but they cannot be both simultaneously. This is almost true. We show that a system can be described simultaneously as coherent and lion-coherent but an observer can distinguish only one concept at a time.

  8. The tumbling spin state of (99942) Apophis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravec, P.; Scheirich, P.; Ďurech, J.; Pollock, J.; Kušnirák, P.; Hornoch, K.; Galád, A.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Harris, A. W.; Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Opitom, C.; Gillon, M.; Colas, F.; Oey, J.; Vraštil, J.; Reichart, D.; Ivarsen, K.; Haislip, J.; LaCluyze, A.

    2014-05-01

    Our photometric observations of Asteroid (99942) Apophis from December 2012 to April 2013 revealed it to be in a state of non-principal axis rotation (tumbling). We constructed its spin and shape model and found that it is in a moderately excited Short Axis Mode (SAM) state with a ratio of the rotational kinetic energy to the basic spin state energy E/E0=1.024±0.013. (All quoted uncertainties correspond to 3σ.) The greatest and intermediate principal moments of inertia are nearly the same with I2/I3=0.965-0.015+0.009, but the smallest principal moment of inertia is substantially lower with I1/I3=0.61-0.08+0.11; the asteroid’s dynamically equivalent ellipsoid is close to a prolate ellipsoid. The precession and rotation periods are Pϕ=27.38±0.07 h and Pψ=263±6 h, respectively; the strongest observed lightcurve amplitude for the SAM case is in the 2nd harmonic of P1=P=30.56±0.01 h. The rotation is retrograde with the angular momentum vector’s ecliptic longitude and latitude of 250° and -75° (the uncertainty area is approximately an ellipse with the major and minor semiaxes of 27° and 14°, respectively). An implication of the retrograde rotation is a somewhat increased probability of the Apophis’ impact in 2068, but it is still very small with the risk level on the Palermo Scale remaining well below zero. Apophis is a member of the population of slowly tumbling asteroids. Applying the theory of asteroid nutational damping by Breiter et al. (Breiter, S., Rożek, A., Vokrouhlický, D. [2012]. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 755-769), we found that slowly tumbling asteroids predominate in the spin rate-size range where their estimated damping times are greater than about 0.2 Gyr. The appearance that the PA/NPA rotators transition line seems to follow a line of constant damping time may be because there are two or more asteroid spin evolution mechanisms in play, or the factor of μQ (the elastic modulus times the quality factor) is not constant but it may

  9. Generation of pure spin currents via Auger recombination in quantum wells with Rashba splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, A. N. Greshnov, A. A. Greshnov, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    We propose a nonoptical mechanism for generating spin current via Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells (QWs) with spin–orbit splitting associated with structural QW asymmetry. It is shown that Auger recombination in narrow-bandgap semiconductors makes it possible to produce spin currents that exceed those that are obtained in the case of intraband as well as interband optical excitation. Analysis shows that the interference term in the expression for the Auger-recombination rate is responsible for the generation of spin currents.

  10. Preparation of nuclear spin singlet states using spin-lock induced crossing.

    PubMed

    DeVience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S

    2013-10-25

    We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet-singlet polarization transfer and singlet-state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D(2)O and by using SLIC to measure the J couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet-singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same time scale as spin-lattice relaxation.

  11. Negative Correlations and Entanglement in Higher-Spin Dicke States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2016-10-01

    We consider entanglement criteria based on the spin squeezing inequalities for arbitrary spin systems. Here we use the negative correlations to detect the entanglement in the system with exchange symmetry. For arbitrary spin systems, we can find that the state is entangled, when the minimal pairwise correlation is negative. Then we give a parameter which is defined by the collective angular momentum operator, to detect the entanglement for the Dicke state with N spin -1 particles, and the results are as the same as negative correlation. We also consider the directions of negative correlation, the state is entangled in two orthogonal directions for the superposition of Dicke state without parity.

  12. Spin relaxation of iron in mixed state hemoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Wajnberg, E; Kalinowski, H J; Bemski, G; Helman, J S

    1986-01-01

    In hemoproteins the relaxation mechanism of iron is Orbach for high spin (HS) and Raman for low spin (LS). We found that in met-hemoglobin and met-myoglobin, under conditions in which the two spin states coexist, both the HS and the LS states relax to the lattice through Orbach-like processes. Alos, very short (approximately 1 ns) and temperature independent transverse relaxation times T2 were estimated. This may result from the unusual electronic structure of mixed states hemoproteins that allows thermal equilibrium and interconversion of the spin states. PMID:3013333

  13. Influences of Initial States on Entanglement Dynamics of Two Central Spins in a Spin Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Jian; Xu, Bao-Ming; Li, Lin; Zou, Jian; Li, Hai; Shao, Bin

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamics of two electronic spins coupled to a bath of nuclear spins for two special cases, one is that two central spins both interact with a common bath, and the other is that one of two spins interacts with a bath. We consider three types of initial states with different correlations between the system and the bath, i.e., quantum correlation, classical correlation, and no-correlation. We show that the initial correlations (no matter quantum correlations or classical correlations) can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death. Irrespective of whether both two spins or only one of the two spins interacts with the bath, the system can gain more entanglement in the process of the time evolution for initial quantum correlations. In addition, we find that the effects of the distribution of coupling constants on entanglement dynamics crucially depend on the initial state of the spin bath.

  14. Universally coupled massive gravity, III: dRGT-Maheshwari pure spin-2, Ogievetsky-Polubarinov and arbitrary mass terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, J. Brian

    2016-02-01

    Einstein's equations were derived for a free massless spin-2 field using universal coupling in the 1950-1970s by various authors; total stress-energy including gravity's served as a source for linear free field equations. A massive variant was likewise derived in the late 1960s by Freund, Maheshwari and Schonberg, and thought to be unique. How broad is universal coupling? In the last decade four 1-parameter families of massive spin-2 theories (contravariant, covariant, tetrad, and cotetrad of almost any density weights) have been derived using universal coupling. The (co)tetrad derivations included 2 of the 3 pure spin-2 theories due to de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley; those two theories first appeared in the 2-parameter Ogievetsky-Polubarinov family (1965), which developed the symmetric square root of the metric as a nonlinear group realization. One of the two theories was identified as pure spin-2 by Maheshwari in 1971-1972, thus evading the Boulware-Deser-Tyutin-Fradkin ghost by the time it was announced. Unlike the previous 4 families, this paper permits nonlinear field redefinitions to build the effective metric. By not insisting in advance on knowing the observable significance of the graviton potential to all orders, one finds that an arbitrary graviton mass term can be derived using universal coupling. The arbitrariness of a universally coupled mass/self-interaction term contrasts sharply with the uniqueness of the Einstein kinetic term. One might have hoped to use universal coupling as a tie-breaking criterion for choosing among theories that are equally satisfactory on more crucial grounds (such as lacking ghosts and having a smooth massless limit). But the ubiquity of universal coupling implies that the criterion does not favor any particular theories among those with the Einstein kinetic term.

  15. Optical Polarization Möbius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Tightly focused light beams can exhibit complex and versatile structured electric field distributions. The local field may spin around any axis including a transverse axis perpendicular to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can even degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization or C point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where—upon tight focusing—those C points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Because of the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit nontrivial structures similar to Möbius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique.

  16. Concurrence of assistance and Mermin inequality on three-qubit pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Dong Pyo; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Kyungjin; Jeong, Kabgyun; Lee, Soojoon

    2010-04-15

    We study a relation between the concurrence of assistance and the Mermin inequality on three-qubit pure states and claim that if a three-qubit pure state has a minimal concurrence of assistance greater than 1/2 then the state violates some Mermin inequality. In this work, we analytically show that our claim holds for several classes and also find that it can be generalized to the set of all three-qubit pure states by exploiting previous numerical work [C. Emary and C. W. J. Beenakker, Phys. Rev. A 69, 032317 (2004)].

  17. Robust state transfer in the quantum spin channel via weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhi; Yao, Chunmei; Zou, Jian

    2013-10-01

    Using the weak measurement (WM) and quantum measurement reversal (QMR) approach, robust state transfer and entanglement distribution can be realized in the spin-(1)/(2) Heisenberg chain. We find that the ultrahigh fidelity and long distance of quantum state transfer with certain success probability can be obtained using proper WM and QMR, i.e., the average fidelity of a general pure state from 80% to almost 100%, which is almost size independent. We also find that the distance and quality of entanglement distribution for the Bell state and the general Werner mixed state can be obviously improved by the WM and QMR approach.

  18. Generating Entangled Spin States for Quantum Metrology by Single-Photon Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Robert; Zhang, Hao; Cuk, Senka; Hu, Jiazhong; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Vuletic, Vladan

    2014-05-01

    We present a proposal and latest experimental results on a probabilistic but heralded scheme to generate non-Gaussian entangled states of collective spin in large atomic ensembles by means of single-photon detection. One photon announces the preparation of a Dicke state, while two or more photons announce Schrödinger cat states. The entangled states thus produced allow interferometry below the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). The method produces nearly pure states even for finite photon detection efficiency and weak atom-photon coupling. The entanglement generation can be made quasi-deterministic by means of repeated trial and feedback.

  19. Spin state of spin-crossover complexes: From single molecules to ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Manuel; Davesne, Vincent; Bowen, Martin; Boukari, Samy; Beaurepaire, Eric; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Miyamachi, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    The growth of spin-crossover Fe(1,10-phenanthroline)2(NCS)2 molecules on Cu(100) surfaces in the coverage range from 0.1 to 1.8 molecular layers was studied using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operated in ultrahigh vacuum at low temperature (≈4 K). STM imaging allowed us to extract the molecular adsorption geometry. While the first-layer molecules point their NCS groups toward the surface and their phenanthroline groups upwards, the adsorption geometry is reversed for the molecules in the second layer. For submonolayer coverages, a coexistence of molecules in the high- and low-spin states was found that is not correlated with the coverage. This coexistence is reduced for second-layer molecules, leading to a dominant spin state at low temperatures. Differential conductance spectra acquired at negative bias voltage on first- and second-layer molecules suggest that second-layer molecules are in the high-spin state and are partially electronically decoupled from the substrate. Furthermore, increasing the tip-to-sample voltage reduces the distance between the two lobes of the molecule. The current dependence of this effect suggests that a smooth spin crossover from a high- to a low-spin state occurs with increasing sample voltage. This analog spin-state switching is well described within a simple transition-state model involving modifications to the energy barriers between low- and high-spin states due to a tip-induced electric field through the Stark effect.

  20. Classification scheme of pure multipartite states based on topological phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Markus; Ericsson, Marie; Sjöqvist, Erik; Osterloh, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the concept of affine balancedness (a-balancedness) introduced by M. Johansson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 032112 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.032112] and polynomial local SU invariants and the appearance of topological phases, respectively. It is found that different types of a-balancedness correspond to different types of local SU invariants analogously to how different types of balancedness, as defined by A. Osterloh and J. Siewert, [New J. Phys. 12, 075025 (2010), 10.1088/1367-2630/12/7/075025], correspond to different types of local special linear (SL) invariants. These different types of SU invariants distinguish between states exhibiting different topological phases. In the case of three qubits, the different kinds of topological phases are fully distinguished by the three-tangle together with one more invariant. Using this, we present a qualitative classification scheme based on balancedness of a state. While balancedness and local SL invariants of bidegree (2n,0) classify the SL-semistable states [A. Osterloh and J. Siewert, New J. Phys. 12, 075025 (2010), 10.1088/1367-2630/12/7/075025; O. Viehmann et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 052330 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.052330], a-balancedness and local SU invariants of bidegree (2n-m,m) give a more fine-grained classification. In this scheme, the a-balanced states form a bridge from the genuine entanglement of balanced states, invariant under the SL group, towards the entanglement of unbalanced states characterized by U invariants of bidegree (n,n). As a byproduct, we obtain generalizations to the W state, i.e., states that are entangled, but contain only globally distributed entanglement of parts of the system.

  1. Schwinger boson spin-liquid states on square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Wang, Fa

    2016-07-01

    We study possible spin liquids on square lattice that respect all lattice symmetries and time-reversal symmetry within the framework of Schwinger boson (mean-field) theory. Such spin liquids have spin gap and emergent Z2 gauge field excitations. We classify them by the projective symmetry group method, and find six spin-liquid states that are potentially relevant to the J1-J2 Heisenberg model. The properties of these states are studied under mean-field approximation. Interestingly we find a spin-liquid state that can go through continuous phase transitions to either the Néel magnetic order or magnetic orders of the wave vector at the Brillouin zone edge center. We also discuss the connection between our results and the Abrikosov fermion spin liquids.

  2. Electron spin resonance evaluation of pure CaSO4 and as a phosphor doped with P and Dy.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, E F O; Rossi, A M; Lopes, R T

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline CaSO4 powder, doped with different elements but mainly rare earths, is one of the most interesting thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Although many electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses have been reported for these materials few studies have been published about the potential of CaSO4 for ESR dosimetry; almost all studies used CaSO4:Dy with a very low Dy concentration as the material for TL measurements. Pure CaSO4 from Merck was used to prepare CaSO4:Dy and CaSO4:P:Dy with different Dy concentrations. Samples were annealed at 600 degrees C for 1 h before irradiation in a Gammacell 220 irradiator with a 60Co gamma source at a dose rate of 100 Gy x min(-1). The ESR spectra of the pure CaSO4 and CaSO4 doped with P and Dy show the lines usually observed with these types of material, with the factor g around 2.036 and an intense line at g = 2.0011 found only in the pure material. This line, probably an axial SO4-, grows linearly with absorbed dose until 1.0 kGy and shows good stability with time. The line should be stabilized by matrix impurities because it can be removed by a simple treatment with hot sulphuric acid.

  3. Optical Polarization Möbius Strips and Points of Purely Transverse Spin Density.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Thomas; Neugebauer, Martin; Leuchs, Gerd; Banzer, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Tightly focused light beams can exhibit complex and versatile structured electric field distributions. The local field may spin around any axis including a transverse axis perpendicular to the beams' propagation direction. At certain focal positions, the corresponding local polarization ellipse can even degenerate into a perfect circle, representing a point of circular polarization or C point. We consider the most fundamental case of a linearly polarized Gaussian beam, where-upon tight focusing-those C points created by transversely spinning fields can form the center of 3D optical polarization topologies when choosing the plane of observation appropriately. Because of the high symmetry of the focal field, these polarization topologies exhibit nontrivial structures similar to Möbius strips. We use a direct physical measure to find C points with an arbitrarily oriented spinning axis of the electric field and experimentally investigate the fully three-dimensional polarization topologies surrounding these C points by exploiting an amplitude and phase reconstruction technique. PMID:27419567

  4. Resolving an individual one-proton spin flip to determine a proton spin state.

    PubMed

    DiSciacca, J; Marshall, M; Marable, K; Gabrielse, G

    2013-04-01

    Previous measurements with a single trapped proton (p) or antiproton (p) detected spin resonance from the increased scatter of frequency measurements caused by many spin flips. Here a measured correlation confirms that individual spin transitions and states are rapidly detected instead. The 96% fidelity and an efficiency expected to approach unity suggests that it may be possible to use quantum jump spectroscopy to measure the p and p magnetic moments much more precisely. PMID:25166967

  5. Pure state consciousness and its local reduction to neuronal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggins, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The single neuronal state can be represented as a vector in a complex space, spanned by an orthonormal basis of integer spike counts. In this model a scalar element of experience is associated with the instantaneous firing rate of a single sensory neuron over repeated stimulus presentations. Here the model is extended to composite neural systems that are tensor products of single neuronal vector spaces. Depiction of the mental state as a vector on this tensor product space is intended to capture the unity of consciousness. The density operator is introduced as its local reduction to the single neuron level, from which the firing rate can again be derived as the objective correlate of a subjective element. However, the relational structure of perceptual experience only emerges when the non-local mental state is considered. A metric of phenomenal proximity between neuronal elements of experience is proposed, based on the cross-correlation function of neurophysiology, but constrained by the association of theoretical extremes of correlation/anticorrelation in inseparable 2-neuron states with identical and opponent elements respectively.

  6. State Diagram of Orthogonal Spin-Transfer Spin-Valve Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Li; Wolf, Georg; Pinna, Daniele; Kent, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that incorporate an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer with an in-plane collinear spin valve are expected to exhibit ultrafast magnetization switching as well as large amplitude precessional modes. The current and field dependence of the switching thresholds are also distinct from the collinear spin-valves because of the combined effect from in-plane reference layer (RL) and polarizing layer (PL). Here we present an experimental investigation of complete current-field state diagrams, demonstrating reversal between parallel (P) and anti-parallel (AP) states and dynamic states of the free layer in both OST pseudo spin valve and spin valve devices, where in the latter a synthetic anti-ferromagnetic layer (SAF) is used as reference layer. Switching from AP (P) to P (AP) states is observed at both positive and negative current with a different field dependence of the critical current, reflecting spin polarization asymmetry between AP and P states and different RL and PL spin torque efficiencies. High frequency noise spectra have also been acquired providing evidence of out-of-plane precessional modes, where an intermediate resistance is seen in quasistatic measurements. Modeling of this orthogonal spin transfer system is also discussed.

  7. Spin-polarized surface resonances accompanying topological surface state formation

    PubMed Central

    Jozwiak, Chris; Sobota, Jonathan A.; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Kemper, Alexander F.; Rotundu, Costel R.; Birgeneau, Robert J.; Hussain, Zahid; Lee, Dung-Hai; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators host spin-polarized surface states born out of the energetic inversion of bulk bands driven by the spin-orbit interaction. Here we discover previously unidentified consequences of band-inversion on the surface electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. By performing simultaneous spin, time, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we map the spin-polarized unoccupied electronic structure and identify a surface resonance which is distinct from the topological surface state, yet shares a similar spin-orbital texture with opposite orientation. Its momentum dependence and spin texture imply an intimate connection with the topological surface state. Calculations show these two distinct states can emerge from trivial Rashba-like states that change topology through the spin-orbit-induced band inversion. This work thus provides a compelling view of the coevolution of surface states through a topological phase transition, enabled by the unique capability of directly measuring the spin-polarized unoccupied band structure. PMID:27739428

  8. Spin-polarized surface resonances accompanying topological surface state formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozwiak, Chris; Sobota, Jonathan A.; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Kemper, Alexander F.; Rotundu, Costel R.; Birgeneau, Robert J.; Hussain, Zahid; Lee, Dung-Hai; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    Topological insulators host spin-polarized surface states born out of the energetic inversion of bulk bands driven by the spin-orbit interaction. Here we discover previously unidentified consequences of band-inversion on the surface electronic structure of the topological insulator Bi2Se3. By performing simultaneous spin, time, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we map the spin-polarized unoccupied electronic structure and identify a surface resonance which is distinct from the topological surface state, yet shares a similar spin-orbital texture with opposite orientation. Its momentum dependence and spin texture imply an intimate connection with the topological surface state. Calculations show these two distinct states can emerge from trivial Rashba-like states that change topology through the spin-orbit-induced band inversion. This work thus provides a compelling view of the coevolution of surface states through a topological phase transition, enabled by the unique capability of directly measuring the spin-polarized unoccupied band structure.

  9. Spin-orbit coupling effect on the 23 Π state of 39K85Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Stolyarov, Andrey; Stwalley, William

    2013-05-01

    Recently we investigated the spin-orbit components (Ω = 0+, 0-, 1, and 2) of the 23 Π state of 39K85Rb by using experimental spectroscopy of ultracold molecules formed by photoassociation. The separations (Δ (EΩ = 1 -EΩ = 0) and Δ (EΩ = 2 -EΩ = 1)) between Ω components were unequal due to second-order perturbations by other electronic states. In the present work we investigate the spin-orbit coupling effect on the 2 3 Π state of 39K85Rb in the framework of 1st and 2nd order non-degenerate perturbation theory based on an ab initiomethod. Required potential energy curves and electronic spin-orbit coupling matrix elements are evaluated over a wide range of internuclear distance in the basis of the spin-averaged wavefunctions corresponding to the pure Hund's case (a) coupling scheme. We compare the experimental spin-orbit splittings of the 2 3 Π state with its ab initio counterparts, which agree well and elucidate the pronounced 2nd order perturbation effects caused by nearby electronic states.

  10. Localized States Influence Spin Transport in Epitaxial Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, T.; van den Berg, J. J.; Huisman, E. H.; Dijkstra, H.; Fromm, F.; Seyller, T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2013-02-01

    We developed a spin transport model for a diffusive channel with coupled localized states that result in an effective increase of spin precession frequencies and a reduction of spin relaxation times in the system. We apply this model to Hanle spin precession measurements obtained on monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Combined with newly performed measurements on quasi-free-standing monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) our analysis shows that the different values for the diffusion coefficient measured in charge and spin transport measurements on monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) and the high values for the spin relaxation time can be explained by the influence of localized states arising from the buffer layer at the interface between the graphene and the SiC surface.

  11. Simulating spin-boson models with matrix product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-05-01

    The global coupling of few-level quantum systems (``spins'') to a discrete set of bosonic modes is a key ingredient for many applications in quantum science, including large-scale entanglement generation, quantum simulation of the dynamics of long-range interacting spin models, and hybrid platforms for force and spin sensing. In many situations, the bosons are integrated out, leading to effective long-range interactions between the spins; however, strong spin-boson coupling invalidates this approach, and spin-boson entanglement degrades the fidelity of quantum simulation of spin models. We present a general numerical method for treating the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of spin-boson systems based on matrix product states. While most efficient for weak coupling or small numbers of boson modes, our method applies for any spatial and operator dependence of the spin-boson coupling. In addition, our approach allows straightforward computation of many quantities of interest, such as the full counting statistics of collective spin measurements and quantum simulation infidelity due to spin-boson entanglement. We apply our method to ongoing trapped ion quantum simulator experiments in analytically intractable regimes. This work is supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF- 1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, and the NRC.

  12. Local unitary invariants for N-qubit pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2010-11-15

    The concept of negativity font, a basic unit of multipartite entanglement, is introduced. Transformation properties of determinants of negativity fonts under local unitary (LU) transformations are exploited to obtain relevant N-qubit polynomial invariants and construct entanglement monotones from first principles. It is shown that entanglement monotones that detect the entanglement of specific parts of the composite system may be constructed to distinguish between states with distinct types of entanglement. The structural difference between entanglement monotones for an odd and even number of qubits is brought out.

  13. Experimental Test of Residual Error-Disturbance Uncertainty Relations for Mixed Spin-1/2 States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Bülent; Sponar, Stephan; Sulyok, Georg; Ozawa, Masanao; Hasegawa, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    The indeterminacy inherent in quantum measurements is an outstanding character of quantum theory, which manifests itself typically in the uncertainty principle. In the last decade, several universally valid forms of error-disturbance uncertainty relations were derived for completely general quantum measurements for arbitrary states. Subsequently, Branciard established a form that is optimal for spin measurements for some pure states. However, the bound in his inequality is not stringent for mixed states. One of the present authors recently derived a new bound tight in the corresponding mixed state case. Here, a neutron-optical experiment is carried out to investigate this new relation: it is tested whether error and disturbance of quantum measurements disappear or persist in mixing up the measured ensemble. The attainability of the new bound is experimentally observed, falsifying the tightness of Branciard's bound for mixed spin states.

  14. Decontaminating Solar Wind Samples with the Genesis Ultra-Pure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2009-01-01

    The Genesis sample return capsule, though broken during the landing impact, contained most of the shattered ultra-pure solar wind collectors comprised of silicon and other semiconductor wafers materials. Post-flight analysis revealed that all wafer fragments were littered with surface particle contamination from spacecraft debris as well as soil from the impact site. This particulate contamination interferes with some analyses of solar wind. In early 2005, the Genesis science team decided to investigate methods for removing the surface particle contamination prior to solar wind analysis.

  15. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Yuan; Duan Runyao; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-10-15

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used.

  16. Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca A.

    Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  17. Charge-ordering cascade with spin-orbit Mott dimer states in metallic iridium ditelluride.

    PubMed

    Ko, K-T; Lee, H-H; Kim, D-H; Yang, J-J; Cheong, S-W; Eom, M J; Kim, J S; Gammag, R; Kim, K-S; Kim, H-S; Kim, T-H; Yeom, H-W; Koo, T-Y; Kim, H-D; Park, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling results in technologically-crucial phenomena underlying magnetic devices like magnetic memories and energy-efficient motors. In heavy element materials, the strength of spin-orbit coupling becomes large to affect the overall electronic nature and induces novel states such as topological insulators and spin-orbit-integrated Mott states. Here we report an unprecedented charge-ordering cascade in IrTe2 without the loss of metallicity, which involves localized spin-orbit Mott states with diamagnetic Ir(4+)-Ir(4+) dimers. The cascade in cooling, uncompensated in heating, consists of first order-type consecutive transitions from a pure Ir(3+) phase to Ir(3+)-Ir(4+) charge-ordered phases, which originate from Ir 5d to Te 5p charge transfer involving anionic polymeric bond breaking. Considering that the system exhibits superconductivity with suppression of the charge order by doping, analogously to cuprates, these results provide a new electronic paradigm of localized charge-ordered states interacting with itinerant electrons through large spin-orbit coupling. PMID:26059464

  18. Liquid-State Nuclear Spin Comagnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, M. P.; Pustelny, S.; Budker, D.; Romalis, M. V.; Blanchard, J. W.; Pines, A.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss nuclear spin comagnetometers based on ultralow-field nuclear magnetic resonance in mixtures of miscible solvents, each rich in a different nuclear spin. In one version thereof, Larmor precession of protons and F19 nuclei in a mixture of thermally polarized pentane and hexafluorobenzene is monitored via a sensitive alkali-vapor magnetometer. We realize transverse relaxation times in excess of 20 s and suppression of magnetic field fluctuations by a factor of 3400. We estimate it should be possible to achieve single-shot sensitivity of about 5×10-9Hz, or about 5×10-11Hz in ≈1 day of integration. In a second version, spin precession of protons and Xe129 nuclei in a mixture of pentane and hyperpolarized liquid xenon is monitored using superconducting quantum interference devices. Application to spin-gravity experiments, electric dipole moment experiments, and sensitive gyroscopes is discussed.

  19. Reduced quantum dynamics with initial system-environment correlations characterized by pure Markov states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türkmen, A.; Verçin, A.; Yılmaz, S.

    2016-09-01

    Any tripartite state which saturates the strong subadditivity relation for the quantum entropy is defined as the Markov state. A tripartite pure state describing an open system, its environment, and their purifying system is a pure Markov state if and only if the bipartite marginal state of the purifying system and environment is a product state. It has been shown that as long as the purification of the input system-environment state is a pure Markov state, the reduced dynamics of the open system can be described, on the support of the initial system state, by a quantum channel for every joint unitary evolution of the system-environment composite even in the presence of initial correlations. Entanglement, discord, and classical correlations of the initial system-environment states implied by the pure Markov states are analyzed and it has been shown that all these correlations are entirely specified by the entropy of environment. Some implications concerning perfect quantum error correction procedure and quantum Markovian dynamics are presented.

  20. Foucault's Pendulum, Analog for an Electron Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The classical Lagrangian that describes the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum presents an interesting analog to an electron's spin state in an external magnetic field. With a simple modification, this classical Lagrangian yields equations of motion that directly map onto the Schrodinger-Pauli Equation. This analog goes well beyond the geometric phase, reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  1. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-15

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  2. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  3. Photocreating supercooled spiral-spin states in a multiferroic manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Y. M.; Ogawa, N.; Kaneko, Y.; Tokura, Y.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate that the dynamics of the a b -spiral-spin order in a magnetoelectric multiferroic Eu0.55Y0.45MnO3 can be unambiguously probed through optical second harmonic signals, generated via spin-induced ferroelectric polarization. In the case of weak excitation, the ferroelectric and the spiral-spin order remains interlocked, both relaxing through spin-lattice relaxation in the nonequilibrium state. When the additional optical pulse illuminating the sample is intense enough to induce a local phase transition thermally, the system creates a metastable state of the b c -spiral-spin order (with the electric polarization P ∥c ) via supercooling across the first-order phase transition between the a b and b c spiral. The supercooled state of the b c -spiral spin is formed in the thermodynamical ground state of the a b spiral (P ∥a ), displaying a prolonged lifetime with strong dependence on the magnetic field along the a axis. The observed phenomena provide a different paradigm for photoswitching between the two distinct multiferroic states, motivating further research into a direct observation of the photocreated supercooled b c -spiral spin in multiferroic manganites.

  4. Destination state screening of active spaces in spin dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzystyniak, M.; Edwards, Luke J.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2011-06-01

    We propose a novel avenue for state space reduction in time domain Liouville space spin dynamics simulations, using detectability as a selection criterion - only those states that evolve into or affect other detectable states are kept in the simulation. This basis reduction procedure (referred to as destination state screening) is formally exact and can be applied on top of the existing state space restriction techniques. As demonstrated below, in many cases this results in further reduction of matrix dimension, leading to considerable acceleration of many spin dynamics simulation types. Destination state screening is implemented in the latest version of the Spinach library (http://spindynamics.org).

  5. Theory of resonance fluorescence from a solid-state cavity QED system: Effects of pure dephasing

    SciTech Connect

    Koshino, Kazuki

    2011-09-15

    We theoretically analyze the resonance fluorescence of a solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system that consists of a quantum dot and a cavity. We clarify the effects of pure dephasing by investigating the elastic and inelastic scattering probabilities, the fluorescence power spectrum, and the energy exchange with the environment. Pure dephasing interactions with the environment both enhance nonresonant coupling between the dot and the cavity and enable the pump light to continuously absorb energy from the environment under appropriate conditions.

  6. An Ising spin state explanation for financial asset allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Philip A.; Roos, Kelly R.; Sinha, Amit

    2016-03-01

    We build on the developments in the application of statistical mechanics, notably the identity of the spin degree of freedom in the Ising model, to explain asset price dynamics in financial markets with a representative agent. Specifically, we consider the value of an individual spin to represent the proportional holdings in various assets. We use partial moment arguments to identify asymmetric reactions to information and develop an extension of a plunging and dumping model. This unique identification of the spin is a relaxation of the conventional discrete state limitation on an Ising spin to accommodate a new archetype in Ising model-finance applications wherein spin states may take on continuous values, and may evolve in time continuously, or discretely, depending on the values of the partial moments.

  7. High spin states in the transitional nucleus88Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiszflog, M.; Lieb, K. P.; Cristancho, F.; Gross, C. J.; Jungclaus, A.; Rudolph, D.; Grawe, H.; Heese, J.; Maier, K.-H.; Schubart, R.; Eberth, J.; Skoda, S.

    1992-09-01

    The reaction58Ni(36Ar, α q ρ)88Mo has been studied at 145 MeV beam energy. A detector array consisting of the OSIRIS spectrometer, four charged-particle ΔE detectors and seven NE213 neutron detectors has been used to meaure the gamma radiation in γγ- and particle- γγ-coincidence mode. The level scheme of88Mo has been extended up to 11.6 MeV excitation energy and probable spin 23 ħ; some 70 transitions and 40 levels have been identified. Spin assignments have been proposed on the basis of measured DCO ratios. Hartree Fock cranking calculations of the Total Routhians and shell model calculations of the high spin states are presented which imply near-sphericity of the yrast line up to the highest spins found. A classification of the high spin states according to their leading seniority is proposed.

  8. High-spin states in odd-odd 168Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona, M. A.; Hojman, D.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A. J.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S. M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Blasi, N.; Debray, M. E.; Levinton, G.; Marti, G.; De Poli, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Lo Bianco, G.

    2007-02-12

    High-spin states in 168Tm were investigated by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy techniques using the GASP multidetector array. Rotational bands have been established and identified in terms of their configurations.

  9. High spin states in {sup 139}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Dhal, A.; Sinha, R. K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Agarwal, P.; Kumar, S.; Jain, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Govil, I. M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan; Ray, S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Pancholi, S. C.; Gupta, J. B.

    2009-07-15

    The odd mass nucleus {sup 139}Pm has been studied to high spins through the {sup 116}Cd({sup 27}Al,4n){sup 139}Pm reaction at an incident beam energy of 120 MeV. The de-exciting {gamma}-rays were detected using an array of 12 Compton suppressed Ge detectors. A total of 46 new levels have been proposed in the present work as a result of the observation of 60 new {gamma}-rays. Four new bands including a {delta}J=1 sequence have been identified and all the earlier reported bands, other than the yrast band, have been extended to higher spins and excitation energy. The spin assignments for most of the newly reported levels have been made using the observed coincidence angular anisotropy. Tilted axis cranking calculations support the interpretation of two of the observed magnetic dipole sequences as examples of magnetic rotational bands.

  10. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Struzhkin, V.; Mao, H.-k.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Fei, Y.; Mysen, B.; Dera, P.; Parapenka, V.; Shen, G.

    2010-11-16

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. The lower mantle constitutes more than half of the Earth's interior by volume (1), and it is believed to consist predominantly (80-100%) of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} perovskite (hereafter called perovskite), with up to 20% (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase (2). The electronic spin state of iron has direct influence on the physical properties and chemical behavior of its host phase. Hence, knowledge on the spin state of iron is important for the interpretation of seismic observations, geochemical modeling, and geodynamic simulation of the Earth's deep interior (3, 4). Crystal field theory (4, 5) and band theory (6) predicted that a high-spin to low-spin transition would occur as a result of compression. To date, no experimental data exist on the spin sate of iron in Al-bearing perovskite. To detect possible spinpairing transition of iron in perovskite under the lower mantle

  11. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-12-01

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  12. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms. PMID:26647821

  13. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms. PMID:26647821

  14. Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2015-12-09

    Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.

  15. Not all pure entangled states are useful for sub-shot-noise interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hyllus, Philipp; Smerzi, Augusto; Guehne, Otfried

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the connection between the shot-noise limit in linear interferometers and particle entanglement. In particular, we ask whether sub-shot-noise sensitivity can be reached with all pure entangled input states of N particles if they can be optimized with local operations. Results on the optimal local transformations allow us to show that for N=2 all pure entangled states can be made useful for sub-shot-noise interferometry while for N>2 this is not the case. We completely classify the useful entangled states available in a bosonic two-mode interferometer. We apply our results to several states, in particular to multiparticle singlet states and to cluster states. The latter turn out to be practically useless for sub-shot-noise interferometry. Our results are based on the Cramer-Rao bound and the Fisher information.

  16. Spin supercurrent, magnetization dynamics, and φ-state in spin-textured Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulagina, Iryna; Linder, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    The prospect of combining the dissipationless nature of superconducting currents with the spin polarization of magnetic materials is interesting with respect to exploring superconducting analogs of topics in spintronics. In order to accomplish this aim, it is pivotal to understand not only how such spin supercurrents can be created, but also how they interact dynamically with magnetization textures. In this paper, we investigate the appearance of a spin supercurrent and the resulting magnetization dynamics in a textured magnetic Josephson current by using three experimentally relevant models: (i) a superconductor∣ferromagnet∣superconductor (S∣F∣S) junction with spin-active interfaces, (ii) a S∣F1∣F2∣F3∣S Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic trilayer, and (iii) a Josephson junction containing a domain wall. In all of these cases, the supercurrent is spin polarized and exerts a spin-transfer torque on the ferromagnetic interlayers which causes magnetization dynamics. Using a scattering matrix formalism in the clean limit, we compute the Andreev bound states and resulting free energy of the system which in turn is used to solve the Landau-Lifshiftz-Gilbert equation. We compute both how the inhomogeneous magnetism influences the phase dependence of the charge supercurrent and the magnetization dynamics caused by the spin polarization of the supercurrent. Using a realistic experimental parameter set, we find that the spin supercurrent can induce magnetization switching that is controlled by the superconducting phase difference. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combined effect of chiral spin symmetry breaking of the system as a whole with interface scattering causes the systems above to act as phase batteries that may supply any superconducting phase difference φ in the ground state. Such a φ-junction is accompanied by an anomalous supercurrent appearing even at zero phase difference, and we demonstrate that the flow direction of this current is

  17. Stability of global entanglement in thermal states of spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Brennen, Gavin K.; Bullock, Stephen S.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the entanglement properties of a one-dimensional chain of qubits coupled via nearest-neighbor spin-spin interactions. The entanglement measure used is the n-concurrence, which is distinct from other measures on spin chains such as bipartite entanglement in that it can quantify 'global' entanglement across the spin chain. Specifically, it computes the overlap of a quantum state with its time-reversed state. As such, this measure is well suited to study ground states of spin-chain Hamiltonians that are intrinsically time-reversal-symmetric. We study the robustness of n-concurrence of ground states when the interaction is subject to a time-reversal antisymmetric magnetic field perturbation. The n-concurrence in the ground state of the isotropic XX model is computed and it is shown that there is a critical magnetic field strength at which the entanglement experiences a jump discontinuity from the maximum value to zero. The n-concurrence for thermal mixed states is derived and a threshold temperature is computed below which the system has nonzero entanglement.

  18. Edge states, spin transport, and impurity-induced local density of states in spin-orbit coupled graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Ranjani; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman

    2016-01-01

    We study graphene, which has both spin-orbit coupling (SOC), taken to be of the Kane-Mele form, and a Zeeman field induced due to proximity to a ferromagnetic material. We show that a zigzag interface of graphene having SOC with its pristine counterpart hosts robust chiral edge modes in spite of the gapless nature of the pristine graphene; such modes do not occur for armchair interfaces. Next we study the change in the local density of states (LDOS) due to the presence of an impurity in graphene with SOC and Zeeman field, and demonstrate that the Fourier transform of the LDOS close to the Dirac points can act as a measure of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling; in addition, for a specific distribution of impurity atoms, the LDOS is controlled by a destructive interference effect of graphene electrons which is a direct consequence of their Dirac nature. Finally, we study transport across junctions, which separates spin-orbit coupled graphene with Kane-Mele and Rashba terms from pristine graphene both in the presence and absence of a Zeeman field. We demonstrate that such junctions are generally spin active, namely, they can rotate the spin so that an incident electron that is spin polarized along some direction has a finite probability of being transmitted with the opposite spin. This leads to a finite, electrically controllable, spin current in such graphene junctions. We discuss possible experiments that can probe our theoretical predictions.

  19. Entanglement in a solid-state spin ensemble.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Stephanie; Brown, Richard M; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Thewalt, Mike L W; Itoh, Kohei M; Morton, John J L

    2011-02-01

    Entanglement is the quintessential quantum phenomenon. It is a necessary ingredient in most emerging quantum technologies, including quantum repeaters, quantum information processing and the strongest forms of quantum cryptography. Spin ensembles, such as those used in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, have been important for the development of quantum control methods. However, these demonstrations contain no entanglement and ultimately constitute classical simulations of quantum algorithms. Here we report the on-demand generation of entanglement between an ensemble of electron and nuclear spins in isotopically engineered, phosphorus-doped silicon. We combined high-field (3.4 T), low-temperature (2.9 K) electron spin resonance with hyperpolarization of the (31)P nuclear spin to obtain an initial state of sufficient purity to create a non-classical, inseparable state. The state was verified using density matrix tomography based on geometric phase gates, and had a fidelity of 98% relative to the ideal state at this field and temperature. The entanglement operation was performed simultaneously, with high fidelity, on 10(10) spin pairs; this fulfils one of the essential requirements for a silicon-based quantum information processor. PMID:21248751

  20. Temperature Dependence of the Exchange Splitting of the Surface State on Gd(0001): Evidence against Spin-Mixing Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschke, E.; Schüssler-Langeheine, C.; Meier, R.; Fedorov, A. V.; Starke, K.; Hübinger, F.; Kaindl, G.

    1996-10-01

    We report on angle-resolved photoemission (PE) and inverse PE studies of Gd(0001) in the temperature range 60 to 400 K. The results show that with increasing temperature both the occupied and the unoccupied parts of the d-like surface state at γ¯ shift towards the Fermi level. This rules out a pure spin-mixing behavior as claimed recently on the basis of spin-resolved PE data. Instead, the temperature variation of the surface-state exchange splitting is Stoner-like, with an enhanced surface Curie temperature; nevertheless, a small residual splitting above TC cannot be ruled out.

  1. Optical and magnetic characterisation of Co3+ and Ni3+ in LaAlO3: interplay between the spin state and Jahn-Teller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Rodríguez, Jesús; Demazeau, Gérard

    2011-10-01

    The coordination, the electronic structures and the spin of the ground state of Ni3+ (3d7) and Co3+ (3d6) introduced as impurities in LaAlO3 are investigated through optical spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The unusual trivalent valence state in both transition-metal ions was stabilised via a sol-gel process followed by high oxygen pressure treatments. We show that the crystal-field strength at the nearly Oh transition-metal site in LaAlO3 locates Ni3+ and Co3+ near the spin state crossover, yielding a low-spin ground state in both cases. We analyse how the interplay between the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect and the spin state affects the magnetic moment of the ion and its temperature dependence. The optical spectra reveal a JT effect associated with a low-spin ground state in Ni3+ and with a thermally populated high-spin low-lying first excited state in Co3+. The corresponding JT distortions are derived from structural correlations. We conclude that the JT effect is unable to stabilise the intermediate spin state in Co3+. A low-spin ground state in thermal equilibrium with a high-spin low-lying first excited state is detected in diluted Co3+-doped LaAlO3. These results are compared with those obtained in the parent pure compounds LaNiO3 and LaCoO3.

  2. Dressed-state resonant coupling between bright and dark spins in diamond.

    PubMed

    Belthangady, C; Bar-Gill, N; Pham, L M; Arai, K; Le Sage, D; Cappellaro, P; Walsworth, R L

    2013-04-12

    Under ambient conditions, spin impurities in solid-state systems are found in thermally mixed states and are optically "dark"; i.e., the spin states cannot be optically controlled. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are an exception in that the electronic spin states are "bright"; i.e., they can be polarized by optical pumping, coherently manipulated with spin-resonance techniques, and read out optically, all at room temperature. Here we demonstrate a scheme to resonantly couple bright NV electronic spins to dark substitutional-nitrogen (P1) electronic spins by dressing their spin states with oscillating magnetic fields. This resonant coupling mechanism can be used to transfer spin polarization from NV spins to nearby dark spins and could be used to cool a mesoscopic bath of dark spins to near-zero temperature, thus providing a resource for quantum information and sensing, and aiding studies of quantum effects in many-body spin systems.

  3. Dressed-state resonant coupling between bright and dark spins in diamond.

    PubMed

    Belthangady, C; Bar-Gill, N; Pham, L M; Arai, K; Le Sage, D; Cappellaro, P; Walsworth, R L

    2013-04-12

    Under ambient conditions, spin impurities in solid-state systems are found in thermally mixed states and are optically "dark"; i.e., the spin states cannot be optically controlled. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are an exception in that the electronic spin states are "bright"; i.e., they can be polarized by optical pumping, coherently manipulated with spin-resonance techniques, and read out optically, all at room temperature. Here we demonstrate a scheme to resonantly couple bright NV electronic spins to dark substitutional-nitrogen (P1) electronic spins by dressing their spin states with oscillating magnetic fields. This resonant coupling mechanism can be used to transfer spin polarization from NV spins to nearby dark spins and could be used to cool a mesoscopic bath of dark spins to near-zero temperature, thus providing a resource for quantum information and sensing, and aiding studies of quantum effects in many-body spin systems. PMID:25167312

  4. Determining titan's spin state from cassini radar images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stiles, B.W.; Kirk, R.L.; Lorenz, R.D.; Hensley, S.; Lee, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Allison, M.D.; Callahan, P.S.; Gim, Y.; Iess, L.; Del Marmo, P.P.; Hamilton, G.; Johnson, W.T.K.; West, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    For some 19 areas of Titan's surface, the Cassini RADAR instrument has obtained synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images during two different flybys. The time interval between flybys varies from several weeks to two years. We have used the apparent misregistration (by 10-30 km) of features between separate flybys to construct a refined model of Titan's spin state, estimating six parameters: north pole right ascension and declination, spin rate, and these quantities' first time derivatives We determine a pole location with right ascension of 39.48 degrees and declination of 83.43 degrees corresponding to a 0.3 degree obliquity. We determine the spin rate to be 22.5781 deg day -1 or 0.001 deg day-1 faster than the synchronous spin rate. Our estimated corrections to the pole and spin rate exceed their corresponding standard errors by factors of 80 and 8, respectively. We also found that the rate of change in the pole right ascension is -30 deg century-1, ten times faster than right ascension rate of change for the orbit normal. The spin rate is increasing at a rate of 0.05 deg day -1 per century. We observed no significant change in pole declination over the period for which we have data. Applying our pole correction reduces the feature misregistration from tens of km to 3 km. Applying the spin rate and derivative corrections further reduces the misregistration to 1.2 km. ?? 2008. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Matrix product states for su(2) invariant quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Fledderjohann, Andreas; Klümper, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    A systematic and compact treatment of arbitrary su(2) invariant spin-s quantum chains with nearest-neighbour interactions is presented. The ground-state is derived in terms of matrix product states (MPS). The fundamental MPS calculations consist of taking products of basic tensors of rank 3 and contractions thereof. The algebraic su(2) calculations are carried out completely by making use of Wigner calculus. As an example of application, the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic quantum chain is investigated. Various physical quantities are calculated with high numerical accuracy of up to 8 digits. We obtain explicit results for the ground-state energy, entanglement entropy, singlet operator correlations and the string order parameter. We find an interesting crossover phenomenon in the correlation lengths.

  6. Topologically protected quantum state transfer in a chiral spin liquid.

    PubMed

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Weimer, H; Jiang, L; Cirac, J I; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2013-01-01

    Topology plays a central role in ensuring the robustness of a wide variety of physical phenomena. Notable examples range from the current-carrying edge states associated with the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects to topologically protected quantum memory and quantum logic operations. Here we propose and analyse a topologically protected channel for the transfer of quantum states between remote quantum nodes. In our approach, state transfer is mediated by the edge mode of a chiral spin liquid. We demonstrate that the proposed method is intrinsically robust to realistic imperfections associated with disorder and decoherence. Possible experimental implementations and applications to the detection and characterization of spin liquid phases are discussed.

  7. Generation of chiral spin state by quantum simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanamoto, Tetsufumi

    2016-06-01

    Chirality of materials in nature appears when there are asymmetries in their lattice structures or interactions in a certain environment. Recent development of quantum simulation technology has enabled the manipulation of qubits. Accordingly, chirality can be realized intentionally rather than passively observed. Here we theoretically provide simple methods to create a chiral spin state in a spin-1/2 qubit system on a square lattice. First, we show that switching on and off the Heisenberg and X Y interactions produces the chiral interaction directly in the effective Hamiltonian without controlling local fields. Moreover, when initial states of spin qubits are appropriately prepared, we prove that the chirality with desirable phase is dynamically obtained. Finally, even for the case where switching on and off the interactions is infeasible and the interactions are always on, we show that, by preparing an asymmetric initial qubit state, the chirality whose phase is π /2 is dynamically generated.

  8. Deterministic LOCC transformation of three-qubit pure states and entanglement transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2013-02-15

    A necessary and sufficient condition of the possibility of a deterministic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) transformation of three-qubit pure states is given. The condition shows that the three-qubit pure states are a partially ordered set parametrized by five well-known entanglement parameters and a novel parameter; the five are the concurrences C{sub AB}, C{sub AC}, C{sub BC}, the tangle {tau}{sub ABC} and the fifth parameter J{sub 5} of Acin et al. (2000) Ref. [19], while the other new one is the entanglement charge Q{sub e}. The order of the partially ordered set is defined by the possibility of a deterministic LOCC transformation from a state to another state. In this sense, the present condition is an extension of Nielsen's work (Nielsen (1999) [14]) to three-qubit pure states. We also clarify the rules of transfer and dissipation of the entanglement which is caused by deterministic LOCC transformations. Moreover, the minimum number of times of measurements to reproduce an arbitrary deterministic LOCC transformation between three-qubit pure states is given. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We obtained a necessary and sufficient condition for deterministic LOCC of 3 qubits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We clarified rules of entanglement flow caused by measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found a new parameter which is interpreted as 'Charge of Entanglement'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We gave a set of entanglements which determines whether two states are LU-eq. or not. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach to deterministic LOCC of 3 qubits may be applicable to N qubits.

  9. Separability Criterion for Arbitrary Multipartite Pure State Based on the Rank of Reduced Density Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao; Yang, Guo-wu; Li, Xiao-yu

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, there are plenty of separability criteria which are used to detect entanglement. Many of them are limited to apply for some cases. In this paper, we propose a separability criterion for arbitrary multipartite pure state which is based on the rank of reduced density matrix. It is proved that the rank of reduced density matrices of a multipartite state is closely related to entanglement. In fact it can be used to characterize entanglement. Our separability criterion is a necessary and sufficient condition for detecting entanglement. Furthermore, it is able to help us find the completely separable form of a multipartite pure state according to some explicit examples. Finally it demonstrates that our method are more suitable for some specific case. Our separability criterion are simple to understand and it is operational.

  10. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Mattihas; Caves, Carlton; CenterQuantum Information and Control Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state | 1 > ⊗ | 1 > . This suggests the beamsplitter or, more generally, linear-optical networks as a mediator of the two notions of nonclassicality. We show the following: Given a nonclassical pure product state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and anti-squeezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson sampling problem.

  11. Mixing nonclassical pure states in a linear-optical network almost always generates modal entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang; Lang, Matthias D.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2013-10-01

    In quantum optics a pure state is considered classical, relative to the statistics of photodetection, if and only if it is a coherent state. A different and newer notion of nonclassicality is based on modal entanglement. One example that relates these two notions is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect, where modal entanglement is generated by a beamsplitter from the nonclassical photon-number state |1>⊗|1>. This suggests that beamsplitters or, more generally, linear-optical networks are mediators of the two notions of nonclassicality. In this Brief Report, we show the following: Given a nonclassical pure-product-state input to an N-port linear-optical network, the output is almost always mode entangled; the only exception is a product of squeezed states, all with the same squeezing strength, input to a network that does not mix the squeezed and antisqueezed quadratures. Our work thus gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a linear network to generate modal entanglement from pure-product inputs, a result that is of immediate relevance to the boson-sampling problem.

  12. Measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factor in a pure-phase InAs nanowire double quantum dot in the Pauli spin-blockade regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun; Lei, Zijin; Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO2 substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of ΔST ˜ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of ΔSO ˜ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ˜12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.

  13. Precise quantum control on solid-state spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianpei

    Precise quantum control is of great importance for quantum information processing, high resolution spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. One of the key obstacles to realizing precise quantum control on solid-state spins is the noises arising from both environment and control field. Here, we design a composite pulse to realize precise quantum control on a single electron spin in diamond by suppressing the effect of both noises simultaneously. The control is experimentally demonstrated to be with a low error rate of 4.8E-5. We improve quantum optimal control method to realize precise two-qubit quantum control on a system comprised by a single electron spin and 14N nuclear spin. With the improved quantum optimal control method, we design a pulse sequence for CNOT gate to suppress the noises simultaneously. The error rate of CNOT gate is measured to be 8E-3. To the best of our knowledge, the control we have realized stands for the state of art in precise quantum control on solid-state spins.

  14. Low-temperature instability of uniform spin precession in the B phase of pure {sup 3}He and {sup 3}He in an aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Surovtsev, E. V. Fomin, I. A.

    2010-08-15

    The magnetic-field dependences of the threshold temperature of the low-temperature instability of uniform spin precession in pure {sup 3}He-B and {sup 3}He-B in an aerogel have been determined for the bulk mechanism. These dependences appear to be different. The theoretical dependence of the threshold temperature for the pure case has been compared with the experimental dependence. The threshold temperature of the instability for {sup 3}He in the aerogel has been estimated for typical experimental conditions.

  15. Maximum spin aligned states in 98 47Ag51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederkäll, J.; Lipoglavšek, M.; Palacz, M.; Persson, J.; Blomqvist, J.; Ataċ, A.; Fahlander, C.; Grawe, H.; Johnson, A.; Klamra, W.; Kownacki, J.; Likar, A.; Norlin, L.–O.; Nyberg, J.; Schubart, R.; Seweryniak, D.; de Angelis, G.; Bednarczyk, P.; Dombrádi, Z.; Foltescu, D.; Górska, M.; Jerrestam, D.; Juutinen, S.; Mäkelä, E.; M., B.; Perez, G.; de Poli, M.; A., H.; Shizuma, T.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Sletten, G.; Törmänen, S.

    1998-01-01

    New excited states have been observed in the neutron deficient isotope 98Ag following the 58Ni+50Cr →108Te* heavy ion reaction. One of these states may be interpreted as a maximum spin aligned state of the πg9/2 -3νg7/2 configuration. Other possible interpretations within the nuclear shell model are discussed as well.

  16. Manipulating topological states by imprinting non-collinear spin textures

    DOE PAGES

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi -Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; et al

    2015-03-05

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can bemore » imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence« less

  17. Manipulating topological states by imprinting non-collinear spin textures

    SciTech Connect

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi -Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys

    2015-03-05

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence

  18. Manipulating Topological States by Imprinting Non-Collinear Spin Textures

    PubMed Central

    Streubel, Robert; Han, Luyang; Im, Mi-Young; Kronast, Florian; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Radu, Florin; Abrudan, Radu; Lin, Gungun; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Fischer, Peter; Makarov, Denys

    2015-01-01

    Topological magnetic states, such as chiral skyrmions, are of great scientific interest and show huge potential for novel spintronics applications, provided their topological charges can be fully controlled. So far skyrmionic textures have been observed in noncentrosymmetric crystalline materials with low symmetry and at low temperatures. We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the design of spin textures with topological charge densities that can be tailored at ambient temperatures. Tuning the interlayer coupling in vertically stacked nanopatterned magnetic heterostructures, such as a model system of a Co/Pd multilayer coupled to Permalloy, the in-plane non-collinear spin texture of one layer can be imprinted into the out-of-plane magnetised material. We observe distinct spin textures, e.g. vortices, magnetic swirls with tunable opening angle, donut states and skyrmion core configurations. We show that applying a small magnetic field, a reliable switching between topologically distinct textures can be achieved at remanence. PMID:25739643

  19. Eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and quantum Jarzynski relation for pure initial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Steinigeweg, R.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Campisi, M.; Gemmer, J.

    2016-07-01

    Since the first suggestion of the Jarzynski equality many derivations of this equality have been presented in both the classical and the quantum context. While the approaches and settings differ greatly from one another, they all appear to rely on the condition that the initial state is a thermal Gibbs state. Here, we present an investigation of work distributions in driven isolated quantum systems, starting from pure states that are close to energy eigenstates of the initial Hamiltonian. We find that, for the nonintegrable quantum ladder studied, the Jarzynski equality is fulfilled to a good accuracy.

  20. Relation Between Stereographic Projection and Concurrence Measure in Bipartite Pure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarbashi, G.; Seifi, B.

    2016-10-01

    One-qubit pure states, living on the surface of Bloch sphere, can be mapped onto the usual complex plane by using stereographic projection. In this paper, after reviewing the entanglement of two-qubit pure state, it is shown that the quaternionic stereographic projection is related to concurrence measure. This is due to the fact that every two-qubit state, in ordinary complex field, corresponds to the one-qubit state in quaternionic skew field, called quaterbit. Like the one-qubit states in complex field, the stereographic projection maps every quaterbit onto a quaternion number whose complex and quaternionic parts are related to Schmidt and concurrence terms respectively. Rather, the same relation is established for three-qubit state under octonionic stereographic projection which means that if the state is bi-separable then, quaternionic and octonionic terms vanish. Finally, we generalize recent consequences to 2⊗ N and 4⊗ N dimensional Hilbert spaces ( N ≥ 2) and show that, after stereographic projection, the quaternionic and octonionic terms are entanglement sensitive. These trends are easily confirmed by direct computation for general multi-particle W- and GHZ-states.

  1. Relation Between Stereographic Projection and Concurrence Measure in Bipartite Pure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarbashi, G.; Seifi, B.

    2016-06-01

    One-qubit pure states, living on the surface of Bloch sphere, can be mapped onto the usual complex plane by using stereographic projection. In this paper, after reviewing the entanglement of two-qubit pure state, it is shown that the quaternionic stereographic projection is related to concurrence measure. This is due to the fact that every two-qubit state, in ordinary complex field, corresponds to the one-qubit state in quaternionic skew field, called quaterbit. Like the one-qubit states in complex field, the stereographic projection maps every quaterbit onto a quaternion number whose complex and quaternionic parts are related to Schmidt and concurrence terms respectively. Rather, the same relation is established for three-qubit state under octonionic stereographic projection which means that if the state is bi-separable then, quaternionic and octonionic terms vanish. Finally, we generalize recent consequences to 2⊗N and 4⊗N dimensional Hilbert spaces (N ≥ 2) and show that, after stereographic projection, the quaternionic and octonionic terms are entanglement sensitive. These trends are easily confirmed by direct computation for general multi-particle W- and GHZ-states.

  2. High spin states in 162Lu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S. L.; Pancholi, S. C.; Juneja, P.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Rodrigues, G.; Singh, R. P.

    1997-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the odd-odd 162Lu nucleus, following the 148Sm(19F,5n) reaction at beam energy Elab=112 MeV, has been performed through in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy. It revealed three signature-split bands. The yrast band based on πh11/2⊗νi13/2 configuration exhibits anomalous signature splitting (the unfavored signature Routhian lying lower than the favored one) whose magnitude Δe'~25 keV, is considerably reduced in contrast to sizable normal signature splitting Δe'~125 and 60 keV observed in the yrast πh11/2 bands of the neighboring odd-A 161,163Lu nuclei, respectively. The signature inversion in this band occurs at spin ~20ħ (frequency=0.37 MeV). The second signature-split band, observed above the band crossing associated with the alignment of a pair of i13/2 quasineutrons, is a band based on the four-quasiparticle [πh11/2[523]7/2-⊗νh9/2[521]3/2-⊗(νi13/2)2], i.e., EABAp(Bp), configuration. The third signature-split band is also likely to be a four-quasiparticle band with configuration similar to the second band but involving F quasineutron, i.e., FABAp(Bp). The experimental results are discussed in comparison with the existing data in the neighboring nuclei and in the framework of the cranking shell model.

  3. Terahertz electromagnons in spin-diluted cupric oxide: dynamics of twisted spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd-Hughes, James; Jones, Samuel; Wurz, Nicola; Failla, Michele; McConville, Chris; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingham

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the physics of magnetoelectric materials may lead to their application in actuators, sensors and solid state memories. Improper multiferroics also have novel quasiparticle excitations: electromagnons form when spin-waves become electric-dipole active. We investigated magnons, electromagnons and spin-lattice coupling in Cu(1-x)Zn(x)O (0spin-lattice coupling in Cu(1-x)Zn(x)O. While the phonon and magnon modes broaden and shift as a result of alloy-induced disorder, the electromagnon was found to be insensitive to Zn substitution and the induced disorder in the local spin structure. The results demonstrate that electromagnon excitations and dynamic magnetoelectric coupling can be maintained even in disordered spin systems, and at elevated temperatures.

  4. Unresolved gamma rays from high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, F.S.

    1985-08-01

    The ..gamma..-rays which are emitted from the highest spin states in nuclei cannot be resolved using present techniques. Nevertheless, methods are being developed to study nuclear structures in this spin range. For example, coincidence data has been used in the study of superdeformations and moments of inertia. While the general properties of these correlation plots are in accord with present expectations, there are several puzzling features of the data which require more study. One unresolved aspect concerns ..gamma..-ray energy spreads in a given decay pathway. In addition, higher-order correlation methods are in various stages of inception. 15 refs., 16 figs. (WRF)

  5. Stochastic feedback control of quantum transport to realize a dynamical ensemble of two nonorthogonal pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryanoosh, Shakib; Wiseman, Howard M.; Brandes, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    A Markovian open quantum system which relaxes to a unique steady state ρss of finite rank can be decomposed into a finite physically realizable ensemble (PRE) of pure states. That is, as shown by R. I. Karasik and H. M. Wiseman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 020406 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.020406], in principle there is a way to monitor the environment so that in the long-time limit the conditional state jumps between a finite number of possible pure states. In this paper we show how to apply this idea to the dynamics of a double quantum dot arising from the feedback control of quantum transport, as previously considered by C. Pöltl, C. Emary, and T. Brandes [Phys. Rev. B 84, 085302 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.085302]. Specifically, we consider the limit where the system can be described as a qubit, and show that while the control scheme can always realize a two-state PRE, in the incoherent-tunneling regime there are infinitely many PREs compatible with the dynamics that cannot be so realized. For the two-state PREs that are realized, we calculate the counting statistics and see a clear distinction between the coherent and incoherent regimes.

  6. Enhanced Spin Squeezing in Atomic Ensembles via Control of the Internal Spin States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojaee, Ezad; Norris, Leigh; Baragiola, Ben; Montano, Enrique; Hemmer, Daniel; Jessen, Poul; Deutsch, Ivan

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: We study the process by which the collective spin squeezing of an ensemble of Cesium atoms is enhanced by control of the internal spin state of the atoms. By increasing the initial atomic projection noise, one can enhance the Faraday interaction that entangles the atoms with a probe. The light acts as a quantum bus for creating atom-atom entanglement via measurement backaction. Further control can be used to transfer this entanglement to metrologically useful squeezing. We numerically simulate this protocol by a stochastic master equation, including QND measurement and optical pumping, which accounts for decoherence and transfer of coherences between magnetic sub-levels. We study the tradeoff between the enhanced entangling interaction and increased rates of decoherence for different initial state preparations. Under realistic conditions, we find that we can achieve squeezing with a ``CAT-State'' superpostion |F = 4, Mz = 4> + |F, Mz = -4> of ~ 9.9 dB and for the spin coherent state |F = 4, Mx = 4> of ~ 7.5 dB. The increased entanglement enabled by the CAT state preparation is partially, but not completely reduced by the increased fragility to decoherence. National Science Foundation.

  7. Entangled states of spin and clock oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polzik, Eugene

    2016-05-01

    Measurements of one quadrature of an oscillator with precision beyond its vacuum state uncertainty have occupied a central place in quantum physics for decades. We have recently reported the first experimental implementation of such measurement with a magnetic oscillator. However, a much more intriguing goal is to trace an oscillator trajectory with the precision beyond the vacuum state uncertainty in both position and momentum, a feat naively assumed not possible due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We have demonstrated that such measurement is possible if the oscillator is entangled with a quantum reference oscillator with an effective negative mass. The key element is the cancellation of the back action of the measurement on the composite system of two oscillators. Applications include measurements of e.-m. fields, accelleration, force and time with practically unlimited accuracy. In a more general sense, this approach leads to trajectories without quantum uncertainties and to achieving new fundamental bounds on the measurement precision.

  8. High-spin and low-spin mixed state in LaSrCoO4 : An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hua

    2010-03-01

    Spin state is an important issue for many cobaltates, and an intermediate spin (IS) state having a half-filled eg orbital may well be expected for a Co3+ ion in a CoO6 octahedron with a remarkable tetragonal distortion. Here the single-layered perovskite cobaltate LaSrCoO4 , which has a notable tetragonal elongation, is investigated for its spin state and electronic structure, through a set of local-spin-density approximation plus Hubbard U (LSDA+U) calculations including also the multiplet effect and spin-orbit coupling. Counterintuitively, our calculations evidence that the IS state is not the ground state and it would, even if being so, give rise to a wrong ferromagnetic half-metallic solution. We find that a strong band hybridization significantly suppresses a multiplet energy splitting of the IS state. Instead, a high-spin (HS) and low-spin (LS) mixed state turns out to have the lowest total energy among all possibly combined spin states. Moreover, the mixed HS+LS ground state well accounts for the experimental paramagnetic insulating behavior, the effective magnetic moment, and the observed optical spectral features. We also predict that LaSrCoO4 in the mixed HS+LS ground state has a sizeable out-of-plane orbital moment and a local lattice distortion, which would motivate experimental studies.

  9. Direct measurement of concurrence for atomic two-qubit pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, G.; Lopez, C. E.; Lastra, F.; Retamal, J. C.; Solano, E.

    2007-03-15

    We propose a general scheme to measure the concurrence of an arbitrary two-qubit pure state in atomic systems. The protocol is based on one- and two-qubit operations acting on two available copies of the bipartite system, and followed by a global qubit readout. We show that it is possible to encode the concurrence in the probability of finding all atomic qubits in the ground state. Two possible scenarios are considered: atoms crossing three-dimensional microwave cavities and trapped ion systems.

  10. Interacting boson model descriptions of high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyucak, S.

    1995-10-01

    The I/N expansion technique for the interacting boson model (IBM) has recently been extended to higher orders using computer algebra. This allows, for the first time, a realistic description of high-spin states in the framework of the sdg-IBM. Systematic studies of moment of inertia show that the problems with its spin dependence are due to the energy surface being too rigid against rotations which can be remedied by including the d-boson energy in the Hamiltonian. The d-boson energy is also instrumental in resolving two other problems in the IBM first raised by Bohr and Mottelson, namely, energy scale mismatch in the ground and gamma bands, and the boson cutoff in B(E2) values. We apply the results to describe the high-spin states in rare-earth and actinide nuclei where the ground band has been followed up to spins L=30, and hence provide unique test cases for collective models. The same formalism can also be used in a phenomenological description of superdeformed states as will be demonstrated with examples in the Hg-Pb region.

  11. Spin states and electronic conduction in Ni oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, Gerald F.

    1990-05-01

    Magnetic and electronic properties of the mixed-valence semiconductor LixNi2+1-2xNi3+xO are reinterpreted in terms of low-spin states for both Ni ions. Anomalous decreases in hopping electron activation energies are discussed on the basis of (i) breakdown in antiferromagnetic ordering through spin canting of the Ni sublattices through exchange isolation caused by diamagnetic Li1+ ions that group with the low-spin Ni3+ (S= (1)/(2) ) to form polarons, and (ii) enhanced disruption of magnetic superexchange that results from a combination of Li1+ dilutants and S=0 states of surrounding Ni2+ ions induced at low temperatures by static Jahn-Teller tetragonal distortions of the oxygen octahedra around the Ni3+ polarons. Reported magnetic ordering and conduction anomalies in La2-xSrxNiO4 are then compared to the behavior of Cu in LixCu1-xO, and in the high-Tc superconducting La2-xSrxCuO4 system. Spontaneous conduction through molecular-orbital states involving zero-spin Ni and Cu ions is discussed, together with the role of S=0 polarons in other oxide superconductors.

  12. Nonlocal transport in the quantum spin Hall state.

    PubMed

    Roth, Andreas; Brüne, Christoph; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W; Maciejko, Joseph; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-07-17

    Nonlocal transport through edge channels holds great promise for low-power information processing. However, edge channels have so far only been demonstrated to occur in the quantum Hall regime, at high magnetic fields. We found that mercury telluride quantum wells in the quantum spin Hall regime exhibit nonlocal edge channel transport at zero external magnetic field. The data confirm that the quantum transport through the (helical) edge channels is dissipationless and that the contacts lead to equilibration between the counterpropagating spin states at the edge. The experimental data agree quantitatively with the theory of the quantum spin Hall effect. The edge channel transport paves the way for a new generation of spintronic devices for low-power information processing.

  13. Spin-state configuration induced faster spin dynamics in epitaxial La1-xSrxCoO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, W. Y.; Li, P.; Bai, H. L.

    2015-05-01

    Two important features: spin-state configuration and spin dynamics in phase-separated ferromagnetic/spin-glass epitaxial La1-xSrxCoO3 thin films (x=0.07, 0.17, 0.26, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60) have been investigated and elaborated, proved by both magnetic analyses and first principle calculations. The configuration with high-spin (HS) state Co3+ and low-spin (LS) state Co4+ is considered to be the most stable spin-state configuration for La1-xSrxCoO3 at ground state, which was demonstrated by calculating the magnetic moments of La1-xSrxCoO3, as well as first principle calculation. The stretched Co-O bond by Sr doping causes the decrease of crystal field splitting, resulting in the HS state Co3+ and LS state Co4+. The spin dynamics in the La1-xSrxCoO3 thin films was found to be faster than the classic spin-glass compounds, which is attributed to the higher-spin Co3+, and rather smaller ferromagnetic cluster size (~2.16 to ~21.5 nm) in the epitaxial films than that in referenced polycrystalline compounds (~35 to ~240 nm).

  14. From Spin Glass to Spin Liquid Ground States in Pyrochlore Molybdates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Lucy

    Magnetic pyrochlores continue to generate intense interest due to the wealth of interesting behaviours that they can display as a result of their highly frustrated nature. Here we will present our study of the molybdate pyrochlore Lu2Mo2O7, which contains non-magnetic Lu3+ and an antiferromagnetic network of corner-sharing tetrahedra of Mo4+ 4d2 S = 1 ions. Magnetic susceptibility data show that Lu2Mo2O7 enters an unconventional spin glass state at Tf ~ 16 K that displays a quadratic dependence of the low temperature magnetic heat capacity, akin to that observed for its well-studied sister compound Y2Mo2O7. This spin glass transition is also clearly marked in our inelastic (CNCS, SNS) and diffuse elastic magnetic (D7, ILL) neutron scattering data. Furthermore, we will show that it is possible to topochemically substitute the oxide, O2-, ions within Lu2Mo2O7 for nitride, N3-, to produce an oxynitride molybdate pyrochlore of composition Lu2Mo2O5N2. Magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm that strong antiferromagnetic correlations persist within the oxynitride, which contains Mo5+ 4d1 S =1/2 ions and is thus a prime candidate to host exotic quantum spin liquid behavior. We will discuss how the enhanced quantum spin fluctuations in Lu2Mo2O5N2 appear to suppress the spin freezing transition observed in its parent oxide and instead support the formation of a gapless spin liquid phase that displays a linear dependence of the low temperature magnetic heat capacity.

  15. Emergence of equilibrium thermodynamic properties in quantum pure states. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J.

    2010-07-21

    Investigation on foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics recently entered a renaissance period due to novel intuitions from quantum information theory and to increasing attention on the dynamical aspects of single quantum systems. In the present contribution a simple but effective theoretical framework is introduced to clarify the connections between a purely mechanical description and the thermodynamic characterization of the equilibrium state of an isolated quantum system. A salient feature of our approach is the very transparent distinction between the statistical aspects and the dynamical aspects in the description of isolated quantum systems. Like in the classical statistical mechanics, the equilibrium distribution of any property is identified on the basis of the time evolution of the considered system. As a consequence equilibrium properties of quantum system appear to depend on the details of the initial state due to the abundance of constants of the motion in the Schroedinger dynamics. On the other hand the study of the probability distributions of some functions, such as the entropy or the equilibrium state of a subsystem, in statistical ensembles of pure states reveals the crucial role of typicality as the bridge between macroscopic thermodynamics and microscopic quantum dynamics. We shall consider two particular ensembles: the random pure state ensemble and the fixed expectation energy ensemble. The relation between the introduced ensembles, the properties of a given isolated system, and the standard quantum statistical description are discussed throughout the presentation. Finally we point out the conditions which should be satisfied by an ensemble in order to get meaningful thermodynamical characterization of an isolated quantum system.

  16. Emergence of equilibrium thermodynamic properties in quantum pure states. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J

    2010-07-21

    Investigation on foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics recently entered a renaissance period due to novel intuitions from quantum information theory and to increasing attention on the dynamical aspects of single quantum systems. In the present contribution a simple but effective theoretical framework is introduced to clarify the connections between a purely mechanical description and the thermodynamic characterization of the equilibrium state of an isolated quantum system. A salient feature of our approach is the very transparent distinction between the statistical aspects and the dynamical aspects in the description of isolated quantum systems. Like in the classical statistical mechanics, the equilibrium distribution of any property is identified on the basis of the time evolution of the considered system. As a consequence equilibrium properties of quantum system appear to depend on the details of the initial state due to the abundance of constants of the motion in the Schrodinger dynamics. On the other hand the study of the probability distributions of some functions, such as the entropy or the equilibrium state of a subsystem, in statistical ensembles of pure states reveals the crucial role of typicality as the bridge between macroscopic thermodynamics and microscopic quantum dynamics. We shall consider two particular ensembles: the random pure state ensemble and the fixed expectation energy ensemble. The relation between the introduced ensembles, the properties of a given isolated system, and the standard quantum statistical description are discussed throughout the presentation. Finally we point out the conditions which should be satisfied by an ensemble in order to get meaningful thermodynamical characterization of an isolated quantum system.

  17. High-spin states and band terminations in 49V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Hojman, D.; Lenzi, S. M.; Cardona, M. A.; Farnea, E.; Axiotis, M.; Beck, C.; Bednarczyk, P.; Bizzetti, P. G.; Bizzetti-Sona, A. M.; Della Vedova, F.; Grebosz, J.; Haas, F.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Meczyński, W.; Napoli, D. R.; Nespolo, M.; Papka, P.; Zafra, A. Sánchez i.; Styczen, J.; Thummerer, S.; Ziebliński, M.

    2015-08-01

    High-spin states in 49V have been studied through the 28Si(28Si,α 3 p ) reaction using the EUROBALL γ -ray detector array. The 49V level scheme has been extended up to 13.1 MeV including 21 new states. Both negative and positive parity states have been interpreted in the framework of the shell model. The 27 /2- and the 31/2 + band-termination states have been observed in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Direct measurement of the Concurrence of spin-entangled states in a cavity-quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Li-Hua; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-08-01

    A scheme for implementing the direct measurement of Concurrence is given in a cavity-quantum dot system. The scenario not only can directly measure the Concurrence of two-spin pure entangled state, but also suitable for the case of mixed state. More importantly, all of the operations are of geometric nature, which depend on the cavity-state-free evolution and can be robust against random operation errors. Our scheme provided an alternative method for directly measuring the degree of entanglement in solid-state system.

  19. Spin-flip scattering and band structure mismatch effect on transport of pure spin across ferromagnetic semimetal/metal material interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanai, K.

    2016-03-01

    The tunneling conductance spectra of a ferromagnetic semimetal/metal junction, where there were electrons and holes with the same spin directions as the essential conducting particle, was theoretically studied based on a scattering approach in a ballistic regime. The main area of interest was to perform a high spin polarization by considering the effect of the interfacial scattering at the interface that was composed of normal and spin-flip scattering, the particle effective mass mismatch on the reflection and transmission probabilities, and spin polarization of conductance. It was found that the spin polarization of conductance decreased with increasing spin-flip scattering. Interestingly, the normal scattering can cause the spin polarization of the conductance to reach a maximum value in the presence of both kinds of scattering. When the particle effective mass mismatch was considered, the spin polarization of conductance was large when the electron effective mass in the valence band was smaller than that in the conduction band. However, in this calculation, the results of a ferromagnetic semimetal/metal junction behaved similarly to those of a ferromagnetic metal/metal junction.

  20. Noise resistance of the violation of local causality for pure three-qutrit entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Wiesław; Ryu, Junghee; Żukowski, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Bell's theorem started with two qubits (spins 1/2). It is a ‘no-go’ statement on classical (local causal) models of quantum correlations. After 25 years, it turned out that for three qubits the situation is even more astonishing. General statements concerning higher dimensional systems, qutrits, etc, started to appear even later, once the picture with spin (higher than 1/2) was replaced by a broader one, allowing all possible observables. This work is a continuation of the Gdansk effort to take advantage of the fact that Bell's theorem can be put in the form of a linear programming problem, which in turn can be translated into a computer code. Our results are numerical and classify the strength of the violation of local causality by various families of three-qutrit states, as measured by the resistance to noise. This is previously uncharted territory. The results may be helpful in suggesting which three-qutrit states will be handy for applications in quantum information protocols. One of the surprises is that the W state turns out to reveal a stronger violation of local causality than the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’.

  1. Quantum Hall States in Rotating Spin-1 Bose Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    It has been pointed out that when cold atoms in a trap are rotated rapidly, the system can be mapped onto the quantum Hall effect situation of charged particles in a magnetic field, by passing to the rotating frame. For spinless bosons, as the rotation rate increases, the Bose condensate first develops a vortex lattice, then at high rotation rate this is replaced by a sequence of quantum liquids, which are quantum Hall states of bosons. Numerical work [1] has indicated that there is a sequence of these that are well-described by the parafermion states of Read-Rezayi [2]. For spin-1 bosons, we describe here two sequences of spin-singlet quantum Hall states, with applications to the ground states of a standard model Hamiltonian for this system [3]. We also describe the states at low rotation rates, where various spin textures occur. [1] N.R. Cooper, N.K. Wilkin, and J.M.F. Gunn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001). [2] N. Read and E. Rezayi, Phys. Rev. B 59, 8084 (1999). [3] J.W. Reijnders, F.J.M. Lankvelt, K. Schoutens, and N. Read, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 120401 (2002).

  2. High spin states in /sup 137/Pr

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, N.; Beausang, C.W.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel W.F. Jr.; Fossan, D.B.; Hildingsson, L.

    1989-05-01

    The level structure of the /sup 137/Pr nucleus has been investigated via in-beam ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy using an 81-MeV /sup 122/Sn(/sup 19/F, 4n) reaction. A strongly populated positive-parity band was observed based on a proton orbital with (..pi..,..cap alpha..) = (+, + 1/2); its first backbend, due to the alignment of a pair of h/sub 11/2/ protons, was seen at a rotational frequency (h/2..pi..)..omega.. = 0.34 MeV. Such a high crossing frequency is taken as evidence for a triaxial shape (..gamma../similar to/30/sup 0/) for the ground-state band of /sup 137/Pr. Above the crossing, both signatures (..pi..,..cap alpha..) = +, +- (1/2) were observed up to I/sup ..pi../ = 37/2/sup +/ and 43/2/sup +/ (for ..cap alpha.. = +1/2 and ..cap alpha.. = -1/2), respectively. A negative-parity band, based on an h/sub 11/2/ proton orbital, was also observed showing a blocked h/sub 11/2/ proton crossing frequency of h/2..pi omega.. = 0.44 MeV. In addition, a ..delta..I = 1 band with strong M1 transitions and a small signature splitting was observed, which is believed to be based on the ..pi..h/sub 11/2/x(..nu..h/sub 11/2/)/sup 2/ configuration. The alignment of the h/sub 11/2/ neutron pair drives the nuclear core towards ..gamma.. = -60/sup 0/, namely, the collective oblate shape, while the alignment of the h/sub 11/2/ proton pair drives the nuclear core towards ..gamma.. = 0/sup 0/, the collective prolate shape. These results are consistent with cranked shell model calculations.

  3. Spin of the sup 219 Ra ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, E.D.; Kuehner, J.A.; Waddington, J.C. ); Jones, G.D.

    1989-09-01

    The {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,3{ital n}){sup 223}Th reaction at 83 MeV bombarding energy was used to populate the alpha-radioactive nucleus {sup 223}Th. Out-of-beam alpha-gamma coincidences were recorded at correlation angles of 90{degree} and 180{degree}. The {ital a}{sub 2} angular correlation coefficient was extracted for an alpha-gamma cascade to the {sup 215}Rn ground state via the 0.316 MeV excited state. This limited the assignment of the ground-state spin of {sup 219}Ra to ((7/2, 11) / 2 ){sup +}. .AE

  4. Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} spin pumping for quantitative understanding of pure spin transport and spin Hall effect in a broad range of materials (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Hammel, P. Chris; Yang, Fengyuan

    2015-05-07

    Using Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YIG) thin films grown by our sputtering technique, we study dynamic spin transport in nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic (AF) materials by ferromagnetic resonance spin pumping. From both inverse spin Hall effect and damping enhancement, we determine the spin mixing conductance and spin Hall angle in many metals. Surprisingly, we observe robust spin conduction in AF insulators excited by an adjacent YIG at resonance. This demonstrates that YIG spin pumping is a powerful and versatile tool for understanding spin Hall physics, spin-orbit coupling, and magnetization dynamics in a broad range of materials.

  5. Ground states of trapped spin-1 condensates in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszewski, Michal

    2010-11-15

    We consider a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a harmonic potential under the influence of a homogeneous magnetic field. We investigate spatial and spin structure of the mean-field ground states under constraints on the number of atoms and the total magnetization. We show that the trapping potential can make the antiferromagnetic condensate separate into three distinct phases and ferromagnetic condensate into two distinct phases. In the ferromagnetic case, the magnetization is located in the center of the harmonic trap, while in the antiferromagnetic case magnetized phases appear in the outer regions. We describe how the transition from the Thomas-Fermi regime to the single-mode approximation regime with decreasing number of atoms results in the disappearance of the domains. We suggest that the ground states can be created in experiment by adiabatically changing the magnetic-field strength.

  6. Decoherence and thermalization of a pure quantum state in quantum field theory.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Alexandre; Serreau, Julien

    2010-06-11

    We study the real-time evolution of a self-interacting O(N) scalar field initially prepared in a pure, coherent quantum state. We present a complete solution of the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics from a 1/N expansion of the two-particle-irreducible effective action at next-to-leading order, which includes scattering and memory effects. We demonstrate that, restricting one's attention (or ability to measure) to a subset of the infinite hierarchy of correlation functions, one observes an effective loss of purity or coherence and, on longer time scales, thermalization. We point out that the physics of decoherence is well described by classical statistical field theory.

  7. Minimum energy trap states of dual-spin spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollars, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The general solution to the bearing axis motor torque required to escape a minimum energy trap state is presented for oblate dual-spin spacecraft. A simplified, reduced order analysis of the bearing torque is then obtained for the case of small static imbalances, dynamic imbalances, and asymmetries on the rotor and the stator. This analysis is extended to include large asymmetry on one of the bodies. The results are applied to the design of the Galileo spacecraft.

  8. Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 162}Yb

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Henry, R.G.

    1995-08-01

    A measurement on lifetimes of high-spin states in the yrast and near-yrast rotational bands in {sup 162}Yb was carried out at ATLAS in order to determine the evolution of collectivity as a function of angular momentum using the {sup 126}Te({sup 40}Ar,4n){sup 162}Yb reaction at 170 MeV. Previous lifetime measurements in the {sup 164,166,168}Yb isotopes showed a dramatic decrease in the transition quadrupole moment Q{sub t} with increasing spin. It was suggested that this decrease in Q{sub t} is brought about by the rotationally-induced deoccupation of high-j configurations, mainly i{sub 13/2} neutrons. If this interpretation is correct, the heavier isotopes should have a larger decrease in Q{sub t} than the lighter mass nuclides due to the position of the Fermi surface in the i{sub 13/2} subshell. Indeed, {sup 160}Yb does not show a clear decrease in Q{sub t} at high spin. No high spin lifetime information exists for {sup 162}Yb, thus this experiment fills the gap of measured Q{sub t}`s in the light Yb series. The data is currently being analyzed.

  9. SPIN STATE AND MOMENT OF INERTIA CHARACTERIZATION OF 4179 TOUTATIS

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yu; Scheeres, D. J.; Busch, Michael W.

    2013-10-01

    The 4.5 km long near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis has made close Earth flybys approximately every four years between 1992 and 2012, and has been observed with high-resolution radar imaging during each approach. Its most recent Earth flyby in 2012 December was observed extensively at the Goldstone and Very Large Array radar telescopes. In this paper, Toutatis' spin state dynamics are estimated from observations of five flybys between 1992 and 2008. Observations were used to fit Toutatis' spin state dynamics in a least-squares sense, with the solar and terrestrial tidal torques incorporated in the dynamical model. The estimated parameters are Toutatis' Euler angles, angular velocity, moments of inertia, and the center-of-mass-center-of-figure offset. The spin state dynamics as well as the uncertainties of the Euler angles and angular velocity of the converged solution are then propagated to 2012 December in order to compare the dynamical model to the most recent Toutatis observations. The same technique of rotational dynamics estimation can be applied to any other tumbling body, given sufficiently accurate observations.

  10. π Spin Berry Phase in a Quantum-Spin-Hall-Insulator-Based Interferometer: Evidence for the Helical Spin Texture of the Edge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Deng, Wei-Yin; Hou, Jing-Min; Shi, D. N.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-08-01

    The quantum spin Hall insulator is characterized by helical edge states, with the spin polarization of the electron being locked to its direction of motion. Although the edge-state conduction has been observed, unambiguous evidence of the helical spin texture is still lacking. Here, we investigate the coherent edge-state transport in an interference loop pinched by two point contacts. Because of the helical character, the forward interedge scattering enforces a π spin rotation. Two successive processes can only produce a nontrivial 2 π or trivial 0 spin rotation, which can be controlled by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The nontrivial spin rotation results in a geometric π Berry phase, which can be detected by a π phase shift of the conductance oscillation relative to the trivial case. Our results provide smoking gun evidence for the helical spin texture of the edge states. Moreover, it also provides the opportunity to all electrically explore the trajectory-dependent spin Berry phase in condensed matter.

  11. π Spin Berry Phase in a Quantum-Spin-Hall-Insulator-Based Interferometer: Evidence for the Helical Spin Texture of the Edge States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Deng, Wei-Yin; Hou, Jing-Min; Shi, D N; Sheng, L; Xing, D Y

    2016-08-12

    The quantum spin Hall insulator is characterized by helical edge states, with the spin polarization of the electron being locked to its direction of motion. Although the edge-state conduction has been observed, unambiguous evidence of the helical spin texture is still lacking. Here, we investigate the coherent edge-state transport in an interference loop pinched by two point contacts. Because of the helical character, the forward interedge scattering enforces a π spin rotation. Two successive processes can only produce a nontrivial 2π or trivial 0 spin rotation, which can be controlled by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The nontrivial spin rotation results in a geometric π Berry phase, which can be detected by a π phase shift of the conductance oscillation relative to the trivial case. Our results provide smoking gun evidence for the helical spin texture of the edge states. Moreover, it also provides the opportunity to all electrically explore the trajectory-dependent spin Berry phase in condensed matter. PMID:27563984

  12. Minimum error discrimination for an ensemble of linearly independent pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Tanmay; Ghosh, Sibasish

    2016-04-01

    Inspired by the work done by Belavkin (1975 Stochastics 1 315) and independently by Mochon, (2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 032328), we formulate the problem of minimum error discrimination (MED) of any ensemble of n linearly independent pure states by stripping the problem of its rotational covariance and retaining only the rotationally invariant aspect of the problem. This is done by embedding the optimal conditions in a matrix equality as well as matrix inequality. Employing the implicit function theorem in these conditions we get a set of first-order coupled ordinary nonlinear differential equations which can be used to drag the solution from an initial point (where solution is known) to another point (whose solution is sought). This way of obtaining the solution can be done through a simple Taylor series expansion and analytic continuation when required. Thus, we complete the work done by Belavkin and Mochon by ultimately leading their theory to a solution for the MED problem of linearly independent pure state ensembles. We also compare the computational complexity of our technique with the barrier-type interior point method of SDP and show that our technique is computationally as efficient as (actually, a bit more than) the SDP algorithm, with the added advantage of being much simpler to implement.

  13. Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.

  14. Apparatus for generating highly squeezed collective atomic spin states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsen, Nils Johan; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Production of spin-squeezed atomic ensembles could greatly enhance the performance of existing atom-based sensors by overcoming the atomic shot-noise inherent in sensors with uncorrelated atoms. We pursue a measurement based method for spin squeezing inside of a high-finesse cavity, potentially enabling spin-squeezing at 20 dB in variance, compatible with releasing the generated states into free space. We use a dual-wavelength cavity, resonant at both 780 nm and 1560 nm, with a finesse of 105. Up to 105 Rubidium atoms can be trapped at the anti-nodes of the 1560 nm mode, and probed by the 780 nm mode. The commensurate wavelength relationship allows identical coupling of the probe light to all atoms, minimizing decoherence issues associated with inhomogeneous coupling Thus far we have engineered a homodyne detection system that has an empty cavity technical read-out noise level of 10 Hz in 200 μs measurement intervals, corresponding to the resonance shift induced by an individual atom at a probe detuning of ~ 1GHz. This technical noise level is so low that it has no significant effect in the preparation of the anticipated squeezed states. At the time of writing, we have demonstrated back-to-back measurements with 20×103 atoms, with 0.02 photons scattered per atom in a measurement interval of 200 μs, that exhibit read-out noise levels compatible with 10-17dB of squeezing.

  15. Maximally entangled set of tripartite qutrit states and pure state separable transformations which are not possible via local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebenstreit, M.; Spee, C.; Kraus, B.

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement is the resource to overcome the restriction of operations to local operations assisted by classical communication (LOCC). The maximally entangled set (MES) of states is the minimal set of n -partite pure states with the property that any truly n -partite entangled pure state can be obtained deterministically via LOCC from some state in this set. Hence, this set contains the most useful states for applications. In this work, we characterize the MES for generic three-qutrit states. Moreover, we analyze which generic three-qutrit states are reachable (and convertible) under LOCC transformations. To this end, we study reachability via separable operations (SEP), a class of operations that is strictly larger than LOCC. Interestingly, we identify a family of pure states that can be obtained deterministically via SEP but not via LOCC. This gives an affirmative answer to the question of whether there is a difference between SEP and LOCC for transformations among pure states.

  16. Cox’s Chair Revisited: Can Spinning Alter Mood States?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Lotta; Wollmer, M. Axel; Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is clinical and historical evidence for a vivid relation between the vestibular and emotional systems, the neuroscientific underpinnings are poorly understood. The “spin doctors” of the nineteenth century used spinning chairs (e.g., Cox’s chair) to treat conditions of mania or elevated arousal. On the basis of a recent study on a hexapod motion-simulator, in this prototypic investigation we explore the impact of yaw stimulation on a spinning chair on mood states. Using a controlled experimental stimulation paradigm on a unique 3-D-turntable at the University of Zurich we included 11 healthy subjects and assessed parameters of mood states and autonomic nervous system activity. The Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scales (VAS) were used to assess changes of mood in response to a 100 s yaw stimulation. In addition heart rate was continuously monitored during the experiment. Subjects indicated feeling less “good,” “relaxed,” “comfortable,” and “calm” and reported an increased alertness after vestibular stimulation. However, there were no objective adverse effects of the stimulation. Accordingly, heart rate did not significantly differ in response to the stimulation. This is the first study in a highly controlled setting using the historical approach of stimulating the vestibular system to impact mood states. It demonstrates a specific interaction between the vestibular system and mood states and thereby supports recent experimental findings with a different stimulation technique. These results may inspire future research on the clinical potential of this method. PMID:24133463

  17. Anderson localisation in spin chains for perfect state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronke, Rebecca; Estarellas, Marta P.; D'Amico, Irene; Spiller, Timothy P.; Miyadera, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    Anderson localisation is an important phenomenon arising in many areas of physics, and here we explore it in the context of quantum information devices. Finite dimensional spin chains have been demonstrated to be important devices for quantum information transport, and in particular can be engineered to allow for "perfect state transfer" (PST). Here we present extensive investigations of disordered PST spin chains, demonstrating spatial localisation and transport retardation effects, and relate these effects to conventional Anderson localisation. We provide thresholds for Anderson localisation in these finite quantum information systems for both the spatial and the transport domains. Finally, we consider the effect of disorder on the eigenstates and energy spectrum of our Hamiltonian, where results support our conclusions on the presence of Anderson localisation.

  18. Muon Spin Rotation Spectroscopy - Utilizing Muons in Solid State Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, Andreas

    2012-10-17

    Over the past decades muon spin rotation techniques (mSR) have established themselves as an invaluable tool to study a variety of static and dynamic phenomena in bulk solid state physics and chemistry. Common to all these approaches is that the muon is utilized as a spin microprobe and/or hydrogen-like probe, implanted in the material under investigation. Recent developments extend the range of application to near surface phenomena, thin film and super-lattice studies. After briefly summarizing the production of so called surface muons used for bulk studies, and discussing the principle differences between pulsed and continuous muon beams, the production of keV-energy muon sources will be discussed. A few topical examples from different active research fields will be presented to demonstrate the power of these techniques.

  19. Computational complexity of nonequilibrium steady states of quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolino, Ugo; Prosen, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    We study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of spin chains with boundary Markovian dissipation from the computational complexity point of view. We focus on X X chains whose NESS are matrix product operators, i.e., with coefficients of a tensor operator basis described by transition amplitudes in an auxiliary space. Encoding quantum algorithms in the auxiliary space, we show that estimating expectations of operators, being local in the sense that each acts on disjoint sets of few spins covering all the system, provides the answers of problems at least as hard as, and believed by many computer scientists to be much harder than, those solved by quantum computers. We draw conclusions on the hardness of the above estimations.

  20. Local-spin-density calculations for iron: Effect of spin interpolation on ground-state properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, J. M.; Clougherty, D. P.; Albers, R. C.

    1990-08-01

    Scalar-relativistic self-consistent linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) calculations for bcc and fcc Fe have been performed with several different local approximations to the exchange and correlation energy density and potential. Overall, in contrast to the conclusions of previous studies, we find that the local-spin-density approximation to exchange and correlation can provide an adequate description of bulk Fe provided that a proper parametrization of the correlation energy density and potential of the homogeneous electron gas over both spin and density is used. Lattice constants, found from the position of the minimum of the total energy as a function of Wigner-Seitz radius, agree to within 1% (for s,p,d LMTO's only) and within 1-2% (for s,p,d,f LMTO's) of the experimental lattice constants for all forms used for the local correlation. The best agreement, however, was obtained using a local correlation potential derived from the Vosko-Wilk-Nusair form for the spin dependence of the correlation energy density. The calculation performed with this correlation potential was also the only calculation to correctly predict a bcc ferromagnetic ground state.

  1. Floquet spin states in graphene under ac-driven spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Sun, Z. Z.; Schliemann, J.

    2012-05-01

    We study the role of periodically driven time-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on a monolayer graphene sample. After recasting the originally 4×4 system of dynamical equations as two time-reversal related two-level problems, the quasienergy spectrum and the related dynamics are investigated via various techniques and approximations. In the static case, the system is gapped at the Dirac point. The rotating wave approximation (RWA) applied to the driven system unphysically preserves this feature, while the Magnus-Floquet approach as well as a numerically exact evaluation of the Floquet equation show that this gap is dynamically closed. In addition, a sizable oscillating pattern of the out-of-plane spin polarization is found in the driven case for states that are completely unpolarized in the static limit. Evaluation of the autocorrelation function shows that the original uniform interference pattern corresponding to time-independent RSOC gets distorted. The resulting structure can be qualitatively explained as a consequence of the transitions induced by the ac driving among the static eigenstates, i.e., these transitions modulate the relative phases that add up to give the quantum revivals of the autocorrelation function. Contrary to the static case, in the driven scenario, quantum revivals (suppressions) are correlated to spin-up (down) phases.

  2. Interference of spin states in resonant photoemission induced by circularly polarized light from magnetized Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, N.; Khalil, T.; Pohl, M.; Uphues, T.; Heinzmann, U.; Polcik, M.; Rader, O.; Heigl, F.; Starke, K.; Fritzsche, S.; Kabachnik, N. M.

    2006-10-15

    We have observed the spin-state interference by measuring the photoelectron spin polarization in the resonant preedge 4d{yields}4f photoemission from magnetized Gd. The photoemission is induced by circularly polarized light which determines one preferential direction of electron spin orientation due to polarization transfer and spin-orbit interaction. Another direction perpendicular to the first one is determined by the target electron spin orientation connected with the target magnetization. We have measured the component of spin polarization perpendicular to those two directions which can only appear due to spin-state interference which implies coherence of the spin states produced by the two mechanisms of the photoelectron spin polarization.

  3. Using corresponding state theory to obtain intermolecular potentials to calculate pure liquid shock Hugoniots

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    Determination of product species, equations-of-state (EOS) and thermochemical properties of high explosives and pyrotechnics remains a major unsolved problem. Although, empirical EOS models may be calibrated to replicate detonation conditions within experimental variability (5--10%), different states, e.g. expansion, may produce significant discrepancy with data if the basic form of the EOS model is incorrect. A more physically realistic EOS model based on intermolecular potentials, such as the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler (JCZ3) EOS, is needed to predict detonation states as well as expanded states. Predictive capability for any EOS requires a large species data base composed of a wide variety of elements. Unfortunately, only 20 species have known JCZ3 molecular force constants. Of these 20 species, only 10 have been adequately compared to experimental data such as molecular scattering or shock Hugoniot data. Since data in the strongly repulsive region of the molecular potential is limited, alternative methods must be found to deduce force constants for a larger number of species. The objective of the present study is to determine JCZ3 product species force constants by using a corresponding states theory. Intermolecular potential parameters were obtained for a variety of gas species using a simple corresponding states technique with critical volume and critical temperature. A more complex, four parameter corresponding state method with shape and polarity corrections was also used to obtain intermolecular potential parameters. Both corresponding state methods were used to predict shock Hugoniot data obtained from pure liquids. The simple corresponding state method is shown to give adequate agreement with shock Hugoniot data.

  4. Structure and magnetic ground states of spin-orbit coupled compound alpha-RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Stone, Matthew; Aczel, Adam; Li, Ling; Yiu, Yuen; Lumsden, Mark; Chakoumakos, Bryan; Tennant, Alan; Nagler, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The layered material alpha-RuCl3 is composed of stacks of weakly coupled honeycomb lattices of octahedrally coordinated Ru3 + ions. The Ru ion ground state has 5 d electrons in the low spin state, with spin-orbit coupling very strong compared to other terms in the single ion Hamiltonian. The material is therefore an excellent candidate for investigating possible Heisenberg-Kitaev physics. In addition, this compound is very amenable to investigation by neutron scattering to explore the magnetic ground state and excitations in detail. In this talk, we discuss the synthesis of phase-pure alpha-RuCl3 and the characterization of the magnetization, susceptibility, and heat-capacity. We also report neutron diffraction on both powder and single crystal alpha-RuCl3, identifying the low temperature magnetic order observed in the material. The results, when compared to theoretical calculations, shed light on the relative importance of Kitaev and Heisenberg terms in the Hamiltonian. The research is supported by the DOE BES Scientific User Facility Division.

  5. Retrieving the ground state of spin glasses using thermal noise: Performance of quantum annealing at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Ochoa, Andrew J.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-09-01

    We study the problem to infer the ground state of a spin-glass Hamiltonian using data from another Hamiltonian with interactions disturbed by noise from the original Hamiltonian, motivated by the ground-state inference in quantum annealing on a noisy device. It is shown that the average Hamming distance between the inferred spin configuration and the true ground state is minimized when the temperature of the noisy system is kept at a finite value, and not at zero temperature. We present a spin-glass generalization of a well-established result that the ground state of a purely ferromagnetic Hamiltonian is best inferred at a finite temperature in the sense of smallest Hamming distance when the original ferromagnetic interactions are disturbed by noise. We use the numerical transfer-matrix method to establish the existence of an optimal finite temperature in one- and two-dimensional systems. Our numerical results are supported by mean-field calculations, which give an explicit expression of the optimal temperature to infer the spin-glass ground state as a function of variances of the distributions of the original interactions and the noise. The mean-field prediction is in qualitative agreement with numerical data. Implications on postprocessing of quantum annealing on a noisy device are discussed.

  6. Svetlichny's inequality and genuine tripartite nonlocality in three-qubit pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Ajoy, Ashok; Rungta, Pranaw

    2010-05-15

    The violation of the Svetlichny's inequality (SI) [Phys. Rev. D 35, 3066 (1987)] is sufficient but not necessary for genuine tripartite nonlocal correlations. Here we quantify the relationship between tripartite entanglement and the maximum expectation value of the Svetlichny operator (which is bounded from above by the inequality) for the two inequivalent subclasses of pure three-qubit states: the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) class and the W class. We show that the maximum for the GHZ-class states reduces to Mermin's inequality [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1838 (1990)] modulo a constant factor, and although it is a function of the three tangle and the residual concurrence, large numbers of states do not violate the inequality. We further show that by design SI is more suitable as a measure of genuine tripartite nonlocality between the three qubits in the W-class states, and the maximum is a certain function of the bipartite entanglement (the concurrence) of the three reduced states, and only when their sum attains a certain threshold value do they violate the inequality.

  7. Memory effects in Heisenberg spin glasses: Spontaneous restoration of the original spin configuration rather than preservation in a frozen state

    SciTech Connect

    Mamiya, Hiroaki; Nimori, Shigeki

    2012-04-01

    Universality of spin configuration restoration is studied in Heisenberg spin glasses: a dilute magnetic semiconductor Cd{sub 55}Mn{sub 45}Te as well as a dilute magnetic alloy Cu{sub 97}Mn{sub 3}. Reversions of the relaxations of magnetization were observed in both systems undergoing positive/negative temperature cycling under a constant magnetic field. Because the magnetization mirrors evolution of the spin configuration, these reversions indicate that the spin configurations are spontaneously restored to the initially stabilized states when the temperature is returned to the original. Whereas such spin restoration does not occur if the spin glasses are simply frozen, it is possible in the alternative ghost domain scenario of the droplet picture. This finding thus provides fresh insight into the nature of glassy systems.

  8. Exchange bias and coercivity for ferromagnets coupled to the domain state and spin glass state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaozhi; Mao, Zhongquan; Chen, Xi

    2016-05-01

    The exchange bias (EB) effect for systems with a ferromagnetic (FM) layer coupled to bond-diluted pinning layers has been investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. Two bond dilution concentrations are chosen to obtain two kinds of pinning layers: the antiferromagnetic domain state (DS) and the spin glass (SG) state. It is found that when coupled to the more disordered SG state, the ferromagnet shows enhanced EB with higher coercivity due to larger amounts of both frozen and reversible spins at the pinning interface. Spin configurations of the FM/DS interface layer reveal that reversible spins are mostly found in domain boundaries and small domains, while most spins in large domains maintain antiferromagnetic coupling and contribute to the EB effect. The coercivity is linear to the amount of interface reversible spins, but with different slopes in the temperature ranges above or below the blocking temperature t B. This bimodal temperature-dependent coercivity indicates a sudden change in macroscopic interface coupling at the temperature t B.

  9. Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakis, Spyridon; Hamza, Eman; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.

  10. Perfect state transfer over distance-regular spin networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Sufiani, R.

    2008-02-15

    Christandl et al. have noted that the d-dimensional hypercube can be projected to a linear chain with d+1 sites so that, by considering fixed but different couplings between the qubits assigned to the sites, the perfect state transfer (PST) can be achieved over arbitrarily long distances in the chain [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187902 (2004); Phys. Rev. A 71, 032312 (2005)]. In this work we consider distance-regular graphs as spin networks and note that any such network (not just the hypercube) can be projected to a linear chain and so can allow PST over long distances. We consider some particular spin Hamiltonians which are the extended version of those of Christandl et al. Then, by using techniques such as stratification of distance-regular graphs and spectral analysis methods, we give a procedure for finding a set of coupling constants in the Hamiltonians so that a particular state initially encoded on one site will evolve freely to the opposite site without any dynamical control, i.e., we show how to derive the parameters of the system so that PST can be achieved. It is seen that PST is only allowed in distance-regular spin networks for which, starting from an arbitrary vertex as reference vertex (prepared in the initial state which we wish to transfer), the last stratum of the networks with respect to the reference state contains only one vertex; i.e., stratification of these networks plays an important role which determines in which kinds of networks and between which vertices of them, PST can be allowed. As examples, the cycle network with even number of vertices and d-dimensional hypercube are considered in details and the method is applied for some important distance-regular networks.

  11. Magnetic transitions and Fe(II) spin state in mackinawite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, C.; Wan, M.; Peiffer, S.

    2012-12-01

    (S=1) state, but not high spin (S=2). Paramagnetic substances which become magnetically ordered below a certain temperature must have unpaired electrons (S≠0). Fe(II) in mackinawite is tetrahedrally coordinated to S, and frontier molecular orbital theory modeling suggests Fe to be either in intermediate spin (S=1) or high spin (S=2) state [7]. Combined with Mössbauer isomer shifts, Fe(II) in mackinawite must therefore be in the intermediate spin (S=1) state. The absence of magnetic ordering in the freshly precipitated and filtered mackinawite sample can be explained by either extremely small particle size resulting in superparamagnetic behavior, or Fe(II) is in a low spin (S=0) state and therefore diamagnetic. In the latter case this phase cannot be mackinawite but may be cubic FeSc, the Fe equivalent of sphalerite (cubic ZnS). References: [1] Wan et al., Mineral. Mag. 75(3) (2011) 2112. [2] Wan et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts 14, EGU2012-4724-3. [3] Hellige et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 81 (2012) 69-81. [4] Morice et al., J. inorg. nucl. Chem. 31 (1969) 3797-3802. [5] Vaughan and Ridout, J. inorg. nucl. Chem. 33 (1971) 741-746. [6] Mullet et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac. 66 (2002) 829-836. [7] Luther III, personal communication.

  12. Long-Lived Heteronuclear Spin-Singlet States in Liquids at a Zero Magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emondts, M.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Pustelny, S.; Theis, T.; Patton, B.; Blanchard, J. W.; Butler, M. C.; Budker, D.; Pines, A.

    2014-02-01

    We report an observation of long-lived spin-singlet states in a C-H113 spin pair in a zero magnetic field. In C13-labeled formic acid, we observe spin-singlet lifetimes as long as 37 s, about a factor of 3 longer than the T1 lifetime of dipole polarization in the triplet state. In contrast to common high-field experiments, the observed coherence is a singlet-triplet coherence with a lifetime T2 longer than the T1 lifetime of dipole polarization in the triplet manifold. Moreover, we demonstrate that heteronuclear singlet states formed between a H1 and a C13 nucleus can exhibit longer lifetimes than the respective triplet states even in the presence of additional spins that couple to the spin pair of interest. Although long-lived homonuclear spin-singlet states have been extensively studied, this is the first experimental observation of analogous singlet states in heteronuclear spin pairs.

  13. Collectivity of high spin states in {sup 84}Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Crowell, B.

    1995-08-01

    {sup 84}Zr is one of the most extensively studied of the A {approximately} 80 rotors, both from theoretical and experimental approaches. It was predicted to be a good candidate to support superdeformation, and to show interesting spectroscopic properties including saturation of its shell-model space at lower spin. We performed an experiment using Gammasphere in its early implementation phase. The reaction of {sup 29}Si on {sup 58}Ni was used to strongly populate {sup 84}Zr at high spin. Thin and thick targets were used to allow the extraction of transitional matrix elements at very high spin, and to allow a sensitive search for superdeformed states. Data analysis is in progress. The large data set allowed us to extend the previously known bands considerably. Candidates for a staggered M1-band, found previously {sup 86}Zr, were located. To date, no evidence for superdeformed bands was found. Analysis was slowed by the relocation of all the participants in this experiment, but we hope to complete the lifetime analysis this year. This analysis has become especially topical, due to reported measurements of superdeformation in this region.

  14. Angular observables for spin discrimination in boosted diboson final states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Malte; Yu, Felix

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the prospects for spin determination of a heavy diboson resonance using angular observables. Focusing in particular on boosted fully hadronic final states, we detail both the differences in signal efficiencies and distortions of differential distributions resulting from various jet substructure techniques. We treat the 2 TeV diboson excess as a case study, but our results are generally applicable to any future discovery in the diboson channel. Scrutinizing ATLAS and CMS analyses at 8 TeV and 13 TeV, we find that the specific cuts employed in these analyses have a tremendous impact on the discrimination power between different signal hypotheses. We discuss modified cuts that can offer a significant boost to spin sensitivity in a post-discovery era. Even without altered cuts, we show that CMS, and partly also ATLAS, will be able to distinguish between spin 0, 1, or 2 new physics diboson resonances at the 2 σ level with 30 fb-1 of 13 TeV data, for our 2 TeV case study.

  15. Charge transfer states appear in the π-conjugated pure hydrocarbon molecule on Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Keiichirou; Suda, Yosuke; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Hosokai, Takuya; Kato, Kengo; Yamaguchi, Takuma; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Nobuo; Kera, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    We report on the results of experimental and theoretical studies on the electronic structure of gas-phase diindenoperylene (DIP) and DIP-monolayer (ML) on Cu(111). Vapor-phase ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) was realized for 11.3 mg of DIP, giving reference orbital energies of isolated DIP, and UPS and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of DIP-ML/graphite were performed to obtain DIP-ML electronic states at a weak interfacial interaction. Furthermore, first-principles calculation clearly demonstrates the interfacial rearrangement. These results provide evidence that the rearrangement of orbital energies, which is realized in HOMO-LUMO and HOMO-HOMO-1 gaps, brings partially occupied LUMO through the surface-induced aromatic stabilization of DIP, a pure hydrocarbon molecule, on Cu(111).

  16. Theoretical Study of Renewable Ionic Liquids in the Pure State and with Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Atilhan, Mert; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-09-17

    The N-ethyl-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)ethanaminium dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid was studied as a model of ionic liquids which can be produced from totally renewable sources. A computational study using both molecular dynamics and density functional theory methods was carried out. The properties, structuring, and intermolecular interactions (hydrogen bonding) of this fluid in the pure state were studied as a function of pressure and temperature. Likewise, the adsorption on graphene and the confinement between graphene sheets was also studied. The solvation of single walled carbon nanotubes in the selected ionic liquid was analyzed together with the behavior of ions confined inside these nanotubes. The reported results show remarkable properties for this fluid, which show that many of the most relevant properties of ionic liquids and their ability to interact with carbon nanosystems may be maintained and even improved using new families of renewable compounds instead of classic types of ionic liquids with worse environmental, toxicological, and economical profiles.

  17. Persistence of entanglement in thermal states of spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiek, Gehad; Kais, Sabre

    2013-12-01

    We study and compare the persistence of bipartite entanglement (BE) and multipartite entanglement (ME) in one-dimensional and two-dimensional spin XY models in an external transverse magnetic field under the effect of thermal excitations. We compare the threshold temperature at which the entanglement vanishes in both types of entanglement. We use the entanglement of formation as a measure of the BE and the geometric measure to evaluate the ME of the system. We have found that in both dimensions in the anisotropic and partially anisotropic spin systems at zero temperatures, all types of entanglement decay as the magnetic field increases but are sustained with very small magnitudes at high field values. Also we found that for the same systems, the threshold temperatures of the nearest neighbour (nn) BEs are higher than both of the next-to-nearest neighbour BEs and MEs and the three of them increase monotonically with the magnetic field strength. Thus, as the temperature increases, the ME and the far parts BE of the system become more fragile to thermal excitations compared to the nn BE. For the isotropic system, all types of entanglement and threshold temperatures vanish at the same exact small value of the magnetic field. We emphasise the major role played by both the properties of the ground state of the system and the energy gap in controlling the characteristics of the entanglement and threshold temperatures. In addition, we have shown how an inserted magnetic impurity can be used to preserve all types of entanglement and enhance their threshold temperatures. Furthermore, we found that the quantum effects in the spin systems can be maintained at high temperatures, as the different types of entanglements in the spin lattices are sustained at high temperatures by applying sufficiently high magnetic fields.

  18. Ground states, magnetization plateaus and bipartite entanglement of frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alécio, Raphael C.; Lyra, Marcelo L.; Strečka, Jozef

    2016-11-01

    The ground-state phase diagram, magnetization process and bipartite entanglement of the frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tube (three-leg ladder) are investigated in a non-zero external magnetic field. The exact ground-state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra-rung and Ising inter-rung couplings consists of six distinct gapped phases, which manifest themselves in a magnetization curve as intermediate plateaus at zero, one-third and two-thirds of the saturation magnetization. Four out of six available ground states exhibit quantum entanglement between two spins from the same triangular unit evidenced by a non-zero concurrence. Density-matrix renormalization group calculations are used in order to construct the ground-state phase diagram of the analogous but purely quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra- and inter-rung couplings, which consists of four gapped and three gapless phases. The Heisenberg tube shows a continuous change of the magnetization instead of a plateau at zero magnetization, while the intermediate one-third and two-thirds plateaus may be present or not in the zero-temperature magnetization curve.

  19. Measurements of Mercury's spin state and inferences about its interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.; Padovan, S.; Peale, S. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past nine years we have used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in conjunction with the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) to characterize the spin state and interior of Mercury. We implemented a technique [1,2] that provides instantaneous spin rate measurements with 10-5 fractional precision and spin orientation measurements at the arcsecond level. On the basis of measurements at 21 distinct epochs between 2002 and 2006, we found observational evidence that Mercury closely follows a Cassini state and that it exhibits forced librations in longitude [3], as predicted by theory [4,5]. A long-period (˜12 year) libration signature may be present in the data. Since 2006 we have secured measurements at 11 additional epochs (out of 23 attempts). We are in the process of re-analyzing the entire set of observations with the goals of (1) refining the determination of the obliquity and of the libration amplitude, two parameters that are critical in the determination of the core size; (2) confirming the presence or absence of a long-period libration component, with the prospect of elucidating the excitation mechanism; (3) quantifying deviations of the pole from the strict Cassini state, which could inform us about dissipation due to solid-body tides and core-mantle interactions. Our first goal is particularly important now that MESSENGER is securing measurements of the low-degree gravitational harmonics with an expected precision of better than 1%. The core-size error budget indicates that the precision of the ground-based estimates of obliquity and librations will ultimately dictate the quality of the core size determination, as well as the attendant inferences regarding the interior structure, thermal evolution, and magnetic field generation of the planet. [1] Green, in Radar Astronomy, McGraw-Hill, 1968. [2] Holin, Radiophys. Quant. Elec. 31, 1988. [3] Margot et al, Science 316, 2007. [4] Peale, Nature 262, 1976. [5] Peale, in Mercury, U. of Arizona Press, 1988.

  20. Quantum tomography of arbitrary spin states of particles: root approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Yu. I.

    2006-05-01

    A method of quantum tomography of arbitrary spin particle states is developed on the basis of the root approach. It is shown that the set of mutually complementary distributions of angular momentum projections can be naturally described by a set of basis functions based on the Kravchuk polynomials. The set of Kravchuk basis functions leads to a multiparametric statistical distribution that generalizes the binomial distribution. In order to analyze a statistical inverse problem of quantum mechanics, we investigated the likelihood equation and the statistical properties of the obtained estimates. The conclusions of the analytical researches are approved by the results of numerical calculations.

  1. Quantum error correction for state transfer in noisy spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Can robustness against experimental imperfections and noise be embedded into a quantum simulation? In this paper, we report on a special case in which this is possible. A spin chain can be engineered such that, in the absence of imperfections and noise, an unknown quantum state is transported from one end of the chain to the other, due only to the intrinsic dynamics of the system. We show that an encoding into a standard error-correcting code (a Calderbank-Shor-Steane code) can be embedded into this simulation task such that a modified error-correction procedure on readout can recover from sufficiently low rates of noise during transport.

  2. Massive higher spin states in string theory and gravitational quadrupoles

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, I. |; Liu, J.T.; Porrati, M. ||

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we study three point functions of the type II superstring involving one graviton and two massive states, focusing in particular on the spin- (7) /(2) fermions at the first mass level. Defining a gravitational quadrupole {open_quotes}{ital h} factor,{close_quotes} we find that the nonminimal interactions of string states in general are parametrized by h{ne}1, in contrast with the preferred field theory value of h=1 (for tree-level unitarity). This difference arises from the fact that consistent gravitational interactions of strings are related to the presence of a complete tower of massive states, not present in the ordinary field theory case. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. A quantum phase switch between a single solid-state spin and a photon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shuo; Kim, Hyochul; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between single spins and photons are essential for quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. Achieving spin-photon interactions in a solid-state device could enable compact chip-integrated quantum circuits operating at gigahertz bandwidths. Many theoretical works have suggested using spins embedded in nanophotonic structures to attain this high-speed interface. These proposals implement a quantum switch where the spin flips the state of the photon and a photon flips the spin state. However, such a switch has not yet been realized using a solid-state spin system. Here, we report an experimental realization of a spin-photon quantum switch using a single solid-state spin embedded in a nanophotonic cavity. We show that the spin state strongly modulates the polarization of a reflected photon, and a single reflected photon coherently rotates the spin state. These strong spin-photon interactions open up a promising direction for solid-state implementations of high-speed quantum networks and on-chip quantum information processors using nanophotonic devices.

  4. Bistability and steady-state spin squeezing in diamond nanostructures controlled by a nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Wu, E.

    2016-06-01

    As the quantum states of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center can be coherently manipulated and obtained at room temperature, it is important to generate steady-state spin squeezing in spin qubits associated with NV impurities in diamond. With this task we consider a new type of a hybrid magneto-nano-electromechanical resonator, the functionality of which is based on a magnetic-field induced deflection of an appropriate cantilever that oscillates between NV spins in diamond. We show that there is bistability and spin squeezing state due to the presence of the microwave field, despite the damping from mechanical damping. Moreover, we find that bistability and spin squeezing can be controlled by the microwave field and the parameter Vz. Our scheme may have the potential application on spin clocks, magnetometers, and other measurements based on spin-spin system in diamond nanostructures.

  5. Numerical Modeling of the Central Spin Problem Using the Spin-Coherent-State P Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Al Hassanieh, Khaled A; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Dagotto, Elbio R; Harmon, B. N.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we consider decoherence of a central spin by a spin bath. In order to study the nonperturbative decoherence regimes, we develop an efficient mean-field-based method for modeling the spin-bath decoherence, based on the P representation of the central spin density matrix. The method can be applied to longitudinal and transverse relaxation at different external fields. In particular, by modeling large-size quantum systems (up to 16 000 bath spins), we make controlled predictions for the slow long-time decoherence of the central spin.

  6. Accurate Spin-State Energies for Iron Complexes.

    PubMed

    Swart, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    A critical assessment of the OPBE functional is made for its performance for the geometries and spin-states of iron complexes. In particular, we have examined its performance for the geometry of first-row transition-metal (di)halides (MnX2, FeX2, CoX2, NiX2, CuX, X=[F, Cl]), whose results were previously [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2006, 2, 1282] found to be representative for a much larger and more diverse set of 32 metal complexes. For investigating the performance for spin ground-states of iron complexes, we examined a number of small iron complexes (Fe(II)Cl4(2-), Fe(III)Cl4(1-), Fe(II)Cl6(4-), Fe(III)Cl6(3-), Fe(II)CN6(4-), Fe(III)CN6(3-), Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(III)(NH3)6(3+)), benchmark systems (Fe(II)(H2O)6(2+), Fe(II)(NH3)6(2+), Fe(II)(bpy)3(2+)), and several challenging iron complexes such as the Fe(II)(phen)2(NCS)2 spin-crossover compound, the monopyridylmethylamine Fe(II)(amp)2Cl2 and dipyridylmethylamine Fe(II)(dpa)2(2+), and the bis complex of Fe(III)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (Fe(III)((9)aneN3)2(3+). In all these cases OPBE gives excellent results. PMID:26620478

  7. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Jean; Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J J

    2015-11-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function.

  8. Correlations between metal spin states and vibrational spectra of a trinuclear Fe(II) complex exhibiting spin crossover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, Tatiana P.; Katsyuba, Sergey A.; Lavrenova, Ludmila G.; Pelmenschikov, Vladimir; Kaupp, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Combined IR spectroscopic/quantum-chemical analysis of a 4-propyl-1,2,4-triazole trinuclear Fe(II) complex capable of reversible thermal spin crossover has revealed mid-IR bands of the ligand sensitive to the Fe(II) spin state. The character of the correlations found between the intensity and peak position of the triazole bands and the spin state of the metal center depends neither on the identity of the metal nor on the nuclearity of the complex. The found spectral correlations therefore allow analysis of various similar complexes. This is illustrated by the example of experimental IR spectra reported earlier for Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with triazole ligands. Quantum-chemical IR spectral simulations further suggest that certain ligand bands vary between the states with the same total molecular spin, but different distribution of the spin density between the metal centers. However these variations are too subtle to discriminate between the spin transitions of the central and peripheral Fe(II) ions. The experimentally revealed mid-IR markers are therefore conclusive only for the total molecular spin.

  9. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion, and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-05-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds." I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars-sized to 10 Earth-mass. The states are as follows: globally ice covered (Ts ⪅ 245 K), cold and damp (270 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 290 K), hot and moist (350 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 550 K), and very hot and dry (Tsx2A86;900 K). No stable climate exists for 290 ⪅ T s ⪅ 350 K or 550 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 900 K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describes the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong nonlinearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surface, so more thermal radiation is emitted and more sunlight absorbed (the former dominates). The atmospheres of small planets expand more due to weaker gravity; the effective runaway greenhouse threshold is about 35 W m(-2) higher for Mars, 10 W m(-2) higher for Earth or Venus, but only a few W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet. There is an underlying (expansion-neglected) trend of increasing runaway greenhouse threshold with planetary size (40 W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet than for Mars). Summing these opposing trends means that Venus-sized (or slightly smaller) planets are most susceptible to a runaway greenhouse. The habitable zone for pure water atmospheres is very narrow, with an insolation range of 0.07 times the solar constant. A wider habitable zone requires background gas and greenhouse gas: N2 and CO2 on Earth, which are biologically controlled. Thus, habitability depends on inhabitance. PMID:25984919

  10. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion, and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-05-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds." I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars-sized to 10 Earth-mass. The states are as follows: globally ice covered (Ts ⪅ 245 K), cold and damp (270 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 290 K), hot and moist (350 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 550 K), and very hot and dry (Tsx2A86;900 K). No stable climate exists for 290 ⪅ T s ⪅ 350 K or 550 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 900 K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describes the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong nonlinearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surface, so more thermal radiation is emitted and more sunlight absorbed (the former dominates). The atmospheres of small planets expand more due to weaker gravity; the effective runaway greenhouse threshold is about 35 W m(-2) higher for Mars, 10 W m(-2) higher for Earth or Venus, but only a few W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet. There is an underlying (expansion-neglected) trend of increasing runaway greenhouse threshold with planetary size (40 W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet than for Mars). Summing these opposing trends means that Venus-sized (or slightly smaller) planets are most susceptible to a runaway greenhouse. The habitable zone for pure water atmospheres is very narrow, with an insolation range of 0.07 times the solar constant. A wider habitable zone requires background gas and greenhouse gas: N2 and CO2 on Earth, which are biologically controlled. Thus, habitability depends on inhabitance.

  11. Habitability of Waterworlds: Runaway Greenhouses, Atmospheric Expansion, and Multiple Climate States of Pure Water Atmospheres

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called “waterworlds.” I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars-sized to 10 Earth-mass. The states are as follows: globally ice covered (Ts⪅245 K), cold and damp (270⪅Ts⪅290 K), hot and moist (350⪅Ts⪅550 K), and very hot and dry (Tsx2A86;900 K). No stable climate exists for 290⪅Ts ⪅350 K or 550⪅Ts⪅900 K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describes the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong nonlinearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surface, so more thermal radiation is emitted and more sunlight absorbed (the former dominates). The atmospheres of small planets expand more due to weaker gravity; the effective runaway greenhouse threshold is about 35 W m−2 higher for Mars, 10 W m−2 higher for Earth or Venus, but only a few W m−2 higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet. There is an underlying (expansion-neglected) trend of increasing runaway greenhouse threshold with planetary size (40 W m−2 higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet than for Mars). Summing these opposing trends means that Venus-sized (or slightly smaller) planets are most susceptible to a runaway greenhouse. The habitable zone for pure water atmospheres is very narrow, with an insolation range of 0.07 times the solar constant. A wider habitable zone requires background gas and greenhouse gas: N2 and CO2 on Earth, which are biologically controlled. Thus, habitability depends on inhabitance. Key Words

  12. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1−x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1−x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics. PMID:27142594

  13. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui -Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing

    2016-05-04

    Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1–x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1–x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, amore » large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. Lastly, the enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.« less

  14. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; MacDonald, Allan H; Shi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1-x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1-x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics. PMID:27142594

  15. Enhanced spin Seebeck effect signal due to spin-momentum locked topological surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zilong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Masir, Massoud Ramezani; Tang, Chi; Xu, Yadong; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; MacDonald, Allan H.; Shi, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Spin-momentum locking in protected surface states enables efficient electrical detection of magnon decay at a magnetic-insulator/topological-insulator heterojunction. Here we demonstrate this property using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE), that is, measuring the transverse thermoelectric response to a temperature gradient across a thin film of yttrium iron garnet, an insulating ferrimagnet, and forming a heterojunction with (BixSb1-x)2Te3, a topological insulator. The non-equilibrium magnon population established at the interface can decay in part by interactions of magnons with electrons near the Fermi energy of the topological insulator. When this decay channel is made active by tuning (BixSb1-x)2Te3 into a bulk insulator, a large electromotive force emerges in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization of yttrium iron garnet. The enhanced, tunable SSE which occurs when the Fermi level lies in the bulk gap offers unique advantages over the usual SSE in metals and therefore opens up exciting possibilities in spintronics.

  16. Ferromagnetism in the Hubbard model: Spin waves and instability of the Nagaoka state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurth, P.; Müller-Hartmann, E.

    We discuss two single spin flip variational wave functions describing spin wave excitations which were proposed earlier by Shastry, Krishnamurthy and Anderson (SKA) and by Basile and Elser (BE), respectively, in order to investigate the instability of the fully polarized ferromagnetic state (Nagaoka state) in the infinite U Hubbard model. We calculate the energy of these variational states for the square lattice and for multiple chains. At the zone boundary in the vicinity of the point (0, ) the spin wave energy is reduced substantially by the binding of the spin up hole to the flipped down spin. For the square lattice this leads to a critical hole density of cr = 0.407 for the SKA spin wave and of cr = 0.322 for the BE spin wave which implies remarkable improvements in comparison to the corresponding scattering states investigated previously.

  17. Natural reference for nuclear high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, Neil; Ollier, James; Simpson, John

    2009-08-15

    We suggest two new representations of the data on rotational nuclei. The first is reference-free and the second arises from a natural reference related to the variable moment of inertia model parameters of the ground-state band of the system. As such, neither representation contains any free parameters. By defining a 'configuration spin' we show how a new ground-state band reference can be applied. Its use allows a complete description of the changes associated with the first, and higher, band crossings. We apply these new representations to discuss the nature of the first band crossing along even-even isotopic chains in the erbium and osmium isotopes and to odd-even nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 158}Er.

  18. Using arterial spin labeling to examine mood states in youth

    PubMed Central

    Mikita, Nina; Mehta, Mitul A; Zelaya, Fernando O; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the neural correlates of mood states and the specific physiological changes associated with their valence and duration, especially in young people. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging is particularly well-suited to study sustained cerebral states in young people, due to its robustness to low-frequency drift, excellent interscan reliability, and noninvasiveness. Yet, it has so far been underutilized for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying mood states in youth. Methods In this exploratory study, 21 healthy adolescents aged 16 to 18 took part in a mood induction experiment. Neutral, sad, and happy mood states were induced using film clips and explicit instructions. An ASL scan was obtained following presentation of each film clip. Results Mood induction led to robust changes in self-reported mood ratings. Compared to neutral, sad mood was associated with increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the left middle frontal gyrus and anterior prefrontal cortex, and decreased rCBF in the right middle frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. A decrease in self-reported mood from neutral to sad condition was associated with increased rCBF in the precuneus. Happy mood was associated with increased rCBF in medial frontal and cingulate gyri, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and ventral striatum, and decreased rCBF in the inferior parietal lobule. The level of current self-reported depressive symptoms was negatively associated with rCBF change in the cerebellum and lingual gyrus following both sad and happy mood inductions. Conclusions Arterial spin labeling is sensitive to experimentally induced mood changes in healthy young people. The effects of happy mood on rCBF patterns were generally stronger than the effects of sad mood. PMID:26085964

  19. Predicting the spin state of paramagnetic iron complexes by DFT calculation of proton NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Borgogno, Andrea; Rastrelli, Federico; Bagno, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    Many transition-metal complexes easily change their spin state S in response to external perturbations (spin crossover). Determining such states and their dynamics can play a central role in the understanding of useful properties such as molecular magnetism or catalytic behavior, but is often far from straightforward. In this work we demonstrate that, at a moderate computational cost, density functional calculations can predict the correct ground spin state of Fe(ii) and Fe(iii) complexes and can then be used to determine the (1)H NMR spectra of all spin states. Since the spectral features are remarkably different according to the spin state, calculated (1)H NMR resonances can be used to infer the correct spin state, along with supporting the structure elucidation of numerous paramagnetic complexes.

  20. Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-04-01

    We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=2k/2r-1 and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.

  1. Molecular Spin Crossover in Slow Motion: Light-Induced Spin-State Transitions in Trigonal Prismatic Iron(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Deck, Eva; Hohnstein, Silvia; Korzekwa, Jana; Meyer, Karsten; Heinemann, Frank W; Breher, Frank; Hörner, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    A straightforward access is provided to iron(II) complexes showing exceedingly slow spin-state interconversion by utilizing trigonal-prismatic directing ligands (L(n)) of the extended-tripod type. A detailed analysis of the interrelations between complex structure (X-ray diffraction, density functional theory) and electronic character (SQUID magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, UV/vis spectroscopy) of the iron(II) center in mononuclear complexes [FeL(n)] reveals spin crossover to occur along a coupled breathing/torsion reaction coordinate, shuttling the complex between the octahedral low-spin state and the trigonal-prismatic high-spin state along Bailar's trigonal twist pathway. We associate both the long spin-state lifetimes in the millisecond domain close to room temperature and the substantial barriers against thermal scrambling (Ea ≈ 33 kJ mol(-1), from Arrhenius analysis) with stereochemical constraints. In particular, the topology of the κ(6)N ligands controls the temporary and structural dynamics during spin crossover. PMID:27159332

  2. Linking measures for macroscopic quantum states via photon-spin mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröwis, F.; Sangouard, N.; Gisin, N.

    2015-02-01

    We review and compare several measures that identify quantum states that are 'macroscopically quantum'. These measures were initially formulated either for photonic systems or for spin ensembles. Here, we compare them through a simple model which maps photonic states to spin ensembles. On one hand, we reveal problems for some spin measures to handle correctly photonic states that typically are considered to be macroscopically quantum. On the other hand, we find significant similarities between other measures even though they were differently motivated.

  3. Geophysics of Titan from gravity, topography and spin state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Bills, B. G.

    2011-12-01

    For the terrestrial planets, combined analyses of gravity and topography have greatly improved our understanding of these bodies' interiors [1]. The spin state and orientation of a planetary body can also be diagnostic of its internal structure [2]. Recently acquired topography [3], gravity [4] and spin pole constraints [5] now permit these kinds of geophysical analyses at Titan. Titan's degree-two gravity coefficients, but not those of its topography, are in the 10/3 ratio expected for a hydrostatic body. One explanation for this discrepancy is the existence of a floating isostatic ice shell whose thickness varies spatially due to tidal dissipation [6]. Shell thickness variations can result in slow non-synchronous rotation [7]. Furthermore, such variations will affect the gravity, an effect that should be taken into account when using gravity to calculate Titan's moment of inertia [4]. The relationship between the degree-three gravity and topography can be used to place constraints on the thickness and rigidity of the ice shell. Based on the inferred heat fluxes of [6], Titan's ice shell is unlikely to be less than 90% compensated at degree three. The measured degree-three gravity [4] and topography [3] coefficients show a strong correlation (r=0.84). For a completely compensated ice shell, the implied shell thickness is about 350 km, while if the shell is 90% compensated the thickness is 250 km. These shell thickness estimates significantly exceed those based on theoretical models [8,9] and surface topography [6]. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that there are other sources of degree-three gravity (e.g. bumps on the presumed silicate core) that do not contribute significantly to the surface topography. Further gravity observations will help to resolve this issue. If a satellite's spin and orbit poles remain coplanar as the latter precesses around the invariable pole, the satellite is said to occupy a damped Cassini state and the obliquity (angle

  4. Quantum computation mediated by ancillary qudits and spin coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Timothy J.; Dooley, Shane; Kendon, Viv

    2015-01-01

    Models of universal quantum computation in which the required interactions between register (computational) qubits are mediated by some ancillary system are highly relevant to experimental realizations of a quantum computer. We introduce such a universal model that employs a d -dimensional ancillary qudit. The ancilla-register interactions take the form of controlled displacements operators, with a displacement operator defined on the periodic and discrete lattice phase space of a qudit. We show that these interactions can implement controlled phase gates on the register by utilizing geometric phases that are created when closed loops are traversed in this phase space. The extra degrees of freedom of the ancilla can be harnessed to reduce the number of operations required for certain gate sequences. In particular, we see that the computational advantages of the quantum bus (qubus) architecture, which employs a field-mode ancilla, are also applicable to this model. We then explore an alternative ancilla-mediated model which employs a spin ensemble as the ancillary system and again the interactions with the register qubits are via controlled displacement operators, with a displacement operator defined on the Bloch sphere phase space of the spin coherent states of the ensemble. We discuss the computational advantages of this model and its relationship with the qubus architecture.

  5. High-spin states in doubly odd sup 122 Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, N.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Fossan, D.B. ); Latvakoski, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    High-spin states in {sup 122}Cs have been studied via the {sup 112}Sn({sup 12}C,{ital pn}) reaction. Two {Delta}{ital I}=1 band structures, along with {ital E}2 crossover transitions, are observed. One band is believed to be based on the {pi}{ital h}{sub 11/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital g}{sub 7/2} configuration. A band crossing is observed at a rotational frequency of {h bar}{omega}{sub {ital c}}=0.46 MeV which is expected from the alignment of an {ital h}{sub 11/2} neutron pair. The second band, believed to be based on the {pi}{ital g}{sub 7/2}{direct product}{nu}{ital h}{sub 11/2} configuration, is observed up to high spin. The two signatures of this negative parity band show a small signature splitting as well as a common upbend. Calculations with both the cranked shell model (CSM) and a geometrical model are utilized to define the configurations and quasiparticles corresponding to the band crossings in this nucleus.

  6. High-spin states in ^122_ 56Ba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, C. J.; Cardona, J.; Fossan, D. B.; Koike, T.; Lafosse, D. R.; Starosta, K.; Ye, Z.; Freeman, S.; Leddy, M.; Smith, J. F.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.; Devlin, M.; Lerma, F.; Sarantites, D. G.; Wilson, J. N.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Seweryniak, D.

    2000-10-01

    High-spin states in ^122Ba have been studied via the ^64Zn(^64Zn,α2p) reaction. A 260-MeV ^64Zn beam was provided by the Argonne Tandem/Linac Accelerator System. The emitted γ rays were detected using the Gammasphere array of 101 suppressed Ge detectors. In addition, the Microball charged-particle detector array was used to select the α 2p channel, thus isolating ^122Ba. The level scheme of ^122Ba has been substantially extended from the previously published level scheme of only six γ rays(J. Conrad, Nucl. Phys. A234), 157 (1974).. Six decoupled bands and two strongly-coupled bands have been observed to spins of up to 40hbar. Configuration assignments are made with the aid of the systematic alignment properties of ^122Ba and its neighbors. Octupole deformation is predicted to develop in Z ≈ 56 nuclei due to the occupation of Δ l = Δ j = 3 proton orbitals. Systematics of proposed negative-parity side bands in the A ≈ 120 barium isotopes will be discussed. Comparisons with cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations will also be presented in light of possible smooth band termination properties.

  7. Spin-Wave Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jin; Yu, Weichao; Wu, Ruqian; Xiao, Jiang

    2015-10-01

    A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  8. Ground-state energies of the nonlinear sigma model and the Heisenberg spin chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shoucheng; Schulz, H. J.; Ziman, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    A theorem on the O(3) nonlinear sigma model with the topological theta term is proved, which states that the ground-state energy at theta = pi is always higher than the ground-state energy at theta = 0, for the same value of the coupling constant g. Provided that the nonlinear sigma model gives the correct description for the Heisenberg spin chains in the large-s limit, this theorem makes a definite prediction relating the ground-state energies of the half-integer and the integer spin chains. The ground-state energies obtained from the exact Bethe ansatz solution for the spin-1/2 chain and the numerical diagonalization on the spin-1, spin-3/2, and spin-2 chains support this prediction.

  9. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A; Lebowitz, Joel L; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-01

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  10. Time-Domain Pure-state Polarization Analysis of Surface Waves Traversing California

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J; Walter, W R; Lay, T; Wu, R

    2003-11-04

    A time-domain pure-state polarization analysis method is used to characterize surface waves traversing California parallel to the plate boundary. The method is applied to data recorded at four broadband stations in California from twenty-six large, shallow earthquakes which occurred since 1988, yielding polarization parameters such as the ellipticity, Euler angles, instantaneous periods, and wave incident azimuths. The earthquakes are located along the circum-Pacific margin and the ray paths cluster into two groups, with great-circle paths connecting stations MHC and PAS or CMB and GSC. The first path (MHC-PAS) is in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), and the second (CMB-GSC) traverses the Sierra Nevada Batholith parallel to and east of the SAFS. Both Rayleigh and Love wave data show refractions due to lateral velocity heterogeneities under the path, indicating that accurate phase velocity and attenuation analysis requires array measurements. The Rayleigh waves are strongly affected by low velocity anomalies beneath Central California, with ray paths bending eastward as waves travel toward the south, while Love waves are less affected, providing observables to constrain the depth extent of the anomalies. Strong lateral gradients in the lithospheric structure between the continent and the ocean are the likely cause of the path deflections.

  11. Thermal Equilibrium of a Macroscopic Quantum System in a Pure State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Huse, David A.; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Tumulka, Roderich

    2015-09-01

    We consider the notion of thermal equilibrium for an individual closed macroscopic quantum system in a pure state, i.e., described by a wave function. The macroscopic properties in thermal equilibrium of such a system, determined by its wave function, must be the same as those obtained from thermodynamics, e.g., spatial uniformity of temperature and chemical potential. When this is true we say that the system is in macroscopic thermal equilibrium (MATE). Such a system may, however, not be in microscopic thermal equilibrium (MITE). The latter requires that the reduced density matrices of small subsystems be close to those obtained from the microcanonical, equivalently the canonical, ensemble for the whole system. The distinction between MITE and MATE is particularly relevant for systems with many-body localization for which the energy eigenfuctions fail to be in MITE while necessarily most of them, but not all, are in MATE. We note, however, that for generic macroscopic systems, including those with MBL, most wave functions in an energy shell are in both MATE and MITE. For a classical macroscopic system, MATE holds for most phase points on the energy surface, but MITE fails to hold for any phase point.

  12. Pure absorption electron spin echo envelope modulation spectra by using the filter-diagonalization method for harmonic inversion.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, G; Mandelshtam, V A; Shaka, A J

    1999-03-01

    Harmonic inversion of electron spin echo envelope (ESEEM) time-domain signals by filter diagonalization is investigated as an alternative to Fourier transformation. It is demonstrated that this method features enhanced resolution compared to Fourier-transform magnitude spectra, since it can eliminate dispersive contributions to the line shape, even if no linear phase correction is possible. Furthermore, instrumental artifacts can be easily removed from the spectra if they are narrow either in time or frequency domain. This applies to echo crossings that are only incompletely eliminated by phase cycling and to spurious spectrometer frequencies, respectively. The method is computationally efficient and numerically stable and does not require extensive parameter adjustments or advance knowledge of the number of spectral lines. Experiments on gamma-irradiated methyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside show that more information can be obtained from typical ESEEM time-domain signals by filter-diagonalization than by Fourier transformation.

  13. Spin State as a Marker for the Structural Evolution of Nature's Water-Splitting Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Krewald, Vera; Retegan, Marius; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Cox, Nicholas

    2016-01-19

    In transition-metal complexes, the geometric structure is intimately connected with the spin state arising from magnetic coupling between the paramagnetic ions. The tetramanganese-calcium cofactor that catalyzes biological water oxidation in photosystem II cycles through five catalytic intermediates, each of which adopts a specific geometric and electronic structure and is thus characterized by a specific spin state. Here, we review spin-structure correlations in Nature's water-splitting catalyst. The catalytic cycle of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor can be described in terms of spin-dependent reactivity. The lower "inactive" S states of the catalyst, S0 and S1, are characterized by low-spin ground states, SGS = 1/2 and SGS = 0. This is connected to the "open cubane" topology of the inorganic core in these states. The S2 state exhibits structural and spin heterogeneity in the form of two interconvertible isomers and is identified as the spin-switching point of the catalytic cycle. The first S2 state form is an open cubane structure with a low-spin SGS = 1/2 ground state, whereas the other represents the first appearance of a closed cubane topology in the catalytic cycle that is associated with a higher-spin ground state of SGS = 5/2. It is only this higher-spin form of the S2 state that progresses to the "activated" S3 state of the catalyst. The structure of this final metastable catalytic state was resolved in a recent report, showing that all manganese ions are six-coordinate. The magnetic coupling is dominantly ferromagnetic, leading to a high-spin ground state of SGS = 3. The ability of the Mn4O5Ca cofactor to adopt two distinct structural and spin-state forms in the S2 state is critical for water binding in the S3 state, allowing spin-state crossing from the inactive, low-spin configuration of the catalyst to the activated, high-spin configuration. Here we describe how an understanding of the magnetic properties of the catalyst in all S states has allowed conclusions on

  14. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type

  15. Neutrino quantum states and spin light in matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenikin, Alexander; Ternov, Alexei

    2005-02-01

    On the basis of the exact solutions of the modified Dirac equation for a massive neutrino moving in matter we develop the quantum theory of the spin light of neutrino (SLν). The expression for the emitted photon energy is derived as a function of the density of matter for different matter compositions. The dependence of the photon energy on the helicities of the initial and final neutrino states is shown explicitly. The rate and radiation power of the SLν in matter are obtained with the emitted photon linear and circular polarizations being accounted for. The developed quantum approach to the SLν in matter (which is similar to the Furry representation of electrodynamics) can be used in the studies of other processes with neutrinos in the presence of matter.

  16. Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Eremko, Alexander; Brizhik, Larissa; Loktev, Vadim

    2015-10-15

    Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.

  17. Spin state transition in the active center of the hemoglobin molecule: DFT + DMFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, D.; Korotin, Dm. M.; Anisimov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    An ab initio study of electronic and spin configurations of the iron ion in the active center of the human hemoglobin molecule is presented. With a combination of the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method and the Dynamical Mean Field Theory (DMFT) approach, the spin state transition description in the iron ion during the oxidation process is significantly improved in comparison with previous attempts. It was found that the origin of the iron ion local moment behavior both for the high-spin and for the low-spin states in the hemoglobin molecule is caused by the presence of a mixture of several atomic states with comparable statistical probability.

  18. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N; Sadreev, Almas F

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase. PMID:27165662

  19. Spin polarized bound states in the continuum in open Aharonov-Bohm rings with the Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Evgeny N.; Sadreev, Almas F.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the trapping of electrons with a definite spin polarization by bound states in the continuum (BSC) in the open Aharonov-Bohm rings in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI). Neglecting the Zeeman term we show the existence of BSCs in the one-dimensional ring when the eigenstates of the closed ring are doubly degenerate. With account of the Zeeman term BSCs occur only at the points of threefold degeneracy. The BSCs are found in the parametric space of flux and RSOI strength in close pairs with opposite spin polarization. Thereby the spin polarization of electrons transmitted through the ring can be altered by minor variation of magnetic or electric field at the vicinity of these pairs. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional open ring show similar results for the BSCs. Encircling the BSC points in the parametric space of the flux and the RSOI constant gives rise to a geometric phase.

  20. High-sensitivity single NV magnetometry by spin-to-charge state mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskula, Jean-Christophe; Shields, Brendan; Bauch, Erik; Lukin, Mikhail; Walsworth, Ronald; Trifonov, Alexei

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are atom-like quantum system in a solid state matrix whom its structure allows optical readout of the electronic spin. However, the optimal duration of optical readout is limited by a singlet state lifetime making single shot spin readout out of reach. On the other side, the NV center charge state readout can be extremely efficient (up to 99% fidelity) by using excitation at 594 nm. We will present a new method of spin readout utilizing a spin-depending photoionization process to map the electronic spin state of the NV onto the its charge state. Moreover, pre-selection on the charged state allows to minimize data acquisition time. This scheme improves single NV AC magnetometry by a factor of 5 and will benefit other single NV center experiments as well.

  1. Resonant Tunneling of Spin-Wave Packets via Quantized States in Potential Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ulf-Hendrik; Gatzen, Marius; Demidov, Vladislav E.; Demokritov, Sergej O.

    2007-09-01

    We have studied the tunneling of spin-wave pulses through a system of two closely situated potential barriers. The barriers represent two areas of inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field, where the existence of spin waves is forbidden. We show that for certain values of the spin-wave frequency corresponding to the quantized spin-wave states existing in the well formed between the barriers, the tunneling has a resonant character. As a result, transmission of spin-wave packets through the double-barrier structure is much more efficient than the sequent tunneling through two single barriers.

  2. Early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 investigated by first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, C.; Hsu, H.; Cococcioni, M.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Thermal-induced spin-state transition in LaCoO3 has been a highly debated phenomenon. The point in controversy is whether the intermediate-spin (IS) state can stably exist, and whether the intermediate-spin or high-spin (HS) state is the first excited state. In our calculation, we have successfully stabilized isolated HS and IS Co in an array of low-spin (LS) Co in LaCoO3 using the local density approximation + Hubbard U (LDA+U) method. The HS/LS (or IS/LS) Co population ratio is set to 1:7, so that the early stage of spin-state transition is properly approximated. The Hubbard U is self-consistently determined by first principles, so that the equation of state and the energy of Co in each spin state can be determined with better accuracy. We show that at low temperature, isolated IS Co has higher energy than isolated HS Co. We also show that low concentration of isolated IS Co can lead to metallic LaCoO3. Therefore, the early stage spin-state transition in LaCoO3 is LS-to-HS transition. This work was supported primarily by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885. It was also partially supported by NSF grants ITR-0426757 (VLab) and EAR 0757903. Calculations were performed at Minnesota Supercomputing Institute (MSI).

  3. A quantum phase switch between a single solid-state spin and a photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuo; Kim, Hyochul; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between single spins and photons are essential for quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. Achieving spin–photon interactions in a solid-state device could enable compact chip-integrated quantum circuits operating at gigahertz bandwidths. Many theoretical works have suggested using spins embedded in nanophotonic structures to attain this high-speed interface. These proposals implement a quantum switch where the spin flips the state of the photon and a photon flips the spin state. However, such a switch has not yet been realized using a solid-state spin system. Here, we report an experimental realization of a spin–photon quantum switch using a single solid-state spin embedded in a nanophotonic cavity. We show that the spin state strongly modulates the polarization of a reflected photon, and a single reflected photon coherently rotates the spin state. These strong spin–photon interactions open up a promising direction for solid-state implementations of high-speed quantum networks and on-chip quantum information processors using nanophotonic devices.

  4. Accessing long-lived nuclear singlet states between chemically equivalent spins without breaking symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yesu; Davis, Ryan M.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lived nuclear spin states could greatly enhance the applicability of hyperpolarized nuclear magnetic resonance. Using singlet states between inequivalent spin pairs has been shown to extend the signal lifetime by more than an order of magnitude compared to the spin lattice relaxation time (T1), but they have to be prevented from evolving into other states. In the most interesting case the singlet is between chemically equivalent spins, as it can then be inherently an eigenstate. However this presents major challenges in the conversion from bulk magnetization to singlet. In the only case demonstrated so far, a reversible chemical reaction to break symmetry was required. Here we present a pulse sequence technique that interconverts between singlet spin order and bulk magnetization without breaking the symmetry of the spin system. This technique is independent of field strength and is applicable to a broad range of molecules. PMID:23505397

  5. Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    DOE PAGES

    Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takahashi; Han, Tian -Heng; Lee, Young S.

    2015-11-06

    Here, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χkagome, deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with themore » magnetic field dependence of χkagome that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap.« less

  6. Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takashi; Han, Tian-Heng; Lee, Young S

    2015-11-01

    The kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χ(kagome), deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with the magnetic field dependence of χ(kagome) that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap. PMID:26542565

  7. Aging and memory effects in the spin jam states of densely populated frustrated magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Lee, Seung-Hun; Sato, Taku; Zhou, Haidong; Sinclair, Ryan; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gia-Wei; Klich, Israel

    Defects and randomness has been largely studied as the key mechanism of glassiness find in a dilute magnetic system. Even though the same argument has also been made to explain the spin glass like properties in dense frustrated magnets, the existence of a glassy state arise intrinsically from a defect free spin system, far from the conventional dilute limit with different mechanisms such as quantum fluctuations and topological features, has been theoretically proposed recently. We have studied field effects on zero-field cooled and field cooled susceptibility bifurcation and memory effects below freezing transition, of three different densely populated frustrated magnets which glassy states we call spin jam, and a conventional dilute spin glass. Our data show common behaviors among the spin jam states, which is distinct from that of the conventional spin glass. We have also performed Monte Carlo simulations to understand the nature of their energy landscapes.

  8. Stable and locally stable conditions for a conical spin state in the spinel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiaoyan

    2013-06-01

    A conical spin state generates the multiferroicity with both spontaneous magnetization and ferroelectric polarization, offering a great promise for the mutual control of magnetism and ferroelectricity. To clarify the stable and locally stable conditions for the conical spin order, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed on a three-dimensional spinel lattice with classical Heisenberg spins to explore the possible ground states in different parameter spaces. The simulation confirms the locally stable range of the conical spin state, which was suggested by the LKDM (Lyons, Kaplan, Dwight, and Menyuk) theory. Furthermore, it is revealed that the anisotropy plays an important role in stabilizing the conical spin order and expanding the parameter range of its existence, whereas the nearest-neighboring antiferromagnetic A-A exchange interaction enhances frustration and thereby suppresses the conical spin order. Thus, our simulation gives a necessary supplement and a reasonable improvement to the LKDM theory.

  9. Collective dynamics of solid-state spin chains and ensembles in quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuting

    This thesis is concerned with the collective dynamics in different spin chains and spin ensembles in solid-state materials. The focus is on the manipulation of electron spins, through spin-spin and spin-photon couplings controlled by voltage potentials or electromagnetic fields. A brief review of various systems is provided to describe the possible physical implementation of the ideas, and also outlines the basis of the adopted effective interaction models. The first two ideas presented explore the collective behaviour of non-interacting spin chains with external couplings. One focuses on mapping the identical state of spin-singlet pairs in two currents onto two distant, static spins downstream, creating distributed entanglement that may be accessed. The other studies a quantum memory consisting of an array of non-interacting, static spins, which may encode and decode multiple flying spins. Both chains could effectively `enhance' weak couplings in a cumulative fashion, and neither scheme requires active quantum control. Moreover, the distributed entanglement generated can offer larger separation between the qubits than more conventional protocols that only exploit the tunnelling effects between quantum dots. The quantum memory can also `smooth' the statistical fluctuations in the effects of local errors when the stored information is spread. Next, an interacting chain of static spins with nearest-neighbour interactions is introduced to connect distant end spins. Previously, it has been shown that this approach provides a cubic speed-up when compared with the direct coupling between the target spins. The practicality of this scheme is investigated by analysing realistic error effects via numerical simulations, and from that perspective relaxation of the nearest-neighbour assumption is proposed. Finally, a non-interacting electron spin ensemble is reviewed as a quantum memory to store single photons from an on-chip stripline cavity. It is then promoted to a full

  10. Observations of high spin states in {sup 179}Au

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    As part of a current study on the properties of the {pi} i{sub 13/2} intruder state in the A = 175-190 region, we conducted an experiment at ATLAS to observe high spin states in {sup 179}Au utilizing the reaction {sup 144}Sm({sup 40}Ar,p4n) at beam energies of 207 MeV and 215 MeV. To aid in the identification of {sup 179}Au, and to filter out the large amount of events from fission by-products, the Fragment Mass Analyzer was utilized in conjunction with ten Compton-suppression germanium detectors. In total, 11 x 10{sup 6} {gamma}-{gamma} and 4 x 10{sup 5} {gamma}-recoil events were collected. By comparing {gamma}-rays in coincidence with an A = 179 recoil mass gate and {gamma}-rays in coincidence with Au K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays, ten {gamma}-rays were identified as belonging to {sup 179}Au. Based on {gamma}-ray coincidence relationships and on comparisons with neighboring odd-A Au nuclei, we constructed a tentative level scheme and assigned a rotational-like sequence to the {pi} i{sub 13/2} proton configuration.

  11. Pi topology and spin alignment in unique photoexcited triplet and quintet states arising from four unpaired electrons of an organic spin system.

    PubMed

    Teki, Yoshio; Toichi, Tetuya; Nakajima, Satoru

    2006-03-01

    Syntheses, electronic structures in the ground state, unique photoexcited states, and spin alignment are reported for novel biradical 1, which was designed as an ideal model compound to investigate photoinduced spin alignment in the excited state. Electron spin resonance (ESR), time-resolved ESR (TRESR), and laser-excitation pulsed ESR experiments were carried out. The magnetic properties were examined with a SQUID magnetometer. In the electronic ground state, two radical moieties interact very weakly (almost no interaction) with each other through the closed-shell diphenylanthracene spin coupler. On photoirradiation, a novel lowest photoexcited state with the intermediate spin (S = 1) arising from four unpaired electrons with low-lying quintet (S = 2) photoexcited state was detected. The unique triplet state has an interesting electronic structure, the D value of which is reduced by antiferromagnetic spin alignment between two radical spins through the excited triplet spin coupler. The general theoretical predictions of the spin alignment and the reduction of the fine-structure splitting of the triplet bis(radical) systems are presented. The fine-structure splitting of the unique photoexcited triplet state of 1, as well as the existence of the low-lying quintet state, is interpreted well on the basis of theoretical predictions. Details of the spin alignment in the photoexcited states are discussed. PMID:16372362

  12. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-01-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science. PMID:26178617

  13. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weibin; Zu, Chong; He, Li; Zhang, Wengang; Duan, Luming

    2015-05-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude, and making it an ideal memory qubit. Our experiment is based on control of an individual nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in the diamond, which is a diamond defect that attracts strong interest in recent years with great potential for implementation of quantum information protocols.

  14. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-B.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Zhang, W.-G.; Duan, L.-M.

    2015-07-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  15. Irreversible transitions in the exchange-striction model of spin-glass state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkov, V. I.; Golovchan, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the assumption of a negative volume dependence of random exchange integrals, it is possible to switch to a compressible Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model. Within the proposed model, temperature-pressure phase diagrams were calculated and pressure- and magnetic-field-induced first-order phase transitions from the initial paramagnetic and spin-glass states to the ferromagnetic state were predicted. It was shown that the application of pressure in the spin-glass state not only increases and shifts magnetic susceptibility, but also reduces the critical magnetic fields of irreversible induced phase transitions from the spin-glass to the ferromagnetic state. The obtained results are used to describe the spin-glass state in (Sm1-xGdx)0.55Sr0.45MnO3.

  16. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-B; Zu, C; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Duan, L-M

    2015-01-01

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science. PMID:26178617

  17. Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register.

    PubMed

    Wang, W-B; Zu, C; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Duan, L-M

    2015-07-16

    As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.

  18. Meron ground state of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled dipolar bosons.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Ryan M; Anderson, Brandon M; Clark, Charles W

    2013-11-01

    We study the effects of dipolar interactions on a Bose-Einstein condensate with synthetically generated Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The dipolar interaction we consider includes terms that couple spin and orbital angular momentum in a way perfectly congruent with the single-particle Rashba coupling. We show that this internal spin-orbit coupling plays a crucial role in the rich ground-state phase diagram of the trapped condensate. In particular, we predict the emergence of a thermodynamically stable ground state with a meron spin configuration.

  19. Benchmarking spin-state chemistry in starless core models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Harju, J.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We aim to present simulated chemical abundance profiles for a variety of important species, giving special attention to spin-state chemistry, in order to provide reference results to which present and future models can be compared. Methods: We employ gas-phase and gas-grain models to investigate chemical abundances in physical conditions that correspond to starless cores. To this end, we have developed new chemical reaction sets for both gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry, including the deuterated forms of species with up to six atoms and the spin-state chemistry of light ions and of the species involved in the ammonia and water formation networks. The physical model is kept simple to facilitate straightforward benchmarking of other models against the results of this paper. Results: We find that the ortho/para ratios of ammonia and water are similar in both gas-phase and gas-grain models, particularly at late times, implying that the ratios are determined by gas-phase processes. Furthermore, the ratios do not exhibit any strong dependence on core density. We derive late-time ortho/para ratios of ~0.5 for ammonia and ~1.6 for water. We find that including or excluding deuterium in the calculations has little effect on the abundances of non-deuterated species and on the ortho/para ratios of ammonia and water, especially in gas-phase models where deuteration is naturally hindered by the presence of abundant heavy elements. Although we study a rather narrow temperature range (10-20 K), we find strong temperature dependence in, e.g., deuteration and nitrogen chemistry. For example, the depletion timescale of ammonia is significantly reduced when the temperature is increased from 10 to 20 K; this is because the increase in temperature translates into increased accretion rates, while the very high binding energy of ammonia prevents it from being desorbed at 20 K. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Theoretical study of thermal spin transition between the singlet state and the quintet state in the [Fe(2-picolylamine)(3)](2+) spin crossover system.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Yoshihito; Sato, Daisuke; Juhász, Gergely; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2010-05-13

    The spin transition between the low-spin singlet state and the high-spin quintet state in the [Fe(2-pic)(3)](2+) (2-pic: 2-picolylamine) complex is studied by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. After careful comparison of density functionals BLYP, B3LYP, and B3LYP* (which has 15% Hartree-Fock exchange compared with 20% for B3LYP), we concluded that the spin-state splitting can be accurately reproduced by using the B3LYP* functional. The potential energy surfaces along minimum energy pathways of the three spin states were calculated at the B3LYP*/6-311+G** level of theory to find minimum energy crossing points (MECPs). The MECPs between the singlet and quintet states (SQ(M)) were found (E(SQ) = 6.8 kcal/mol), as well as the MECPs between the triplet and singlet states (ST(M), E(ST) = 12.9 kcal/mol) and the triplet and quintet states (TQ(M), E(TQ) = 12.8 kcal/mol). Although the distortion leading to SQ(M) from the singlet equilibrium geometry is mainly a symmetric expansion of the Fe-N bonds, the distortions leading to ST(M) and SQ(M) are asymmetric. Normal mode analysis demonstrates that these geometrical distortions contain a combination of several low-frequency normal modes, and therefore, these modes play a significant role in the intersystem crossing via the crossing seam. PMID:20405889

  1. Ground state energy and scaling behaviour of spin gap in the XXZ spin-12 antiferromagnetic chain in longitudinal staggered field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Susobhan; Ghosh, Asim Kumar

    2014-08-01

    The ground state energy and the spin gap of a spin-12 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic XXZ chain in the presence of longitudinal staggered field (hz) have been estimated by using Jordan-Wigner representation, exact diagonalization and perturbative analysis. All those quantities have been obtained for a region of anisotropic parameter (Δ) defined by 0≤Δ≤1. For Δ=0, the exact value of ground state energy is found for finite values of hz. The spin gap is found to develop as soon as the staggered field is switched on. The magnitude of spin gap is compared with the field induced gap measured in magnetic compounds CuBenzoate and Yb4As3 when Δ=1. The dependence of spin gap on both Δ and hz has been found which gives rise to scaling laws associated with hz. Scaling exponents obtained in two different cases show excellent agreements with the previously determined values. The variation of scaling exponents with Δ can be fitted with a regular function.

  2. All-Optical Formation of Coherent Dark States of Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingault, Benjamin; Becker, Jonas N.; Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Arend, Carsten; Hepp, Christian; Godde, Tillmann; Tartakovskii, Alexander I.; Markham, Matthew; Becher, Christoph; Atatüre, Mete

    2014-12-01

    Spin impurities in diamond can be versatile tools for a wide range of solid-state-based quantum technologies, but finding spin impurities that offer sufficient quality in both photonic and spin properties remains a challenge for this pursuit. The silicon-vacancy center has recently attracted much interest because of its spin-accessible optical transitions and the quality of its optical spectrum. Complementing these properties, spin coherence is essential for the suitability of this center as a spin-photon quantum interface. Here, we report all-optical generation of coherent superpositions of spin states in the ground state of a negatively charged silicon-vacancy center using coherent population trapping. Our measurements reveal a characteristic spin coherence time, T2* , exceeding 45 nanoseconds at 4 K. We further investigate the role of phonon-mediated coupling between orbital states as a source of irreversible decoherence. Our results indicate the feasibility of all-optical coherent control of silicon-vacancy spins using ultrafast laser pulses.

  3. Generic helical edge states due to Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Laura; Molina, Rafael A.; Platero, Gloria; Lunde, Anders Mathias

    2016-05-01

    We study the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator without axial spin symmetry due to the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Lack of axial spin symmetry can lead to so-called generic helical edge states, which have energy-dependent spin orientation. This opens the possibility of inelastic backscattering and thereby nonquantized transport. Here we find analytically the new dispersion relations and the energy dependent spin orientation of the generic helical edge states in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling within the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model, for both a single isolated edge and for a finite width ribbon. In the single-edge case, we analytically quantify the energy dependence of the spin orientation, which turns out to be weak for a realistic HgTe quantum well. Nevertheless, finite size effects combined with Rashba spin-orbit coupling result in two avoided crossings in the energy dispersions, where the spin orientation variation of the edge states is very significantly increased for realistic parameters. Finally, our analytical results are found to compare well to a numerical tight-binding regularization of the model.

  4. Surface-induced spin state locking of the [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] spin crossover complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniwal, S.; Zhang, X.; Mu, S.; Naim, A.; Rosa, P.; Chastanet, G.; Létard, J.-F.; Liu, J.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, D. A.; Dowben, P. A.; Enders, A.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature- and coverage-dependent studies of the Au(1 1 1)-supported spin crossover Fe(II) complex (SCO) of the type [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] with a suite of surface-sensitive spectroscopy and microscopy tools show that the substrate inhibits thermally induced transitions of the molecular spin state, so that both high-spin and low-spin states are preserved far beyond the spin transition temperature of free molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy confirms that [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] grows as ordered, molecular bilayer islands at sub-monolayer coverage and as disordered film at higher coverage. The temperature dependence of the electronic structure suggest that the SCO films exhibit a mixture of spin states at room temperature, but upon cooling below the spin crossover transition the film spin state is best described as a mix of high-spin and low-spin state molecules of a ratio that is constant. This locking of the spin state is most likely the result of a substrate-induced conformational change of the interfacial molecules, but it is estimated that also the intra-atomic electron-electron Coulomb correlation energy, or Hubbard correlation energy U, could be an additional contributing factor.

  5. Surface-induced spin state locking of the [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] spin crossover complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniwal, S.; Zhang, X.; Mu, S.; Naim, A.; Rosa, P.; Chastanet, G.; Létard, J.-F.; Liu, J.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, D. A.; Dowben, P. A.; Enders, A.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature- and coverage-dependent studies of the Au(1 1 1)-supported spin crossover Fe(II) complex (SCO) of the type [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] with a suite of surface-sensitive spectroscopy and microscopy tools show that the substrate inhibits thermally induced transitions of the molecular spin state, so that both high-spin and low-spin states are preserved far beyond the spin transition temperature of free molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy confirms that [Fe(H2B(pz)2)2(bipy)] grows as ordered, molecular bilayer islands at sub-monolayer coverage and as disordered film at higher coverage. The temperature dependence of the electronic structure suggest that the SCO films exhibit a mixture of spin states at room temperature, but upon cooling below the spin crossover transition the film spin state is best described as a mix of high-spin and low-spin state molecules of a ratio that is constant. This locking of the spin state is most likely the result of a substrate-induced conformational change of the interfacial molecules, but it is estimated that also the intra-atomic electron–electron Coulomb correlation energy, or Hubbard correlation energy U, could be an additional contributing factor.

  6. Low-temperature Spin-Ice State of Quantum Heisenberg Magnets on Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    We establish that the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on pyrochlore lattice enters a spin-ice state at low, but finite, temperature. Our conclusions are based on results of the bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations that demonstrate good convergence of the skeleton series down to temperature T = J/6. The ``smoking gun'' identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for static spin-spin correlation function between the quantum Heisenberg and classical Heisenberg/Ising models at all accessible temperatures. In particular, at T/J = 1/6, the momentum dependence shows a characteristic bow-tie pattern with pinch points. By numerical analytical continuation method, we also obtain the dynamic structure factor at real frequencies, showing a diffusive spinon dynamics at pinch points and spin wave continuum along the nodal lines.?

  7. First Results on High-spin States in ^179Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, W. F.; Bingham, C. R.; Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L. L.; Smith, B. H.; Wauters, J.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H. A.; Blumenthal, D. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Davids, C. N.; Fischer, S. M.; Hackman, G.; Henderson, D. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Nisius, D. T.; Seweryniak, D.; Ma, W. C.

    1996-05-01

    High-spin states in ^179Au were studied for the first time in two experiments at the Argonne uc(atlas) facility. The ^144Sm(^40Ar,p4n)^179Au reaction at 207 MeV was used for the first experiment and ^124Te(^58Ni,p2n)^179Au at 255 MeV in the second. The setup in the first experiment consisted of the Fragment Mass Analyzer (uc(fma)) plus Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (uc(ppac)) system and 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors (CSG's). From this run, several transitions from the yrast bands were established. The latter experiment utilized the uc(fma) + uc(ppac) system in conjunction with the uc(aye-ball) array of 19 Ge detectors (eight >70% efficient CSG's, nine 25% efficient CSG's, and two LEPS; one with Compton suppression) and a double sided silicon strip detector (uc(dssd).) The results from these experiments, including a level scheme, will be presented and discussed.

  8. Nonequilibrium steady states in the quantum XXZ spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabetta, Thiago; Misguich, Grégoire

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the real-time dynamics of a critical spin-1/2 chain (XXZ model) prepared in an inhomogeneous initial state with different magnetizations on the left and right halves. Using the time-evolving block decimation method, we follow the front propagation by measuring the magnetization and entanglement entropy profiles. At long times, as in the free fermion case [Antal , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.4912 59, 4912 (1999)], a large central region develops where correlations become time independent and translation invariant. The shape and speed of the fronts is studied numerically and we evaluate the stationary current as a function of initial magnetic field and as a function of the anisotropy Δ. We compare the results with the conductance of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, and with the exact free-fermion solution at Δ=0. We also investigate the two-point correlations in the stationary region and find a good agreement with the “twisted” form obtained by Lancaster and Mitra [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.061134 81, 061134 (2010)] using bosonization. Some deviations are nevertheless observed for strong currents.

  9. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Singh, Chandan K.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Kabir, Mukul; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Sheet, Goutam

    2016-06-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (˜47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  10. Spectral diffusion and dipolar flip-flop in spin-based solid state quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Rogerio; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-03-01

    We estimate phase coherence times for spins in two quantum computer architectures, where the qubit is either an electron spin bound to a P donor impurity in Si or a GaAs quantum dot. Since the magnetic resonance line in both these systems is inhomogeneously broadened, a natural way to probe these coherence times is to measure the decay time of a two pulse spin echo envelope. Based on spin echo experiments performed on Si:P we consider three mechanisms for this decay: (1) Spin-lattice relaxation (T1 processes), (2) flip-flop between qubits mediated by dipolar interaction, and (3) spectral diffusion caused by nearby flip-flopping nuclear spins. Our estimates indicate that mechanism (3) dominates in both architectures, except for isotopically pure Si-28 samples where mechanism (2) dominates due to the fact that the line is not inhomogeneously broadened and more spin qubits can flip-flop. We acknowledge support from ARDA, DARPA and the US-ONR.

  11. Revisiting spin-lattice relaxation time measurements for dilute spins in high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua

    2016-07-01

    Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as (13)C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. (13)C) and abundant I (e.g. (1)H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of (1)H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance l-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions. PMID:27187211

  12. Revisiting spin-lattice relaxation time measurements for dilute spins in high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua

    2016-07-01

    Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as (13)C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. (13)C) and abundant I (e.g. (1)H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of (1)H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance l-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions.

  13. Revisiting spin-lattice relaxation time measurements for dilute spins in high-resolution solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jun; Cui, Jingyu; Peng, Xinhua

    2016-07-01

    Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times (T1S) for dilute spins such as 13C have led to investigations of the motional dynamics of individual functional groups in solid materials. In this work, we revisit the Solomon equations and analyze how the heteronuclear cross relaxation between the dilute S (e.g. 13C) and abundant I (e.g. 1H) spins affects the measured T1S values in solid-state NMR in the absence of 1H saturation during the recovery time. It is found theoretically that at the beginning of the S spin magnetization recovery, the existence of non-equilibrium I magnetization introduces the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect onto the recovery of the S spin magnetization and confirmed experimentally that such a heteronuclear cross relaxation effect results in the recovery overshoot phenomena for the dilute spins when T1S is on the same order of T1H, leading to inaccurate measurements of the T1S values. Even when T1S is ten times larger than T1H, the heteronuclear cross relaxation effect on the measured T1S values is still noticeable. Furthermore, this cross relaxation effect on recovery trajectory of the S spins can be manipulated and even suppressed by preparing the initial I and S magnetization, so as to obtain the accurate T1S values. A sample of natural abundance L-isoleucine powder has been used to demonstrate the T1S measurements and their corresponding measured T1C values under various experimental conditions.

  14. Generation of spin-dependent coherent states in a quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawłowski, J.; Szumniak, P.; Bednarek, S.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an all-electrically controlled nanodevice—a gated semiconductor nanowire—capable of generating a coherent state of a single electron trapped in a harmonic oscillator or superposition of such coherent states—the Schrödinger cat state. In the proposed scheme, the electron in the ground state of the harmonic potential is driven by resonantly oscillating Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This allows for the creation of the Schrödinger cat state with superposition amplitudes depending on the initial electron spin state. Such a method can be used for initialization of a single-spin qubit defined in a coherent state. The harmonic confinement potential along the InSb nanowire and the modulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is obtained by proper gating. The results are supported by realistic three-dimensional time-dependent self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger calculations.

  15. Solid-state characterization of optically pure (+)Dihydromyricetin extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Xiong, Wei; Reddy Perumalla, Sathyanarayana; Fang, Jianguo; Calvin Sun, Changquan

    2016-09-10

    Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is a natural flavanol compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine, Ampelopsis grossedentata. Despite that optically pure (+)DMY is desired for treating chronic pharyngitis and alcohol use disorders, only DMY racemate is commercially available due to prolonged exposure time to high temperature and the presence of metal ions during industrial extraction, which cause racemization of the homochiral (+)DMY. We have developed an extraction method for successfully obtain optically pure (+)DMY. We have further assessed the physicochemical properties of the two phases using PXRD, DSC, TGA, FTIR, and moisture sorption. Among them, PXRD and FT-IR are suitable for quickly distinguishing homochiral (+)DMY from racemic (±)DMY. Lastly, with the aid of cocrystallization with theophylline, the absolute configuration of homochiral (+)DMY was identified to be (2R, 3R). PMID:27418561

  16. Large Rashba spin splitting of a metallic surface-state band on a semiconductor surface.

    PubMed

    Yaji, Koichiro; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Hatta, Shinichiro; Okuyama, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Kimura, Akio; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Aruga, Tetsuya

    2010-05-17

    The generation of spin-polarized electrons at room temperature is an essential step in developing semiconductor spintronic applications. To this end, we studied the electronic states of a Ge(111) surface, covered with a lead monolayer at a fractional coverage of 4/3, by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), spin-resolved ARPES and first-principles electronic structure calculation. We demonstrate that a metallic surface-state band with a dominant Pb 6p character exhibits a large Rashba spin splitting of 200 meV and an effective mass of 0.028 m(e) at the Fermi level. This finding provides a material basis for the novel field of spin transport/accumulation on semiconductor surfaces. Charge density analysis of the surface state indicated that large spin splitting was induced by asymmetric charge distribution in close proximity to the nuclei of Pb atoms.

  17. Universal scaling for the spin-electricity conversion on surface states of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K. T.; Shiomi, Y.; Segawa, Kouji; Ando, Yoichi; Saitoh, E.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated spin-electricity conversion on surface states of bulk-insulating topological insulator (TI) materials using a spin-pumping technique. The sample structure is Ni-Fe ∣Cu ∣TI trilayers, in which magnetic proximity effects on the TI surfaces are negligibly small owing to the inserted Cu layer. Voltage signals produced by the spin-electricity conversion are clearly observed and are enhanced with decreasing temperature, in line with the dominant surface transport at lower temperatures. The efficiency of the spin-electricity conversion is greater for TI samples with a higher resistivity of bulk states and longer mean free path of surface states, consistent with the surface spin-electricity conversion.

  18. Robustness of spin-coupling distributions for perfect quantum state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, Analia; Alvarez, Gonzalo A.; Stolze, Joachim; Osenda, Omar

    2011-08-15

    The transmission of quantum information between different parts of a quantum computer is of fundamental importance. Spin chains have been proposed as quantum channels for transferring information. Different configurations for the spin couplings were proposed in order to optimize the transfer. As imperfections in the creation of these specific spin-coupling distributions can never be completely avoided, it is important to find out which systems are optimally suited for information transfer by assessing their robustness against imperfections or disturbances. We analyze different spin coupling distributions of spin chain channels designed for perfect quantum state transfer. In particular, we study the transfer of an initial state from one end of the chain to the other end. We quantify the robustness of different coupling distributions against perturbations and we relate it to the properties of the energy eigenstates and eigenvalues. We find that the localization properties of the systems play an important role for robust quantum state transfer.

  19. Characterizing p -wave superconductivity using the spin structure of Shiba states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladzhyan, V.; Bena, C.; Simon, P.

    2016-06-01

    Cooper pairs in two-dimensional unconventional superconductors with broken inversion symmetry are in a mixture of an even-parity spin-singlet pairing state with an odd-parity spin-triplet pairing state. We study the magnetic properties of the impurity bound states in such superconductors and find striking signatures in their spin polarization which allow one to unambiguously discriminate a nontopological superconducting phase from a topological one. Moreover, we show how these properties, which could be measured using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), also enable one to determine the direction of the spin-triplet pairing vector of the host material and thus to distinguish between different types of unconventional pairing.

  20. Are Very Small Emission Quantum Yields Characteristic of Pure Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Excited States of Ruthenium(II)-(Acceptor Ligand) Chromophores?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Zhang, Xiu Zhu; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2016-08-01

    Metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state emission quantum yields, ϕem, are reported in 77 K glasses for a series of pentaammine and tetraammine ruthenium(II) complexes with monodentate aromatic acceptor ligands (Ru-MDA) such as pyridine and pyrazine. These quantum yields are only about 0.2-1% of those found for their Ru-bpy (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) analogs in similar excited state energy ranges (hνem). The excited state energy dependencies of the emission intensity are characterized by mean radiative decay rate constants, kRAD, resolved from ϕem/τobs = kRAD (τobs = the observed emission decay lifetime; τobs(-1) = kRAD + kNRD; kNRD = nonradiative decay rate constant). Except for the Ru-pz chromophores in alcohol glasses, the values of kNRD for the Ru-MDA chromophores are slightly smaller, and their dependences on excited state energies are very similar to those of related Ru-bpy chromophores. In principle, one expects kRAD to be proportional to the product of (hνem)(3) and the square of the transition dipole moment (Me,g).(2) However, from experimental studies of Ru-bpy chromophores, an additional hνem dependence has been found that originates in an intensity stealing from a higher energy excited state with a much larger value of Me,g. This additional hνem dependence is not present in the kRAD energy dependence for Ru-MDA chromophores in the same energy regime. Intensity stealing in the phosphorescence of these complexes is necessary since the triplet-to-singlet transition is only allowed through spin-orbit coupling and since the density functional theory modeling implicates configurational mixing between states in the triplet spin manifold; this is treated by setting Me,g equal to the product of a mixing coefficient and the difference between the molecular dipole moments of the states involved, which implicates an experimental first order dependence of kRAD on hνem. The failure to observe intensity stealing for the Ru-MDA complexes suggests

  1. Are Very Small Emission Quantum Yields Characteristic of Pure Metal-to-Ligand Charge-Transfer Excited States of Ruthenium(II)-(Acceptor Ligand) Chromophores?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia Nung; Mazumder, Shivnath; Zhang, Xiu Zhu; Schlegel, H Bernhard; Chen, Yuan Jang; Endicott, John F

    2016-08-01

    Metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited state emission quantum yields, ϕem, are reported in 77 K glasses for a series of pentaammine and tetraammine ruthenium(II) complexes with monodentate aromatic acceptor ligands (Ru-MDA) such as pyridine and pyrazine. These quantum yields are only about 0.2-1% of those found for their Ru-bpy (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) analogs in similar excited state energy ranges (hνem). The excited state energy dependencies of the emission intensity are characterized by mean radiative decay rate constants, kRAD, resolved from ϕem/τobs = kRAD (τobs = the observed emission decay lifetime; τobs(-1) = kRAD + kNRD; kNRD = nonradiative decay rate constant). Except for the Ru-pz chromophores in alcohol glasses, the values of kNRD for the Ru-MDA chromophores are slightly smaller, and their dependences on excited state energies are very similar to those of related Ru-bpy chromophores. In principle, one expects kRAD to be proportional to the product of (hνem)(3) and the square of the transition dipole moment (Me,g).(2) However, from experimental studies of Ru-bpy chromophores, an additional hνem dependence has been found that originates in an intensity stealing from a higher energy excited state with a much larger value of Me,g. This additional hνem dependence is not present in the kRAD energy dependence for Ru-MDA chromophores in the same energy regime. Intensity stealing in the phosphorescence of these complexes is necessary since the triplet-to-singlet transition is only allowed through spin-orbit coupling and since the density functional theory modeling implicates configurational mixing between states in the triplet spin manifold; this is treated by setting Me,g equal to the product of a mixing coefficient and the difference between the molecular dipole moments of the states involved, which implicates an experimental first order dependence of kRAD on hνem. The failure to observe intensity stealing for the Ru-MDA complexes suggests

  2. Spin depolarization effect induced by charge state conversion of nitrogen vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Lei-Ming; Zou, Chang-Ling; Li, Cong-Cong; Dong, Yang; Sun, Fang-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-09-01

    The electron spin of the negatively charged the nitrogen vacancy center (NV- ) in diamond can be optically polarized through intersystem crossing, which enables the defect to be used for quantum computation and metrology. In this work, we studied the electron spin depolarization effect of the NV center induced by charge state conversion, which was proven to be a spin-independent process. The spin-state initialization fidelity was largely affected by the charge state conversion process. As a result, the optical polarization of the electron spin decreased about 14 %(31 % ) with a high-power continuous-wave (pulsed) green laser. Moreover, the undefined fluorescence anomalous saturation effect of the NV center was analyzed and explained in detail based on the spin depolarization. The results demonstrated that a weak laser should be used for initialization of the NV center. In addition, the power and polarization of a laser for NV spin detection should be carefully adjusted to obtain the highest fluorescence signal. Our work also provided information that can increase the understanding of the charge state conversion and spin polarization processes of the NV center for quantum information and sensing.

  3. Magnetoresistance in the Spin-Orbit Kondo State of Elemental Bismuth

    PubMed Central

    Craco, Luis; Leoni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Materials with strong spin-orbit coupling, which competes with other particle-particle interactions and external perturbations, offer a promising route to explore novel phases of quantum matter. Using LDA + DMFT we reveal the complex interplay between local, multi-orbital Coulomb and spin-orbit interaction in elemental bismuth. Our theory quantifies the role played by collective dynamical fluctuations in the spin-orbit Kondo state. The correlated electronic structure we derive is promising in the sense that it leads to results that might explain why moderate magnetic fields can generate Dirac valleys and directional-selective magnetoresistance responses within spin-orbit Kondo metals. PMID:26358556

  4. Proposal for the creation and optical detection of spin cat states in Bose-Einstein condensates.

    PubMed

    Lau, Hon Wai; Dutton, Zachary; Wang, Tian; Simon, Christoph

    2014-08-29

    We propose a method to create "spin cat states," i.e., macroscopic superpositions of coherent spin states, in Bose-Einstein condensates using the Kerr nonlinearity due to atomic collisions. Based on a detailed study of atom loss, we conclude that cat sizes of hundreds of atoms should be realistic. The existence of the spin cat states can be demonstrated by optical readout. Our analysis also includes the effects of higher-order nonlinearities, atom number fluctuations, and limited readout efficiency. PMID:25215963

  5. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  6. The spin state of iron in minerals of Earth's lower mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lin, Jung -Fu

    2005-06-23

    Here, the spin state of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at temperatures and pressures typical for the Earth's lower mantle is discussed. We predict an extended high-spin to low-spin crossover region along the geotherm for Fe-dilute systems depending on crystal-field splitting, pairing energy, and cooperative interactions. In particular, spin transitions in ferromagnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase, the dominant lower mantle components, should occur in a wide temperature-pressure range. We also derive a gradual volume change associated with such transitions in the lower mantle. The gradual density changes and the wide spin crossover regions seem incompatible with lower mantle stratification resulting from a spin transition.

  7. The spin state of iron in minerals of Earth's lower mantle

    DOE PAGES

    Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Lin, Jung -Fu

    2005-06-23

    Here, the spin state of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at temperatures and pressures typical for the Earth's lower mantle is discussed. We predict an extended high-spin to low-spin crossover region along the geotherm for Fe-dilute systems depending on crystal-field splitting, pairing energy, and cooperative interactions. In particular, spin transitions in ferromagnesium silicate perovskite and ferropericlase, the dominant lower mantle components, should occur in a wide temperature-pressure range. We also derive a gradual volume change associated with such transitions in the lower mantle. The gradual density changes and the wide spin crossover regions seem incompatible with lower mantle stratification resulting from amore » spin transition.« less

  8. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-18

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.

  9. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340

  10. Nanoscale self-hosting of molecular spin-states in the intermediate phase of a spin-crossover material.

    PubMed

    Bréfuel, Nicolas; Collet, Eric; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kojima, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Naohide; Toupet, Loic; Tanaka, Koichiro; Tuchagues, Jean-Pierre

    2010-12-17

    A new spin-crossover (SC) complex [Fe(II)H(2)L(2-Me)][AsF(6)](2) has been synthesized, in which H(2)L(2-Me) denotes the chirogenic hexadentate N(6) Schiff-base ligand bis{[(2-methylimidazol-4-yl)methylidene]-3-aminopropyl}ethylenediamine. This complex has revealed a rich variety of phases during its two-step thermal crossover, as well as photoinduced spin-state switching. A high-symmetry high-spin (HS, S=2) phase, a low-symmetry low-spin (LS, S=0) phase, an intermediate phase characterized by an unprecedented lozenge pattern of 12 predominantly HS molecular crystallographic sites confining 18 predominantly LS molecular crystallographic sites, and a photoinduced low-symmetry HS phase have been accurately evidenced by temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and crystallographic studies. This variety of phases illustrates the multi-stability of this system, which results from coupling between the electronic states and structural instabilities. PMID:21077055

  11. Quantum filter of spin polarized states: Metal–dielectric–ferromagnetic/semiconductor device

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Vladimir I.; Khmelinskii, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Development of a new spintronics device. • Development of quantum spin polarized filters. • Development of theory of quantum spin polarized filter. - Abstract: Recently we proposed a model for the Quantum Spin-Polarized State Filter (QSPSF). The magnetic moments are transported selectively in this model, detached from the electric charge carriers. Thus, transfer of a spin-polarized state between two conductors was predicted in a system of two levels coupled by exchange interaction. The strength of the exchange interaction between the two conductive layers depends on the thickness of the dielectric layer separating them. External magnetic fields modulate spin-polarized state transfer, due to Zeeman level shift. Therefore, a linearly growing magnetic field generates a series of current peaks in a nearby coil. Thus, our spin-state filter should contain as least three nanolayers: (1) conductive or ferromagnetic; (2) dielectric; and (3) conductive or semiconductive. The spectrum of spin-polarized states generated by the filter device consists of a series of resonance peaks. In a simple case the number of lines equals S, the total spin angular momentum of discrete states in one of the coupled nanolayers. Presently we report spin-polarized state transport in metal–dielectric–ferromagnetic (MDF) and metal–dielectric–semiconductor (MDS) three-layer sandwich devices. The exchange-resonance spectra in such devices are quite specific, differing also from spectra observed earlier in other three-layer devices. The theoretical model is used to interpret the available experimental results. A detailed ab initio analysis of the magnetic-field dependence of the output magnetic moment averaged over the surface of the device was carried out. The model predicts the resonance structure of the signal, although at its present accuracy it cannot predict the positions of the spectral peaks.

  12. Mechanism of dilute-spin-exchange in solid-state NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, George J.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-03-28

    In the stationary, aligned samples used in oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR, {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings are not attenuated as they are in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR; consequently, they are available for participation in dipolar coupling-based spin-exchange processes. Here we describe analytically the pathways of {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N spin-exchange mediated by {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H homonuclear dipolar couplings. The mixed-order proton-relay mechanism can be differentiated from the third spin assisted recoupling mechanism by setting the {sup 1}H to an off-resonance frequency so that it is at the “magic angle” during the spin-exchange interval in the experiment, since the “magic angle” irradiation nearly quenches the former but only slightly attenuates the latter. Experimental spectra from a single crystal of N-acetyl leucine confirm that this proton-relay mechanism plays the dominant role in {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N dilute-spin-exchange in OS solid-state NMR in crystalline samples. Remarkably, the “forbidden” spin-exchange condition under “magic angle” irradiation results in {sup 15}N-{sup 15}N cross-peaks intensities that are comparable to those observed with on-resonance irradiation in applications to proteins. The mechanism of the proton relay in dilute-spin-exchange is crucial for the design of polarization transfer experiments.

  13. Spin-state blockade in Te6+-substituted electron-doped LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Koyama, Shun-Ichi; Watahiki, Masanori; Sato, Mika; Nishihara, Kazuki; Onodera, Mitsugi; Iwasa, Kazuaki; Nojima, Tsutomu; Yamasaki, Yuuichi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite-type LaCoO3 (Co3+: d6) is a rare inorganic material with sensitive and characteristic responses among low, intermediate, and high spin states. For example, in insulating nonmagnetic low-spin states below about 20 K, light hole doping (Ni substitution) induces much larger magnetization than expected; over net 10μB/hole (5μB/Ni) for 1μB/hole (1μB/Ni), in which the nearly isolated dopants locally change the surrounding Co low-spin states to magnetic ones and form spin molecules with larger total spin. Further, the former is isotropic, whereas the latter exhibits characteristic anisotropy probably because of Jahn-Teller distortion. In contrast, for electron doping, relatively insensitive spin-state responses were reported, as in LaCo(Ti4+) O3, but are not clarified, and are somewhat controversial. Here, we present macroscopic measurement data of another electron-doped system LaCo(Te6+) O3 and discuss the spin-state responses. This study was financially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) (No. 22740209 and 26800174) from the MEXT of Japan.

  14. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-29

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. PMID:21937989

  15. Feasible Perturbations of Control Systems with Pure State Constraints and Applications to Second-Order Optimality Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehener, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We propose second-order necessary optimality conditions for optimal control problems with very general state and control constraints which hold true under weak regularity assumptions on the data. In particular the pure state constraints are general closed sets, the optimal control is supposed to be merely measurable and the dynamics may be discontinuous in the time variable as well. These results are obtained by an approach based on local perturbations of the reference process by second-order tangent directions. This method allows direct and quite simple proofs.

  16. Spin-state crossover in multiferroic Ca3Co2-xMnxO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, R.; Yi, H.-T.; Chandra, P.; Cheong, S.-W.; Kiryukhin, V.

    2010-03-01

    Ca3Co2-xMnxO6 (x˜0.96) is a multiferroic with spin-chains of alternating Co2+ and Mn4+ ions. The spin state of Co2+ remains unresolved due to a discrepancy between high-temperature x-ray absorption (S=(3)/(2)) and low-temperature neutron (S=(1)/(2)) measurements. Using a combination of magnetic modeling and crystal-field analysis, we show that the existing low temperature data cannot be reconciled within a high spin scenario by invoking spin-orbit or Jahn-Teller distortions. To unify the experimental results, we propose a spin-state crossover with specific experimental predictions.

  17. Muon Spin Relaxation Evidence for the U(1) Quantum Spin-Liquid Ground State in the Triangular Antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Baker, Peter J.; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Juanjuan; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Gegenwart, Philipp; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-08-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μ SR ) experiments on single crystals of the structurally perfect triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 indicate the absence of both static long-range magnetic order and spin freezing down to 0.048 K in a zero field. Below 0.4 K, the μ+ spin relaxation rates, which are proportional to the dynamic correlation function of the Yb3 + spins, exhibit temperature-independent plateaus. All these μ SR results unequivocally support the formation of a gapless U(1) quantum spin liquid ground state in the triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 .

  18. Muon Spin Relaxation Evidence for the U(1) Quantum Spin-Liquid Ground State in the Triangular Antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Biswas, Pabitra K; Baker, Peter J; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Juanjuan; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Gegenwart, Philipp; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-08-26

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) experiments on single crystals of the structurally perfect triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4} indicate the absence of both static long-range magnetic order and spin freezing down to 0.048 K in a zero field. Below 0.4 K, the μ^{+} spin relaxation rates, which are proportional to the dynamic correlation function of the Yb^{3+} spins, exhibit temperature-independent plateaus. All these μSR results unequivocally support the formation of a gapless U(1) quantum spin liquid ground state in the triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}. PMID:27610879

  19. Muon Spin Relaxation Evidence for the U(1) Quantum Spin-Liquid Ground State in the Triangular Antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Biswas, Pabitra K; Baker, Peter J; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Juanjuan; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Gegenwart, Philipp; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-08-26

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) experiments on single crystals of the structurally perfect triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4} indicate the absence of both static long-range magnetic order and spin freezing down to 0.048 K in a zero field. Below 0.4 K, the μ^{+} spin relaxation rates, which are proportional to the dynamic correlation function of the Yb^{3+} spins, exhibit temperature-independent plateaus. All these μSR results unequivocally support the formation of a gapless U(1) quantum spin liquid ground state in the triangular antiferromagnet YbMgGaO_{4}.

  20. Universal scheme for finite-probability perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; An, Nguyen Ba; Xia, Yun-Jie; Kim, Jaewan

    2014-12-15

    In combination with the theories of open system and quantum recovering measurement, we propose a quantum state transfer scheme using spin chains by performing two sequential operations: a projective measurement on the spins of ‘environment’ followed by suitably designed quantum recovering measurements on the spins of interest. The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states through multiple parallel spin chains with finite probability. Our scheme is universal in the sense that it is state-independent and applicable to any model possessing spin–spin interactions. We also present possible methods to implement the required measurements taking into account the current experimental technologies. As applications, we consider two typical models for which the probabilities of perfect state transfer are found to be reasonably high at optimally chosen moments during the time evolution. - Highlights: • Scheme that can achieve perfect quantum state transfer is devised. • The scheme is state-independent and applicable to any spin-interaction models. • The scheme allows perfect transfer of arbitrary multispin states. • Applications to two typical models are considered in detail.

  1. New high spin states and isomers in the {sup 208}Pb and {sup 207}Pb nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Broda, R.; Wrzesinski, J.; Pawlat, T.

    1996-12-31

    The two most prominent examples of the heavy doubly closed shell (DCS) nuclei, {sup 208}Pb and {sup 132}Sn, are not accessible by conventional heavy-ion fusion processes populating high-spin states. This experimental difficulty obscured for a long time the investigation of yrast high-spin states in both DCS and neighboring nuclei and consequently restricted the study of the shell model in its most attractive regions. Recent technical development of multidetector gamma arrays opened new ways to exploit more complex nuclear processes which populate the nuclei of interest with suitable yields for gamma spectroscopy and involve population of moderately high spin states. This new possibility extended the range of accessible spin values and is a promising way to reach new yrast states. Some of these states are expected to be of high configurational purity and can be a source of important shell model parameters which possibly can be used later to check the validity of the spherical shell model description at yet higher spin and higher excitation energy. The nuclei in the closest vicinity of {sup 132}Sn are produced in spontaneous fission and states with spin values up to I=14 can be reached in fission gamma spectroscopy studies with the presently achieved sensitivity of gamma arrays. New results on yrast states in the {sup 134}Te and {sup 135}I nuclei populated in fission of the {sup 248}Cm presented at this conference illustrate such application of the resolving power offered by modern gamma techniques.

  2. High-spin states in the five-valence-particle nucleus {sup 213}Po

    SciTech Connect

    Astier, Alain; Porquet, Marie-Genevieve

    2011-03-15

    Excited states in {sup 213}Po have been populated using the {sup 18}O+ {sup 208}Pb reaction at 85 MeV beam energy and studied with the Euroball IV {gamma} multidetector array. The level scheme has been built up to {approx}2.0 MeV excitation energy and spin I{approx}25/2({h_bar}/2{pi}) from the triple {gamma} coincidence data. Spin and parity values of several yrast states have been assigned from the {gamma} angular properties. The configurations of the yrast states are discussed using results of empirical shell-model calculations and by analogy with the neighboring nuclei. The spin and parity values of several low-spin states of {sup 213}Po previously identified from the {beta} decay of {sup 213}Bi are revised.

  3. Spin texture of time-reversal symmetry invariant surface states on W(110).

    PubMed

    Kutnyakhov, D; Chernov, S; Medjanik, K; Wallauer, R; Tusche, C; Ellguth, M; Nepijko, S A; Krivenkov, M; Braun, J; Borek, S; Minár, J; Ebert, H; Elmers, H J; Schönhense, G

    2016-01-01

    We find in the case of W(110) previously overlooked anomalous surface states having their spin locked at right angle to their momentum using spin-resolved momentum microscopy. In addition to the well known Dirac-like surface state with Rashba spin texture near the -point, we observe a tilted Dirac cone with circularly shaped cross section and a Dirac crossing at 0.28 ×   within the projected bulk band gap of tungsten. This state has eye-catching similarities to the spin-locked surface state of a topological insulator. The experiments are fortified by a one-step photoemission calculation in its density-matrix formulation. PMID:27406652

  4. Spin texture of time-reversal symmetry invariant surface states on W(110)

    PubMed Central

    Kutnyakhov, D.; Chernov, S.; Medjanik, K.; Wallauer, R.; Tusche, C.; Ellguth, M.; Nepijko, S. A.; Krivenkov, M.; Braun, J.; Borek, S.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.; Elmers, H. J.; Schönhense, G.

    2016-01-01

    We find in the case of W(110) previously overlooked anomalous surface states having their spin locked at right angle to their momentum using spin-resolved momentum microscopy. In addition to the well known Dirac-like surface state with Rashba spin texture near the -point, we observe a tilted Dirac cone with circularly shaped cross section and a Dirac crossing at 0.28 ×   within the projected bulk band gap of tungsten. This state has eye-catching similarities to the spin-locked surface state of a topological insulator. The experiments are fortified by a one-step photoemission calculation in its density-matrix formulation. PMID:27406652

  5. Spin texture of time-reversal symmetry invariant surface states on W(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutnyakhov, D.; Chernov, S.; Medjanik, K.; Wallauer, R.; Tusche, C.; Ellguth, M.; Nepijko, S. A.; Krivenkov, M.; Braun, J.; Borek, S.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.; Elmers, H. J.; Schönhense, G.

    2016-07-01

    We find in the case of W(110) previously overlooked anomalous surface states having their spin locked at right angle to their momentum using spin-resolved momentum microscopy. In addition to the well known Dirac-like surface state with Rashba spin texture near the -point, we observe a tilted Dirac cone with circularly shaped cross section and a Dirac crossing at 0.28 ×   within the projected bulk band gap of tungsten. This state has eye-catching similarities to the spin-locked surface state of a topological insulator. The experiments are fortified by a one-step photoemission calculation in its density-matrix formulation.

  6. Communication: Novel quantum states of electron spins in polycarbenes from ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Wataru; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2010-09-01

    An investigation into spin structures of poly(m-phenylenecarbene), a prototype of magnetic organic molecules, is presented using the ab initio density matrix renormalization group method. It is revealed by achieving large-scale multireference calculations that the energy differences between high-spin and low-spin states (spin-gaps) of polycarbenes decrease with increasing the number of carbene sites. This size-dependency of the spin-gaps strikingly contradicts the predictions with single-reference methods including density functional theory. The wave function analysis shows that the low-spin states are beyond the classical spin picture, namely, much of multireference character, and thus are manifested as strongly correlated quantum states. The size dependence of the spin-gaps involves an odd-even oscillation, which cannot be explained by the integer-spin Heisenberg model with a single magnetic-coupling constant.

  7. Quantum-teleportation benchmarks for independent and identically distributed spin states and displaced thermal states

    SciTech Connect

    Guta, Madalin; Bowles, Peter; Adesso, Gerardo

    2010-10-15

    A successful state-transfer (or teleportation) experiment must perform better than the benchmark set by the 'best' measure and prepare procedure. We consider the benchmark problem for the following families of states: (i) displaced thermal equilibrium states of a given temperature; (ii) independent identically prepared qubits with a completely unknown state. For the first family we show that the optimal procedure is heterodyne measurement followed by the preparation of a coherent state. This procedure was known to be optimal for coherent states and for squeezed states with the 'overlap fidelity' as the figure of merit. Here, we prove its optimality with respect to the trace norm distance and supremum risk. For the second problem we consider n independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) spin-(1/2) systems in an arbitrary unknown state {rho} and look for the measurement-preparation pair (M{sub n},P{sub n}) for which the reconstructed state {omega}{sub n}:=P{sub n} circle M{sub n}({rho}{sup xn}) is as close as possible to the input state (i.e., parallel {omega}{sub n}-{rho}{sup xn} parallel {sub 1} is small). The figure of merit is based on the trace norm distance between the input and output states. We show that asymptotically with n this problem is equivalent to the first one. The proof and construction of (M{sub n},P{sub n}) uses the theory of local asymptotic normality developed for state estimation which shows that i.i.d. quantum models can be approximated in a strong sense by quantum Gaussian models. The measurement part is identical to 'optimal estimation', showing that 'benchmarking' and estimation are closely related problems in the asymptotic set up.

  8. Robust and reliable transfer of a qubit state through an XY spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Allen Bishop, C.; Byrd, Mark S.; Shao, Bin; Zou, Jian

    2009-08-01

    We present several protocols for reliable quantum state transfer through an XY spin chain. Among these is a simple two-spin encoding that achieves a remarkably high-fidelity transfer for an arbitrary quantum state. The fidelity of the transfer also decreases slowly with increasing chain length. Furthermore, the reliability can be increased by taking advantage of a local memory and/or confirming transfer using a second spin chain. The simplicity and high fidelity of the encoding makes this a candidate for near-future experiments including a test of the quantum speed limit.

  9. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics of photoexcited spin-state concentration waves

    DOE PAGES

    Marino, Andrea; Buron-Le Cointe, M.; Lorenc, M.; Toupet, L.; Henning, Robert W.; DiChiara, A. D.; Moffat, Keith; Brefuel, N.; Collet, E.

    2015-01-28

    The spin crossover compound [FeIIH2L2-Me][PF6]2 presents a two-step phase transition. In the intermediate phase, a spin state concentration wave (SSCW) appears resulting from a symmetry breaking (cell doubling) associated with a long-range order of alternating high and low spin molecular states. Lastly, by combining time-resolved optical and X-ray diffraction measurements on a single crystal, we study how such a system responds to femtosecond laser excitation and we follow in real time the erasing and rewriting of the SSCW

  10. Out-of-equilibrium dynamics of photoexcited spin-state concentration waves

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Andrea; Buron-Le Cointe, M.; Lorenc, M.; Toupet, L.; Henning, Robert W.; DiChiara, A. D.; Moffat, Keith; Brefuel, N.; Collet, E.

    2015-01-28

    The spin crossover compound [FeIIH2L2-Me][PF6]2 presents a two-step phase transition. In the intermediate phase, a spin state concentration wave (SSCW) appears resulting from a symmetry breaking (cell doubling) associated with a long-range order of alternating high and low spin molecular states. Lastly, by combining time-resolved optical and X-ray diffraction measurements on a single crystal, we study how such a system responds to femtosecond laser excitation and we follow in real time the erasing and rewriting of the SSCW

  11. Identification of high spin states in {sup 134}I from {sup 252}Cf fission

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S. H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Ramayya, A. V.; Hwang, J. K.; Daniel, A. V.; Ter-Akopian, G. M.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Zhu, S. J.; Ma, W. C.

    2009-06-15

    High spin states in {sup 134}I were identified for the first time based on measurements of prompt {gamma} rays from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf at Gammasphere. Five excited levels with five deexciting transitions were observed. The mass number was assigned based on the intensity of transitions in the complementary Rh fragments. Angular correlations for the first two transitions in {sup 134}I and for high spin states in {sup 133,135,136}I were performed, but were not sufficient to firmly assign the spins and parities in {sup 134}I.

  12. Confinement of spin-orbit induced Dirac states in quantum point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tommy

    2015-08-01

    The quantum transmission problem for a particle moving in a quantum point contact in the presence of a Rashba spin-orbit interaction and applied magnetic field is solved semiclassically. A strong Rashba interaction and parallel magnetic field form emergent Dirac states at the center of the constriction, leading to the appearance of resonances which carry spin current and become bound at high magnetic fields. These states can be controlled in situ by modulation of external electric and magnetic fields, and can be used to turn the channel into a spin pump which operates at zero bias. It is shown that this effect is currently experimentally accessible in p -type quantum point contacts.

  13. Ultrafast quantum spin-state switching in the Co-octaethylporphyrin molecular magnet with a terahertz pulsed magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farberovich, Oleg V.; Mazalova, Victoria L.

    2016-05-01

    Molecular spin crossover switches are the objects of intense theoretical and experimental studies in recent years. This interest is due to the fact that these systems allow one to control their spin state by applying an external photo-, thermo-, piezo-, or magnetic stimuli. The greatest amount of research is currently devoted to the study of the effect of the photoexcitation on the bi-stable states of spin crossover single molecular magnets (SMMs). The main limitation of photo-induced bi-stable states is their short lifetime. In this paper we present the results of a study of the spin dynamics of the Co-octaethylporphyrin (CoOEP) molecule in the Low Spin (LS) state and the High Spin (HS) state induced by applying the magnetic pulse of 36.8 T. We show that the spin switching in case of the HS state of the CoOEP molecule is characterized by a long lifetime and is dependent on the magnitude and duration of the applied field. Thus, after applying an external stimuli the system in the LS state after the spin switching reverts to its ground state, whereas the system in the HS state remains in the excited state for a long time. We found that the temperature dependency of magnetic susceptibility shows an abrupt thermal spin transition between two spin states at 40 K. Here the proposed theoretical approach opens the way to create modern devices for spintronics with the controllable spin switching process.

  14. Quantum chemical study of Co3+ spin states in LaCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siurakshina, L.; Paulus, B.; Yushankhai, V.; Sivachenko, E.

    2010-03-01

    Ab initio quantum-chemical cluster calculations are performed for the perovskite LaCoO3. The main concern is to calculate the energy level ordering of different spin states of Co3+, which is an issue of great controversy for many years. The calculations performed for the trigonal lattice structure at T = 5 K and 300 K, with the structural data taken from experiment, display that the low-spin (LS, S = 0) ground state is separated from the first excited high-spin (HS, S = 2) state by a gap <100 meV, while the intermediate-spin (IS, S = 1) state is located at much higher energy ≈0.5 eV. We suggest that the local lattice relaxation around the Co3+ ion excited to the HS state and the spin-orbit coupling reduce the spin gap to a value 10 meV. Coupling of the IS state to the Jahn-Teller local lattice distortion is found to be rather strong and reduces its energy position to a value of 200 div 300 meV. Details of the quantum-chemical cluster calculation procedure and the obtained results are extensively discussed and compared with those reported earlier by other authors.

  15. Criterion and flexibility of operation difficulty for perfect teleportation of arbitrary n-qutrit state with ( n: n)-qutrit pure state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ZiYun; Liu, YiMin; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, ZhanJun

    2011-08-01

    Under the preconditions that a ( n: n)-qutrit pure state is taken as the quantum channel to teleport an arbitrary n-qutrit state and the sender is able to perform generalized-Bell-state measurements and publish the results, the necessary transformation operation in the receiver's site is worked out in terms of the technique of swapping states. A criterion on whether such quantum channel can be utilized for perfect teleportation is derived by virtue of the unitarity of the resultant transformation operator. Moreover, the flexibility between the measurement difficulty and the reconstruction difficulty is shown and discussed.

  16. Generation of a three-qudit GHZ state with diamond defect spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbache, M.

    2016-07-01

    Diamond defect spins have emerged as potential qudits (d-dimensional quantum bit) in quantum information and quantum computing. A new scheme is proposed for realizing entangled states of GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) class in a 3-qudit solid-state register. The qudits are the electron spin-1 carried by the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy color center (NV-1) in diamond and the nuclear spin-\\frac{1}{2} of two carbon-13 impurities in the first neighbour shell. Multipartite entanglements between qudits are obtained by bringing the spin system in the vicinity of a level anticrossing. The degree of entanglement between all three qudits is quantified rigorously. GHZ and GHZ-like entangled states have applications in quantum communication and computation protocols.

  17. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, T. L.; Shelankov, A. L.; Zyrianova, A. A.; Veinger, A. I.; Tisnek, T. V.; Lähderanta, E.; Shames, A. I.; Okotrub, A. V.; Bulusheva, L. G.; Chekhova, G. N.; Pinakov, D. V.; Asanov, I. P.; Šljivančanin, Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material. PMID:26307529

  18. Edge state magnetism in zigzag-interfaced graphene via spin susceptibility measurements.

    PubMed

    Makarova, T L; Shelankov, A L; Zyrianova, A A; Veinger, A I; Tisnek, T V; Lähderanta, E; Shames, A I; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G; Chekhova, G N; Pinakov, D V; Asanov, I P; Šljivančanin, Ž

    2015-01-01

    Development of graphene spintronic devices relies on transforming it into a material with a spin order. Attempts to make graphene magnetic by introducing zigzag edge states have failed due to energetically unstable structure of torn zigzag edges. Here, we report on the formation of nanoridges, i.e., stable crystallographically oriented fluorine monoatomic chains, and provide experimental evidence for strongly coupled magnetic states at the graphene-fluorographene interfaces. From the first principle calculations, the spins at the localized edge states are ferromagnetically ordered within each of the zigzag interface whereas the spin interaction across a nanoridge is antiferromagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility data agree with this physical picture and exhibit behaviour typical of quantum spin-ladder system with ferromagnetic legs and antiferromagnetic rungs. The exchange coupling constant along the rungs is measured to be 450 K. The coupling is strong enough to consider graphene with fluorine nanoridges as a candidate for a room temperature spintronics material.

  19. Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Gao, W B; Fallahi, P; Togan, E; Delteil, A; Chin, Y S; Miguel-Sanchez, J; Imamoğlu, A

    2013-01-01

    A quantum interface between a propagating photon used to transmit quantum information and a long-lived qubit used for storage is of central interest in quantum information science. A method for implementing such an interface between dissimilar qubits is quantum teleportation. Here we experimentally demonstrate transfer of quantum information carried by a photon to a semiconductor spin using quantum teleportation. In our experiment, a single photon in a superposition state is generated using resonant excitation of a neutral dot. To teleport this photonic qubit, we generate an entangled spin-photon state in a second dot located 5 m away and interfere the photons from the two dots in a Hong-Ou-Mandel set-up. Thanks to an unprecedented degree of photon-indistinguishability, a coincidence detection at the output of the interferometer heralds successful teleportation, which we verify by measuring the resulting spin state after prolonging its coherence time by optical spin-echo. PMID:24177228

  20. Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W. B.; Fallahi, P.; Togan, E.; Delteil, A.; Chin, Y. S.; Miguel-Sanchez, J.; Imamoğlu, A.

    2013-11-01

    A quantum interface between a propagating photon used to transmit quantum information and a long-lived qubit used for storage is of central interest in quantum information science. A method for implementing such an interface between dissimilar qubits is quantum teleportation. Here we experimentally demonstrate transfer of quantum information carried by a photon to a semiconductor spin using quantum teleportation. In our experiment, a single photon in a superposition state is generated using resonant excitation of a neutral dot. To teleport this photonic qubit, we generate an entangled spin-photon state in a second dot located 5 m away and interfere the photons from the two dots in a Hong-Ou-Mandel set-up. Thanks to an unprecedented degree of photon-indistinguishability, a coincidence detection at the output of the interferometer heralds successful teleportation, which we verify by measuring the resulting spin state after prolonging its coherence time by optical spin-echo.

  1. Quantum teleportation from a propagating photon to a solid-state spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Gao, W B; Fallahi, P; Togan, E; Delteil, A; Chin, Y S; Miguel-Sanchez, J; Imamoğlu, A

    2013-01-01

    A quantum interface between a propagating photon used to transmit quantum information and a long-lived qubit used for storage is of central interest in quantum information science. A method for implementing such an interface between dissimilar qubits is quantum teleportation. Here we experimentally demonstrate transfer of quantum information carried by a photon to a semiconductor spin using quantum teleportation. In our experiment, a single photon in a superposition state is generated using resonant excitation of a neutral dot. To teleport this photonic qubit, we generate an entangled spin-photon state in a second dot located 5 m away and interfere the photons from the two dots in a Hong-Ou-Mandel set-up. Thanks to an unprecedented degree of photon-indistinguishability, a coincidence detection at the output of the interferometer heralds successful teleportation, which we verify by measuring the resulting spin state after prolonging its coherence time by optical spin-echo.

  2. Low-Spin States From Decay Studies in the Mass 80 Region

    PubMed Central

    Döring, J.; Aprahamian, A.; Wiescher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron-deficient nuclei in the mass 80 region are known to exhibit strongly deformed ground states deduced mainly from yrast-state properties measured in-beam via heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. Vibrational excitations and non-yrast states as well as their interplay with the observed rotational collectivity have been less studied to date within this mass region. Thus, several β-decay experiments have been performed to populate low-spin states in the neutron-deficient 80,84Y and 80,84Sr nuclei. An overview of excited 0+ states in Sr and Kr nuclei is given and conclusions about shape evolution at low-spins are presented. In general, the non-yrast states in even-even Sr nuclei show mainly vibration-like collectivity which evolves to rotational behavior with increasing spin and decreasing neutron number. PMID:27551586

  3. The proximity of Mercury's spin to Cassini state 1 from adiabatic invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2006-04-01

    In determining Mercury's core structure from its rotational properties, the value of the normalized moment of inertia, C/MR, from the location of Cassini 1 is crucial. If Mercury's spin axis occupies Cassini state 1, its position defines the location of the state, where the axis is fixed in the frame precessing with the orbit. Although tidal and core-mantle dissipation drive the spin to the Cassini state with a time scale O(10) years, the spin might still be displaced from the Cassini state if the variations in the orbital elements induced by planetary perturbations, which change the position of the Cassini state, cause the spin to lag behind as it attempts to follow the state. After being brought to the state by dissipative processes, the spin axis is expected to follow the Cassini state for orbit variations with time scales long compared to the 1000 year precession period of the spin about the Cassini state because the solid angle swept out by the spin axis as it precesses is an adiabatic invariant. Short period variations in the orbital elements of small amplitude should cause displacements that are commensurate with the amplitudes of the short period terms. The exception would be if there are forcing terms in the perturbations that are nearly resonant with the 1000 year precession period. The precision of the radar and eventual spacecraft measurements of the position of Mercury's spin axis warrants a check on the likely proximity of the spin axis to the Cassini state. How confident should we be that the spin axis position defines the Cassini state sufficiently well for a precise determination of C/MR? By following simultaneously the spin position and the Cassini state position during long time scale orbital variations over past 3 million years [Quinn, T.R., Tremaine, S., Duncan, M., 1991. Astron. J. 101, 2287-2305] and short time scale variations for 20,000 years [JPL Ephemeris DE 408; Standish, E.M., private communication, 2005], we show that the spin axis

  4. Long-distance entanglement of spin qubits via quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of a functional quantum computer involves entangling and coherent manipulation of a large number of qubits. For qubits based on electron spins confined in quantum dots, which are among the most investigated solid-state qubits at present, architectural challenges are often encountered in the design of quantum circuits attempting to assemble the qubits within the very limited space available. Here, we provide a solution to such challenges based on an approach to realizing entanglement of spin qubits over long distances. We show that long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction of confined electron spins can be established by quantum Hall edge states, leading to an exchange coupling of spin qubits. The coupling is anisotropic and can be either Ising type or XY type, depending on the spin polarization of the edge state. Such a property, combined with the dependence of the electron spin susceptibility on the chirality of the edge state, can be utilized to gain valuable insights into the topological nature of various quantum Hall states.

  5. Long-distance entanglement of spin qubits via quantum Hall edge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Hsu, Chen-Hsuan; Stano, Peter; Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    The implementation of a functional quantum computer involves entangling and coherent manipulation of a large number of qubits. For qubits based on electron spins confined in quantum dots, which are among the most investigated solid-state qubits at present, architectural challenges are often encountered in the design of quantum circuits attempting to assemble the qubits within the very limited space available. Here, we provide a solution to such challenges based on an approach to realizing entanglement of spin qubits over long distances. We show that long-range Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction of confined electron spins can be established by quantum Hall edge states, leading to an exchange coupling of spin qubits. The coupling is anisotropic and can be either Ising-type or XY-type, depending on the spin polarization of the edge state. Such a property, combined with the dependence of the electron-spin susceptibility on the chirality of the edge state, can be utilized to gain valuable insights into the topological nature of various quantum Hall states.

  6. Ising spin network states for loop quantum gravity: a toy model for phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.

    2016-03-01

    Non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity call for a deep understanding of the emergence of geometry and locality from the quantum state of the gravitational field. Without background geometry, the notion of distance should emerge entirely from the correlations between the gravity fluctuations. In the context of loop quantum gravity, quantum states of geometry are defined as spin networks. These are graphs decorated with spin and intertwiners, which represent quantized excitations of areas and volumes of the space geometry. Here, we develop the condensed-matter point of view on extracting the physical and geometrical information from spin network states: we introduce new Ising spin network states, both in 2d on a square lattice and in 3d on a hexagonal lattice, whose correlations map onto the usual Ising model in statistical physics. We construct these states from the basic holonomy operators of loop gravity and derive a set of local Hamiltonian constraints that entirely characterize our states. We discuss their phase diagram and show how the distance can be reconstructed from the correlations in the various phases. Finally, we propose generalizations of these Ising states, which open the perspective to study the coarse-graining and dynamics of spin network states using well-known condensed-matter techniques and results.

  7. Ground state spin and excitation energies in half-filled Lieb lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ţolea, M.; Niţǎ, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present detailed spectral calculations for small Lieb lattices having up to N =4 number of cells, in the regime of half-filling, an instance of particular relevance for the nanomagnetism of discrete systems such as quantum dot arrays, due to the degenerate levels at midspectrum. While for the Hubbard interaction model—and even number of sites—the ground state spin is given by the Lieb theorem, the inclusion of long-range interaction—or odd number of sites—makes the spin state not known a priori, which justifies our approach. We calculate also the excitation energies, which are of experimental importance, and find significant variation induced by the interaction potential. One obtains insights on the mechanisms involved that impose as ground state the Lieb state with lower spin rather than the Hund one with maximum spin for the degenerate levels, showing this in the first and second orders of the interaction potential for the smaller lattices. The analytical results agree with the numerical ones, which are performed by exact diagonalization calculations or by a combined mean-field and configuration interaction method. While the Lieb state is always lower in energy than the Hund state, for strong long-range interaction, when possible, another minimal spin state is imposed as ground state.

  8. Evolution of ferromagnetic interactions from cluster spin glass state in Co-Ga alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad Yasin, Sk.; Saha, Ritwik; Srinivas, V.; Kasiviswanathan, S.; Nigam, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    Low temperature magnetic properties of binary CoxGa100-x (x=54-57) alloy have been investigated. Analysis of frequency dependence of ac susceptibility provided a conclusive evidence for the existence of cluster spin glass like behavior with the freezing temperature ~8, 14 K for x=54, 55.5 respectively. The parameters for conventional 'slowing down' of the spin dynamics have been extracted from the acs data, which confirm the presence of glassy phase. The magnitude of Mydosh parameter obtained from the fits is larger than that reported for typical canonical spin glasses and smaller than those for non-interacting ideal superparamagnetic systems but comparable to those of known cluster-glass systems. Memory phenomena using specific cooling protocols also support the spin-glass features in Co55.5Ga44.5 composition. Further the development of ferromagnetic clusters from the cluster spin glass state has been observed in x=57 composition.

  9. Exploring the spin-orbital ground state of Ba3CuSb2O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smerald, Andrew; Mila, Frédéric

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the absence of both spin freezing and a cooperative Jahn-Teller effect at the lowest measured temperatures, we study the ground state of Ba3CuSb2O9. We solve a general spin-orbital model on both the honeycomb and the decorated honeycomb lattice, revealing rich phase diagrams. The spin-orbital model on the honeycomb lattice contains an SU(4) point, where previous studies have shown the existence of a spin-orbital liquid with algebraically decaying correlations. For realistic parameters on the decorated honeycomb lattice, we find a phase that consists of clusters of nearest-neighbor spin singlets, which can be understood in terms of dimer coverings of an emergent square lattice. While the experimental situation is complicated by structural disorder, we show qualitative agreement between our theory and a range of experiments.

  10. Spin-orbit coupling controlled ground state in Sr2ScOsO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Fishman, R. S.; Calder, S.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Lumsden, M. D.; Woodward, P. M.; Christianson, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    We report neutron scattering experiments which reveal a large spin gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum of weakly-monoclinic double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6 . The spin gap is demonstrative of appreciable spin-orbit-induced anisotropy, despite nominally orbitally-quenched 5 d3Os5 + ions. The system is successfully modeled including nearest neighbor interactions in a Heisenberg Hamiltonian with exchange anisotropy. We find that the presence of the spin-orbit-induced anisotropy is essential for the realization of the type I antiferromagnetic ground state. This demonstrates that physics beyond the LS or JJ coupling limits plays an active role in determining the collective properties of 4 d3 and 5 d3 systems and that theoretical treatments must include spin-orbit coupling.

  11. Spin-orbit coupling controlled ground state in Sr2ScOsO6

    DOE PAGES

    Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Fishman, R. S.; Calder, S.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Lumsden, M. D.; Woodward, P. M.; Christianson, A. D.

    2016-06-27

    In this paper, we report neutron scattering experiments which reveal a large spin gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum of weakly-monoclinic double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6. The spin gap is demonstrative of appreciable spin-orbit-induced anisotropy, despite nominally orbitally-quenched 5d3Os5+ ions. The system is successfully modeled including nearest neighbor interactions in a Heisenberg Hamiltonian with exchange anisotropy. We find that the presence of the spin-orbit-induced anisotropy is essential for the realization of the type I antiferromagnetic ground state. Finally, this demonstrates that physics beyond the LS or JJ coupling limits plays an active role in determining the collective properties of 4d3 and 5d3more » systems and that theoretical treatments must include spin-orbit coupling.« less

  12. Repulsively bound exciton-biexciton states in high-spin fermions in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Argueelles, A.; Santos, L.

    2011-03-15

    We show that the interplay between spin-changing collisions and quadratic Zeeman coupling provides a mechanism for the formation of repulsively bound composites in high-spin fermions, which we illustrate by considering spin flips in an initially polarized hard-core one-dimensional Mott insulator of spin-3/2 fermions. We show that after the flips the dynamics is characterized by the creation of two types of exciton-biexciton composites. We analyze the conditions for the existence of these bound states and discuss their intriguing properties. In particular we show that the effective mass and stability of the composites depends nontrivially on spin-changing collisions, on the quadratic Zeeman effect, and on the initial exciton localization. Finally, we show that the composites may remain stable against inelastic collisions, opening the possibility of interesting quantum composite phases.

  13. Structure determination of individual electron-nuclear spin complexes in a solid-state matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laraoui, Abdelghani; Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    A spin-based quantum computer will store and process information via ``spin complexes'' formed by a small number of interacting electronic and nuclear spins within a solid-state host. Unlike present electronic circuits, differences in the atomic composition and local geometry make each of these spin clusters distinct from the rest. Integration of these units into a working network thus builds on our ability to determine the cluster atomic structure, a problem we tackle herein with the aid of a magnetic resonance protocol. Using the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond as a model system, we show analytically and numerically that the spatial coordinates of weakly coupled 13C spins can be determined by selectively transferring and retrieving spin polarization. The technique's spatial resolution can reach up to 0.1 nm, limited by the NV spin coherence lifetime. No external magnetic field gradient is required, which makes this imaging scheme applicable to NV-13C complexes buried deep inside the crystal host. Further, this approach can be adapted to nuclear spins other than 13C, and thus applied to the characterization of individual molecules anchored to the diamond surface.

  14. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (˜98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron-nuclear spin state of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  15. High-fidelity transfer and storage of photon states in a single nuclear spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Wang, Ya; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Hien Tran, Thai; Momenzadeh, Ali S.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Wang, Ping; Yang, Wen; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Kosaka, Hideo; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires photons and quantum nodes that comprise qubits for interaction with light and good memory capabilities, as well as processing qubits for the storage and manipulation of photons. Owing to the unavoidable photon losses, robust quantum communication over lossy transmission channels requires quantum repeater networks. A necessary and highly demanding prerequisite for these networks is the existence of quantum memories with long coherence times to reliably store the incident photon states. Here we demonstrate the high-fidelity (∼98%) coherent transfer of a photon polarization state to a single solid-state nuclear spin that has a coherence time of over 10 s. The storage process is achieved by coherently transferring the polarization state of a photon to an entangled electron–nuclear spin state of a nitrogen–vacancy centre in diamond. The nuclear spin-based optical quantum memory demonstrated here paves the way towards an absorption-based quantum repeater network.

  16. The electronic spectrum of AgBr 2: Ab initio benchmark vs. DFT calculations on the lowest ligand-field states including spin-orbit effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoyo-Castillo, I.; Ramírez-Solís, A.

    2010-10-01

    The X 2Π g, 2Σ g+ and 2Δ g states of AgBr 2 have been studied through benchmark ab initio CASSCF + Averaged Coupled Pair Functional (ACPF) and DFT calculations using especially developed valence basis sets to study the transition energies, geometries, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken charges and spin densities. The spin-orbit (SO) effects were included through the effective hamiltonian formalism using the |ΛSΣ> ACPF energies as diagonal elements. At the ACPF level, the ground state is 2Π g, in contradiction with ligand-field theory and Hartree-Fock results. The ACPF adiabatic excitation energies of the 2Σ g+ and 2Δ g states are 3825 and 20 152 cm -1, respectively. The inclusion of the SO effects leads to a pure Ω = 3/2 ( 2Π g) ground state, a Ω = 1/2 (97% 2Π g + 3% 2Σ g+) A state, a Ω = 1/2 (3% 2Π g + 97% 2Σ g+) B state, a Ω = 5/2 ( 2Δ g) C state and a Ω = 3/2 (99% 2Δ g) D state. The B97, B3LYP and PBE0 functionals, which were shown to yield accurate transition energies for CuCl 2, overestimate the X 2Π g- 2Σ g+ T e by around 25% but provide a qualitative energetic ordering in agreement with CASSCF and ACPF results. The nature of the bonding in the X 2Π g ground state is different from that of AgCl 2 since the Mulliken charge on the metal is 0.95 while the spin density is only 0.39. DFT strongly delocalizes the spin density providing even smaller values of around 0.13 on Ag not only for the ground state, but also for the 2Σ g+ state.

  17. Conservation of the pure adiabatic state in Ehrenfest dynamics of the photoisomerization of molecules

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Oyama, Norihisa; Ohno, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    We examined real-time-propagation time-dependent density functional theory (rtp-TDDFT) coupled with molecular dynamics (MD), which uses single-particle representation of time-evolving wavefunctions allowing exchange of orbital characteristics between occupied and empty states making the effective Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian dependent on the potential energy surfaces (PESs). This scheme is expected to lead to mean-field average of adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs), and is one of Ehrenfest (mean-field) approaches. However, we demonstrate that the mean-field average can be absent in simulating photoisomerization of azobenzene and ethylene molecules. A transition from the S2 to the S1 excited state without the mean- field average was observed after examining several rtp-TDDFT-MD trajectories of a photoexcited azobenzene molecule. The subsequent trans-cis isomerization was observed in our simulation, which is consistent with experimental observation and supported by previous calculations. The absence of the mean-field average of PESs was also observed for the transition between the S1 and S0 states, indicating that the MD simulation was on a single PES. Conversely, we found no transition to the ground state (S0 state) when we performed a MD simulation of an S1 excited ethylene molecule owing to the constraint on the occupation number of each molecular orbital. Thus, we conclude that, at least for azobenzene and ethylene molecules, the rtp-TDDFT-MD is an on-the-fly simulation that can automatically see the transition among the PESs of excited states without the mean-field average unless the simulation reaches the PES of the S0 state. PMID:26658633

  18. Spin-transfer torque and specific features of magnetic-state switching in vacuum tunnel nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, G. D. Popkov, A. F.; Dyuzhev, N. A.

    2015-12-15

    The specific features of spin-transfer torque in vacuum tunnel structures with magnetic electrodes are investigated using the quasi-classical Sommerfeld model of electron conductivity, which takes into account the exchange splitting of the spin energy subbands of free electrons. Using the calculated voltage dependences of the transferred torques for a tunnel structure with cobalt electrodes and noncollinear magnetic moments in the electrodes, diagrams of stable spin states on the current–field parameter plane in the in-plane geometry of the initial magnetization are obtained.

  19. Origin of Temperature Gradient in Nonequilibrium Steady States in Weakly Coupled Quantum Spin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Toyohiko; Sugita, Ayumu

    2016-07-01

    We study nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs) in quantum spin-1/2 chains in contact with two heat baths at different temperatures. We consider the weak-coupling limit both for spin-spin coupling in the system and for system-bath coupling. This setting allows us to treat NESSs with a nonzero temperature gradient analytically. We develop a perturbation theory for this weak-coupling situation and show a simple condition for the existence of nonzero temperature gradient. This condition is independent of the integrability of the system.

  20. Spin Equilibria in Monomeric Manganocenes: Solid State Magnetic and EXAFS Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M. D.; Sofield, C. D.; Booth, C. H.; Andersen, R. A.

    2009-02-09

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements and X-ray data confirm that tert-butyl-substituted manganocenes [(Me{sub 3}C){sub n}C{sub 5}H{sub 5?n}]{sub 2}Mn (n = 1, 2) follow the trend previously observed with the methylated manganocenes; that is, electron-donating groups attached to the Cp ring stabilize the low-spin (LS) electronic ground state relative to Cp{sub 2}Mn and exhibit higher spin-crossover (SCO) temperatures. However, introducing three CMe{sub 3} groups on each ring gives a temperature-invariant high-spin (HS) state manganocene. The origin of the high-spin state in [1,2,4-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}]{sub 2}Mn is due to the significant bulk of the [1,2,4-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 2}]{sup -} ligand, which is sufficient to generate severe inter-ring steric strain that prevents the realization of the low-spin state. Interestingly, the spin transition in [1,3-(Me{sub 3}C){sub 2}C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn is accompanied by a phase transition resulting in a significant irreversible hysteresis ({Delta}T{sub c} = 16 K). This structural transition was also observed by extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements. Magnetic susceptibility studies and X-ray diffraction data on SiMe{sub 3}-substituted manganocenes [(Me{sub 3}Si){sub n}C{sub 5}H{sub 5-n}]{sub 2}Mn (n = 1, 2, 3) show high-spin configurations in these cases. Although tetra- and hexasubstituted manganocenes are high-spin at all accessible temperatures, the disubstituted manganocenes exhibit a small low-spin admixture at low temperature. In this respect it behaves similarly to [(Me{sub 3}C)(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn, which has a constant low-spin admixture up to 90 K and then gradually converts to high-spin. Thermal spin-trapping can be observed for [(Me{sub 3}C)(Me{sub 3}Si)C{sub 5}H{sub 3}]{sub 2}Mn on rapid cooling.

  1. Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.

  2. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    PubMed

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-01

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  3. Incoherent excitation and switching of spin states in exciton-polariton condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Liew, T. C. H.; Egorov, O. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate, theoretically and numerically, the spin dynamics of a two-component exciton-polariton condensate created and sustained by nonresonant spin-polarized optical pumping in a semiconductor microcavity. Using the open-dissipative mean-field model, we show that the existence of well defined phase-locked steady states of the condensate may lead to efficient switching and control of spin (polarization) states with a nonresonant excitation. Spatially inhomogeneous pulsed excitations can cause symmetry breaking in the pseudospin structure of the condensate and lead to formation of nontrivial spin textures. Our model is universally applicable to two linearly coupled polariton condensates, and therefore can also describe the behavior of condensate populations and phases in "double-well" type potentials.

  4. Spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a cobaltate from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Xuedong; Fan, Fengren; Li, Zhengwei; Wang, Hongbo; Wu, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Half metal is a promising spintronic material. Here, we explore, using first principles calculations, a spin-state transition induced half metallicity in a layered cobaltate via a physical or chemical pressure. Our exemplary first principles study shows that the layered cobaltate Sr2CoO3F would undergo a transition, under a pressure of 5.4 GPa, from a high-spin antiferromagnetic insulator to an intermediate-spin ferromagnetic half-metal. The former phase is associated with a superexchange in a Mott insulator, and the latter one is due to a broad band formation and a kinetic energy gain of the partially occupied eg orbital. Note that the above transition could also be induced by a chemical pressure via doping in (Sr1-xCax)2CoO3F (x > 0.3). This work suggests that a cobaltate would be of a particular interest if stabilized into an intermediate-spin state.

  5. Electric field control of spin-resolved edge states in graphene quantum nanorings

    SciTech Connect

    Farghadan, R.; Saffarzadeh, A.

    2014-05-07

    The electric-field effect on the electronic and magnetic properties of triangular and hexagonal graphene quantum rings with zigzag edge termination is investigated by means of the single-band tight-binding Hamiltonian and the mean-field Hubbard model. It is shown how the electron and spin states in the nanoring structures can be manipulated by applying an electric field. We find different spin-depolarization behaviors with variation of electric field strength due to the dependence of spin densities on the shapes and edges of this kind of nanorings. In the case of triangular quantum rings, the magnetization on the inner and outer edges can be selectively tuned and the spin states depolarize gradually as the field strength is increased, while in the case of hexagonal nanorings, the transverse electric field reduces the magnetic moments on both inner and outer edges symmetrically and rapidly.

  6. Spin-rotation symmetry breaking in the superconducting state of CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matano, K.; Kriener, M.; Segawa, K.; Ando, Y.; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break further symmetries. In particular, spin-rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. However, experimental evidence for such symmetry breaking has not been conclusively obtained so far in any candidate compounds. Here, using 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, we show that spin-rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc = 3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet superconductivity in this compound, but may also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity.

  7. Towards a scalable quantum computation platform with solid-state spins in low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wengang

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center can be treated as an ``ion'' trapped in the diamond lattice. An electron spin triplet ground state (S = 1) of NV center can be polarized, coherently manipulated and detected. Together with hyperfine-coupled proximal Carbon-13 and Nitrogen-14 (15) nuclear spins, NV center acts as a promising platform for large scale quantum computation platform at room temperature. By cooling down the diamond to liquid-helium temperature (4K), phonons can be largely suppressed, giving us much longer spin relaxation time (T1) and coherence time (T2) compared with room temperature, and a possibility to readout electron spin state in a single shot. Here we report our progress in building up a prototype for a scalable diamond based quantum computer.

  8. Intrinsic life-time and external manipulation of Néel states in antiferromagnetic adatom spins on semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that antiferromagnetic Fe adatom spins on semiconductor Cu-N surfaces can be used to store information (Loth et al 2012 Science 335 196). Here, we investigate spin dynamics of such antiferromagnetic systems through Monte Carlo simulations. We find out the temperature and size laws of switching rates of Néel states and show that the Néel states can become stable enough for the information storage when the number of spins reaches one or two dozens of the Fe spins. We also explore promising methods for manipulating the Néel states. These could help realize information storage with such antiferromagnetic spin systems.

  9. Ground-state properties of linear-exchange quantum spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danu, Bimla; Kumar, Brijesh; Pai, Ramesh V.

    2012-10-01

    We study a class of one-dimensional antiferromagnetic quantum spin-1/2 models using DMRG. The exchange interaction in these models decreases linearly with the separation between the spins, Jij = R - |i - j| for |i - j| < R, where R is a positive integer ⩾2. For |i - j| ⩾ R, the interaction is zero. It is known that all the odd-R models have the same exact dimer ground state as the Majumdar-Ghosh (MG) model. In fact, R = 3 is the MG model. However, for an even R, the exact ground state is not known in general, except for R = 2 (the integrable nearest-neighbor Heisenberg chain) and the asymptotic limit of R in which the MG dimer state emerges as the exact ground state. Therefore, we numerically study the ground-state properties of the finite even-R ≠ 2 models, particularly for R = 4, 6 and 8. We find that, unlike R = 2, the higher even-R models are spin-gapped, and exhibit robust dimer order of the MG type in the ground state. The spin-spin correlations decay rapidly to zero, albeit showing weak periodic revivals.

  10. Classification of trivial spin-1 tensor network states on a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunyong; Han, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Classification of possible quantum spin liquid (QSL) states of interacting spin-1/2's in two dimensions has been a fascinating topic of condensed matter for decades, resulting in enormous progress in our understanding of low-dimensional quantum matter. By contrast, relatively little work exists on the identification, let alone classification, of QSL phases for spin-1 systems in dimensions higher than one. Employing the powerful ideas of tensor network theory and its classification, we develop general methods for writing QSL wave functions of spin-1 respecting all the lattice symmetries, spin rotation, and time reversal with trivial gauge structure on the square lattice. We find 25 distinct classes characterized by five binary quantum numbers. Several explicit constructions of such wave functions are given for bond dimensions D ranging from two to four, along with thorough numerical analyses to identify their physical characters. Both gapless and gapped states are found. The topological entanglement entropy of the gapped states is close to zero, indicative of topologically trivial states. In D =4 , several different tensors can be linearly combined to produce a family of states within the same symmetry class. A rich "phase diagram" can be worked out among the phases of these tensors, as well as the phase transitions among them. Among the states we identified in this putative phase diagram is the plaquette-ordered phase, gapped resonating valence bond phase, and a critical phase. A continuous transition separates the plaquette-ordered phase from the resonating valence bond phase.

  11. Formation of quantum spin Hall state on Si surface and energy gap scaling with strength of spin orbit coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Miao; Ming, Wenmei; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zhengfei; Yao, Yugui; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-19

    For potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing, it is desirable to place a quantum spin Hall insulator [i.e., a 2D topological insulator (TI)] on a substrate while maintaining a large energy gap. Here, we demonstrate a unique approach to create the large-gap 2D TI state on a semiconductor surface, based on first-principles calculations and effective Hamiltonian analysis. We show that when heavy elements with strong spin orbit coupling (SOC) such as Bi and Pb atoms are deposited on a patterned H-Si(111) surface into a hexagonal lattice, they exhibit a 2D TI state with a large energy gap of ≥0.5more » eV. The TI state arises from an intriguing substrate orbital filtering effect that selects a suitable orbital composition around the Fermi level, so that the system can be matched onto a four-band effective model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, it is found that within this model, the SOC gap does not increase monotonically with the increasing strength of SOC. These interesting results may shed new light in future design and fabrication of large-gap topological quantum states.« less

  12. Formation of quantum spin Hall state on Si surface and energy gap scaling with strength of spin orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Miao; Ming, Wenmei; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zhengfei; Yao, Yugui; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-19

    For potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing, it is desirable to place a quantum spin Hall insulator [i.e., a 2D topological insulator (TI)] on a substrate while maintaining a large energy gap. Here, we demonstrate a unique approach to create the large-gap 2D TI state on a semiconductor surface, based on first-principles calculations and effective Hamiltonian analysis. We show that when heavy elements with strong spin orbit coupling (SOC) such as Bi and Pb atoms are deposited on a patterned H-Si(111) surface into a hexagonal lattice, they exhibit a 2D TI state with a large energy gap of ≥ 0.5 eV. The TI state arises from an intriguing substrate orbital filtering effect that selects a suitable orbital composition around the Fermi level, so that the system can be matched onto a four-band effective model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, it is found that within this model, the SOC gap does not increase monotonically with the increasing strength of SOC. These interesting results may shed new light in future design and fabrication of large-gap topological quantum states.

  13. Formation of quantum spin Hall state on Si surface and energy gap scaling with strength of spin orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Miao; Ming, Wenmei; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zhengfei; Yao, Yugui; Liu, Feng

    2014-11-19

    For potential applications in spintronics and quantum computing, it is desirable to place a quantum spin Hall insulator [i.e., a 2D topological insulator (TI)] on a substrate while maintaining a large energy gap. Here, we demonstrate a unique approach to create the large-gap 2D TI state on a semiconductor surface, based on first-principles calculations and effective Hamiltonian analysis. We show that when heavy elements with strong spin orbit coupling (SOC) such as Bi and Pb atoms are deposited on a patterned H-Si(111) surface into a hexagonal lattice, they exhibit a 2D TI state with a large energy gap of ≥0.5 eV. The TI state arises from an intriguing substrate orbital filtering effect that selects a suitable orbital composition around the Fermi level, so that the system can be matched onto a four-band effective model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, it is found that within this model, the SOC gap does not increase monotonically with the increasing strength of SOC. These interesting results may shed new light in future design and fabrication of large-gap topological quantum states.

  14. Equation of state of pure iron and Fe0.9Ni0.1 alloy up to 3 Mbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Takahashi, Suguru; Nishitani, Naoya; Mashino, Izumi; Ohtani, Eiji; Hirao, Naohisa

    2014-03-01

    Pure iron and Fe0.9Ni0.1 alloy were compressed to a pressure of 279 GPa and 272 GPa, respectively. The compression data sets were fitted using the third order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state based on six different pressure scales. Our result shows the nickel increase the density and the c/a ratio, decrease the bulk modulus. The high temperature data obtained the thermal equation of state parameters. At high temperature, although the nickel effect on density slightly decrease due to the a little larger thermal expansion, the bulk modulus difference increase to 7.3-7.8% at 329 GPa and 5000 K. Nickel effects on elasticity might be important at multimegabar pressure and especially high temperature such as the inner core condition. The core density deficit was estimated to be 3.4(1)-5.1(1)% for pure iron and 4.7(1)-6.5(2)% for Fe0.9Ni0.1 alloy if the temperature at the inner core boundary is 5000 K.

  15. Unambiguously identifying spin states of transition-metal ions in the Earth (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, H.

    2010-12-01

    The spin state of a transition-metal ion in crystalline solids, defined by the number of unpaired electrons in the ion’s incomplete 3d shell, may vary with many factors, such as temperature, pressure, strain, and the local atomic configuration, to name a few. Such a phenomenon, known as spin-state crossover, plays a crucial role in spintronic materials. Recently, the pressure-induced spin-state crossover in iron-bearing minerals has been recognized to affect the minerals’ structural and elastic properties. However, the detailed mechanism of such crossover in iron-bearing magnesium silicate perovskite, the most abundant mineral in the Earth, remains unclear. A significant part of this confusion arises from the difficulty in reliably extracting the spin state from experiments. For the same reason, the thermally-induced spin-state crossover in lanthanum cobaltite (LaCoO3) has been controversial for more than four decades. In this talk, I will discuss how first-principle calculations can help clarifying these long-standing controversies. In addition to the total energy, equation of state, and elastic properties of each spin state, first-principle calculations also predict the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus of each transition-metal ion. Our calculations showed that the nuclear EFG, a quantity that can be measured via Mössbauer or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, depends primarily on the spin state, irrespective of the concentration or configuration of transition-metal ions. Such robustness makes EFG a unique fingerprint to identify the spin state. The combination of first-principle calculations and Mössbauer/NMR spectroscopy can therefore be a reliable and efficient approach in tackling spin-state crossover problems in the Earth. This work was primarily supported by the MRSEC Program of NSF under Awards Number DMR-0212302 and DMR-0819885, and partially supported by NSF under ATM-0428774 (V-Lab), EAR-1019853, and EAR-0810272. The

  16. High-spin states and coexisting states in the Pt-Au transition region

    SciTech Connect

    Riedinger, L.L.; Carpenter, M.P.; Courtney, L.H.; Janzen, V.P.; Schmitz, W.

    1986-01-01

    High-spin states in the N = 104 to 108 region have been studied by in-beam spectroscopy techniques in a number of Ir, Pt, and Au nuclei. These measurements have been performed at tandem Van de Graaff facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at McMaster University. Through comparison of band crossings in a variety of odd-A and even-A nuclei, we are able to assign the first neutron and first proton alignment processes, which are nearly degenerate for /sup 184/Pt. These measurements yield the trend of these crossing frequencies with N and Z in this region. Knowledge of this trend is important, since these crossing frequencies can give an estimate of how the shape parameters vary across this transitional region. 22 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  18. Plug-in Estimator of the Entropy Rate of a Pure-Jump Two-State Markov Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnault, Philippe

    2009-12-01

    The entropy of a distribution with finite support is widely used in all applications involving random variables. A natural equivalent for random processes is the entropy rate. For ergodic pure-jump finite-state Markov processes, this rate is an explicit function of the stationary distribution and the infinitesimal generator. The case of two-state Markov processes is of particular interest. We estimate the entropy rate of such processes by plug-in, from estimators of the stationary distribution and the infinitesimal generator. Three situations of observation are discussed, several independant trajectories are observed, one long trajectory is observed, or the process is observed at discrete times. The asymptotic behavior of the plug-in estimators is established.

  19. Optimizing a dynamical decoupling protocol for solid-state electronic spin ensembles in diamond

    DOE PAGES

    Farfurnik, D.; Jarmola, A.; Pham, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Walsworth, R. L.; Budker, D.; Bar-Gill, N.

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate significant improvements of the spin coherence time of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond through optimized dynamical decoupling (DD). Cooling the sample down to 77 K suppresses longitudinal spin relaxation T1 effects and DD microwave pulses are used to increase the transverse coherence time T2 from ~0.7ms up to ~30ms. Furthermore, we extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. Following a theoretical and experimental characterization of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We also identify that the optimal controlmore » scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state is a recursive protocol, the concatenated version of the XY8 pulse sequence. The improved spin coherence might have an immediate impact on improvements of the sensitivities of ac magnetometry. Moreover, the protocol can be used on denser diamond samples to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step towards the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.« less

  20. Optimizing a dynamical decoupling protocol for solid-state electronic spin ensembles in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Farfurnik, D.; Jarmola, A.; Pham, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Walsworth, R. L.; Budker, D.; Bar-Gill, N.

    2015-08-24

    In this study, we demonstrate significant improvements of the spin coherence time of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond through optimized dynamical decoupling (DD). Cooling the sample down to 77 K suppresses longitudinal spin relaxation T1 effects and DD microwave pulses are used to increase the transverse coherence time T2 from ~0.7ms up to ~30ms. Furthermore, we extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. Following a theoretical and experimental characterization of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We also identify that the optimal control scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state is a recursive protocol, the concatenated version of the XY8 pulse sequence. The improved spin coherence might have an immediate impact on improvements of the sensitivities of ac magnetometry. Moreover, the protocol can be used on denser diamond samples to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step towards the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.

  1. Evidence for a gapped spin-liquid ground state in a kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Mingxuan; Imai, Takahashi; Han, Tian -Heng; Lee, Young S.

    2015-11-06

    Here, the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet is a leading candidate in the search for a spin system with a quantum spin-liquid ground state. The nature of its ground state remains a matter of active debate. We conducted oxygen-17 single-crystal nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of the spin-1/2 kagome lattice in herbertsmithite [ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2], which is known to exhibit a spinon continuum in the spin excitation spectrum. We demonstrated that the intrinsic local spin susceptibility χkagome, deduced from the oxygen-17 NMR frequency shift, asymptotes to zero below temperatures of 0.03J, where J ~ 200 kelvin is the copper-copper superexchange interaction. Combined with the magnetic field dependence of χkagome that we observed at low temperatures, these results imply that the kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet has a spin-liquid ground state with a finite gap.

  2. Optimizing a dynamical decoupling protocol for solid-state electronic spin ensembles in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfurnik, D.; Jarmola, A.; Pham, L. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Dobrovitski, V. V.; Walsworth, R. L.; Budker, D.; Bar-Gill, N.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate significant improvements of the spin coherence time of a dense ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond through optimized dynamical decoupling (DD). Cooling the sample down to 77 K suppresses longitudinal spin relaxation T1 effects and DD microwave pulses are used to increase the transverse coherence time T2 from ˜0.7 ms up to ˜30 ms . We extend previous work of single-axis (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DD towards the preservation of arbitrary spin states. Following a theoretical and experimental characterization of pulse and detuning errors, we compare the performance of various DD protocols. We identify that the optimal control scheme for preserving an arbitrary spin state is a recursive protocol, the concatenated version of the XY8 pulse sequence. The improved spin coherence might have an immediate impact on improvements of the sensitivities of ac magnetometry. Moreover, the protocol can be used on denser diamond samples to increase coherence times up to NV-NV interaction time scales, a major step towards the creation of quantum collective NV spin states.

  3. Magnetic edge states and mixed-parity pairing in spin-triplet superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Vekhter, Ilya; Romano, Alfonso

    2014-03-01

    We show that a spontaneous magnetic moment may appear at the edge of a spin-triplet superconductor if the system allows for pairing in a subdominant channel and non-uniform spatial profile. To unveil the microscopic mechanism behind such effect we combine numerical solution of the Bogoliubov-De Gennes equations for a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbor attraction, and the symmetry based Ginzburg-Landau approach. We find that a modulation of the electronic density near the edge of the system leads to a non-unitary superconducting state where spin-singlet pairing coexists with the dominant triplet superconducting order. We demonstrate that the spin polarization at the edge appears due to the inhomogeneity of the non-unitary state and originates in the lifting of the spin-degeneracy of the Andreev bound-states. For chiral spin-triplet superconductors spin current flows along the interface and surface charge currents exhibit anomalous dependence on the magnetization. - A. Romano, P. Gentile, C. Noce, I. Vekhter, M. Cuoco, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267002 (2013). This research has received funding from the EU -FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement N. 264098 - MAMA, and was supported in part by US NSF via Grant No. DMR-1105339

  4. Quantum entropy and uncertainty for two-mode squeezed, coherent and intelligent spin states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragone, C.; Mundarain, D.

    1993-01-01

    We compute the quantum entropy for monomode and two-mode systems set in squeezed states. Thereafter, the quantum entropy is also calculated for angular momentum algebra when the system is either in a coherent or in an intelligent spin state. These values are compared with the corresponding values of the respective uncertainties. In general, quantum entropies and uncertainties have the same minimum and maximum points. However, for coherent and intelligent spin states, it is found that some minima for the quantum entropy turn out to be uncertainty maxima. We feel that the quantum entropy we use provides the right answer, since it is given in an essentially unique way.

  5. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  6. Order Parameter to Characterize Valence-Bond-Solid States in Quantum Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Todo, Synge

    2003-03-01

    We propose an order parameter to characterize valence-bond-solid (VBS) states in quantum spin chains, given by the ground-state expectation value of a unitary operator appearing in the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis argument. We show that the order parameter changes the sign according to the number of valence bonds (broken valence bonds) at the boundary for periodic (open) systems. This allows us to determine the phase transition point in between different VBS states. We demonstrate this theory in the successive dimerization transitions of the bond-alternating Heisenberg chains and spin ladders using the quantum Monte Carlo method.

  7. Diamond-nitrogen-vacancy electronic and nuclear spin-state anticrossings under weak transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward H.; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond-nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center under weak transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV hyperfine level anticrossing (LAC) occurring at bias fields of tens of gauss—two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported LACs at ˜500 and ˜1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how the NV ground-state Hamiltonian can be manipulated in this regime to tailor the NV's sensitivity to environmental factors and to map into the nuclear spin state.

  8. Feedback-stabilization of an arbitrary pure state of a two-level atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Wiseman, H. M.

    2001-12-01

    Unit-efficiency homodyne detection of the resonance fluorescence of a two-level atom collapses the quantum state of the atom to a stochastically moving point on the Bloch sphere. Recently, Hofmann, Mahler, and Hess [Phys. Rev. A 57, 4877 (1998)] showed that by making part of the coherent driving proportional to the homodyne photocurrent one can stabilize the state to any point on the bottom-half of the sphere. Here we reanalyze their proposal using the technique of stochastic master equations, allowing their results to be generalized in two ways. First, we show that any point on the upper- or lower-half, but not the equator, of the sphere may be stabilized. Second, we consider nonunit-efficiency detection, and quantify the effectiveness of the feedback by calculating the maximal purity obtainable in any particular direction in Bloch space.

  9. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble.

    PubMed

    Klimov, Paul V; Falk, Abram L; Christle, David J; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V; Awschalom, David D

    2015-11-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 10(3) identical registers in a 40-μm(3) volume (with [Formula: see text] fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology. PMID:26702444

  10. Selective Equilibration of Spin-Polarized Quantum Hall Edge States in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amet, F.; Williams, J. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2014-05-01

    We report on transport measurements of dual-gated, single-layer graphene devices in the quantum Hall regime, allowing for independent control of the filling factors in adjoining regions. Progress in device quality allows us to study scattering between edge states when the fourfold degeneracy of the Landau level is lifted by electron correlations, causing edge states to be spin and/or valley polarized. In this new regime, we observe a dramatic departure from the equilibration seen in more disordered devices: edge states with opposite spins propagate without mixing. As a result, the degree of equilibration inferred from transport can reveal the spin polarization of the ground state at each filling factor. In particular, the first Landau level is shown to be spin polarized at half filling, providing an independent confirmation of a conclusion of Young et al. [Nat. Phys. 8, 550 (2012)]. The conductance in the bipolar regime is strongly suppressed, indicating that copropagating edge states, even with the same spin, do not equilibrate along PN interfaces. We attribute this behavior to the formation of an insulating ν =0 stripe at the PN interface.

  11. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble

    PubMed Central

    Klimov, Paul V.; Falk, Abram L.; Christle, David J.; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V.; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 103 identical registers in a 40-μm3 volume (with 0.95−0.07+0.05 fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology. PMID:26702444

  12. Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble.

    PubMed

    Klimov, Paul V; Falk, Abram L; Christle, David J; Dobrovitski, Viatcheslav V; Awschalom, David D

    2015-11-01

    Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 10(3) identical registers in a 40-μm(3) volume (with [Formula: see text] fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology.

  13. Electronic transport in the quantum spin Hall state due to the presence of adatoms in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Leandro; Lewenkopf, Caio

    Heavy adatoms, even at low concentrations, are predicted to turn a graphene sheet into a topological insulator with substantial gap. The adatoms mediate the spin-orbit coupling that is fundamental to the quantum spin Hall effect. The adatoms act as local spin-orbit scatterer inducing hopping processes between distant carbon atoms giving origin to transverse spin currents. Although there are effective models that describe spectral properties of such systems with great detail, quantitative theoretical work for the transport counterpart is still lacking. We developed a multiprobe recursive Green's function technique with spin resolution to analyze the transport properties for large geometries. We use an effective tight-binding Hamiltonian to describe the problem of adatoms randomly placed at the center of the honeycomb hexagons, which is the case for most transition metals. Our choice of current and voltage probes is favorable to experiments since it filters the contribution of only one spin orientation, leading to a quantized spin Hall conductance of e2 / h . We also discuss the electronic propagation in the system by imaging the local density of states and the electronic current densities. The authors acknowledge the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.

  14. Control of vibrational states by spin-polarized transport in a carbon nanotube resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, P.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.

    2015-02-01

    We study spin-dependent transport in a suspended carbon nanotube quantum dot in contact with two ferromagnetic leads and with the dot's spin coupled to the flexural mechanical modes. The spin-vibration interaction induces spin-flip processes between the two energy levels of the dot. This interaction arises from the spin-orbit coupling or a magnetic field gradient. The inelastic vibration-assisted spin flips give rise to a mechanical damping and, for an applied bias voltage, to a steady nonequilibrium occupation of the harmonic oscillator. We analyze these effects as function of the energy-level separation of the dot and the magnetic polarization of the leads. Depending on the magnetic configuration and the bias-voltage polarity, we can strongly cool a single mode or pump energy into it. In the latter case, we find that within our approximation, the system approaches eventually a regime of mechanical instability. Furthermore, owing to the sensitivity of the electron transport to the spin orientation, we find signatures of the nanomechanical motion in the current-voltage characteristic. Hence, the vibrational state can be read out in transport measurements.

  15. Symmetry-selected spin-split hybrid states in C60/ferromagnetic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongzhe; Barreteau, Cyrille; Kawahara, Seiji Leo; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Repain, Vincent; Smogunov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of orbital hybridization and spin polarization at the organic-ferromagnetic interface is essential in the search for efficient hybrid spintronic devices. Here, using first-principles calculations, we report a systematic study of spin-split hybrid states of C60 deposited on various ferromagnetic surfaces: bcc-Cr(001), bcc-Fe(001), bcc-Co(001), fcc-Co(001), and hcp-Co(0001). We show that the adsorption geometry of the molecule with respect to the surface crystallographic orientation of the magnetic substrate as well as the strength of the interaction play a crucial role in the spin polarization of the hybrid orbitals. We find that a large spin polarization in vacuum above the buckyball can only be achieved if the molecule is adsorbed upon a bcc-(001) surface by its pentagonal ring. Therefore, bcc-Cr(001), bcc-Fe(001), and bcc-Co(001) are the optimal candidates. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements on single C60 adsorbed on Cr(001) and Co/Pt(111) also confirm that the symmetry both of the substrate and of the molecular conformation has a strong influence on the induced spin polarization. Our finding may give valuable insights for further engineering of spin filtering devices through single molecular orbitals.

  16. Dynamic control of spin states in interacting magnetic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn

    2014-10-07

    A method for the control of the magnetic states of interacting magnetic elements comprising providing a magnetic structure with a plurality of interacting magnetic elements. The magnetic structure comprises a plurality of magnetic states based on the state of each interacting magnetic element. The desired magnetic state of the magnetic structure is determined. The active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the desired magnetic state is determined. Each magnetic element of the magnetic structure is then subjected to an alternating magnetic field or electrical current having a frequency and amplitude below the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of said desired magnetic state and above the active resonance frequency and amplitude curve of the current state of the magnetic structure until the magnetic state of the magnetic structure is at the desired magnetic state.

  17. Effect of electron spin dynamics on solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization performance.

    PubMed

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Fehr, Matthias; Lund, Alicia; Latimer, Allegra; Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Han, Song-I

    2014-09-21

    For the broadest dissemination of solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (ssDNP) enhanced NMR as a material characterization tool, the ability to employ generic mono-nitroxide radicals as spin probes is critical. A better understanding of the factors contributing to ssDNP efficiency is needed to rationally optimize the experimental condition for the practically accessible spin probes at hand. This study seeks to advance the mechanistic understanding of ssDNP by examining the effect of electron spin dynamics on ssDNP performance at liquid helium temperatures (4-40 K). The key observation is that bi-radicals and mono-radicals can generate comparable nuclear spin polarization at 4 K and 7 T, which is in contrast to the observation for ssDNP at liquid nitrogen temperatures (80-150 K) that finds bi-radicals to clearly outperform mono-radicals. To rationalize this observation, we analyze the change in the DNP-induced nuclear spin polarization (Pn) and the characteristic ssDNP signal buildup time as a function of electron spin relaxation rates that are modulated by the mono- and bi-radical spin concentration. Changes in Pn are consistent with a systematic variation in the product of the electron spin-lattice relaxation time and the electron spin flip-flop rate that constitutes an integral saturation factor of an inhomogeneously broadened EPR spectrum. We show that the comparable Pn achieved with both radical species can be reconciled with a comparable integral EPR saturation factor. Surprisingly, the largest Pn is observed at an intermediate spin concentration for both mono- and bi-radicals. At the highest radical concentration, the stronger inter-electron spin dipolar coupling favors ssDNP, while oversaturation diminishes Pn, as experimentally verified by the observation of a maximum Pn at an intermediate, not the maximum, microwave (μw) power. At the maximum μw power, oversaturation reduces the electron spin population differential that must be upheld between

  18. Spin-State Tuning at Pseudo-tetrahedral d(6) Ions: Spin Crossover in [BP3]Fe(II)-X Complexes.

    PubMed

    Creutz, Sidney E; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-04-18

    Low-coordinate transition-metal complexes that undergo spin crossover remain rare. We report here a series of four-coordinate, pseudo-tetrahedral P3FeII–X complexes supported by tris(phosphine)borate P3 ([PhBP3R]−) and phosphiniminato X-type ligands (−N═PR3′) that, in combination, tune the spin-crossover behavior of the system. Most of the reported iron complexes undergo spin crossover at temperatures near or above room temperature in solution and in the solid state. The change in spin state coincides with a significant change in the degree of π-bonding between Fe and the bound N atom of the phosphiniminato ligand. Spin crossover is accompanied by striking changes in the ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra, which allows for quantitative modeling of the thermodynamic parameters of the spin equilibria. These spin equilibria have also been studied by numerous techniques including paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared, and Mössbauer spectroscopies; X-ray crystallography; and solid-state superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. These studies allow qualitative correlations to be made between the steric and electronic properties of the ligand substituents and the enthalpy and entropy changes associated with the spin equilibria. PMID:27042863

  19. Spin-helical Dirac states in graphene induced by polar-substrate surfaces with giant spin-orbit interaction: a new platform for spintronics.

    PubMed

    Eremeev, S V; Nechaev, I A; Echenique, P M; Chulkov, E V

    2014-11-04

    Spintronics, or spin electronics, is aimed at efficient control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in electron systems. To comply with demands of nowaday spintronics, the studies of electron systems hosting giant spin-orbit-split electron states have become one of the most important problems providing us with a basis for desirable spintronics devices. In construction of such devices, it is also tempting to involve graphene, which has attracted great attention because of its unique and remarkable electronic properties and was recognized as a viable replacement for silicon in electronics. In this case, a challenging goal is to lift spin degeneracy of graphene Dirac states. Here, we propose a novel pathway to achieve this goal by means of coupling of graphene and polar-substrate surface states with giant Rashba-type spin-splitting. We theoretically demonstrate it by constructing the graphene@BiTeCl system, which appears to possess spin-helical graphene Dirac states caused by the strong interaction of Dirac and Rashba electrons. We anticipate that our findings will stimulate rapid growth in theoretical and experimental investigations of graphene Dirac states with real spin-momentum locking, which can revolutionize the graphene spintronics and become a reliable base for prospective spintronics applications.

  20. Spin-helical Dirac states in graphene induced by polar-substrate surfaces with giant spin-orbit interaction: a new platform for spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Eremeev, S. V.; Nechaev, I. A.; Echenique, P. M.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2014-01-01

    Spintronics, or spin electronics, is aimed at efficient control and manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in electron systems. To comply with demands of nowaday spintronics, the studies of electron systems hosting giant spin-orbit-split electron states have become one of the most important problems providing us with a basis for desirable spintronics devices. In construction of such devices, it is also tempting to involve graphene, which has attracted great attention because of its unique and remarkable electronic properties and was recognized as a viable replacement for silicon in electronics. In this case, a challenging goal is to lift spin degeneracy of graphene Dirac states. Here, we propose a novel pathway to achieve this goal by means of coupling of graphene and polar-substrate surface states with giant Rashba-type spin-splitting. We theoretically demonstrate it by constructing the graphene@BiTeCl system, which appears to possess spin-helical graphene Dirac states caused by the strong interaction of Dirac and Rashba electrons. We anticipate that our findings will stimulate rapid growth in theoretical and experimental investigations of graphene Dirac states with real spin-momentum locking, which can revolutionize the graphene spintronics and become a reliable base for prospective spintronics applications. PMID:25365945

  1. Spin Superfluidity in the ν =0 Quantum Hall State of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, So; Yacoby, Amir; Halperin, Bertrand I.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-05-01

    Strong electron interactions can lead to a variety of broken-symmetry phases in monolayer graphene. In the quantum Hall regime, the interaction effect are enhanced by the formation of highly degenerate Landau levels, catalyzing the emergence of such phases. Recent magnetotransport studies show evidence that the ν =0 quantum Hall state of graphene is in an insulating canted antiferromagnetic phase with the Néel vector lying within the graphene plane. Here, we show that this Néel order can be detected via two-terminal spin transport. We find that a dynamic and inhomogeneous texture of the Néel vector can mediate nearly dissipationless (superfluid) transport of spin angular momentum polarized along the z axis, which could serve as a strong support for the antiferromagnetic scenario. The injection and detection of spin current in the ν =0 region can be achieved using the two spin-polarized edge channels of the |ν |=2 quantum Hall state. Measurements of the dependence of the spin current on the length of the ν =0 region would provide direct evidence for spin superfluidity.

  2. Spin Superfluidity in the ν=0 Quantum Hall State of Graphene.

    PubMed

    Takei, So; Yacoby, Amir; Halperin, Bertrand I; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2016-05-27

    Strong electron interactions can lead to a variety of broken-symmetry phases in monolayer graphene. In the quantum Hall regime, the interaction effect are enhanced by the formation of highly degenerate Landau levels, catalyzing the emergence of such phases. Recent magnetotransport studies show evidence that the ν=0 quantum Hall state of graphene is in an insulating canted antiferromagnetic phase with the Néel vector lying within the graphene plane. Here, we show that this Néel order can be detected via two-terminal spin transport. We find that a dynamic and inhomogeneous texture of the Néel vector can mediate nearly dissipationless (superfluid) transport of spin angular momentum polarized along the z axis, which could serve as a strong support for the antiferromagnetic scenario. The injection and detection of spin current in the ν=0 region can be achieved using the two spin-polarized edge channels of the |ν|=2 quantum Hall state. Measurements of the dependence of the spin current on the length of the ν=0 region would provide direct evidence for spin superfluidity. PMID:27284667

  3. The Extended Crossover Peng-Robinson Equation of State for Describing the Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnejad, Hassan; Cheshmpak, Hashem; Jamali, Asma

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical method has been introduced for developing the crossover Peng-Robinson (CPR) equation of state (EoS) which incorporates the non-classical scaling laws asymptotically near the critical point into a classical analytic equation further away from the critical point. The CPR EoS has been adopted to describe the thermodynamic properties of some pure fluids (normal alkanes from methane to n-butane and carbon dioxide) such as density, saturated pressure, isochoric heat capacity and speed of sound. Unlike the original method for the crossover transformation made by Chen et al. (Phys Rev A 42:4470-4484, 1990), we have proposed a procedure which adding an additional term into the crossover transformation to obtain the thermophysical properties at the critical point more exactly. It is shown that this new crossover method yields a satisfactory representation of the thermodynamic properties close to the critical point for pure fluids relative to the original PR EoS.

  4. Non-collective high-spin states in /sup 148/Dy

    SciTech Connect

    Dines, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    General physical concepts regarding nuclear high-spin states are given. The high-spin states in /sup 148/Dy(Z = 66, N = 82) were produced via the reaction /sup 112/Cd(Pb-backed)(/sup 40/Ar,4n) at E/sub lab/ = 175, at the 88-inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Methods for placing gates on various transitions above and below the 480 nsec isomer at 10/sup +/(known from previous work), as well as for calculating transition intensities and their associated errors, are given. Calculations of angular correlations for multiple ..gamma..-ray cascades, assuming non-zero-width distributions in m-states for some given spin state, were done and compared to experimental values. Analysis of RF - Ge and Ge - Ge TAC spectra for transitions above the 480 nsec isomer implied lifetimes of less than or equal to 5 nsec (except for the 327.2 keV transition). Using such analysis, some 19 new ..gamma..-ray transitions were discovered above the isomer, thereby extending the /sup 148/Dy level scheme up to spin I = 31 h-bar. Assignments of spins and parities for the new levels are made based on information obtained from angular correlations and the lifetime limits. Previous work on the 11 transitions below the 480 nsec isomer is confirmed.

  5. A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method.

    PubMed

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-06-21

    We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4](3-), determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter. PMID:27334156

  6. A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-06-01

    We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4]3-, determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.

  7. A state interaction spin-orbit coupling density matrix renormalization group method.

    PubMed

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-06-21

    We describe a state interaction spin-orbit (SISO) coupling method using density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) wavefunctions and the spin-orbit mean-field (SOMF) operator. We implement our DMRG-SISO scheme using a spin-adapted algorithm that computes transition density matrices between arbitrary matrix product states. To demonstrate the potential of the DMRG-SISO scheme we present accurate benchmark calculations for the zero-field splitting of the copper and gold atoms, comparing to earlier complete active space self-consistent-field and second-order complete active space perturbation theory results in the same basis. We also compute the effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin-ladder of the iron-sulfur dimer complex [Fe2S2(SCH3)4](3-), determining the splitting of the lowest quartet and sextet states. We find that the magnitude of the zero-field splitting for the higher quartet and sextet states approaches a significant fraction of the Heisenberg exchange parameter.

  8. Exact ground states of large two-dimensional planar Ising spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardella, G.; Liers, F.

    2008-11-01

    Studying spin-glass physics through analyzing their ground-state properties has a long history. Although there exist polynomial-time algorithms for the two-dimensional planar case, where the problem of finding ground states is transformed to a minimum-weight perfect matching problem, the reachable system sizes have been limited both by the needed CPU time and by memory requirements. In this work, we present an algorithm for the calculation of exact ground states for two-dimensional Ising spin glasses with free boundary conditions in at least one direction. The algorithmic foundations of the method date back to the work of Kasteleyn from the 1960s for computing the complete partition function of the Ising model. Using Kasteleyn cities, we calculate exact ground states for huge two-dimensional planar Ising spin-glass lattices (up to 30002 spins) within reasonable time. According to our knowledge, these are the largest sizes currently available. Kasteleyn cities were recently also used by Thomas and Middleton in the context of extended ground states on the torus. Moreover, they show that the method can also be used for computing ground states of planar graphs. Furthermore, we point out that the correctness of heuristically computed ground states can easily be verified. Finally, we evaluate the solution quality of heuristic variants of the L. Bieche approach.

  9. The ground state of a spin-1 anti-ferromagnetic atomic condensate for Heisenberg limited metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-Na; You, Li

    2016-05-01

    The ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with anti-ferromagnetic interaction can be applied to quantum metrology approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, atoms in an anti-ferromagnetic ground state condensate exist as spin singlet pairs, whose inherent correlation promises metrological precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p = 0 . 4 c corresponding to a magnetic field of 28 . 6 μ G with c = h × 50 Hz (for 23 Na atom condensate in the F = 1 state at a typical density of ~1014cm-3), the scaled QFI can reach ~ 0 . 48 N , which is close to the limits of N for NooN state, or 0 . 5 N for twin-Fock state. We hope our work will stimulate experimental efforts towards reaching the anti-ferromagnetic condensate ground state at extremely low magnetic fields.

  10. Density of states and Fisher's zeros in compact U(1) pure gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Berg, B. A.; Du, Daping; Meurice, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We present high-accuracy calculations of the density of states using multicanonical methods for lattice gauge theory with a compact gauge group U(1) on 44, 64, and 84 lattices. We show that the results are consistent with weak and strong coupling expansions. We present methods based on Chebyshev interpolations and Cauchy theorem to find the (Fisher’s) zeros of the partition function in the complex β=1/g2 plane. The results are consistent with reweighting methods whenever the latter are accurate. We discuss the volume dependence of the imaginary part of the Fisher’s zeros, the width and depth of the plaquette distribution at the value of β where the two peaks have equal height. We discuss strategies to discriminate between first- and second-order transitions and explore them with data at larger volume but lower statistics. Higher statistics and even larger lattices are necessary to draw strong conclusions regarding the order of the transition.

  11. Two successive spin transitions in a wide range of pressure and coexistence of high- and low-spin states in clinoferrosilite FeSiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, Alexey A.; Shorikov, Alexey O.; Lukoyanov, Alexey V.; Anisimov, Vladimir I.

    2016-06-01

    We present a theoretical study of spectral and magnetic properties of clinoferrosilite FeSiO3. Within the DFT+DMFT method combining local density approximation with dynamical mean-field theory FeSiO3 was investigated in a wide range of pressure and temperature including the lower Earth's mantle conditions. For clinoferrosilite, which crystallizes in a monoclinic crystal structure, we predict two high-spin to low-spin transitions under pressure in the Fe-3 d shell with a crossover region at moderate temperatures, which becomes much broader at higher temperatures. An analysis of the Fe electronic configurations reveals that in clinoferrosilite the low- and high-spin states are predominantly involved and coexist in the spin crossover region, while a small amount of the intermediate spin states appears only at very high pressures and can be attributed to the distorted crystal structure of clinoferrosilite FeSiO3.

  12. Surface-State Spin Textures and Mirror Chern Numbers in Topological Kondo Insulators.

    PubMed

    Legner, Markus; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred

    2015-10-01

    The recent discovery of topological Kondo insulators has triggered renewed interest in the well-known Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride, which is hypothesized to belong to this family. In this Letter, we study the spin texture of the topologically protected surface states in such a topological Kondo insulator. In particular, we derive close relationships between (i) the form of the hybridization matrix at certain high-symmetry points, (ii) the mirror Chern numbers of the system, and (iii) the observable spin texture of the topological surface states. In this way, a robust classification of topological Kondo insulators and their surface-state spin texture is achieved. We underpin our findings with numerical calculations of several simplified and realistic models for systems like samarium hexaboride.

  13. Locally gauge-invariant spin response of 3He-B films with Majorana surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Edward; Berlinsky, A. John; Kallin, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    A locally gauge-invariant theory of the spin response of a thin film of 3He-B film is given that describes fluctuation effects arising from the coupled dynamics of the superconducting order parameter (the collective mode) and in-gap Majorana surface states. In contrast to a mean-field calculation of the spin response, which predicts a nonzero imaginary longitudinal spin susceptibility at frequencies inside the bulk gap due to absorption from the Majorana states, our gauge-invariant theory shows that this response is strongly suppressed above the collective mode frequency and vanishes if dipole-dipole interactions are neglected. In the presence of dipole-dipole interactions, in sufficiently thin films, and at ultralow temperatures, the Majorana states lead to a distinctive magnetic-field- and temperature-dependent damping of the collective mode, a feature that may be observable in longitudinal NMR experiments.

  14. Nonmagnetic impurity effects of the spin disordered state in NiGa2S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambu, Yusuke; Nakatsuji, Satoru; Maeno, Yoshiteru

    2006-03-01

    Nonmagnetic impurity effects of the spin disordered state in the triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4[1] was studied through magnetic and thermal measurements for Zn substituted insulating materials Ni1-xZnxGa2S4 (0.0 <= x <= 0.3)[2]. Only 1 % Zn substitution is enough to strongly suppress the coherence observed in the spin disordered state. However, suppression is not complete and the robust feature of the quadratic temperature dependent specific heat and its scaling behavior with the Weiss temperature indicate the existence of a coherent Nambu-Goldstone mode. Absence of either conventional magnetic long-range order or bulk spin freezing suggests a novel symmetry breaking of the ground state. [1] Satoru Nakatsuji, Yusuke Nambu, Hiroshi Tonomura, Osamu Sakai, Seth Jonas, Collin Broholm, Hirokazu Tsunetsugu, Yiming Qiu and Yoshiteru Maeno, Science 309, 1697 (2005). [2] Yusuke Nambu, Satoru Nakatsuji and Yoshiteru Maeno, preprint.

  15. Separating the Spin States of a Free Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Neil

    2008-10-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach set out to test the spacial quantization of the electron by passing a beam of neutral silver atoms through a transverse magnetic field. The interaction of the two projections of the electron's magnetic moment with the magnetic field resulted in a splitting of the beam. However, for some sixty years it was generally accepted that the spin of free electrons, and thus their magnetic moment, could not be measured with an experiment similar to that of Stern and Gerlach. The reason being that the lorentz force on charged particles is far greater than the force due to the magnetic moment of the electron, thus blurring any desired results. To reduce the lorentz force, the electrons could be passed through a magnetic field whose gradient is in the direction of the electrons' momentum. This longitudinal Stern-Gerlach device, with a superconducting magnet, could polarize the tails of a low energy electron beam.

  16. High spin states in {sup 112,114,116}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, S.J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1995-10-01

    High spin sates have been established using {gamma}{gamma}, x - x, x - {gamma}, and {gamma} {gamma} {gamma} coincidence techniques following the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. Data from a series of three different experiments conducted viz., with the early implementation of gammasphere at LBL, with the Compton-suppressed Ge-array at ORNL and x-{gamma} setup of INEL, was used to establish the high spin structures. In {sup 112}Pd yrast levels with energies of 349, 883, 1550, 2318, 3050, 3598 and 4205 keV connected by E2 transitions have been identified. In {sup 114}Pd yrast levels with energies of 333, 852, 1500, 2216, 2860, 3443, 4147 and 5011 and in {sup 116}Pd levels with energies of 341, 878, 1560, 2344, 3092, 3684, 4395 and 5244 decaying through a cascade of E2 transitions have been established. Also {gamma}-bands with energies of 737, 1096, 1362, 1759, 2002, 2483 and 2691 keV in {sup 114}Pd; 695, 1012, 1320, 1631, 1984, 2290, 2655, 2906, 3338 and 3504 keV in {sup 114}Pd; and 7838, 1067, 1374, 1719, 2101, 2493, 2931, 3256, and 3807 keV have been identified. In addition two negative parity bands with enerigies of 2183(5{sup -}), 2599(7{sup -}), 3105(9{sup -}), 3738(11{sup -}), 4473(13{sup -}) and 5256(15{sup -}) keV in {sup 114}Pd and 1984(5{sup -}), 2437(7{sup -}), 2972(9{sup -}), 3632(11{sup -}), and 4417(13{sup -}) keV have been established. The systematics of the yrast bands in these nuclei will be discussed.

  17. Fractalization drives crystalline states in a frustrated spin system

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Neil; Sengupta, Pinaki; Batista, Cristian; Sebastian, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    The fractalized Hofstadter butterfly energy spectrum predicted for magnetically confined fermions diffracted by a crystal lattice has remained beyond the reach of laboratory-accessible magnetic fields. We find the geometrically frustrated spin system SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} to provide a sterling demonstration of a system in which bosons confined by a magnetic and lattice potential mimic the behavior of fermions in the extreme quantum limit, giving rise to a sequence of plateaus at all magnetization m{sub z}/M{sub sat} = 1/q ratios 9 {>=} q {>=} 2 and p/q = 2/9 (m{sub sat} is the saturation magnetization) in magnetic fields up to 85 T and temperatures down to 29 mK, within the sequence of previously identified plateaus at 1/8, 1/4, and 1/3 of the saturated magnetization. We identify this hierarchy of plateaus as a consequence of confined bosons in SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} mimicking the high magnetic field fractalization predicted by the Hofstadter butterfly for fermionic systems. Such an experimental realization of the Hofstadter problem for interacting fermions has not been previously achieved in real materials, given the unachievably high magnetic flux densities or large lattice periods required. By a theoretical treatment that includes short-range repulsion in the Hofstadter treatment, stripe-like spin density-modulated phases are revealed in SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} as emergent from a fluidic fractal spectrum.

  18. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C.; Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-12-01

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH4, NH3, H2O, SiH4, PH3, SH2, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  19. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Zarycz, M. Natalia C. Provasi, Patricio F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, SiH{sub 4}, PH{sub 3}, SH{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  20. On the truncation of the number of excited states in density functional theory sum-over-states calculations of indirect spin spin coupling constants.

    PubMed

    Zarycz, M Natalia C; Provasi, Patricio F; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2015-12-28

    It is investigated, whether the number of excited (pseudo)states can be truncated in the sum-over-states expression for indirect spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs), which is used in the Contributions from Localized Orbitals within the Polarization Propagator Approach and Inner Projections of the Polarization Propagator (IPPP-CLOPPA) approach to analyzing SSCCs in terms of localized orbitals. As a test set we have studied the nine simple compounds, CH4, NH3, H2O, SiH4, PH3, SH2, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The excited (pseudo)states were obtained from time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and the specialized core-property basis set, aug-cc-pVTZ-J. We investigated both how the calculated coupling constants depend on the number of (pseudo)states included in the summation and whether the summation can be truncated in a systematic way at a smaller number of states and extrapolated to the total number of (pseudo)states for the given one-electron basis set. We find that this is possible and that for some of the couplings it is sufficient to include only about 30% of the excited (pseudo)states.

  1. Spin dynamics in the modulation frame: application to homonuclear recoupling in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R; Griffin, Robert G

    2008-03-28

    We introduce a family of solid-state NMR pulse sequences that generalizes the concept of second averaging in the modulation frame and therefore provides a new approach to perform magic angle spinning dipolar recoupling experiments. Here, we focus on two particular recoupling mechanisms-cosine modulated rotary resonance (CMpRR) and cosine modulated recoupling with isotropic chemical shift reintroduction (COMICS). The first technique, CMpRR, is based on a cosine modulation of the rf phase and yields broadband double-quantum (DQ) (13)C recoupling using >70 kHz omega(1,C)/2pi rf field for the spinning frequency omega(r)/2=10-30 kHz and (1)H Larmor frequency omega(0,H)/2pi up to 900 MHz. Importantly, for p>or=5, CMpRR recouples efficiently in the absence of (1)H decoupling. Extension to lower p values (3.5spinning frequencies is possible using low power (1)H irradiation (<0.25 omega(r)/2pi). This phenomenon is explained through higher order cross terms including a homonuclear third spin assisted recoupling mechanism among protons. CMpRR mitigates the heating effects of simultaneous high power (13)C recoupling and (1)H decoupling. The second technique, COMICS, involves low power (13)C irradiation that induces simultaneous recoupling of the (13)C DQ dipolar and isotropic chemical shift terms. In contrast to CMpRR, where the DQ bandwidth (approximately 30 kHz at omega(0,H)/2pi=750 MHz) covers the entire (13)C spectral width, COMICS recoupling, through the reintroduction of the isotropic chemical shift, is selective with respect to the carrier frequency, having a typical bandwidth of approximately 100 Hz. This approach is intended as a general frequency selective method circumventing dipolar truncation (supplementary to R(2) experiments). These new gamma-encoded sequences with attenuated rf requirements extend the applicability of homonuclear recoupling techniques to new regimes--high spinning and Larmor frequencies--and therefore should be of major

  2. A simple modelling approach for prediction of standard state real gas entropy of pure materials.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, M; Borhani, T N G; Gandomi, A H; Manan, Z A

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an energy conversion system depends on exergy analysis and entropy generation minimisation. A new simple four-parameter equation is presented in this paper to predict the standard state absolute entropy of real gases (SSTD). The model development and validation were accomplished using the Linear Genetic Programming (LGP) method and a comprehensive dataset of 1727 widely used materials. The proposed model was compared with the results obtained using a three-layer feed forward neural network model (FFNN model). The root-mean-square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) of all data obtained for the LGP model were 52.24 J/(mol K) and 0.885, respectively. Several statistical assessments were used to evaluate the predictive power of the model. In addition, this study provides an appropriate understanding of the most important molecular variables for exergy analysis. Compared with the LGP based model, the application of FFNN improved the r(2) to 0.914. The developed model is useful in the design of materials to achieve a desired entropy value.

  3. Influence of octupole interactions on the behavior of negative-parity states at low spins

    SciTech Connect

    Sitdikov, A. S. Safarov, R. Kh.; Kvasil, J.

    2006-12-15

    The energies of negative-parity levels based on two-particle states exhibit a nonlinear behavior at low spins versus the core-rotation energy because the alignment process has not yet been completed for them. This behavior of negative-parity levels in the low-spin region is satisfactorily described upon the inclusion of octupole-octupole interactions. This is demonstrated within the rotational model involving the Coriolis mixing of states for the even-even isotopes {sup 162-168}Hf.

  4. Shape evolution at high spin states in Kr and Br isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Jain, H. C.; Negi, D.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Pancholi, S. C.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Yang, Y.-C.; Sun, Y.; Sheikh, J. A.; Raja, M. K.; Kumar, S.; Choudhury, D.; Jain, A. K.; Mehrotra, I.

    2014-08-14

    The high spin states in A = 75, Kr and Br isotopes have been populated via fusion-evaporation reaction at an incident beam energy of 90 MeV. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected utilizing the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Lifetime of these excited high spin states were determined by Doppler-shift attenuation method. Experimental results obtained from lifetime measurement are interpreted in the frame work of projected shell-model to get better insight into the evolution of collectivity. Comparison of the calculations of the model with transitional quadrupole moments Q{sub t} of the positive and negative parity bands firmly established their configurations.

  5. Ground states of spin-2 condensates in an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, G.-P.; Tong, Y.-G.; Wang, F.-L.

    2010-06-15

    The possible ground states of spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in an external magnetic field are obtained analytically and classified systematically according to the population of the condensed atoms at the hyperfine sublevels. It is shown that the atoms can populate simultaneously at four hyperfine sublevels in a weak magnetic field with only the linear Zeeman energy, in contrast to that in a stronger magnetic field with the quadratic Zeeman energy, where condensed atoms can at most populate at three hyperfine sublevels in the ground states. Any spin configuration we obtained will give a closed subspace in the order parameter space of the condensates.

  6. Dimerized ground state in the one-dimensional spin-1 boson Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Apaja, Vesa; Syljuaasen, Olav F.

    2006-09-15

    We have investigated the one-dimensional spin-1 boson Hubbard model with antiferromagnetic interactions using quantum Monte Carlo methods. We obtain the shapes of the two lowest Mott lobes and show that the ground state within the lowest Mott lobe is dimerized. The results presented here are relevant for optically trapped antiferromagnetic spin-1 bosons. An experimental signature of the dimerized ground state is modulated Bragg peaks in the noise distribution of the atomic cloud obtained after switching off the trap. These Bragg peaks are located at wave vectors corresponding to half-integer multiples of the reciprocal wave vector of the optical lattice.

  7. Phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state of electrons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong; Ma, Yinfeng; Ting, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    Using a four-band Hamiltonian, we study the phase boundary of spin-polarized-current state (SPCS) of interacting electrons in bilayer graphene. The model of spin-polarized-current state has previously been shown to resolve a number of experimental puzzles in bilayer graphene. The phase boundaries of the SPCS with and without the external voltage between the two layers are obtained in this work. An unusual phase boundary where there are two transition temperatures for a given carrier concentration is found at finite external voltage. The physics of this phenomenon is explained.

  8. Spin filling of valley-orbit states in a silicon quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Lim, W H; Yang, C H; Zwanenburg, F A; Dzurak, A S

    2011-08-19

    We report the demonstration of a low-disorder silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (Si MOS) quantum dot containing a tunable number of electrons from zero to N = 27. The observed evolution of addition energies with parallel magnetic field reveals the spin filling of electrons into valley-orbit states. We find a splitting of 0.10 meV between the ground and first excited states, consistent with theory and placing a lower bound on the valley splitting. Our results provide optimism for the realisation in the near future of spin qubits based on silicon quantum dots.

  9. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future. PMID:27649678

  10. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  11. The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.

    PubMed Central

    Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

    1999-01-01

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

  12. Using the ground state of an antiferromagnetic spin-1 atomic condensate for Heisenberg-limited metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ling-Na; You, L.

    2016-03-01

    We show that the ground state of a spin-1 atomic condensate with antiferromagnetic interactions constitutes a useful resource for quantum metrology upon approaching the Heisenberg limit. Unlike a ferromagnetic condensate state where individual atomic spins are aligned in the same direction, the antiferromagnetic ground-state condensate is a condensate of spin-singlet atom pairs. The inherent correlation between paired atoms allows for parameter estimation at precisions beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) for uncorrelated atoms. The degree of improvement over the SQL is measured by the scaled quantum Fisher information (QFI), whose dependence on the ratio of linear Zeeman shift p to spin-dependent atomic interaction c is studied. At a typical value of p =0.4 c , which corresponds to a magnetic field of 28.6 μ G for c =50 h Hz (for 23Na atom condensate in the F =1 state at a typical density of ˜1014cm-3 ), the scaled QFI can reach ˜0.48 N , which approaches the limit of 0.5 N for the twin-Fock state |N/2 > +|N/2 > - . Our work encourages experimental efforts to reach the ground state of an antiferromagnetic condensate at a extremely low magnetic field.

  13. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future. PMID:27649678

  14. Realizing Tao-Thouless-like state in fractional quantum spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Rong; Guo, Yao-Wu; Li, Zhuo-Jun; Li, Wei; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-21

    The quest for exotic quantum states of matter has become one of the most challenging tasks in modern condensed matter communications. Interplay between topology and strong electron-electron interactions leads to lots of fascinating effects since the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect. Here, we theoretically study the Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling effect on a fractional quantum spin Hall system by means of finite size exact diagonalization. Numerical evidences from the ground degeneracies, states evolutions, entanglement spectra, and static structure factor calculations demonstrate that non-trivial fractional topological Tao-Thouless-like quantum state can be realized in the fractional quantum spin Hall effect in a thin torus geometric structure by tuning the strength of spin-orbit coupling. Furthermore, the experimental realization of the Tao-Thouless-like state as well as its evolution in optical lattices are also proposed. The importance of this prediction provides significant insight into the realization of exotic topological quantum states in optical lattice, and also opens a route for exploring the exotic quantum states in condensed matters in future.

  15. Far-from-Equilibrium Field Theory of Many-Body Quantum Spin Systems: Prethermalization and Relaxation of Spin Spiral States in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babadi, Mehrtash; Demler, Eugene; Knap, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We study theoretically the far-from-equilibrium relaxation dynamics of spin spiral states in the three-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model. The investigated problem serves as an archetype for understanding quantum dynamics of isolated many-body systems in the vicinity of a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry. We present a field-theoretical formalism that systematically improves on the mean field for describing the real-time quantum dynamics of generic spin-1 /2 systems. This is achieved by mapping spins to Majorana fermions followed by a 1 /N expansion of the resulting two-particle-irreducible effective action. Our analysis reveals rich fluctuation-induced relaxation dynamics in the unitary evolution of spin spiral states. In particular, we find the sudden appearance of long-lived prethermalized plateaus with diverging lifetimes as the spiral winding is tuned toward the thermodynamically stable ferro- or antiferromagnetic phases. The emerging prethermalized states are characterized by different bosonic modes being thermally populated at different effective temperatures and by a hierarchical relaxation process reminiscent of glassy systems. Spin-spin correlators found by solving the nonequilibrium Bethe-Salpeter equation provide further insight into the dynamic formation of correlations, the fate of unstable collective modes, and the emergence of fluctuation-dissipation relations. Our predictions can be verified experimentally using recent realizations of spin spiral states with ultracold atoms in a quantum gas microscope [S. Hild et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 147205 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.147205].

  16. Stability of a spin-triplet nematic state near to a quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannappel, G.; Pedder, C. J.; Krüger, F.; Green, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze a model of itinerant electrons interacting through a quadrupole density-density repulsion in three dimensions. At the mean-field level, the interaction drives a continuous Pomeranchuk instability towards d -wave, spin-triplet nematic order, which simultaneously breaks the SU(2) spin-rotation and spatial-rotation symmetries. This order is characterized by spin-antisymmetric, elliptical deformations of the Fermi surfaces of up and down spins. We show that the effects of quantum fluctuations are similar to those in metallic ferromagnets, rendering the nematic transition first order at low temperatures. Using the fermionic quantum order-by-disorder approach to self-consistently calculate fluctuations around possible modulated states, we show that the first-order transition is preempted by the formation of a helical spin-triplet d -density wave. Such a state is closely related to d -wave bond density wave order in square-lattice systems. Moreover, we show that it may coexist with a modulated, p -wave superconducting state.

  17. Interpreting current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2016-06-01

    Several recent experiments on three-dimensional topological insulators claim to observe a large charge current-induced nonequilibrium ensemble spin polarization of electrons in the helical surface state. We present a comprehensive criticism of such claims, using both theory and experiment: First, we clarify the interpretation of quantities extracted from these measurements by deriving standard expressions from a Boltzmann transport equation approach in the relaxation-time approximation at zero and finite temperature to emphasize our assertion that, despite high in-plane spin projection, obtainable current-induced ensemble spin polarization is minuscule. Second, we use a simple experiment to demonstrate that magnetic field-dependent open-circuit voltage hysteresis (identical to those attributed to current-induced spin polarization in topological insulator surface states) can be generated in analogous devices where current is driven through thin films of a topologically trivial metal. This result ipso facto discredits the naive interpretation of previous experiments with TIs, which were used to claim observation of helicity, i.e., spin-momentum locking in the topologically protected surface state.

  18. All possible coupling schemes in XY spin chains for perfect state transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yaoxiong; Shuang Feng; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-07-15

    We investigate quantum state transfer in XY spin chains and propose a recursive procedure to construct the nonuniform couplings within these chains of arbitrary length in order to achieve perfect state transfer. We show that this method is capable of finding all possible coupling schemes for perfect state transfer. These schemes, without external control fields, involve analytically identified engineered couplings without the need for dynamical control. The analytical solutions provide all information for coupling design.

  19. Emergence of nontrivial magnetic excitations in a spin-liquid state of kagomé volborthite.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daiki; Sugii, Kaori; Shimozawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yoshitaka; Yajima, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hajime; Hiroi, Zenji; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    When quantum fluctuations destroy underlying long-range ordered states, novel quantum states emerge. Spin-liquid (SL) states of frustrated quantum antiferromagnets, in which highly correlated spins fluctuate down to very low temperatures, are prominent examples of such quantum states. SL states often exhibit exotic physical properties, but the precise nature of the elementary excitations behind such phenomena remains entirely elusive. Here, we use thermal Hall measurements that can capture the unexplored property of the elementary excitations in SL states, and report the observation of anomalous excitations that may unveil the unique features of the SL state. Our principal finding is a negative thermal Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] which the charge-neutral spin excitations in a gapless SL state of the 2D kagomé insulator volborthite Cu3V2O7(OH)2[Formula: see text]2H2O exhibit, in much the same way in which charged electrons show the conventional electric Hall effect. We find that [Formula: see text] is absent in the high-temperature paramagnetic state and develops upon entering the SL state in accordance with the growth of the short-range spin correlations, demonstrating that [Formula: see text] is a key signature of the elementary excitation formed in the SL state. These results suggest the emergence of nontrivial elementary excitations in the gapless SL state which feel the presence of fictitious magnetic flux, whose effective Lorentz force is found to be less than 1/100 of the force experienced by free electrons. PMID:27439874

  20. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  1. Magnetic field dependence of spin-forbidden electronic excitations reflects the Haldane or paramagnetic ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, V. C.; Montague, J. R.; Kozen, A. C.; Wei, X.; Landry, B. R.; Pearson, K. R.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    We compare the zero-field and magnetic field-dependent optical spectra of the Haldane chain compound NENB (Ni[en]2NO2BF4; en = C2N2H8) and the paramagnetic compound, Ni(en) 3(ClO4)2,H2O. Due to similar electronic coordination of Ni^2+, the two materials show similar zero-field d-d electronic transitions, including a spin-forbidden (SF) transition at 1.58 eV, overlapping a broad spin-allowed band at 1.45 eV. The relatively greater intensity of the SF band in the Haldane compound suggests activation by a spin exchange mechanism, whereas a spin-orbit coupling origin is likely in the paramagnet. A second narrower SF spin flip transition appears in NENB at 1.66 eV. In both compounds, the SF excitations are sensitive to applied field H. In NENB, the SF intensity is suppressed by H, consistent with behavior of spin exchange-activated bands. In Ni(en)3(ClO4)-2,H2O, the SF field sensitivity appears to combine an energy shift and intensity decrease. Details of the H dependence reflect the magnetic ground state of the material: the field sensitivity commences only above HC 10 T, in the Haldane compound, whereas the field-induced modifications begin immediately at H = 0 T in the paramagnet.

  2. A projection gradient method for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hanquan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose–Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method.

  3. Probing the C₆₀ triplet state coupling to nuclear spins inside and out.

    PubMed

    Filidou, Vasileia; Mamone, Salvatore; Simmons, Stephanie; Karlen, Steven D; Anderson, Harry L; Kay, Christopher W M; Bagno, Alessandro; Rastrelli, Federico; Murata, Yasujiro; Komatsu, Koichi; Lei, Xuegong; Li, Yongjun; Turro, Nicholas J; Levitt, Malcolm H; Morton, John J L

    2013-09-13

    The photoexcitation of functionalized fullerenes to their paramagnetic triplet electronic state can be studied by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, whereas the interactions of this state with the surrounding nuclear spins can be observed by a related technique: electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). In this study, we present EPR and ENDOR studies on a functionalized exohedral fullerene system, dimethyl[9-hydro (C60-Ih)[5,6]fulleren-1(9H)-yl]phosphonate (DMHFP), where the triplet electron spin has been used to hyperpolarize, couple and measure two nuclear spins. We go on to discuss the extension of these methods to study a new class of endohedral fullerenes filled with small molecules, such as H₂@C₆₀, and we relate the results to density functional calculations. PMID:23918718

  4. Spin-Ice State of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore Lattice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-04-29

    We study the low-temperature physics of the SU(2)-symmetric spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice and find "fingerprint" evidence for the thermal spin-ice state in this frustrated quantum magnet. Our conclusions are based on the results of bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations, with good convergence of the skeleton series down to the temperature T/J=1/6. The identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for the static structure factor between the quantum Heisenberg, classical Heisenberg, and Ising models at all accessible temperatures, and the characteristic bowtie pattern with pinch points observed at T/J=1/6. The dynamic structure factor at real frequencies (obtained by the analytic continuation of numerical data) is consistent with diffusive spinon dynamics at the pinch points. PMID:27176537

  5. State diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin-torque oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Mengwei; Wang, Longze; Wei, Dan; Gao, Kai-Zhong

    2015-05-07

    The state diagram of magnetostatic coupling phase-locked spin torque oscillator (STO) with perpendicular reference layer and planar field generation layer (FGL) is studied by the macrospin model and the micromagnetic model. The state diagrams of current densities are calculated under various external fields. The simulation shows that there are two phase-lock current density regions. In the phase-locked STOs in low current region I, the spin configuration of FGL is uniform; in high current region II, the spin configuration of FGL is highly nonuniform. In addition, the results with different STOs separation L{sub s} are compared, and the coupling between two STOs is largely decreased when L{sub s} is increased from 40 nm to 60 nm.

  6. Spin-Ice State of the Quantum Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Pyrochlore Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Kun; Deng, Youjin; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We study the low-temperature physics of the SU(2)-symmetric spin-1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice and find "fingerprint" evidence for the thermal spin-ice state in this frustrated quantum magnet. Our conclusions are based on the results of bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo simulations, with good convergence of the skeleton series down to the temperature T /J =1 /6 . The identification of the spin-ice state is done through a remarkably accurate microscopic correspondence for the static structure factor between the quantum Heisenberg, classical Heisenberg, and Ising models at all accessible temperatures, and the characteristic bowtie pattern with pinch points observed at T /J =1 /6 . The dynamic structure factor at real frequencies (obtained by the analytic continuation of numerical data) is consistent with diffusive spinon dynamics at the pinch points.

  7. Renormalization of spin polarised itinerant electron bands in the normal state of a model ferromagnetic superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Huang, Ai-Qun; Li, Jun

    2011-03-01

    This paper studies the normal state properties of itinerant electrons in a toy model, which is constructed according to the model for coexisting ferromagnetism and superconductivity proposed by Suhl [Suhl H 2001 Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 167007]. In this theory with ferromagnetic ordering based on localized spins, the exchange interaction J between conduction electrons and localized spin is taken as the pairing glue for s-wave superconductivity. It shows that this J term will first renormalize the normal state single conduction electron structures substantially. It finds dramatically enhanced or suppressed magnetization of itinerant electrons for positive or negative J. Singlet Cooper pairing can be ruled out due to strong spin polarisation in the J > 0 case while a narrow window for s-wave superconductivity is opened around some ferromagnetic J. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10574063).

  8. Observation of a highly spin-polarized topological surface state in GeBi2Te4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Kuroda, K.; Miyahara, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Aliev, Z. S.; Babanly, M. B.; Amiraslanov, I. R.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Samorokov, D. A.; Menshchikova, T. V.; Chulkov, E. V.; Kimura, A.

    2012-11-01

    Spin polarization of a topological surface state for GeBi2Te4, the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulator, has been studied by means of state-of-the-art spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. It has been revealed that the disorder in the crystal has a minor effect on the surface-state spin polarization, which is 70% near the Dirac point in the bulk energy gap region (˜180 meV). This finding promises not only to realize a highly spin-polarized surface-isolated transport but also to add functionality to its thermoelectric and thermomagnetic properties.

  9. Pure phase decoherence in a ring geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Stamp, P. C. E.

    2010-06-15

    We study the dynamics of pure phase decoherence for a particle hopping around an N-site ring, coupled both to a spin bath and to an Aharonov-Bohm flux which threads the ring. Analytic results are found for the dynamics of the influence functional and of the reduced density matrix of the particle, both for initial single wave-packet states, and for states split initially into two separate wave packets moving at different velocities. We also give results for the dynamics of the current as a function of time.

  10. One-dimensional extended Hubbard model with spin-triplet pairing ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Akinori

    2016-10-01

    We show that the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model has saturated ferromagnetic ground states with the spin-triplet electron pair condensation in a certain range of parameters. The ground state wave functions with fixed electron numbers are explicitly obtained. We also construct two ground states in which both the spin-rotation and the gauge symmetries are broken, and show that these states are transferred from one to the other by applying the edge operators. The edge operators are reduced to the Majorana fermions in a special case. These symmetry breaking ground states are shown to be stabilized by a superconducting mean field Hamiltonian which is related to the Kitaev chain with the charge-charge interaction.

  11. Spin state transition and partitioning of iron: Effects on mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilella, Kenny; Shim, Sang-Heon; Farnetani, Cinzia G.; Badro, James

    2015-05-01

    Experimental studies at pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's lower mantle have shown that iron in ferropericlase (Fp) and in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) undergoes a spin state transition. This electronic transition changes elastic and transport properties of lower mantle minerals and can play an important role in mantle convection. Here we focus on the geodynamic effect of the spin-induced density modifications caused by the volume collapse of Fp and by the variation of Fe partitioning (K Pv - Fp) between Fp and Pv. Since K Pv - Fp behavior strongly depends on alumina content, we explore two end-member compositions, one Al-bearing (with 4.7 wt% Al2O3 in Pv) and the other Al-free. We use the theoretical model by Sturhahn et al. (2005) to calculate the spin configuration of Fp over a range of pressure-temperature conditions, and use experimental results to model Fe partitioning. We then apply the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye equation of state to obtain the density of the mineral assemblages. The calculated amplitude of the density change across the spin state transition is less than 1%, consistent with experiments by Mao et al. (2011); our density profiles differ from PREM by less than 1.5%. The spin-induced density variations are included in a three dimensional convection code (Stag3D) for a compressible mantle. We find small temperature differences between models with and without spin state transitions, since over billions of years the relative temperature difference is less than 50 K. However the relative RMS vertical velocity difference is up to 15% for an Al-free system, but only less than 6% for an Al-bearing system.

  12. Light-driven coordination-induced spin-state switching: rational design of photodissociable ligands.

    PubMed

    Thies, Steffen; Sell, Hanno; Bornholdt, Claudia; Schütt, Christian; Köhler, Felix; Tuczek, Felix; Herges, Rainer

    2012-12-14

    The bistability of spin states (e.g., spin crossover) in bulk materials is well investigated and understood. We recently extended spin-state switching to isolated molecules at room temperature (light-driven coordination-induced spin-state switching, or LD-CISSS). Whereas bistability and hysteresis in conventional spin-crossover materials are caused by cooperative effects in the crystal lattice, spin switching in LD-CISSS is achieved by reversibly changing the coordination number of a metal complex by means of a photochromic ligand that binds in one configuration but dissociates in the other form. We present mathematical proof that the maximum efficiency in property switching by such a photodissociable ligand (PDL) is only dependent on the ratio of the association constants of both configurations. Rational design by using DFT calculations was applied to develop a photoswitchable ligand with a high switching efficiency. The starting point was a nickel-porphyrin as the transition-metal complex and 3-phenylazopyridine as the photodissociable ligand. Calculations and experiments were performed in two iterative steps to find a substitution pattern at the phenylazopyridine ligand that provided optimum performance. Following this strategy, we synthesized an improved photodissociable ligand that binds to the Ni-porphyrin with an association constant that is 5.36 times higher in its trans form than in the cis form. The switching efficiency between the diamagnetic and paramagnetic state is efficient as well (72% paramagnetic Ni-porphyrin after irradiation at 365 nm, 32% paramagnetic species after irradiation at 440 nm). Potential applications arise from the fact that the LD-CISSS approach for the first time allows reversible switching of the magnetic susceptibility of a homogeneous solution. Photoswitchable contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and light-controlled magnetic levitation are conceivable applications. PMID:23090862

  13. Investigation of high-spin states in 53Fe

    SciTech Connect

    du Rietz, R.; Williams, S.J.; Rudolph, D.; Ekman, J.; Fahlander,C.; Andreoiu, C.; Axiotis, M.; Bentley, M.A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chandler,C.; Charity, R.J.; Clark, R.M.; Cromaz, M.; Dewald, A.; de Angelis, G.; Della Vedova, F.; Fallon, P.; Gadea, A.; Hammond, G.; Ideguchi, E.; Lenzi, S.M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Marginean, N.; Mineva, M.N.; Moller, O.; DNapoli, .R.; Nespolo, M.; Reviol, W.; Rusu, C.; Saha, B.; Sarantites,D.G.; Seweryniak, D.; Tonev, D.; Ur, C.A.

    2006-04-15

    The fusion-evaporation reactions 28Si(32S,1{alpha}2p1n)53Fe at 125 MeV and 24Mg(32S,2p1n)53Fe at a 95-MeV beam energy were used to investigate excited states in 53Fe. The combination of the Gammasphere Ge detector array and ancillary devices led to the construction of an extensive level scheme comprising some 90 transitions connecting 40 states. The lifetime of the yrast 25/2- state and upper limits for the lifetimes of a number of additional states were determined using the Cologne plunger device coupled to the GASP {gamma}-ray spectrometer. The experimental results are compared to large-scale shell-model calculations using different sets of two-body matrix elements. In particular, predictions on electromagnetic decay properties such as lifetimes, branching ratios, and mixing ratios are studied in detail.

  14. Tunable self-assembled spin chains of strongly interacting cold atoms for demonstration of reliable quantum state transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loft, N. J. S.; Marchukov, O. V.; Petrosyan, D.; Zinner, N. T.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an efficient computational method to treat long, one-dimensional systems of strongly interacting atoms forming self-assembled spin chains. Such systems can be used to realize many spin chain model Hamiltonians tunable by the external confining potential. As a concrete demonstration, we consider quantum state transfer in a Heisenberg spin chain and we show how to determine the confining potential in order to obtain nearly perfect state transfer.

  15. Probing iron spin state by optical absorption in laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, S.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Lin, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in iron-bearing minerals have been in the focus of geophysical studies1. Modern consensus is that iron spin state in the lower mantle is a complex function of crystal structure, composition, pressure, and temperature. Discontinuities in physical properties of lower mantle minerals have been revealed over the spin transition pressure range, but at room temperature. In this work, we have used a supercontinuum laser source and an intensified CCD camera to probe optical properties of siderite, FeCO3, and post-perovskite, Mg0.9Fe0.1SiO3, across the spin transition in laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Synchronously gating the CCD with the supercontinuum pulses (Fig. 1A) allowed diminishing thermal background to ~8.3*10-4. Utilizing the experimental setup we infer the spin state of ferrous iron in siderite at high pressure and temperature conditions (Fig. 1B). Similar behavior is observed for low spin ferric iron in post-perovskite at 130 GPa indicating that all iron in post-perovskite is high spin at lower mantle conditions. Also, our experimental setup holds promise for measuring radiative thermal conductivity of mantle minerals at relevant mantle conditions. Figure 1. (A) Timing of the optical absorption measurements at high temperature. (B) High temperature siderite absorption spectra at 45 GPa. Before heating and quenched after 1300 K spectra are shown in light and dark blue, respectively. Green and red curves are absorption spectra at 1200 K and 1300 K, respectively. Spectra shown in black represent room temperature absorption data on HS (43 GPa) and LS (45.5 GPa) siderite after Lobanov et al., 2015, shown for comparison.

  16. Thermal equation of state of lower-mantle ferropericlase across the spin crossover

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Zhu; Lin, Jung-Fu; Liu, Jin; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2012-10-23

    The thermal equation of state of ferropericlase [(Mg{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25})O] has been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction up to 140 GPa and 2000 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Based on results at high pressure-temperature conditions, the derived phase diagram shows that the spin crossover widens at elevated temperatures. Along the lower-mantle geotherm, the spin crossover occurs between 1700 km and 2700 km depth. Compared to the high-spin state, thermoelastic modeling of the data shows a {approx}1.2% increase in density, a factor of two increase in thermal expansion coefficient over a range of 1000 km, and a maximum decrease of 37% and 13% in bulk modulus and bulk sound velocity, respectively, at {approx}2180 km depth across the spin crossover. These anomalous behaviors in the thermoelastic properties of ferropericlase across the spin crossover must be taken into account in order to understand the seismic signatures and geodynamics of the lower mantle.

  17. Probing the population of the spin-orbit split levels in the actinide 5f states.

    PubMed

    Moore, K T; van der Laan, G; Tobin, J G; Chung, B W; Wall, M A; Schwartz, A J

    2006-03-01

    Spin-orbit interaction in the 5f states is believed to strongly influence exotic behaviors observed in actinide metals and compounds. Understanding these interactions and how they relate to the actinide series is of considerable importance. To address this issue, the branching ratio of the white-line peaks of the N4,5 edge for the light actinide metals, alpha-Th, alpha-U, and alpha-Pu were recorded using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and synchrotron-radiation-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Using the spin-orbit sum rule and the branching ratios from both experimental spectra and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, accurate values of the spin-orbit interaction, and thus the relative occupation of the j = 5/2 and 7/2 levels, are determined for the actinide 5f states. Results show that the spin-orbit sum rule works very well with both EELS and XAS spectra, needing little or no correction. This is important, since the high spatial resolution of a TEM can be used to overcome the problems of single-crystal growth often encountered with actinide metals, allowing acquisition of EELS spectra, and subsequent spin-orbit analysis, from nm-sized regions. The relative occupation numbers obtained by our method have been compared with recent theoretical results and they show a good agreement in their trend.

  18. Quantum Transport of Spin-helical Dirac Fermion Topological Surface States in Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong P.

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators (TI) are a novel class of electronic materials with topologically-nontrivial band structure such that the bulk is gapped and insulating yet the surface has topologically protected gapless conducting states. Such ``topological surface states'' (TSS) give helically spin polarized Dirac fermions, and offer a promising platform to realize various other novel physics such as topological magnetoelectric effects and Majorana fermions. However, it is often challenging to unambiguously access and study the transport properties of TSS in many practical TI materials due to non-negligible bulk conducting states. I will discuss our recent experiments on high-quality ``intrinsic'' TIs with insulating bulk and surface-dominated conduction that allow us to reveal a number of characteristic transport properties of spin-helical Dirac fermion topological surface states. We have observed, for example, a thickness-independent and surface-dominated conductance (even at room temperature) in exfoliated TI thin films and well-developed ``half-integer'' Dirac fermion quantum Hall effect (QHE) arising from TSS (observed up to 40K); fully-tunable ``two-species'' Dirac fermion QHE and other intriguing states in dual gated devices where both top and bottom surfaces can be independently controlled; current-induced helical spin-polarization detected by spin sensitive transport measurements using magnetic electrodes; and in TI nanoribbons, Shubnikov-de Hass (SdH) oscillations showing gate-tunable Berry phase and ultra-relativistic Dirac mass; and a ``half-integer'' Aharonov-Bohm effect (ABE) unique to the circumferentially quantized spin helical Dirac fermion surface state modes (sub-bands), with a gate-tunable conductance oscillation and alternation between the ``half-integer'' ABE and regular ABE periodic in fermi momentum. Such TIs and related devices may enable promising future applications in spintronics, thermoelectrics and various topological

  19. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hosung; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Spin defects in wide-band gap semiconductors are promising systems for the realization of quantum bits, or qubits, in solid-state environments. To date, defect qubits have only been realized in materials with strong covalent bonds. Here, we introduce a strain-driven scheme to rationally design defect spins in functional ionic crystals, which may operate as potential qubits. In particular, using a combination of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations based on hybrid density functional and many-body perturbation theory, we predicted that the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in piezoelectric aluminum nitride exhibits spin-triplet ground states under realistic uni- and bi-axial strain conditions; such states may be harnessed for the realization of qubits. The strain-driven strategy adopted here can be readily extended to a wide range of point defects in other wide-band gap semiconductors, paving the way to controlling the spin properties of defects in ionic systems for potential spintronic technologies.

  20. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hosung; Govoni, Marco; Galli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    Spin defects in wide-band gap semiconductors are promising systems for the realization of quantum bits, or qubits, in solid-state environments. To date, defect qubits have only been realized in materials with strong covalent bonds. Here, we introduce a strain-driven scheme to rationally design defect spins in functional ionic crystals, which may operate as potential qubits. In particular, using a combination of state-of-the-art ab-initio calculations based on hybrid density functional and many-body perturbation theory, we predicted that the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in piezoelectric aluminum nitride exhibits spin-triplet ground states under realistic uni- and bi-axial strain conditions; such states may be harnessed for the realization of qubits. The strain-driven strategy adopted here can be readily extended to a wide range of point defects in other wide-band gap semiconductors, paving the way to controlling the spin properties of defects in ionic systems for potential spintronic technologies.