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Sample records for purebred dog breeds

  1. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the "average" dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  2. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world’s dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). Mixed-breeds and purebreds were similar in trainability and boldness scores. However, twelve out of 20 demographic and dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p < 0.001 for both), which could result in the observed behaviour differences. After controlling for the distribution of the demographic and dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p < 0.001 for all). We discuss that these differences at least partly might be due to selective forces. Our results suggest that instead of being the “average” dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits. PMID:28222103

  3. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  4. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    PubMed Central

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary One of the most important factors influencing the health and welfare of puppies is the decision made by the breeder on which dam and sire they will breed from. Unfortunately, our understanding of what dog breeders consider important when selecting their dogs, particularly the dam, is limited. In order to bridge this gap, we conducted an online survey of Australian purebred dog breeders. We identified four major factors that the breeder considered important in relation to the dam: Maternal Care; Offspring Potential; Dam Temperament; and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, the priorities and practices of dog breeders surveyed were variable across breeds. Importantly, it seemed that not all breeders understood the importance of maternal care behaviour, despite the significant role it may play on future puppy behaviour. Abstract Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to

  5. Semen evaluation and fertility assessment in a purebred dog breeding facility.

    PubMed

    Hesser, Andrea; Darr, Christa; Gonzales, Kris; Power, Heather; Scanlan, Tawny; Thompson, James; Love, Charles; Christensen, Bruce; Meyers, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality in dogs has not been assessed in a longitudinal study that includes endpoints of female fertility and pregnancy. Although use of artificial insemination with chilled semen is increasingly used in canine reproduction, the resultant level of predictability and odds of fertile matings for dogs is still not fully understood. This research provides, for the first time, comprehensive semen evaluation in a large population of dogs in which fertility has been tracked. Duplicate ejaculates were obtained from 39 Labrador retriever males of the Guide Dogs for the Blind (San Rafael, CA, USA) breeding program. Sperm endpoints were determined in fresh semen and extended chilled semen at 48 hour after collection. Evaluation included total and progressive motility, average path velocity, morphology, membrane lipid peroxidation, presence of sperm reactive oxygen species, sperm chromatin structure, and mitochondrial DNA copy number. Male age ranged from 1 to 10 years and were grouped as young (Y; 1-3 years, n = 21), middle aged (M; 4-6 years, n = 13), and senior (S; 7 years or greater, n = 5) for analysis. The effects of age and sperm state (fresh vs. chilled) on the above sperm endpoints were determined using a linear mixed effects model. Semen endpoint values for all parameters were established for this group of fertile males. Progressive motility was only lower in the senior male chilled samples compared to all other groups, fresh and chilled (P < 0.05). Velocity decreased with increasing age and was lower overall in chilled samples (P < 0.05). Percent morphologically normal sperm was lower in senior dogs compared with the other age groups (P < 0.05). The presence of reactive oxygen species was lower in chilled samples compared with fresh (P < 0.05). For sperm chromatin structure, the senior-aged group had a higher %COMPαt than the middle-aged group (P < 0.05). Bayesian analysis determined that no differences were seen in total motility, membrane

  6. Ethics and genetic selection in purebred dogs.

    PubMed

    Meyers-Wallen, V N

    2003-02-01

    . At least initially it may be best to use this new genetic information to avoid mating combinations that we know will produce affected animals, rather than to eliminate whole groups of genes from a population. This is particularly important for breeds with small gene pools, where it is difficult to maintain genetic diversity. Finally, we will eventually have enough information about canine gene function to select for specific genes encoding desirable traits and increase their frequencies in a population. This is similar to breeding practices that have been applied to animals for hundreds of years. The difference is that we will have a large pool of objective data that we can use rapidly on many individuals at a time. This has great potential to improve the health of the dog population as a whole. However, if we or our breeder clients make an error, we can inadvertently cause harm through massive, rapid selection. Therefore, we should probably not be advising clients on polygenic traits or recommend large scale changes in gene frequencies in populations until much more knowledge of gene interaction is obtained. By then it is likely that computer modelling will be available to predict the effect of changing one or several gene frequencies in a dog population over time. And as new mutations are likely to arise in the future, these tools will be needed indefinitely to detect, treat and eliminate genetic disorders from dog populations. Information available from genetic research will only be useful in improving canine health if veterinarians have the knowledge and skills to use it ethically and responsibly. There is not only a great potential to improve overall canine health through genetic selection, but also the potential to do harm if we fail to maintain genetic diversity. Our profession must be in a position to correctly advise clients on the application of this information to individual dogs as well as to populations of dogs, and particularly purebred dogs.

  7. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purebred animals for breeding purposes... Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.70 Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate. (a) In connection with the entry of purebred animals for breeding purposes under subheading 0101.11.00, Harmonized...

  8. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purebred animals for breeding purposes... Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.70 Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate. (a) In connection with the entry of purebred animals for breeding purposes under subheading 0101.11.00, Harmonized...

  9. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purebred animals for breeding purposes... Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.70 Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate. (a) In connection with the entry of purebred animals for breeding purposes under subheading 0101.11.00, Harmonized...

  10. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... application for a certificate of pure breeding to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purebred animals for breeding purposes... Provisions Animals and Birds § 10.70 Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate. (a) In connection...

  11. Genetic evaluation combining purebred and crossbred data in a pig breeding scheme.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Reixach, J; Lleonart, N; Noguera, J L

    2011-12-01

    Genetic evaluations using purebred data alone and combined purebred and crossbred information were performed for lean meat percentage in a pig breeding scheme. One purebred (PB) model and 2 crossbred models (CCPS1 and CCPS2) were used in the analyses. Data were obtained from the Selección Batallé S.A. Company (Riudarenes, Spain) and spanned a period of 4 yr (2006 to 2009). The data corresponded to 3 nuclei of purebred populations, Landrace (LD), Duroc (DU), and Pietrain (PI); 1 multiplying farm with animals from a 2-way cross (TB1; DU × LD); and commercial farms with animals from a 3-way cross (TB2; TB1 × PI). Genetic parameters were similar across the models, with the exception of purebred PI. The DU and LD purebreds presented large heritabilities (0.5 to 0.6) for lean meat percentage, whereas the PI purebred showed a lower heritability (approximately 0.1) for the PB model and moderate heritability for the CCPS1 and CCPS2 models (0.2 to 0.3). The mean reliability of the predicted purebred breeding values was clearly increased when the CCPS1 and CCPS2 models were used. Moreover, a reranking of the animals with important changes in the selection decisions was observed in the PI purebred. In a simulation study, the CCPS1 model achieved a greater response to selection than the PB model for the PI purebred. On another hand, between the CCPS1 and CCPS2 models, CCPS1 was slightly superior in terms of predictive ability, exhibiting a greater robustness. These results illustrate the usefulness of using crossbred models to evaluate lean meat percentage in this pig breeding scheme.

  12. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro; Palestrini, Clara; Marelli, Stefano P.; Boracchi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Birth weight is a key factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity in most mammalian species. The great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed, as well as in skeletal and cranial conformation makes it challenging to define birth weight standards in dogs. A total of 3293 purebred pups were surveyed to study which maternal aspects can determine birth weight considering head and body shape, size, body weight and breed in bitches, as well as litter size and sex in pups. In our sample, multivariate analysis outcomes suggested that birth weight and litter size were directly proportional to maternal size. The maternal body shape influenced both birth weight and litter size, whereas the maternal head shape had impact only on birth weight. Sex differences in birth weight were found. Birth weight and litter size also varied among breeds. The results of the present study could have practical implications allowing one to identify pups in need of admission to intensive nursing care, as occurs in humans. A deeper knowledge of the factors that significantly influence birth weight could positively affect the canine breeding management helping to prevent and reduce neonatal mortality. Abstract Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and

  13. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  14. [Exaggerated breed characteristics in dogs].

    PubMed

    Wilting, M M; Endenburg, N

    2012-01-01

    Dutch dog owners seem to be aware of bad dog breeding practices with regard to exaggerated breed characteristics that are detrimental to the dog's welfare. Yet they do not always look for these features when buying a dog. Most dog owners think that veterinarians could have an important role in preventing these exaggerated physical traits, by providing information about these traits and taking action in their capacity as veterinarian. Articles 36 and 55 of the Dutch GWWD (animal health and welfare law) provide opportunities to act against the breeding of dogs with exaggerated genetic traits.

  15. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds. PMID:27736990

  16. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    PubMed

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  17. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Lund, Jørgen Damkjaer

    2003-04-30

    The prevalence of behaviour problems is reported from a questionnaire study among members of the Danish Kennel Club (DKC). In total, 4359 dog owners were included in the analyses. With logistic regression, we analysed four behaviour problems: dominance towards the owner, interdog dominance aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs and Spitz dogs. Poodles, retrieving/flushing dogs, Sheepdogs, Spitz dogs and terriers had higher odds of shooting phobia. The odds of interdog dominance aggression were higher among dogs owned by younger dog owners compared to dogs owned by older dog owners. Dogs living in the capital area of Copenhagen had increased odds of interdog dominance aggression as compared to dogs living in other parts of Denmark. Dogs belonging to owners with limited knowledge of the breed before acquiring the dog had higher odds of interdog dominance aggression. Dogs attending obedience training classes had reduced odds of shooting phobia. Dogs belonging to dog breeders had reduced odds of being reported to have the investigated behaviour problems.

  18. A genetic dissection of breed composition and performance enhancement in the Alaskan sled dog

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Alaskan sled dog offers a rare opportunity to investigate the development of a dog breed based solely on performance, rather than appearance, thus setting the breed apart from most others. Several established breeds, many of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC), have been introduced into the sled dog population to enhance racing performance. We have used molecular methods to ascertain the constitutive breeds used to develop successful sled dog lines, and in doing so, determined the breed origins of specific performance-related behaviors. One hundred and ninety-nine Alaskan sled dogs were genotyped using 96 microsatellite markers that span the canine genome. These data were compared to that from 141 similarly genotyped purebred dog breeds. Sled dogs were evaluated for breed composition based on a variety of performance phenotypes including speed, endurance and work ethic, and the data stratified based on population structure. Results We observe that the Alaskan sled dog has a unique molecular signature and that the genetic profile is sufficient for identifying dogs bred for sprint versus distance. When evaluating contributions of existing breeds we find that the Alaskan Malamute and Siberian Husky contributions are associated with enhanced endurance; Pointer and Saluki are associated with enhanced speed and the Anatolian Shepherd demonstrates a positive influence on work ethic. Conclusion We have established a genetic breed profile for the Alaskan sled dog, identified profile variance between sprint and distance dogs, and established breeds associated with enhanced performance attributes. These data set the stage for mapping studies aimed at finding genes that are associated with athletic attributes integral to the high performing Alaskan sled dog. PMID:20649949

  19. Reproductive performance and pre-weaning mortality: Preliminary analysis of 27,221 purebred female dogs and 204,537 puppies in France.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Guillemot, C; Feugier, A; Mariani, C; Grellet, A; Mila, H

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe efficiency of reproduction of purebred dogs in field breeding conditions, from mating to weaning in France. Data were collected between 2010 and 2014 in 5,667 French breeding kennels via a reproduction management software (Breeding Management System, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Effect of breed size (Mini: adult body weight <10 kg; Medium: 10-25 kg; Maxi: 25-40 kg; Giant: >40 kg), age of dam and male on pregnancy rate, abortion rate and litter size were evaluated by multivariable models. Data on 45,913 heats (all with mating), from 27,221 bitches from 248 breeds, were analysed. At mating, mean age (±SD) was 3.1 ± 1.8 years for bitches and 3.3 ± 2.0 for males. Males originated from the same kennel as the females in 88.5% of the matings. Based on breeder's evaluation of the pregnancy status, pregnancy rate (number of pregnant females based on breeders declaration/number of heats) was 87.8% and abortion rate was 6.8%. Finally, 81.9% of the mated females gave birth to a litter. On 37,946 litters (204,537 puppies), mean litter size was 5.4 ± 2.8 puppies (range 1-24), which was influenced by breed size and dam age (p < .0001). Stillbirth rate was 7.4% and puppy mortality rate (stillbirth + mortality until 2 months of age) was 13.4%. Prolificacy and puppy mortality rates were affected by breed size and within a breed size, by breed. Despite probable approximations (as data originate from breeders declaration), this large-scale analysis provides reference values on reproductive performance in dogs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Breed-specific dog-dandruff allergens.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Belin, L; Dreborg, S; Einarsson, R; Påhlman, I

    1988-08-01

    Fifty-one patients with clinical history of dog allergy were skin prick tested with eight individual standardized dog breed-allergen preparations, one mixed breed-allergen preparation (Poodle/Alsatian), dog-serum albumin, and histamine hydrochloride, 1 mg/ml. All extracts were characterized by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis with a pool of sera from patients clinically sensitive to dog. The dog-breed extracts contained common antigens/allergens, as well as components represented only in one or two dog-breed extracts. The concentration corresponding 1000 BU/ml varied from 16 to 100 micrograms of protein per milliliter. The sensitivity of skin prick test was 67% to 88% for the various dog breed-allergen preparations, but only 18% for dog-serum albumin. Significant difference between the skin test response to different dog breed-allergen preparations indicating dog breed-specific allergens was obtained in 15% of the patients. There was no significant correlation between skin prick test results and symptoms related to a specific dog breed.

  1. Osteological features in pure-bred dogs predisposing to cervical spinal cord compression

    PubMed Central

    BREIT, S.; KÜNZEL, W.

    2001-01-01

    Relative to body size, midsagittal and interpedicular diameters of the cranial and caudal aspects of cervical vertebral foramina (C3–C7) were found to be significantly (P < 0·05) larger in small breeds than in large breeds and Dachshunds, and also larger in Dachshunds (P < 0·05) than in large breeds. This condition increases the risk for spinal cord compression resulting from relative stenosis of the cervical vertebral foramina, especially in large dogs, and this is also exacerbated by the typical shape of the vertebral foramina (i.e. dorsoventrally flattened cranially and bilaterally narrowed caudally). Within large dogs those breeds highly predisposed to cervical spinal cord compression were Great Danes (the breed with the smallest midsagittal vertebral foramen diameters from cranial C6 to cranial T1) and Doberman Pinschers, because of the most strikingly cranially dorsoventrally narrowed cone-shaped vertebral foramina at C6 and C7. The existence of a small midsagittal diameter in the cranial cervical spine was a high risk factor predisposing to spinal cord compression in small breeds and Dachshunds. Remarkable consistency was noted between the spinal level of the maximum enlargement of the spinal cord which previously was reported to be at C6, and the site of maximum enlargement of the vertebral canal currently stated in Dachshunds and small breeds. In large breeds the maximum enlargement of the vertebral canal tended to be located more caudally at the caudal limit of C7. The average age at which large dogs were most susceptible to noxious factors causing abnormal growth of the pedicles was determined to be 16 wk. PMID:11760884

  2. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  3. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same

  4. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  5. Open field activity and human interaction as a function of age and breed in dogs.

    PubMed

    Head, E; Callahan, H; Cummings, B J; Cotman, C W; Ruehl, W W; Muggenberg, B A; Milgram, N W

    1997-11-01

    Open field (OF) activity was studied in kennel reared purebred beagles from two separate colonies (2-13 years in age) and pound source mixed breed dogs (9 months to 10 years in age). Dogs were observed for 10 min sessions and records were taken of: locomotion, urination, sniffing, grooming, rearing, vocalizing, jumping frequencies and inactivity (16). Since dogs are uniquely social towards people, we also measured human interaction (HI), which recorded the same behaviors as during OF when a person was present in the room. Measures of exploratory behavior decreased as a function of age in pound source dogs in the OF test, but not in beagles from either colony. No breed differences were found between the young dogs. In the HI test, age effects were found in beagles but not pound source dogs. OF activity correlated with tests of cognitive function, but differences were found between the three groups. These findings indicate that OF activity is age-sensitive in dogs, but that breed and test conditions are also essential factors.

  6. [Pain caused by breeding in dogs].

    PubMed

    Reetz, I C

    1997-02-01

    According to German animal protection law it is not aloud to breed animals if it has to be expected that the offspring will suffer pain caused by hereditary characters. This paper deals with those hereditary defects which are used directly or indirectly (because of linkage to other desirable traits) in dog breeding. By the patho-physiological symptoms and the genetics of selected hereditary defects recommendations are exemplified how these defects should be handled in breeding that pain can be avoided.

  7. 19 CFR 10.70 - Purebred animals for breeding purposes; certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... handling livestock regulated under 9 CFR 92.18) and cats may be filed either at a designated port of entry...) In the cases of cats and dogs arriving at Canadian border ports, Customs officers and employees are... ports of New York and Boston, provided the dog or cat is brought into the United States by a...

  8. The role of birth weight on litter size and mortality within 24h of life in purebred dogs: What aspects are involved?

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    In humans, scientific evidence emphasizes the role of birth weight on neonatal welfare, morbidity and mortality. In canine species, defining normal ranges of birth weight is a harder issue due to a great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed. The aim of this study was to correlate birth weight with litter size and mortality within 24h of life in 789 pups from 140 litters of purebred dogs and to investigate the aspects that might affect these factors. Birth weight was influenced by maternal size, weight and age (P<0.001). The lightest pups were from toy sized or weighing up to 10 kg bitches. Conversely, bitches aged 2-8 years whelped heavier pups than younger and older mothers. Birth weight was also related both to litter size, with heavier pups in smaller rather than in larger litters from medium sized bitches, and breed (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, birth weight did not differ between live born and stillborn pups. However, birth weight was lower in pups dying within 24h of life (P<0.05). High mortality of pups was related both to short pregnancies (P<0.05), also showing lighter litters (P<0.001), and to dystocic parturitions (P<0.001). Litter size was associated with parity, type and number of mating, and length of pregnancy (P<0.001). Low birth weight appears to predispose to early neonatal mortality suggesting a predominant role of the breed rather than size and weight in determining birth weight in pups.

  9. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    PubMed

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  10. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL.

  11. Prevalence of congenital heart disease in 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats.

    PubMed

    Schrope, Donald P

    2015-09-01

    Assess the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in a large population of mixed-breed dogs and cats. 76,301 mixed-breed dogs and 57,025 mixed-breed cats. Retrospective review of records and examinations based on specified diagnostic criteria. Among mixed-breed dogs, the prevalence of CHD was 0.13% (51.4% female) and of innocent murmurs was 0.10% (53.0% male). Pulmonic stenosis was the most common defect followed by patent ductus arteriosus, aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defect. Among mixed-breed cats, prevalence of CHD was 0.14% (55.2% male) and of innocent murmurs was 0.16% (54.4% male). When the 25 cats with dynamic left or right ventricular outflow obstruction were counted with cases of innocent murmurs, the overall prevalence was 0.2%. Ventricular septal defects were the most common feline CHD followed closely by aortic stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. There was no overall sex predilection for CHD in mixed-breed cats or dogs, and no significant difference in CHD prevalence between cats or dogs. Among dogs, subvalvular aortic stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia had a male predisposition while patent ductus arteriosus had a female predisposition. Among cats, valvular pulmonic stenosis, subvalvular and valvular aortic stenosis, and ventricular septal defects had a male predisposition while pulmonary artery stenosis had a female predisposition. The prevalence of CHD in a mixed-breed dogs and cats is lower than for prior studies, perhaps due to the lack of purebreds in the study population or actual changes in disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [The evaluation of breed-specific defects in dog breeds from an animal welfare viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Peyer, N; Steiger, A

    1998-01-01

    Issues of breed defects such as morphology, physiology or behaviour in pure-breed dogs, are briefly discussed. Suggestions for various kinds of improvements are made, particularly concerning legislation, analysis of pedigree to avoid undesirable breed characteristics and what breeding clubs, individual breeders, judges, future dog owners and veterinarians could and should do about these problems; these are followed by summary conclusions.

  13. Serological dynamics and risk factors of Besnoitia besnoiti infection in breeding bulls from an endemically infected purebred beef herd.

    PubMed

    Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Alvarez Garcia, Gema; Maggioni, Andrea; Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Olivieri, Emanuela; Compiani, Riccardo; Sironi, Giuseppe; Ortega Mora, Luis Miguel; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis has been deemed a re-emerging disease in Western Europe and considered endemic in Spain, Portugal, France and in some areas of Northern Italy. This report refers to an infection outbreak in a purebred beef herd from Northern Italy involving a large number of bulls. In October 2013, 544 animals were serologically tested with an in-house ELISA followed by a confirmatory Western blot to evaluate Besnoitia besnoiti seroprevalence. A year later, 461 animals were then serologically re-tested together with imported animals (n = 268). Overall, 812 animals were involved in the study. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed on skin biopsies of suspected animals and several tissue samples from a slaughtered bull. In the first sampling, 100 animals were seropositive (18.4%); in the second sampling, prevalence increased up to 36.5%, with incidence calculated at 39.6%. The risk factor analysis revealed that the infection was associated with age (OR = 1.007) and sex, with males presenting a greater risk (OR = 2.006). In fact, prevalence values in bulls increased from 29.6 to 56.7%, with an incidence of infection of 53.3%. Moreover, mating with a seropositive bull enhanced infection risk for a seronegative cow (OR = 1.678). Clinical signs typical of bovine besnoitiosis were found in seven seropositive animals, with confirmation of B. besnoiti through histology and immunohistochemistry. The study outcomes confirm that bovine besnoitiosis is a disease with serious economic impact on beef cattle breeding, particularly on bulls in service. Good management practises such as clinical monitoring and serological testing of imported animals should be implemented to control its occurrence.

  14. Inferior Cerebellar Hypoplasia Resembling a Dandy-Walker-Like Malformation in Purebred Eurasier Dogs with Familial Non-Progressive Ataxia: A Retrospective and Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernardino, Filipa; Rentmeister, Kai; Schmidt, Martin J.; Bruehschwein, Andreas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Matiasek, Lara A.; Lauda, Alexander; Schoon, Heinz A.; Fischer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar malformations can be inherited or caused by insults during cerebellar development. To date, only sporadic cases of cerebellar malformations have been reported in dogs, and the genetic background has remained obscure. Therefore, this study`s objective was to describe the clinical characteristics, imaging features and pedigree data of a familial cerebellar hypoplasia in purebred Eurasier dogs. A uniform cerebellar malformation characterized by consistent absence of the caudal portions of the cerebellar vermis and, to a lesser degree, the caudal portions of the cerebellar hemispheres in association with large retrocerebellar fluid accumulations was recognized in 14 closely related Eurasier dogs. Hydrocephalus was an additional feature in some dogs. All dogs displayed non-progressive ataxia, which had already been noted when the dogs were 5 – 6 weeks old. The severity of the ataxia varied between dogs, from mild truncal sway, subtle dysmetric gait, dysequilibrium and pelvic limb ataxia to severe cerebellar ataxia in puppies and episodic falling or rolling. Follow-up examinations in adult dogs showed improvement of the cerebellar ataxia and a still absent menace response. Epileptic seizures occurred in some dogs. The association of partial vermis agenesis with an enlarged fourth ventricle and an enlarged caudal (posterior) fossa resembled a Dandy-Walker-like malformation in some dogs. Pedigree analyses were consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:25668516

  15. Chewing rates among domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Geoffrey E.; Cooper, Meghan; Helvie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian masticatory rhythm is produced by a brainstem timing network. The rhythm is relatively fixed within individual animals but scales allometrically with body mass (Mb) across species. It has been hypothesized that sensory feedback and feed-forward adjust the rhythm to match the jaw's natural resonance frequency, with allometric scaling being an observable consequence. However, studies performed with adult animals show that the rhythm is not affected by jaw mass manipulations, indicating that either developmental or evolutionary mechanisms are required for allometry to become manifest. The present study was performed to tease out the relative effects of development versus natural selection on chewing rate allometry. Thirty-one dog breeds and 31 mass-matched non-domestic mammalian species with a range in Mb from ∼2 kg to 50 kg were studied. Results demonstrated that the chewing rhythm did not scale with Mb among dog breeds (R=0.299, P>0.10) or with jaw length (Lj) (R=0.328, P>0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the chewing rhythm and Mb among the non-domestic mammals (R=0.634, P<0.001). These results indicate that scaling is not necessary in the adult animal. We conclude that the central timing network and related sensorimotor systems may be necessary for rhythm generation but they do not explain the 1/3rd to 1/4th allometric scaling observed among adult mammals. The rhythm of the timing network is either adjusted to the physical parameters of the jaw system during early development only, is genetically determined independently of the jaw system or is uniquely hard-wired among dogs and laboratory rodents. PMID:20543125

  16. Collie eye anomaly in a mixed-breed dog.

    PubMed

    Rampazzo, Antonella; D'Angelo, Antonio; Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Sereno, Sandra; Peruccio, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    A 5-year-old, mixed-breed dog was presented for tetraparesis. Neurologic alterations included a decreased menace response in both eyes. Therefore, an ophthalmic examination was requested. The dog was visual, but menace response, dazzle and pupillary light reflexes were reduced bilaterally. Indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed bilateral optic nerve coloboma and severe choroidal hypoplasia. These lesions closely resembled the ophthalmoscopic features of Collie eye anomaly (CEA). In spite of treatment, the dog's condition worsened and the animal was therefore euthanized. Histology of the globes confirmed severe choroidal hypoplasia and optic disc coloboma in both eyes. The dog was diagnosed to have a lymphoma involving the spinal cord. The two entities were considered not related. As only moderate sight impairment was caused by the posterior segment anomalies, it is by chance that these lesions resembling CEA were found in this mixed-breed dog.

  17. Whole-genome sequence, SNP chips and pedigree structure: building demographic profiles in domestic dog breeds to optimize genetic-trait mapping

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W.; Bhatnagar, Adrienne; Parker, Heidi G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the decade following publication of the draft genome sequence of the domestic dog, extraordinary advances with application to several fields have been credited to the canine genetic system. Taking advantage of closed breeding populations and the subsequent selection for aesthetic and behavioral characteristics, researchers have leveraged the dog as an effective natural model for the study of complex traits, such as disease susceptibility, behavior and morphology, generating unique contributions to human health and biology. When designing genetic studies using purebred dogs, it is essential to consider the unique demography of each population, including estimation of effective population size and timing of population bottlenecks. The analytical design approach for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and analysis of whole-genome sequence (WGS) experiments are inextricable from demographic data. We have performed a comprehensive study of genomic homozygosity, using high-depth WGS data for 90 individuals, and Illumina HD SNP data from 800 individuals representing 80 breeds. These data were coupled with extensive pedigree data analyses for 11 breeds that, together, allowed us to compute breed structure, demography, and molecular measures of genome diversity. Our comparative analyses characterize the extent, formation and implication of breed-specific diversity as it relates to population structure. These data demonstrate the relationship between breed-specific genome dynamics and population architecture, and provide important considerations influencing the technological and cohort design of association and other genomic studies. PMID:27874836

  18. Epidemiological analysis of reproductive performances and kitten mortality rates in 5,303 purebred queens of 45 different breeds and 28,065 kittens in France.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Masson, M; Corbière, F; Mila, H; Mariani, C; Grellet, A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2016-11-03

    Reproduction management and performances are evaluated in the feline species only through a limited number of animals and studies. Our objective was to provide reference figures in purebred cats, from a large-scale sample. Data were collected from an online software dedicated to cattery management (Breeding Management System®, BMS, Royal Canin, Aimargues, France). Information was recorded on a voluntary basis by French breeders between 2011 and 2014. Data were anonymously transferred for analysis. A total of 9,063 oestrous periods (in contact with a male) from 5,303 queens (45 breeds) were recorded from 1,521 breeders. Most matings (70.1%) occurred during increasing day length periods. The mean age at mating (±SD) was 2.7 ± 1.6 years for queens and 2.9 ± 1.9 years for tomcats. Pregnancy rate (based on breeders declaration) was 85.2%. Among queens declared pregnant, 8.4% failed to maintain pregnancy. Globally, 78% of the mated females gave birth to 28,065 kittens within 7,075 L. Mean litter size was 4.0 ± 1.9 kittens among which 8.5% were stillborn. Neonatal and paediatric mortality rate was 8.2%. In total, 16.0% of kittens born died before weaning. The results of this study are based on the largest feline database ever analysed. The figures collected can thus be used as reference to define average reproductive performances in numerous breeds for cat breeders. Further analysis will identify factors influencing reproductive performances and early mortality in the feline species.

  19. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  20. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I in a mixed-breed dog.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt L; McMillan, Kate; Monroe, William E; Sponenberg, D Phillip; Evans, Nick; Makris, Melissa; Hammond, Sarah H; Kanevsky Mullarky, Isis; Boudreaux, Mary K

    2013-03-01

    A 6-month-old, neutered male, mixed-breed dog was examined for a 2-month persistent fever, nonhealing dermal metacarpal area wound, and leukocytosis (47.0-198.0 × 10(3)/μl). Serum chemistry findings included hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperphosphatasemia. Complete blood cell count results revealed a moderate microcytic, hypochromic nonregenerative anemia with a profound leukocytosis (198.5 × 10(3)/μl), characterized by neutrophilia with toxicity and hypersegmentation, and significant band cells. Tick-borne disease titers (genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Borrelia) were negative, as were polymerase chain reaction for other infectious agents (genera Hepatozoon, Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma; and Canine distemper virus). No agents were identified in a deep dermal biopsy (conventional and special histochemical stains) of the chronic draining, metacarpal region lesion. Cytology of the draining tract revealed numerous mixed bacteria and a surprising lack of neutrophils. Chronic occult blood loss with iron deficiency was considered a possible cause of the anemia. Differentials for the leukon were chronic established inflammation (occult infectious agent), chronic neutrophilic leukemia, paraneoplastic leukocytosis (neoplastic source of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF] or granulocyte-macrophage CSF), and leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD). The possibility of a LAD disorder was further investigated because of the noted hypersegmented neutrophils, absence of neutrophils in the cytology sample, the animal's young age, and persistence of clinical and laboratory signs. Flow cytometry of blood neutrophils showed a 60% reduction in surface expression of the β2-integrin (CD18) subunit, whereas neutrophil function tests (oxidative burst and phagocytosis) were normal. Genetic testing revealed a homozygous missense mutation in the β2-integrin subunit gene, previously recognized only in purebred Irish Setters, leading to a diagnosis of LAD

  1. Lateral patellar luxation in nine small breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dona, F. Di; Valle, G. Della; Balestriere, C.; Lamagna, B.; Meomartino, L.; Napoleone, G.; Lamagna, F.; Fatone, G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the clinical features, the management and the outcome of nine small breed dogs affected with lateral patella luxation referred during the period between January 2010 and December 2014. Patellar luxations were classified according to: breed, age, sex, weight, and grade of patellar luxation, as well as if unilateral or bilateral, and concurrent cranial cruciate ligament lesion. In affected dogs, surgical correction consisted in the combination of tibial tuberosity transposition and soft tissue procedure. Adjunctive condroplasty or trochleoplasty was performed as needing. The outcome was found positive after surgical management with low complication rate and complications have been easily managed with high success rate. PMID:28116250

  2. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Charlotte E; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Havstad, Suzanne L; Zoratti, Edward M; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs.

  3. Dog allergen levels in homes with hypoallergenic compared with nonhypoallergenic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa R.; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the public interest in hypoallergenic dogs, few scientific, including epidemiological studies have attempted to evaluate claims of hypoallergenicity. This study was designed to determine whether dog breeds reported as hypoallergenic correspond to lower dog allergen in the home versus nonhypoallergenic dogs. Methods: A web search was conducted to identify breeds cited as hypoallergenic. Four separate classification schemes using combinations of purebred and mixed breed dogs were used to compare the levels of Canis familiaris 1 in dust samples collected from homes with hypoallergenic versus nonhypoallergenic dogs from an established birth cohort. Results: No classification scheme showed that the level of dog allergen in homes with hypoallergenic dogs differed from other homes. Conclusion: Dog-allergic individuals should have access to scientifically valid information on the level of allergen shedding of different breeds of dogs. PMID:21819763

  4. Breed-specific ancestry studies and genome-wide association analysis highlight an association between the MYH9 gene and heat tolerance in Alaskan sprint racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Huson, Heather J; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Rimbault, Maud; Byers, Alexandra M; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2012-02-01

    Alaskan sled dogs are a genetically distinct population shaped by generations of selective interbreeding with purebred dogs to create a group of high-performance athletes. As a result of selective breeding strategies, sled dogs present a unique opportunity to employ admixture-mapping techniques to investigate how breed composition and trait selection impact genomic structure. We used admixture mapping to investigate genetic ancestry across the genomes of two classes of sled dogs, sprint and long-distance racers, and combined that with genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify regions that correlate with performance-enhancing traits. The sled dog genome is enhanced by differential contributions from four non-admixed breeds (Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, German Shorthaired Pointer, and Borzoi). A principal components analysis (PCA) of 115,000 genome-wide SNPs clearly resolved the sprint and distance populations as distinct genetic groups, with longer blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed in the distance versus sprint dogs (7.5-10 and 2.5-3.75 kb, respectively). Furthermore, we identified eight regions with the genomic signal from either a selective sweep or an association analysis, corroborated by an excess of ancestry when comparing sprint and distance dogs. A comparison of elite and poor-performing sled dogs identified a single region significantly associated with heat tolerance. Within the region we identified seven SNPs within the myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) that were significantly associated with heat tolerance in sprint dogs, two of which correspond to conserved promoter and enhancer regions in the human ortholog.

  5. Breed-Specific Ancestry Studies and Genome-Wide Association Analysis Highlight an Association Between the MYH9 Gene and Heat Tolerance in Alaskan Sprint Racing Sled Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Heather J.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Rimbault, Maud; Byers, Alexandra M.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Alaskan sled dogs are a genetically distinct population shaped by generations of selective interbreeding with purebred dogs to create a group of high performance athletes. As a result of selective breeding strategies, sled dogs present a unique opportunity to employ admixture-mapping techniques to investigate how breed composition and trait selection impact genomic structure. We used admixture mapping to investigate genetic ancestry across the genomes of two classes of sled dogs, sprint and long distance racers, and combined that with genome wide association studies (GWAS) to identify regions correlating with performance enhancing traits. The sled dog genome is enhanced by differential contributions from four non-admixed breeds (Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, German Shorthaired Pointer, and Borzoi). A principle components analysis (PCA) of 115,000 genome-wide SNPs clearly resolved the sprint and distance populations as distinct genetic groups, with longer blocks of linkage disequilibrium (LD) observed in the distance versus sprint dogs (7.5–10 and 2.5–3.75 kb, respectively). Further, we identified eight regions with the genomic signal either from a selective sweep or an association analysis, corroborated by an excess of ancestry when comparing sprint and distance dogs. A comparison of elite and poor performing sled dogs identified a single region significantly association with heat tolerance. Within the region we identified seven SNPs within the myosin heavy chain 9 gene (MYH9) that were significantly associated with heat tolerance in sprint dogs, two of which correspond to conserved promoter and enhancer regions in the human ortholog. PMID:22105876

  6. The bald and the beautiful: hairlessness in domestic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Alexander; Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2017-01-01

    An extraordinary amount of genomic variation is contained within the chromosomes of domestic dogs, manifesting as dramatic differences in morphology, behaviour and disease susceptibility. Morphology, in particular, has been a topic of enormous interest as biologists struggle to understand the small window of dog domestication from wolves, and the division of dogs into pure breeding, closed populations termed breeds. Many traits related to morphology, including body size, leg length and skull shape, have been under selection as part of the standard descriptions for the nearly 400 breeds recognized worldwide. Just as important, however, are the minor traits that have undergone selection by fanciers and breeders to define dogs of a particular appearance, such as tail length, ear position, back arch and variation in fur (pelage) growth patterns. In this paper, we both review and present new data for traits associated with pelage including fur length, curl, growth, shedding and even the presence or absence of fur. Finally, we report the discovery of a new gene associated with the absence of coat in the American Hairless Terrier breed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994129

  7. A comparison of the behavioral profiles of purebred dogs in Japan to profiles of those in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2006-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 56 pure breeds of dogs in Japan, 96 small-animal veterinarians participated in a questionnaire survey using the same criteria as in preceding studies conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined. In addition, gender differences were revealed in terms of aggression to dogs, territorial defense, excitability, general activity, dominance over owner, destructiveness, watchdog barking, and snapping at children, which were all rated higher in males than females, whereas obedience training and housebreaking ease were rated higher in females. No gender differences were evident in playfulness, excessive barking, or affection demand. Using factor analyses, "aggressiveness", "reactivity", and "trainability" were determined to be consistent with results found in the US and UK surveys. On the basis of these factor scores, seven groups of breeds were determined by cluster analysis to compare to the US survey; 22 of the 38 breeds common with the US survey were categorized into the same groups as those in that survey. The results demonstrated differences in canine behavioral predisposition among breeds and between genders. The similarity in the results between our study and previous surveys, which involved distinct geographical locales, suggests that the genetic basis of breed-specific temperamental traits is manifested irrespective of the cultural or regional identities of the owners.

  8. Dog owners' perceptions of breed-specific dangerous dog legislation in the UK.

    PubMed

    Oxley, J A; Farr, K J; De Luna, C J

    2012-10-27

    The aim of this study was to identify both the level and source of knowledge that dog owners in the UK have of the Dangerous Dogs Act 1991. In order to acquire such information a questionnaire was designed and distributed using two main methods over a period of five months. Questionnaires were distributed via three pet-related online forums and by hand at two locations within five predefined areas in England. In total, 459 responses were received. Of these, 21.4 per cent were unable to name a single type of banned dog and 81.9 per cent of respondents agreed that information on dog legislation was not publicised enough. The knowledge of banned breeds among the dog owners surveyed was low and respondents expressed a desire to see the law relating to dangerous dogs in the UK either changed or improved.

  9. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  10. Comparison of tibial plateau angles in small and large breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lillian; Townsend, Katy L.; Au, Jennifer; Wittum, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease can affect dogs of all sizes. The literature describing tibial plateau angle (TPA) in small breed dogs is limited. A retrospective study was conducted in unselected dogs presented for stifle or tibial examination to compare TPA in small breed dogs (n = 146 dogs, 185 stifles) versus large breed dogs (n = 200 dogs, 265 stifles). Small breed dogs had a mean TPA 3.1° ± 0.6° higher than large breed dogs. There were higher TPAs in spayed females and castrated males for all dogs compared with intact males (3.6° ± 1.0° and 2.7° ± 1.0°, respectively). Dogs with unilateral and bilateral CCL disease had higher TPAs compared to dogs with intact CCLs (2.0° ± 0.7° and 2.5° ± 0.8°, respectively). Tibial morphology differs between large and small breed dogs; however, the significance of the impact of TPA on CCL disease in small breed dogs is unknown. PMID:26028684

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in <1-year-old dogs were significantly more prevalent than in ≥ 1-year-old dogs (61.0 vs. 19.8 %, P < 0.0001; 7.3 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.0001; and 4.9 vs. 0.2 %, P < 0.001; respectively). With respect to fecal condition, the prevalences of T. leonina and T. vulpis were significantly higher in unformed stool dogs than in formed ones (2.4 vs. 0 %, P < 0.01, and 4.3 vs. 0.8 %, P < 0.05, respectively). In all of the breeding kennels except for one kennel, intestinal parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  12. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    PubMed

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (<251 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (<150 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Border Collies, and German Shepherd Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

  13. Isolation of DNA markers informative in purebred dog families by genomic representational difference analysis (gRDA).

    PubMed

    Everts, R E; Versteeg, S A; Renier, C; Vignaux, F; Groot, P C; Rothuizen, J; van Oost, B A

    2000-09-01

    Genomic Representational Difference Analysis (gRDA) is a subtractive DNA method to clone the differences between two related genomes, called tester and driver. We have evaluated this method to obtain polymorphic DNA markers for pedigree dogs. Amplified size-selected genomic restriction fragments (amplicons) of two dog littermates were repeatedly hybridized to each other in order to remove (subtract) those restriction fragments common to both sibs. Already after two rounds of subtractive hybridization, a clear enrichment of presumably tester-specific restriction fragments was observed, which was even more pronounced after the third round of subtraction. A plasmid library of 3000 recombinant clones was constructed of the second round and of the third round difference product. DNA sequence determination of randomly chosen clones of each difference product showed that approximately 1000 unique clones were obtained in the second-round difference product and approximately 500 in the third-round difference product. About half of the clones identified in the second-round difference product were also present in the third-round difference product. Of the second-round difference product, 39 different gRDA fragments could be identified, of which 21 were tester specific. In the third-round difference product, 22 different gRDA fragments were identified, of which 18 were tester specific. There were 13 fragments in common, resulting in a total of 48 different fragments. In order to establish the localization of these markers, we performed mapping using the dog radiation hybrid panel RHDF5000. Of 39 mapped clones, 29 were mapped to 20 existing RH groups, and 10 remained unlinked. It is concluded that gRDA is suitable to generate DNA markers to track disease genes within lines of pedigree dogs.

  14. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a large mixed-breed dog.

    PubMed

    Estey, Chelsie M; Scott, Steven J; Cerda-Gonzalez, Sofia

    2014-12-01

    A 4-year-old 26-kg (57.2-lb) spayed female Staffordshire Bull Terrier mix was evaluated because of a 24-hour history of cluster seizures. Neurologic examination revealed altered mentation and multifocal intracranial signs; MRI was performed. The MRI findings included multifocal, asymmetric forebrain lesions affecting both the gray and white matter, an area suggestive of focal necrosis, and loss of corticomedullary distinction. A midline shift and caudal transtentorial herniation were noted, suggestive of greater than normal intracranial pressure. Because the dog's clinical signs worsened despite medical treatment and additional evidence of increased intracranial pressure, bilateral craniectomy and durectomy were performed. Histologic evaluation of a brain biopsy specimen revealed bilateral and asymmetric areas of necrosis in the subcortical white matter and adjacent gray matter. At the periphery of the necrotic areas, there was increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and Virchow-Robin spaces were expanded by CD3+ lymphocytes. Results of immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue were negative for canine distemper virus, Neospora canis, and Toxoplasma gondii. These clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings were compatible with necrotizing meningoencephalitis. The dog's neurologic status continued to worsen following surgery. Repeated MRI revealed ongoing signs of increased intracranial pressure, despite the bilateral craniectomy. The owners elected euthanasia. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a large mixed-breed dog. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs other than small or toy breeds that have signs suggestive of inflammatory disease.

  15. Dog breed stereotype and exposure to negative behavior: effects on perceptions of adoptability.

    PubMed

    Wright, John C; Smith, Alison; Daniel, Katie; Adkins, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if brief exposure to a dog behaving badly or in a friendly manner affects subsequent perceptions of the target dog's and other dogs' adoptability. Participants viewed a videotape of an adoptable German shepherd behaving either aggressively or prosocially and were then asked to rate the characteristics and adoptability of the same and different dogs. The results showed that people who saw the aggressive behavioral schema perceived only the target dog and a dog of the same breed to be significantly less adoptable than dogs of other breeds (p<.01). Results of a principal components analysis showed participants perceived the adoptability of dogs to be related to "sociability": Adoptable dogs were more approachable, friendly, intelligent, and less dangerous and aggressive (p<.01). Brief exposure to a misbehaving dog prior to making a decision to adopt may unfairly penalize other dogs perceived to be similar to the misbehaving dog.

  16. Breed susceptibility for developmental orthopedic diseases in dogs.

    PubMed

    LaFond, Elizabeth; Breur, Gert J; Austin, Connie C

    2002-01-01

    A large-scale epidemiological study was conducted to determine breeds at risk for 12 developmental orthopedic diseases (DODs). Developmental orthopedic diseases investigated included canine hip dysplasia (CHD); craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO); fragmented coronoid process; hypertrophic osteodystrophy; Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; osteochondrosis of the medial humeral condyle, caudal humeral head, femoral condyles, and talar trochlear ridges; panosteitis; patella luxation; and ununited anconeal process. Dogs that were diagnosed with any one of the diseases of interest at any of 10 veterinary teaching hospitals participating in the Veterinary Medical Database from 1986 to 1995 were included as cases. Odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine risk. Frequency of diagnosis during the 10-year period ranged from 35 cases (CMO) to 10,637 cases (CHD). The number of breeds at increased risk for a disease ranged from one (CMO) to 35 (CHD). Breed susceptibility for a DOD may suggest a genetic component in the disease etiology. The results of this study serve to increase veterinarians' awareness of breeds susceptible to DODs and may facilitate the control of such diseases by identifying breeds that might benefit from breeding programs or environmental intervention such as dietary modification.

  17. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration in dogs: breed distribution of 495 canines.

    PubMed

    Heller, Amanda R; van der Woerdt, Alexandra; Gaarder, James E; Sapienza, John S; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Abrams, Kenneth; Church, Melanie L; La Croix, Noelle

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breed, age, gender, and weight distribution of dogs affected with sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) and to investigate whether SARD is more common in small breed dogs. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with SARD confirmed by an electroretinogram were reviewed. Breed, age, gender, and weight were recorded when available. The same data were obtained for dogs with SARD described in the veterinary literature. Three hundred and two dogs were included from the ophthalmology practices and 193 dogs from the veterinary literature. Sixty breeds were present in the study. Mixed-breed dogs were the most common at 108 dogs (21.8%), followed by the Dachshund (68, 13.7%), Chinese Pug (44, 8.9%), Miniature Schnauzer (39, 7.9%), Maltese (23, 4.6%), Cocker Spaniel (22, 4.4%), Bichon Frise (18, 3.6%), Beagle (16, 3.2%), Brittany (15, 3.0%), and Pomeranian (10, 2.0%). Fifty other breeds were represented by 1-9 dogs each. The median age was 9 years (range = 10 months-16 years). The weight was known for 197 dogs. About 60.9% of dogs were less than 25 pounds, 31.5% were between 25 and 50 pounds, and 7.6% were greater than 50 pounds. Gender was recorded in 393 dogs: 217 female dogs and 176 male dogs. As previously reported, SARD is most common in middle-aged to older dogs. Smaller dogs of less than 25 pounds appear overrepresented, while large/giant breed dogs of greater than 50 pounds are infrequently diagnosed. In this study, there was no statistical significance between female and male dogs. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  18. Increased prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Bernese Mountain Dogs: a possible breed predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2007-01-01

    Background Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. Results 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. Conclusion The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected. PMID:17626630

  19. Increased prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi infections in Bernese Mountain Dogs: a possible breed predisposition.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Bernhard; Eichenberger, Simone; Wittenbrink, Max M; Reusch, Claudia E

    2007-07-12

    Glomerulonephritis in dogs has been associated with B. burgdorferi infections. In Bernese Mountain Dogs with glomerulonephritis antibodies against B. burgdorferi have been found in most dogs, raising the question if the breed is predisposed to infections with B. burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in a well defined population of Bernese Mountain Dogs and to compare this prevalence with data from dogs of other breeds. 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs and 62 control dogs (large breed dogs with long hair) were included. All dogs were considered healthy according to a questionnaire filled out by the owner, complete blood count, chemistry panel, urinalysis and urine culture. Bernese Mountain Dogs and control dogs were kept in similar environments. Seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi was assessed by ELISA and Western blot and was 58% in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to 15% in control dogs. This difference was significant. Neither antibodies against leptospires nor vaccination or hair coat color influenced the results. The cause of the considerably higher prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi in Bernese Mountain Dogs and it's consequences are not known. A breed predisposition can be suspected.

  20. Comparison of owner-reported behavioral characteristics among genetically clustered breeds of dog (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed Central

    Tonoike, Akiko; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A.; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    During the domestication process, dogs were selected for their suitability for multiple purposes, resulting in a variety of behavioral characteristics. In particular, the ancient group of breeds that is genetically closer to wolves may show different behavioral characteristics when compared to other breed groups. Here, we used questionnaire evaluations of dog behavior to investigate whether behavioral characteristics of dogs were different among genetically clustered breed groups. A standardized questionnaire, the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), was used, and breed group differences of privately-owned dogs from Japan (n = 2,951) and the United States (n = 10,389) were analyzed. Results indicated that dogs in the ancient and spitz breed group showed low attachment and attention-seeking behavior. This characteristic distinguished the ancient group from any other breed groups with presumed modern European origins, and may therefore, be an ancestral trait. PMID:26680442

  1. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fashion vs. Function in Cultural Evolution: The Case of Dog Breed Popularity

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function. PMID:24040341

  3. Fashion vs. function in cultural evolution: the case of dog breed popularity.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between characteristics of dog breeds and their popularity between years 1926 and 2005. We consider breed health, longevity, and behavioral qualities such as aggressiveness, trainability, and fearfulness. We show that a breed's overall popularity, fluctuations in popularity, and rates of increase and decrease around popularity peaks show typically no correlation with these breed characteristics. One exception is the finding that more popular breeds tend to suffer from more inherited disorders. Our results support the hypothesis that dog breed popularity has been primarily determined by fashion rather than function.

  4. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  5. Clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs with meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, I; Volk, H A; De Decker, S

    2016-08-06

    Although several studies indicate that meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology (MUA) might affect every dog breed at every age, little is known about clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival in large breed dogs. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the clinical presentation, diagnostic findings and long-term survival between large and small/medium breed dogs diagnosed with MUA. One hundred and eleven dogs met the inclusion criteria. 28 (25 per cent) dogs were considered large breed dogs compared with 83 (75 per cent) small/medium breed dogs. Large breed dogs presented significantly more often with a decreased mentation. Age, gender, duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis, presence of seizures or cluster seizures, variables on complete blood count and cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and all variables on MRI were not significantly different between small/medium and large breed dogs. Median survival time was 281 and 106 days for the large and small/medium breed dogs, respectively, with no significant difference in survival curves for both groups. Although considered not typically affected by MUA, 25 per cent of dogs included in this study were considered large breed dogs. Therefore, MUA should be included in the differential diagnosis for large breed dogs presenting with intracranial neurological signs. If diagnosed with MUA, large breed dogs also carried a guarded prognosis. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from breeding dogs.

    PubMed

    Rota, Ada; Milani, Chiara; Drigo, Ilenia; Drigo, Michele; Corrò, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The overuse of antimicrobials can select resistant bacteria strains; staphylococci have the ability to become resistant to all beta-lactam antimicrobials and are a significant concern in human medicine and a growing issue for veterinary medicine. Because antimicrobials are sometimes incorrectly used in breeding kennels, the objective of the work was to assess the occurrence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci in breeding dogs. The research was carried out in 13 kennels that were allotted to three categories according to the intensity of antimicrobial use. Vaginal and milk swabs were taken from 87 healthy bitches around parturition and also from multiple organs of 27 of their pups that died within the first 2 weeks. Standard bacteriological examinations were carried out and coagulase-positive staphylococci were identified. All the coagulase-positive staphylococci resulted to be Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Susceptibility to oxacillin and the presence of the mecA gene were tested. Nine out of 89 strains (six isolated from the bitches' milk and three from dead puppies, all belonging to kennels characterized by an excessive use of antimicrobials) were multidrug-resistant, methicillin-resistant and mecA positive. Our results confirm that excessive use of antimicrobials entails the risk of selecting resistant staphylococci strains. Our data also indicate that the bacterial flora of healthy dogs belonging to specific populations may act as a reservoir of resistance genes.

  7. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Daniel G; Kramek, Betty

    2016-04-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair.

  8. The effect of training and breed group on problem-solving behaviours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Frazzi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Dogs have become the focus of cognitive studies looking at both their physical and social problem-solving abilities (Bensky et al. in Adv Stud Behav, 45:209-387, 2013), but very little is known about the environmental and inherited factors that may affect these abilities. In the current study, we presented a manipulation task (a puzzle box) and a spatial task (the detour) to 128 dogs belonging to four different breed groups: Herding, Mastiff-like, Working and Retrievers (von Holdt et al. in Nature 464:898-902, 2010). Within each group, we tested highly trained and non-trained dogs. Results showed that trained dogs were faster at obtaining the reward in the detour task. In the manipulation task, trained dogs approached the apparatus sooner in the first familiarization trial, but no effect of breed emerged on this variable. Furthermore, regardless of breed, dogs in the trained group spent proportionally more time interacting with the apparatus and were more likely to succeed in the test trial than dogs in the non-trained group, whereas regardless of training, dogs in the working breed group were more likely to succeed than dogs in the retriever and herding breed groups (but not the mastiff-like group). Finally, trained dogs were less likely to look at a person than non-trained dogs during testing, but dogs in the herding group more likely to do so than dogs in the retriever and working but not the mastiff-like breed groups. Overall, results reveal a strong influence of training experience but less consistent differences between breed groups on different components thought to affect problem solving.

  9. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-12-07

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia.

  10. Associations of diet and breed with recurrence of calcium oxalate cystic calculi in dogs.

    PubMed

    Allen, Heidi S; Swecker, William S; Becvarova, Iveta; Weeth, Lisa P; Werre, Stephen R

    2015-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term risk of recurrence of calcium oxalate (CaOx) cystic calculi in dogs of various breeds fed 1 of 2 therapeutic diets. Retrospective cohort study. Animals-135 dogs with a history of CaOx cystic calculi. Medical records for 4 referral hospitals were searched to identify dogs that had had CaOx cystic calculi removed. Owners were contacted and medical records evaluated to obtain information on postoperative diet, recurrence of signs of lower urinary tract disease, and recurrence of cystic calculi. Dogs were grouped on the basis of breed (high-risk breeds, low-risk breeds, and Miniature Schnauzers) and diet fed after removal of cystic calculi (diet A, diet B, and any other diet [diet C], with diets A and B being therapeutic diets formulated to prevent recurrence of CaOx calculi). Breed group was a significant predictor of calculi recurrence (as determined by abdominal radiography or ultrasonography), with Miniature Schnauzers having 3 times the risk of recurrence as did dogs of other breeds. Dogs in diet group A had a lower prevalence of recurrence than did dogs in diet group C, but this difference was not significant in multivariable analysis. Results indicated that Miniature Schnauzers had a higher risk of CaOx cystic calculi recurrence than did dogs of other breeds. In addition, findings suggested that diet may play a role in decreasing recurrence, but future prospective studies are needed to validate these observations.

  11. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E.; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S.; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammed, Osama B.; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M.; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia. PMID:26631564

  12. Dietary Variation and Evolution of Gene Copy Number among Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Taylor; Jagoda, Evelyn; Capellini, Terence D.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged human interactions and artificial selection have influenced the genotypic and phenotypic diversity among dog breeds. Because humans and dogs occupy diverse habitats, ecological contexts have likely contributed to breed-specific positive selection. Prior to the advent of modern dog-feeding practices, there was likely substantial variation in dietary landscapes among disparate dog breeds. As such, we investigated one type of genetic variant, copy number variation, in three metabolic genes: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), phytanol-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PHYH), and pancreatic α-amylase 2B (AMY2B). These genes code for proteins that are responsible for metabolizing dietary products that originate from distinctly different food types: sugar, meat, and starch, respectively. After surveying copy number variation among dogs with diverse dietary histories, we found no correlation between diet and positive selection in either GCKR or PHYH. Although it has been previously demonstrated that dogs experienced a copy number increase in AMY2B relative to wolves during or after the dog domestication process, we demonstrate that positive selection continued to act on amylase copy number in dog breeds that consumed starch-rich diets in time periods after domestication. Furthermore, we found that introgression with wolves is not responsible for deterioration of positive selection on AMY2B among diverse dog breeds. Together, this supports the hypothesis that the amylase copy number expansion is found universally in dogs. PMID:26863414

  13. Dietary Variation and Evolution of Gene Copy Number among Dog Breeds.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Taylor; Jagoda, Evelyn; Capellini, Terence D

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged human interactions and artificial selection have influenced the genotypic and phenotypic diversity among dog breeds. Because humans and dogs occupy diverse habitats, ecological contexts have likely contributed to breed-specific positive selection. Prior to the advent of modern dog-feeding practices, there was likely substantial variation in dietary landscapes among disparate dog breeds. As such, we investigated one type of genetic variant, copy number variation, in three metabolic genes: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR), phytanol-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PHYH), and pancreatic α-amylase 2B (AMY2B). These genes code for proteins that are responsible for metabolizing dietary products that originate from distinctly different food types: sugar, meat, and starch, respectively. After surveying copy number variation among dogs with diverse dietary histories, we found no correlation between diet and positive selection in either GCKR or PHYH. Although it has been previously demonstrated that dogs experienced a copy number increase in AMY2B relative to wolves during or after the dog domestication process, we demonstrate that positive selection continued to act on amylase copy number in dog breeds that consumed starch-rich diets in time periods after domestication. Furthermore, we found that introgression with wolves is not responsible for deterioration of positive selection on AMY2B among diverse dog breeds. Together, this supports the hypothesis that the amylase copy number expansion is found universally in dogs.

  14. Phylogenetic studies of dogs with emphasis on Japanese and Asian breeds

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    The first domestication of the dog occurred in East Asia, and major ancestor of the dog was a wolf subspecies, Canis lupus chanco. This finding derives from data on the nucleotide sequences of mtDNA and the frequency of genes controlling blood protein polymorphisms in various subspecies of wolves and dog breeds around the world. The results of the allele frequency distribution of genes controlling 16 blood protein polymorphisms, and the incidence of dogs possessing erythrocytes with high potassium (HK) in Japan, East Asia and Europe allowed us to posturate the following hypothesis about the origins of Japanese dogs and the history of their development. In the Jomon period the first dogs entered the Japanese archipelago from southern or northern continental Asia. These dogs eventually spread throughout Japan. Then, during the Yayoi and Kofun periods, other dogs were brought over via the Korean Peninsula, and crossbreeding occurred with the original dogs. The resulted offspring can be assumed to be the ancestors of most of the Japanese breeds that exist today. Ethological studies have revealed a significant breed difference in behavioral traits among canine breeds with Japanese dogs, showing more aggressive dispositions than most of European dogs. PMID:25792769

  15. Belgian canine population and purebred study for forensics by improved mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Desmyter, Stijn; Gijsbers, Leonie

    2012-01-01

    In canine population studies for forensics, the mitochondrial DNA is profiled by sequencing the two hyper variable regions, HV1 and HV2 of the control region. In a first effort to create a Belgian population database some samples showed partially poor sequence quality. We demonstrated that a nuclear pseudogene was co-amplified with the mtDNA control region. Using a new combination of primers this adverse result was no longer observed and sequencing quality was improved. All former samples with poor sequence data were reanalyzed. Furthermore, the forensic canine population study was extended to 208 breed and mixed dogs. In total, 58 haplotypes were identified, resulting in an exclusion capacity of 0.92. The profile distribution of the Belgian population sample was not significantly different from those observed in population studies of three other countries. In addition to the total population study 107 Belgian registered pedigree dogs of six breeds were profiled. Per breed, the obtained haplotypes were supplemented with those from population and purebred studies. The combined data revealed that some haplotypes were more or less prominent present in particular dog breeds. The statistically significant differences in haplotype distribution between breeds and population sample can have consequences on mtDNA databasing and matching probabilities in forensics.

  16. Breeding history of the Stanford colony of narcoleptic dogs.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, R; Nishino, S; Dement, W C; Mignot, E

    1998-01-10

    Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder of unknown aetiology. In humans, the disease is mostly sporadic, with a few familial cases having been reported. In 1973 a sporadic case of narcolepsy was reported in a poodle, and in 1975 familial cases of narcolepsy occurred in dobermanns. As with human narcoleptics, these narcoleptic dogs exhibited excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A colony of narcoleptic dogs was established at Stanford University in 1976 to study the pathophysiology of the disease. Between 1976 and 1995, a total of 669 animals of various breeds were born, of which 487 survived. Dobermanns accounted for 78 per cent of the total. The narcolepsy genotype in dobermanns had no significant influence on puppy mortality rate (numbers of stillborn and survival rate). The sex, maternal parity or the age of the sire or dam had no significant effect. The percentage of stillborn puppies increased from 6.1 per cent in outbred litters to 15.4 per cent in inbred litters (P = 0.10). Birth season also had a significant effect, and the highest survival rate (P = 0.02), and the lowest percentage of stillborn puppies (P = 0.09) occurred between April and June.

  17. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; Dreger, Dayna L; Rimbault, Maud; Davis, Brian W; Mullen, Alexandra B; Carpintero-Ramirez, Gretchen; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2017-04-25

    There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversifying Selection Between Pure-Breed and Free-Breeding Dogs Inferred from Genome-Wide SNP Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E.; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Kamiński, Stanisław; Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N.; Mohammed, Osama B.; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Domesticated species are often composed of distinct populations differing in the character and strength of artificial and natural selection pressures, providing a valuable model to study adaptation. In contrast to pure-breed dogs that constitute artificially maintained inbred lines, free-ranging dogs are typically free-breeding, i.e., unrestrained in mate choice. Many traits in free-breeding dogs (FBDs) may be under similar natural and sexual selection conditions to wild canids, while relaxation of sexual selection is expected in pure-breed dogs. We used a Bayesian approach with strict false-positive control criteria to identify FST-outlier SNPs between FBDs and either European or East Asian breeds, based on 167,989 autosomal SNPs. By identifying outlier SNPs located within coding genes, we found four candidate genes under diversifying selection shared by these two comparisons. Three of them are associated with the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway regulating vertebrate morphogenesis. A comparison between FBDs and East Asian breeds also revealed diversifying selection on the BBS6 gene, which was earlier shown to cause snout shortening and dental crowding via disrupted HH signaling. Our results suggest that relaxation of natural and sexual selection in pure-breed dogs as opposed to FBDs could have led to mild changes in regulation of the HH signaling pathway. HH inhibits adhesion and the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube, and minor deficits of these cells during embryonic development have been proposed as the underlying cause of “domestication syndrome.” This suggests that the process of breed formation involved the same genetic and developmental pathways as the process of domestication. PMID:27233669

  19. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  20. Domestic dogs and cancer research: a breed-based genomics approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are unique from other animal models of cancer in that they generally experience spontaneous disease. In addition, most types of cancer observed in humans are found in dogs, suggesting that canines may be an informative system for the study of cancer genetics. Domestic dogs are divided into over 175 breeds, with members of each breed sharing significant phenotypes. The breed barrier enhances the utility of the model, especially for genetic studies where small numbers of genes are hypothesized to account for the breed cancer susceptibility. These facts, combined with recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an unrivaled ability to use pet dog populations to find often subtle mutations that promote cancer susceptibility and progression in dogs as a whole. The meticulous record keeping associated with dog breeding makes the model still more powerful, as it facilitates both association analysis and family-based linkage studies. Key to the success of these studies is their cooperative nature, with owners, scientists, veterinarians and breed clubs working together to avoid the cost and unpopularity of developing captive populations. In this article we explore these principals and advocate for colony-free, genetic studies that will enhance our ability to diagnose and treat cancer in dogs and humans alike.

  1. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in atypical dog breeds: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Schatzberg, S J; Vernau, K M; Summers, B A; Porter, B F; Siso, S; Young, B D; Levine, J M

    2014-01-01

    Canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a fatal, noninfectious inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. NME has been reported only in a small number of dog breeds, which has led to the presumption that it is a breed-restricted disorder. Our objective was to describe histopathologically confirmed NME in dog breeds in which the condition has not been reported previously and to provide preliminary evidence that NME affects a wider spectrum of dog breeds than previously reported. Four dogs with NME. Archives from 3 institutions and from 1 author's (BS) collection were reviewed to identify histopathologically confirmed cases of NME in breeds in which the disease has not been reported previously. Age, sex, breed, survival from onset of clinical signs, and histopathologic findings were evaluated. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis was identified in 4 small dog breeds (Papillon, Shih Tzu, Coton de Tulear, and Brussels Griffon). Median age at clinical evaluation was 2.5 years. Histopathologic abnormalities included 2 or more of the following: lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic meningoencephalitis or encephalitis, moderate-to-severe cerebrocortical necrosis, variable involvement of other anatomic locations within the brain (cerebellum, brainstem), and absence of detectable infectious agents. Until now, NME has only been described in 5 small dog breeds. We document an additional 4 small breeds previously not shown to develop NME. Our cases further illustrate that NME is not a breed-restricted disorder and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for dogs with signalment and clinical signs consistent with inflammatory brain disease. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. An Expressed Fgf4 Retrogene Is Associated with Breed-Defining Chondrodysplasia in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; VonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Quignon, Pascale; Margulies, Elliott H.; Shao, Stephanie; Mosher, Dana S.; Spady, Tyrone C.; Elkahloun, Abdel; Cargill, Michele; Jones, Paul G.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Acland, Gregory M.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Wayne, Robert K.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    Retrotransposition of processed mRNAs is a frequent source of novel sequence acquired during the evolution of genomes. The vast majority of retroposed gene copies are inactive pseudogenes that rapidly acquire mutations that disrupt the reading frame, while precious few are conserved to become new genes. Utilizing a multi-breed association analysis in the domestic dog, we demonstrate that a recently acquired fgf4 retrogene causes chondrodysplasia, a short-legged phenotype that defines several common dog breeds including the dachshund, corgi and basset hound. The discovery that a single evolutionary event underlies a breed-defining phenotype for 19 diverse dog breeds demonstrates the importance of unique mutational events in constraining and directing phenotypic diversity in the domestic dog. PMID:19608863

  3. Longevity of Cane Corso Italiano dog breed and its relationship with hair colour.

    PubMed

    Korec, Evžen; Chalupa, Ondřej; Hančl, Matyáš; Korcová, Jana; Bydžovská, Marie

    2017-01-01

    The Cane Corso Italiano belongs among the new dog breeds that were fully recognised by Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) in 2007. For the first time, this study describes a median lifespan using the data of 232 dogs of the Cane Corso Italiano breed collected from kennels and individual owners from 25 countries. The median lifespan of the whole examined group is 9.29 years (IQR 6.98-11.12, IQR = Interquartile Range). This paper is the first to describe the possible relationship between median lifespan and hair colour within one breed. The longest living group is formed by black brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.30 years (IQR 8.33-13.00), and brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.13 years (IQR 7.12-11.25). The median lifespan of black brindle dogs exceeded the overall median lifespan of all dogs by 1.01 year and the median lifespan of other colour dogs by 2.21 years. Our results suggest a possible way for a prolongation of age at death of the Cane Corso Italiano breed using appropriate breeding. The median lifespan of male Cane Corso Italiano dogs is 9.25 years (IQR 6.97-11.00) and female Cane Corso Italiano dogs 9.33 years (IQR 7.00-11.31). The statistical analysis using the Independent Samples Student's t test confirmed that the lifespan of female dogs did not exceed the median lifespan of male dogs (P>0.01).

  4. Is That Dog a Pit Bull? A Cross-Country Comparison of Perceptions of Shelter Workers Regarding Breed Identification

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances. PMID:24673506

  5. Is that dog a pit bull? A cross-country comparison of perceptions of shelter workers regarding breed identification.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Christy L; Harrison, Natalie; Wolff, London; Westgarth, Carri

    2014-01-01

    Bull breeds are commonly kept as companion animals, but the pit bull terrier is restricted by breed-specific legislation (BSL) in parts of the United States and throughout the United Kingdom. Shelter workers must decide which breed(s) a dog is. This decision may influence the dog's fate, particularly in places with BSL. In this study, shelter workers in the United States and United Kingdom were shown pictures of 20 dogs and were asked what breed each dog was, how they determined each dog's breed, whether each dog was a pit bull, and what they expected the fate of each dog to be. There was much variation in responses both between and within the United States and United Kingdom. UK participants frequently labeled dogs commonly considered by U.S. participants to be pit bulls as Staffordshire bull terriers. UK participants were more likely to say their shelters would euthanize dogs deemed to be pit bulls. Most participants noted using dogs' physical features to determine breed, and 41% affected by BSL indicated they would knowingly mislabel a dog of a restricted breed, presumably to increase the dog's adoption chances.

  6. COMPARISON OF THE RADIOGRAPHIC AND TRACHEOSCOPIC APPEARANCE OF THE DORSAL TRACHEAL MEMBRANE IN LARGE AND SMALL BREED DOGS.

    PubMed

    Lindl Bylicki, Britany J; Johnson, Lynelle R; Pollard, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    The etiology and clinical significance of increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the tracheal lumen has long been debated. Most often, this opacity is attributed to redundancy of the dorsal tracheal membrane (DTM), a condition that occurs with tracheal collapse. We hypothesized that the underlying etiology of this radiographic opacity differs between small breed dogs with tracheal collapse and small or large breed dogs without tracheal collapse. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to compare the radiographic appearance of an increased opacity within the trachea to tracheoscopy findings in a group of small and large breed dogs. A total of 17 small breed dogs and 16 large breed dogs were included. Of these, only one did not have a radiographically visible DTM. Small breed dogs were divided into groups with tracheal collapse (n = 8) and those without (n = 9) based on tracheoscopy. Tracheal collapse was absent in larger breed dogs, however both large and small breed dogs demonstrated inward invagination of the DTM. In dogs with tracheal collapse, the DTM occupied a larger percentage of the tracheal luminal height on radiographs and a larger percentage of tracheal circumference on tracheoscopy vs. dogs with an invaginated DTM on tracheoscopy and dogs with no collapse and no invagination of the DTM. Findings supported the hypothesis that increased radiographic opacity along the dorsal margin of the trachea arises from different etiologies in dogs with and without tracheal collapse.

  7. Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Madeleine; Haussman, Sinah

    2016-04-01

    Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive.

  8. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. I. Reproduction and parturition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, t...

  9. Dog Movie Stars and Dog Breed Popularity: A Case Study in Media Influence on Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend—a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  10. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  11. Clinical results of single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair in 26 small breed dogs

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Daniel G.; Kramek, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of 26 small breed dogs treated with single-session bilateral medial patellar luxation repair were reviewed. Excluding dogs with complications associated with cranial cruciate ligament disease, 20/21 dogs with long-term follow-up achieved a complete or acceptable clinical recovery. The complication rate was not increased compared to that previously reported for unilateral patellar luxation repair. PMID:27041762

  12. Conventional bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J M; Macías, C

    2016-03-01

    To describe the outcome of bone plate fixation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs treated with conventional bone plates. Records of 15 toy breed dogs with distal radius and ulna fractures were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, method of fixation, complications and clinical and radiographic assessments. A telephone-based owner questionnaire was conducted to determine long-term function and client satisfaction. Age ranged from 4 months to 6 years. Body weight ranged from 1 to 4 kg. Dynamic compression plates were used in 13 dogs and veterinary cuttable plates were used in 2 dogs as the means of fixation. Full radiographic and clinical follow-up data were available for 10 dogs and follow-up was performed between 6 and 8 weeks postoperatively. At that time, all fractures had healed and return to function was considered excellent in all 10 dogs. Five dogs did not return for hospital evaluation because they were judged by their owners to be free of lameness. In two cases, owners could not be contacted by telephone, but the referring veterinarians reported the dogs to be asymptomatic. No major complications occurred. Conventional bone plates are suitable choices for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs and are not necessarily correlated with high rates of complication. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Achondroplastic dog breeds have no mutations in the transmembrane domain of the FGFR-3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, S; Valdés, J; Alonso, R A

    2000-01-01

    One of the most common skeletal affections in humans is achondroplasia, a short-limbed dwarfism that is, in most cases, caused by mutations in the transmembrane domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) gene. Due to the lack of sufficient radiological, genetic, and molecular studies, most types of skeletal anomalies in dogs are classified as achondroplasia. To initiate the molecular characterization of some osteochondrodysplastic dog breeds, we obtained the DNA sequence of the transmembrane domain of the FGFR-3 gene from the dachshund, basset hound, bulldog, and German shepherd dogs. All 4 breeds showed no mutation in the evaluated region. This indicates that the mutation responsible for the osteochondrodysplastic phenotype in the tested dog breeds lies either elsewhere in the FGFR-3 gene or in other ones involved in the formation and development of endochondral bone. PMID:11041504

  14. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida: I. Reproduction and parturition.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare reproduction and parturition traits of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman, to estimate heterosis and direct and maternal genetic breed effects, and to describe calf loss, cow removals from the project, the occurrence of calving difficulty, inadequate calf vigor at birth, and udder problems by cow breed groups. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, in all subsequent breeding seasons crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred to bulls of the other two breeds. Calving records (n = 1,484) from 2005 to 2011 were used to create calving and weaning rate and calving interval (excluding the interval between 2 and 3 yr of age). Final models for these traits included sire breed-dam breed interaction, cow age within year, and random animal effects. Heterosis estimates for Romosinuano-Brahman calving and weaning rate were 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.03 (P < 0.05); those for Brahman-Angus were twice as large (0.13 ± 0.03 and 0.14 ± 0.03, respectively; P < 0.001). Estimates of Brahman direct effects on calving and weaning rate were -0.12 ± 0.04 and -0.14 ± 0.05 (P < 0.05); however, Angus direct effects were beneficial for both traits (0.1 ± 0.05, P < 0.05). The effect of heterosis was to reduce calving interval by -49.2 ± 9.9 and -37.2 ± 9.7 d for Romosinuano-Brahman and Brahman-Angus, respectively (P < 0.001). Romosinuano and F1 cows sired by Romosinuano and out of Angus dams had the most occurrences of difficult births as a proportion of cows that calved (0.028 and 0.025, P = 0.04). Angus-sired crossbred cows and Brahman cows had the most occurrences of udder problems as a proportion of lactating cows (0.14 to 0.21, P < 0.04). There were more Brahman-sired cows that died or were culled as a proportion of those cows that began the project (0.1 to 0.28, P < 0.02) than cows in the

  15. Dog bites in The Netherlands: a study of victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors to support evaluation of breed specific legislation.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Jessica M R; Hopster, Hans

    2010-12-01

    As part of an evaluation of Dutch breed specific legislation, data were collected from dog bite victims (1078) and dog owners (6139) using Internet surveys. The incidence rate of dog bites and details of incidents (victims, injuries, circumstances and aggressors) are reported and the justification for using breed specific measurements to deal with dog bites are considered. For aggressors, attack records for breed groups and popular breeds were established by calculating breed risk indices using a reference population. Several breeds and breed groups were over- and under-represented in the biting population and there was a mismatch between risk indices and the then-current legislation. Mitigation strategies should not be based on attack records (since this would lead to the rejection of a significant proportion of the canine population) but on the circumstances of the incidents. Preventative measures must focus on a better understanding of how to handle dogs.

  16. Microsatellite loci analysis for the genetic variability and the parentage test of five dog breeds in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byeong-Teck; Kim, Kyung-Seok; Min, Mi-Sook; Chae, Young-Jin; Kang, Jung-Won; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Jihye; Seong, Je-Kyung; Park, Han-Chan; An, Junghwa; Lee, Mun-Han; Park, Hee-Myung; Lee, Hang

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the population structure of five dog breeds in South Korea and to validate polymorphic microsatellite markers for the parentage test, microsatellite loci analyses were conducted for two Korean native dog breeds, Poongsan and Jindo, and three imported dog breeds, German Shepherd, Beagle and Greyhound. Overall genetic diversity was high across all dog breeds (expected heterozygosity range: 0.71 to 0.85), although breeds differed in deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Significant reduction of heterozygosity in the Poongsan and Greyhound breeds was caused by non-random mating and population substructure within these breeds (the Wahlund effects). The close relationship and high degree of genetic diversity for two Korean native dog breeds were substantial. The mean polymorphism information content value was highest in Jindos (0.82) and Poongsans (0.81), followed by Beagles (0.74), Greyhounds (0.72), and German Shepherds (0.66). Accumulated exclusion power values, as an indication of marker validity for parentage tests, were varied but very high across breeds, 0.9999 for Jindos, Poongsans, and Beagles, 0.9997 for Greyhounds, and 0.9995 for German Shepherds. Taken together, the microsatellite loci investigated in this study can serve as suitable markers for the parentage test and as individual identification to establish a reliable pedigree verification system of dog breeds in South Korea. This study also stresses that the population subdivision within breeds can become an important cause of deviation from HWE in dog breeds.

  17. Relationships between heart rate and age, bodyweight and breed in 10,849 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hezzell, M J; Dennis, S G; Humm, K; Agee, L; Boswood, A

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate relationships between heart rate and clinical variables in healthy dogs and dogs examined at a referral hospital. Clinical data were extracted from the electronic patient records of a first opinion group (5000 healthy dogs) and a referral hospital (5849 dogs). Univariable and multi-variable general linear models were used to assess associations between heart rate and clinical characteristics. Separate multi-variable models were constructed for first opinion and referral populations. In healthy dogs, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P<0.001) but was higher in Chihuahuas. The mean difference in heart rate between a 5 and 55 kg dog was 10.5 beats per minute. In dogs presenting to a referral hospital, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P<0.001) and the following breeds; border collie, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, springer spaniel and West Highland white terrier and positively associated with age, admitting service (emergency and critical care, emergency first opinion and cardiology) and the following breeds; Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Staffordshire bull terrier and Yorkshire terrier. Bodyweight, age, breed and disease status all influence heart rate in dogs, although these factors account for a relatively small proportion of the overall variability in heart rate. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. An Age-Associated Decline in Thymic Output Differs in Dog Breeds According to Their Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Angela; Mella, Stephanie; Palmer, Donald B.; Aspinall, Richard; Catchpole, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The age associated decline in immune function is preceded in mammals by a reduction in thymic output. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence of a link between immune competence and lifespan. One approach to determining thymic output is to quantify signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (sj-TRECs), a method which has been developed and used in several mammalian species. Life expectancy and the rate of aging vary in dogs depending upon their breed. In this study, we quantified sj-TRECs in blood samples from dogs of selected breeds to determine whether there was a relationship between longevity and thymic output. In Labrador retrievers, a breed with a median expected lifespan of 11 years, there was an age-associated decline in sj-TREC values, with the greatest decline occurring before 5 years of age, but with sj-TREC still detectable in some geriatric animals, over 13 years of age. In large short-lived breeds (Burnese mountain dogs, Great Danes and Dogue de Bordeaux), the decline in sj-TREC values began earlier in life, compared with small long-lived breeds (Jack Russell terriers and Yorkshire terriers), and the presence of animals with undetectable sj-TRECs occurred at a younger age in the short-lived breeds. The study findings suggest that age-associated changes in canine sj-TRECs are related to breed differences in longevity, and this research highlights the use of dogs as a potential model of immunosenescence. PMID:27824893

  19. Differences in Trait Impulsivity Indicate Diversification of Dog Breeds into Working and Show Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Fernanda Ruiz; Driscoll, Patricia; Pilot, Malgorzata; Wright, Hannah; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Impulsiveness describes the inability to inhibit behaviour in the presence of salient cues. Trait-level impulsivity exists on a continuum and individual differences can be adaptive in different contexts. While breed related differences in behavioural tendency in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) are well established, the phenomenon within lines of a breed which have been selected more recently is not well studied, although it may challenge the popular notion of breed-typical behaviour. We describe differences in impulsivity between and within two dog breeds with working and show lines selected for different levels of impulsivity: Border Collies (herding work) and Labrador Retrievers (gun work). Recent show line selection might have lessened differences in impulsivity between breeds. We tested this hypothesis on a dataset of 1161 individuals assessed using a validated psychometric tool (Dog Impulsivity Assessment Scale - DIAS). Collies were more impulsive on average, consistent with the original purpose of breed selection. Regarding line, working Collies differed from working Labradors, but show lines from the two breeds were not significantly different. Altered or relaxed artificial selection for behavioural traits when appearance rather than behaviour become the primary focus for breeders may reduce average differences in impulsivity between breeds in show lines. PMID:26963916

  20. Morphometrics within dog breeds are highly reproducible and dispute Rensch's rule.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Nathan B; Mosher, Dana S; Gray, Melissa M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2008-01-01

    Using 27 body measurements, we have identified 13 breed-defining metrics for 109 of 159 domestic dog breeds, most of which are recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC). The data set included 1,155 dogs at least 1 year old (average 5.4 years), and for 53 breed populations, complete measurement data were collected from at least three males and three females. We demonstrate, first, that AKC breed standards are rigorously adhered to for most domestic breeds with little variation observed within breeds. Second, Rensch's rule, which describes a scaling among taxa such that sexual dimorphism is greater among larger species if males are the larger sex, with less pronounced differences in male versus female body size in smaller species, is not maintained in domestic dog breeds because the proportional size difference between males and females of small and large breeds is essentially the same. Finally, principal components (PCs) analysis describes both the overall body size (PC1) and the shape (length versus width) of the skeleton (PC2). That the integrity of the data set is sufficiently rich to discern PCs has strong implications for mapping studies, suggesting that individual measurements may not be needed for genetic studies of morphologic traits, particularly in the case of breed-defining traits that are typically under strong selection. Rather, phenotypes derived from data sets such as these, collected at a fraction of the effort and cost, may be used to direct whole-genome association studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of fixed morphologic phenotypes defining distinct dog breeds.

  1. Nematode infections in dog breeding kennels in The Netherlands, with special reference to Toxocara.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, P A; Boersema, J H

    1998-01-01

    Faecal samples from 286 adult dogs and 159 pups and dust and soil samples from 32 dog breeding kennels in the Netherlands were examined for nematode eggs. Dogs that shed nematode eggs were found in 41% of the kennels. The kennel prevalence of nematode infection of adult dogs was 33%. The kennel prevalence for infection of adult dogs and pups with nematode species was 21% and 48% for Toxocara canis, respectively, 29% and 0% for Trichuris vulpis, and 20% and 0% for Toxascaris leonina. Kennels with more than two litters per year and with regular import of new animals had a significantly higher prevalence of T. canis (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). T. vulpis infections in adult dogs occurred significantly more often in kennels that used deworming products other than benzimidazoles (p < 0.05). Embryonated T. canis ova were recovered from 20% of the house and kennel dust samples and from 50% of the soil samples. This survey shows that the nematode infection rate in dog breeding kennels is high. Better deworming strategies should be used to improve the health status of the dogs and to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection in humans.

  2. Linked genetic variants on chromosome 10 control ear morphology and body mass among dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Webster, Matthew T; Kamgari, Nona; Perloski, Michele; Hoeppner, Marc P; Axelsson, Erik; Hedhammar, Åke; Pielberg, Gerli; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2015-06-23

    The domestic dog is a rich resource for mapping the genetic components of phenotypic variation due to its unique population history involving strong artificial selection. Genome-wide association studies have revealed a number of chromosomal regions where genetic variation associates with morphological characters that typify dog breeds. A region on chromosome 10 is among those with the highest levels of genetic differentiation between dog breeds and is associated with body mass and ear morphology, a common motif of animal domestication. We characterised variation in this region to uncover haplotype structure and identify candidate functional variants. We first identified SNPs that strongly associate with body mass and ear type by comparing sequence variation in a 3 Mb region between 19 breeds with a variety of phenotypes. We next genotyped a subset of 123 candidate SNPs in 288 samples from 46 breeds to identify the variants most highly associated with phenotype and infer haplotype structure. A cluster of SNPs that associate strongly with the drop ear phenotype is located within a narrow interval downstream of the gene MSRB3, which is involved in human hearing. These SNPs are in strong genetic linkage with another set of variants that correlate with body mass within the gene HMGA2, which affects human height. In addition we find evidence that this region has been under selection during dog domestication, and identify a cluster of SNPs within MSRB3 that are highly differentiated between dogs and wolves. We characterise genetically linked variants that potentially influence ear type and body mass in dog breeds, both key traits that have been modified by selective breeding that may also be important for domestication. The finding that variants on long haplotypes have effects on more than one trait suggests that genetic linkage can be an important determinant of the phenotypic response to selection in domestic animals.

  3. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  4. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  5. High calcium intake differentially inhibits nutrient and energy digestibility in two different breeds of growing dogs.

    PubMed

    Dobenecker, B; Frank, V; Kienzle, E

    2010-10-01

    The current study was part of a larger investigation of two breeds of growing dogs (Dobenecker, 2002). The apparent digestibility of protein, fat, nitrogen-free extract (N-free extract) and organic matter as well as energy of a tripe and rice-based diet supplemented either with normal calcium [~1.1% dry matter (DM), normal calcium (NC)] or excess calcium [~3.6% DM, high calcium (HC)] was determined in two breeds of growing dogs of different sizes, including 30 Beagles and 44 Foxhound-Boxer-Ingelheim Labrador crossbred dogs (FBIs), at the ages of 12, 18 and 24 weeks. Apparent energy digestibility was significantly impaired by excess of calcium in both dog breeds, and the effect was stronger in FBIs than in Beagles (NC vs. HC in FBIs: 88.3 ± 2.6% vs. 84.7 ± 3.7%; NC vs. HC in Beagles: 89.0 ± 2.4% vs. 86.6 ± 3.4%; p < 0.05 in both FBIs and Beagles). The same was true for organic matter, N-free extract, crude protein and fat. The decrease in protein and fat digestibility was significant in FBIs, but not in Beagles. By contrast, the apparent digestibility of ash was lower in FBIs than in Beagles. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that excess dietary calcium may be associated with systematic differences in nutrient digestibility by different breeds of dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Comparative locomotor costs of domestic dogs reveal energetic economy of wolf-like breeds.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Caleb M; Williams, Terrie M

    2017-01-15

    The broad diversity in morphology and geographic distribution of the 35 free-ranging members of the family Canidae is only rivaled by that of the domesticated dog, Canis lupus familiaris. Considered to be among nature's most elite endurance athletes, both domestic and wild canids provide a unique opportunity to examine the variability in mammalian aerobic exercise performance and energy expenditure. To determine the potential effects of domestication and selective breeding on locomotor gait and economy in canids, we measured the kinematics and mass-specific metabolism of three large (>20 kg) dog breed groups (northern breeds, retrievers and hounds) of varying morphological and genomic relatedness to their shared progenitor, the gray wolf. By measuring all individuals moving in preferred steady-state gaits along a level transect and on a treadmill, we found distinct biomechanical, kinematic and energetic patterns for each breed group. While all groups exhibited reduced total cost of transport (COT) at faster speeds, the total COT and net COT during trotting and galloping were significantly lower for northern breed dogs (3.0 and 2.1 J kg(-1) m(-1), respectively) relative to hound (4.2 and 3.4 J kg(-1) m(-1), respectively) and retriever dogs (3.8 and 3.0 J kg(-1) m(-1), respectively) of comparable mass. Similarly, northern breeds expended less energy per stride (3.5 J kg(-1) stride(-1)) than hounds or retrievers (5.0 and 4.0 J kg(-1) stride(-1), respectively). These results suggest that, in addition to their close genetic and morphological ties to gray wolves, northern breed dogs have retained highly cursorial kinematic and physiological traits that promote economical movement across the landscape.

  7. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  8. [Phenotypic trends and breeding values for canine congenital sensorineural deafness in Dalmatian dogs].

    PubMed

    Blum, Meike; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, breeding values for canine congenital sensorineural deafness, the presence of blue eyes and patches have been predicted using multivariate animal models to test the reliability of the breeding values for planned matings. The dataset consisted of 6669 German Dalmatian dogs born between 1988 and 2009. Data were provided by the Dalmatian kennel clubs which are members of the German Association for Dog Breeding and Husbandry (VDH). The hearing status for all dogs was evaluated using brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The reliability using the prediction error variance of breeding values and the realized reliability of the prediction of the phenotype of future progeny born in each one year between 2006 and 2009 were used as parameters to evaluate the goodness of prediction through breeding values. All animals from the previous birth years were used for prediction of the breeding values of the progeny in each of the up-coming birth years. The breeding values based on pedigree records achieved an average reliability of 0.19 for the future 1951 progeny. The predictive accuracy (R2) for the hearing status of single future progeny was at 1.3%. Combining breeding values for littermates increased the predictive accuracy to 3.5%. Corresponding values for maternal and paternal half-sib groups were at 3.2 and 7.3%. The use of breeding values for planned matings increases the phenotypic selection response over mass selection. The breeding values of sires may be used for planned matings because reliabilities and predictive accuracies for future paternal progeny groups were highest.

  9. Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Grégoire

    2011-08-01

    Pedigree analysis constitutes a classical approach for the study of the evolution of genetic diversity, genetic structure, history and breeding practices within a given breed. As a consequence of selection pressure, management in closed populations and historical bottlenecks, many dog breeds have experienced considerable inbreeding and show (on the basis of a pedigree approach) comparable diversity loss compared to other domestic species. This evolution is linked to breeding practices such as the overuse of popular sires or mating between related animals. The popular sire phenomenon is the most problematic breeding practice, since it has also led to the dissemination of a large number of inherited defects. The practice should be limited by taking measures such as restricting the number of litters (or offspring) per breeding animal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonographic adrenal gland measurements in clinically normal small breed dogs and comparison with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2011-08-01

    Ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific screening method for assessing the adrenal glands. The upper limit of the normal adrenal gland width is used as 7.5 mm. It is not known if adrenal gland width remains consistent with body weight. A reliable criterion of adrenal gland width in small breed dogs should be established. Small breed dogs with body weights of less than 10 kg were divided into two groups: 189 normal dogs and 22 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). A retrospective study was conducted on dogs seen between January 1, 2006, and February 10, 2008. One hundred eighty-nine dogs of 14 different small breeds were enrolled in the normal adrenal gland group; the median gland width was 4.20 mm. Twenty-two dogs were in the PDH group; the median gland width was 6.30 mm. The cut-off value between normal adrenal glands and PDH was 6.0 mm. This figure gave a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 94%, respectively, for detecting PDH. The adrenal gland appeared as a peanut shape with homogeneous hypoechoic parenchyma in normal dogs and in most dogs with PDH as well. This study was performed in a large population of small breed dogs and suggests that the normal adrenal gland size in small breed dogs is smaller than previously reported. We believe that a cut-off of 6.0 mm may be used as the criterion for differentiating a normal adrenal gland from adrenal hyperplasia.

  11. The inheritance and breeding results of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Ohshima, S; Doi, K

    1993-01-01

    The inheritance and breeding results of hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs (MHDs) were investigated. When the male hairless dogs were bred to female beagles, the birth ratio of hairless and haired dogs was 1:1. Mating between MHDs gave both hairless and haired pups. The results indicated that an autosomal dominant monogenic gene was responsible for their hairless characteristics. We propose the symbol Hm for this gene (hairless, Mexican type). The survival rate of hairless pups was markedly lower than that of haired ones. It was elevated to 50-90% by warming their cages to a minimum of 25 degrees C.

  12. Canine tumor development and crude incidence of tumors by breed based on domestic dogs in Gifu prefecture.

    PubMed

    Komazawa, Satoshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Itoh, Yusuke; Kawabe, Mifumi; Murakami, Mami; Mori, Takashi; Maruo, Kohji

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed the status of tumor development in dogs by breed based on tumor cases that presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology of the Gifu University for diagnostic examinations over eight years (2005-2012). We also calculated the crude incidence of tumors in dogs by breed based on the results of a survey conducted in 2011 in Gifu Prefecture. The most common sites of tumor development included the skin, digestive organs and mammary glands. Smaller dogs showed a tendency to have a higher incidence of breast tumors. We thus identified dog breeds with a higher crude incidence of tumors (Bernese mountain dog, golden retriever, corgi, etc.) and those with a lower crude incidence of tumors (Pomeranian, poodle, Chihuahua, etc.). Unlike the current trends for domestic dogs in the US and Europe, Japan has a higher number of small dogs as pets; it is therefore necessary to develop a policy for canine cancer specific to Japan.

  13. Birth of viable puppies derived from breeding cloned female dogs with a cloned male.

    PubMed

    Park, J E; Hong, S G; Kang, J T; Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Kim, M J; Kim, H J; Kim, D Y; Jang, G; Lee, B C

    2009-09-15

    Since the establishment of production of viable cloned dogs by somatic cell nucleus transfer, great concern has been given to the reproductive abilities of these animals (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we investigated reproductive activity of cloned dogs by (1) performing sperm analysis using computer-assisted sperm analysis and early embryonic development, (2) assessing reproductive cycling by measuring serum progesterone (P4) levels and performing vaginal cytology, and (3) breeding cloned dogs using artificial insemination. Results showed that most parameters of sperm motility in a cloned male dog were within the reference range, and in vivo-matured oocytes from a noncloned female were successfully fertilized by spermatozoa from a cloned male dog and develop normally to the 8-cell stage. Three cloned female dogs displayed normal patterns of P4 levels and morphologic changes of the vaginal epithelium. Two cloned female dogs became pregnant using semen from a cloned male dog and successfully delivered 10 puppies by natural labor. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that both cloned male and female dogs are fertile, and their puppies are currently alive and healthy with normal growth patterns.

  14. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    PubMed

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The influence of breed and environmental factors on social and solitary play in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    PubMed

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Hall, Nathaniel J; Haitz, Chelsea; Wynne, Clive D L

    2017-07-12

    The domestic dog is an ideal model species in which to study the genetic and environmental factors that influence play behavior. Dogs exist in a wide variety of breeds and frequently engage in multiple forms of play. In the present study, we investigated whether the levels of solitary and social play differed between dogs of three breed types with distinct predatory motor pattern sequences (herding dogs, retrievers, and livestock guarding dogs [LGDs]). Furthermore, we investigated how environmental factors (social and nonsocial contexts) influenced play in dogs of these breed types. Groups of breed-matched dyads with working experience and of equivalent age, sex, and neuter status ratios were exposed to four experimental test conditions and two control conditions in randomized orders. With respect to solitary play, environmental context did have a significant effect, with toys reliably producing the highest levels of solitary play across all breed types. Retrievers engaged in significantly higher levels of solitary play overall than LGDs, and there was a trend in comparison to herding dogs. In contrast, neither environmental context nor breed had a significant effect on social play levels; however, neuter status of the dyads did have a significant effect on social play, with mixed-status dyads engaging in significantly higher levels of social play than same-status dyads. Our findings provide experimental evidence for identifying proximate, environmental stimuli that reliably facilitate social and solitary play and discuss possible genetic (i.e., breed type) and lifetime influences on the form of play in domestic dogs.

  16. Variation in activity levels amongst dogs of different breeds: results of a large online survey of dog owners from the UK.

    PubMed

    Pickup, Emily; German, Alexander J; Blackwell, Emily; Evans, Mark; Westgarth, Carri

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important means of promoting health, both in people and their pets. Walking is the most common method used for dogs, but there is a lack of clarity on how much daily activity different breeds of dog require. Data from an online survey of UK dog owners were collected between June and August in 2014. The University of Liverpool Ethics Committee approved the project, and owners consented to data use. The initial dataset (17 028 dogs) was first cleaned to remove erroneous data, and then edited to remove mixed breed dogs, leaving a total of 12 314 dogs from known pedigree breeds. Other information collected included sex, age, neuter status, breed, and amount and frequency of exercise. Exercise frequency and duration were estimated across different breeds, and compared with Kennel Club recommendations, using χ(2) tests and binary logistic regression. The online survey data indicated differences amongst breeds in the amount of walking reported (P < 0·001). Afghan hounds were the least exercised breed, whilst breeds reportedly exercised most included: English setter, foxhound, Irish setter and Old English sheepdog. Gundogs were most likely to be walked once per d or more (P < 0·001), whilst smaller dogs were more likely to meet their UK Kennel Club guidelines for dog walking (P < 0·001). The frequency of dog walking varies both within and amongst breeds, and many do not currently receive the recommended amount of exercise. This may constitute a canine welfare problem and also have an impact on the physical activity levels of their owners.

  17. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Kondrup, S. V.; Bennett, P. C.; Forkman, B.; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H. F.; Serpell, J. A.; Lund, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog’s personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems. PMID:28234931

  18. Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography Characterizes Upper Airway Obstruction in 3 Brachycephalic Breeds of Dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, N-C; Adams, V J; Kalmar, L; Ladlow, J F; Sargan, D R

    2016-05-01

    A novel test using whole-body barometric plethysmography (WBBP) was developed recently to diagnose brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in unsedated French bulldogs. The hypotheses of this study were: (1) respiratory characteristics are different between healthy nonbrachycephalic dogs and brachycephalic dogs; and among pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs; and (2) obesity and stenotic nares are risk factors for BOAS. The main objective was to establish a diagnostic test for BOAS in these 3 breeds. A total of 266 brachycephalic dogs (100 pugs, 100 French bulldogs, and 66 bulldogs) and 28 nonbrachycephalic dogs. Prospective study. Exercise tolerance tests with respiratory functional grading, and WBBP were performed on all dogs. Data from WBBP were associated with functional grades to train quadratic discriminant analysis tools to assign dogs to BOAS+ and BOAS- groups. A BOAS index (0-100%) was calculated for each dog. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate classification ability. Minute volume was decreased significantly in asymptomatic pugs (P = .009), French bulldogs (P = .026), and bulldogs (P < .0001) when compared to nonbrachycephalic controls. Respiratory characteristics were different among breeds and affected dogs had a significant increase in trace variation. The BOAS index predicted BOAS status for each breed with 94-97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.9-100%) accuracy (area under the ROC curve). Both obesity (P = .04) and stenotic nares (P = .004) were significantly associated with BOAS. The WBBP can be used as a clinical tool to diagnose BOAS noninvasively and objectively. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Cuttable plate fixation for small breed dogs with radius and ulna fractures: Retrospective study of 31 dogs.

    PubMed

    Watrous, Gwyneth K; Moens, Noel M M

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study evaluated complication rates for radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs in which 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm cuttable bone plates were used for internal fixation. The medical records of all cases from 2004 to 2011 that were presented to our clinic were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: dogs with body weight < 9 kg, fracture of the radius and ulna with open reduction, and internal fixation utilizing a cuttable bone plate. Thirty-four fractures in 31 dogs met the inclusion criteria. Of 25 dogs that were available for follow-up, all achieved union, minor complications occurred in 9, and major complications occurred in 8. External coaptation was responsible for complications in 8 cases and the need for coaptation needs to be investigated. Excluding minor complications, 32% of patients required at least 1 additional surgery or additional hospitalization. All but 2 of the dogs returned to full function. The 1.5 mm straight plate was successfully used in all dogs with a body weight of 0.9 to 2.6 kg.

  20. Using multiple markers to elucidate the ancient, historical and modern relationships among North American Arctic dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S K; Darwent, C M; Wictum, E J; Sacks, B N

    2015-01-01

    Throughout most of the Americas, post-colonial dogs largely erased the genetic signatures of pre-historical dogs. However, the North American Arctic harbors dogs that are potentially descended from pre-historical ancestors, as well as those affected by post-colonial translocations and admixtures. In particular, Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland are thought to descend from dogs associated with Thule peoples, who relied on them for transportation ca. 1000 years ago. Whether Thule dogs reflected an earlier colonization by Paleoeskimo dogs ca. 4500 years ago is unknown. During the Alaskan Gold Rush, additional sled dogs, possibly of post-colonial derivation, the Alaskan Husky, Malamute and Siberian Husky, were used in the Arctic. The genealogical relationships among and origins of these breeds are unknown. Here we use autosomal, paternal and maternal DNA markers to (1) test the hypothesis that Inuit dogs have retained their indigenous ancestry, (2) characterize their relationship to one another and to other Arctic breeds, and (3) estimate the age of North American indigenous matrilines and patrilines. On the basis of the agreement of all three markers we determined that Inuit dogs have maintained their indigenous nature, and that they likely derive from Thule dogs. In addition, we provide support for previous research that the Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland dog should not be distinguished as two breeds. The Alaskan Husky displayed evidence of European introgression, in contrast to the Malamute and Siberian Husky, which appear to have maintained most of their ancient Siberian ancestry. PMID:26103948

  1. Using multiple markers to elucidate the ancient, historical and modern relationships among North American Arctic dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Brown, S K; Darwent, C M; Wictum, E J; Sacks, B N

    2015-12-01

    Throughout most of the Americas, post-colonial dogs largely erased the genetic signatures of pre-historical dogs. However, the North American Arctic harbors dogs that are potentially descended from pre-historical ancestors, as well as those affected by post-colonial translocations and admixtures. In particular, Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland are thought to descend from dogs associated with Thule peoples, who relied on them for transportation ca. 1000 years ago. Whether Thule dogs reflected an earlier colonization by Paleoeskimo dogs ca. 4500 years ago is unknown. During the Alaskan Gold Rush, additional sled dogs, possibly of post-colonial derivation, the Alaskan Husky, Malamute and Siberian Husky, were used in the Arctic. The genealogical relationships among and origins of these breeds are unknown. Here we use autosomal, paternal and maternal DNA markers to (1) test the hypothesis that Inuit dogs have retained their indigenous ancestry, (2) characterize their relationship to one another and to other Arctic breeds, and (3) estimate the age of North American indigenous matrilines and patrilines. On the basis of the agreement of all three markers we determined that Inuit dogs have maintained their indigenous nature, and that they likely derive from Thule dogs. In addition, we provide support for previous research that the Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland dog should not be distinguished as two breeds. The Alaskan Husky displayed evidence of European introgression, in contrast to the Malamute and Siberian Husky, which appear to have maintained most of their ancient Siberian ancestry.

  2. Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping.

    PubMed

    Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppälä, Eija H; Hansen, Mark S T; Lawley, Cindy T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Bannasch, Danika; Vilà, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Häggström, Jens; Hedhammar, Ake; André, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T

    2011-10-01

    The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease.

  3. Breed differences in dogs sensitivity to human points: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Nicole R; Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2009-07-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial increase in research on the behavioral and cognitive abilities of pet dogs, Canis familiaris. The most commonly used experimental paradigm is the object-choice task in which a dog is given a choice of two containers and guided to the reinforced object by human pointing gestures. We review here studies of this type and attempt a meta-analysis of the available data. In the meta-analysis breeds of dogs were grouped into the eight categories of the American Kennel Club, and into four clusters identified by Parker and Ostrander [Parker, H.G., Ostrander, E.A., 2005. Canine genomics and genetics: running with the pack. PLoS Genet. 1, 507-513] on the basis of a genetic analysis. No differences in performance between breeds categorized in either fashion were identified. Rather, all dog breeds appear to be similarly and highly successful in following human points to locate desired food. We suggest this result could be due to the paucity of data available in published studies, and the restricted range of breeds tested.

  4. [Histiocytic sarcoma in the Swiss population of Bernese mountain dogs: a retrospective study of its genetic predisposition].

    PubMed

    Voegeli, E; Welle, M; Hauser, B; Dolf, G; Flückiger, M

    2006-06-01

    A retrospective study to evaluate the genetic predisposition for histiocytic sarcoma in the Swiss population of purebred Bernese mountain dogs identified 51 histologically confirmed cases between 1997 and 2003. Segregation analysis using five major genetic modes was used to evaluate the 51 cases. The general mode yielded the best results suggesting a genetic predisposition for histiocystic sarcoma in this breed. The disease was found in all families analyzed, therefore elimination of the disease through seletive breeding of certain family lines is not possible.

  5. Deafness prevalence and pigmentation and gender associations in dog breeds at risk.

    PubMed

    Strain, George M

    2004-01-01

    Hearing function was tested in dogs from breeds at risk for pigment-associated congenital sensorineural deafness - Dalmatian, English setter (ES), English cocker spaniel (ECS), bull terrier (BT), Australian cattle dog (ACD), whippet, Catahoula leopard dog, and Jack Russell terrier. Deafness prevalence was highest in Dalmatians and lowest in ECS. Phenotype correlation studies were performed in breeds with >100 brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) tested subjects. No gender differences were observed. No differences were seen between black- and liver-spotted Dalmatians, among the ES roan colour varieties, among the ECS parti varieties, or among the ACD colour varieties. Blue eyes were positively associated and patches were negatively associated with deafness in the Dalmatian. Blue eyes were also associated with deafness in the ES and ECS. White BT were more likely than coloured BT to be deaf. Having one or more parent's ear deaf was positively associated with deafness in Dalmatians, ES, and ECS.

  6. Commonalities in Development of Pure Breeds and Population Isolates Revealed in the Genome of the Sardinian Fonni's Dog.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Dayna L; Davis, Brian W; Cocco, Raffaella; Sechi, Sara; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Parker, Heidi G; Polli, Michele; Marelli, Stefano P; Crepaldi, Paola; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2016-10-01

    The island inhabitants of Sardinia have long been a focus for studies of complex human traits due to their unique ancestral background and population isolation reflecting geographic and cultural restriction. Population isolates share decreased genomic diversity, increased linkage disequilibrium, and increased inbreeding coefficients. In many regions, dogs and humans have been exposed to the same natural and artificial forces of environment, growth, and migration. Distinct dog breeds have arisen through human-driven selection of characteristics to meet an ideal standard of appearance and function. The Fonni's Dog, an endemic dog population on Sardinia, has not been subjected to an intensive system of artificial selection, but rather has developed alongside the human population of Sardinia, influenced by geographic isolation and unregulated selection based on its environmental adaptation and aptitude for owner-desired behaviors. Through analysis of 28 dog breeds, represented with whole-genome sequences from 13 dogs and ∼170,000 genome-wide single nucleotide variants from 155 dogs, we have produced a genomic illustration of the Fonni's Dog. Genomic patterns confirm within-breed similarity, while population and demographic analyses provide spatial identity of Fonni's Dog to other Mediterranean breeds. Investigation of admixture and fixation indices reveals insights into the involvement of Fonni's Dogs in breed development throughout the Mediterranean. We describe how characteristics of population isolates are reflected in dog breeds that have undergone artificial selection, and are mirrored in the Fonni's Dog through traditional isolating factors that affect human populations. Lastly, we show that the genetic history of Fonni's Dog parallels demographic events in local human populations. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Commonalities in Development of Pure Breeds and Population Isolates Revealed in the Genome of the Sardinian Fonni's Dog

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Dayna L.; Davis, Brian W.; Cocco, Raffaella; Sechi, Sara; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Parker, Heidi G.; Polli, Michele; Marelli, Stefano P.; Crepaldi, Paola; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2016-01-01

    The island inhabitants of Sardinia have long been a focus for studies of complex human traits due to their unique ancestral background and population isolation reflecting geographic and cultural restriction. Population isolates share decreased genomic diversity, increased linkage disequilibrium, and increased inbreeding coefficients. In many regions, dogs and humans have been exposed to the same natural and artificial forces of environment, growth, and migration. Distinct dog breeds have arisen through human-driven selection of characteristics to meet an ideal standard of appearance and function. The Fonni’s Dog, an endemic dog population on Sardinia, has not been subjected to an intensive system of artificial selection, but rather has developed alongside the human population of Sardinia, influenced by geographic isolation and unregulated selection based on its environmental adaptation and aptitude for owner-desired behaviors. Through analysis of 28 dog breeds, represented with whole-genome sequences from 13 dogs and ∼170,000 genome-wide single nucleotide variants from 155 dogs, we have produced a genomic illustration of the Fonni’s Dog. Genomic patterns confirm within-breed similarity, while population and demographic analyses provide spatial identity of Fonni’s Dog to other Mediterranean breeds. Investigation of admixture and fixation indices reveals insights into the involvement of Fonni’s Dogs in breed development throughout the Mediterranean. We describe how characteristics of population isolates are reflected in dog breeds that have undergone artificial selection, and are mirrored in the Fonni’s Dog through traditional isolating factors that affect human populations. Lastly, we show that the genetic history of Fonni’s Dog parallels demographic events in local human populations. PMID:27519604

  8. Clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy in various dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Susanne M; Harms, Oliver; Konar, Martin; Staudacher, Anne; Langer, Anna; Thiel, Cetina; Kramer, Martin; Schaub, Sebastian; von Pückler, Kerstin H

    2016-11-23

    To describe clinical, radiographic, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 16 dogs diagnosed with gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy. Retrospective evaluation of medical records, radiographs, and MRI results, as well as follow-up completed by telephone questionnaire. Most dogs had chronic hindlimb lameness with no history of trauma or athletic activities. Clinical examination revealed signs of pain on palpation without stifle joint instability. Seven dogs had radiographic signs of osteophyte formation on the lateral fabella. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed T2 hyperintensity and uptake of contrast agent in the region of the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle. Changes were found in the lateral and medial heads of the gastrocnemius. Conservative treatment resulted in return to full function in 11 dogs. Two dogs showed partial restoration of normal function, one dog showed no improvement. Two dogs were lost to follow-up. Gastrocnemius musculotendinopathy is a potential cause of chronic hindlimb lameness in medium to large breed dogs. A history of athletic activity must not necessarily be present. Magnetic resonance imaging shows signal changes and uptake of contrast agent in the region of the origin of the gastrocnemius muscle. A combination of T1 pre- and post-contrast administration and T2 weighted sequences completed by a fat-suppressed sequence in the sagittal plane are well-suited for diagnosis. Conservative treatment generally results in return to normal function.

  9. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task.

    PubMed

    Polgár, Zita; Kinnunen, Mari; Újváry, Dóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1) dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2) dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3) dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4) hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container's lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them.

  10. A Test of Canine Olfactory Capacity: Comparing Various Dog Breeds and Wolves in a Natural Detection Task

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, Zita; Kinnunen, Mari; Újváry, Dóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Many dog breeds are bred specifically for increased performance in scent-based tasks. Whether dogs bred for this purpose have higher olfactory capacities than other dogs, or even wolves with whom they share a common ancestor, has not yet been studied. Indeed, there is no standard test for assessing canine olfactory ability. This study aimed to create a simple procedure that requires no pre-training and to use it to measure differences in olfactory capacity across four groups of canines: (1) dog breeds that have been selected for their scenting ability; (2) dog breeds that have been bred for other purposes; (3) dog breeds with exaggerated short-nosed features; and (4) hand-reared grey wolves. The procedure involved baiting a container with raw turkey meat and placing it under one of four identical ceramic pots. Subjects were led along the row of pots and were tasked with determining by olfaction alone which of them contained the bait. There were five levels of increasing difficulty determined by the number of holes on the container’s lid. A subsample of both dogs and wolves was retested to assess reliability. The results showed that breeds selected for scent work were better than both short-nosed and non-scent breeds. In the most difficult level, wolves and scenting breeds performed better than chance, while non-scenting and short-nosed breeds did not. In the retested samples wolves improved their success; however, dogs showed no change in their performances indicating that a single test may be reliable enough to assess their capacity. Overall, we revealed measurable differences between dog breeds in their olfactory abilities and suggest that the Natural Detection Task is a good foundation for developing an efficient way of quantifying them. PMID:27152412

  11. Brucella canis infection in dogs from commercial breeding kennels in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Keid, L B; Chiebao, D P; Batinga, M C A; Faita, T; Diniz, J A; Oliveira, T M F de S; Ferreira, H L; Soares, R M

    2017-06-01

    Canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis is a neglected zoonosis worldwide and is a leading cause of reproductive failure in dogs, often causing substantial economic losses in breeding kennels. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of B. canis infection in dogs of commercial breeding kennels located in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 753 dogs (183 males and 570 females) from 38 commercial kennels were clinically examined, and blood samples were collected for brucellosis diagnosis through blood culture. The association between clinical manifestations suggestive of brucellosis and positive results through blood culture was determined. Of the 753 dogs tested, 166 (22.0%) had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis and 158 (20.9%) had positive blood cultures. Seventy-two dogs had positive blood culture and had at least one clinical sign suggestive of brucellosis, while 91 dogs showed at least one clinical manifestation suggestive of brucellosis although blood culture was negative. Of the 38 kennels, 16 (42.1%) had at least one positive dog. The prevalence of infection in each kennel varied from 3.8% to 62.6%. Abortion/stillbirth, failure to conceive and enlargement of lymph nodes were significantly associated with brucellosis in female. No association of clinical signs and positive results in blood culture was observed in males. None of the kennels has been carrying out programmes to control brucellosis, and the sale of infected dogs was considered a common practice yielding risks to the public health, in view of the zoonotic potential of the infection. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Two years of combined high-intensity physical training and heat acclimatization affect lymphocyte and serum HSP70 in purebred military working dogs.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Yaron; Aroch, Itamar; Eliav, Ady; Abbas, Atallah; Frank, Ilan; Kelmer, Efrat; Codner, Carolina; Segev, Gilad; Epstein, Yoram; Horowitz, Michal

    2014-07-15

    Military working dogs in hot countries undergo exercise training at high ambient temperatures for at least 9 mo annually. Physiological adaptations to these harsh conditions have been extensively studied; however, studies focusing on the underlying molecular adaptations are limited. In the current study, military working dogs were chosen as a model to examine the effects of superimposing endurance exercise on seasonal acclimatization to environmental heat stress. The lymphocyte HSP70 profile and extracellular HSP70 were studied in tandem with physiological performance in the dogs from their recruitment for the following 2 yr. Aerobic power and heat shock proteins were measured at the end of each summer, with physical performance tests (PPTs) in an acclimatized room (22°C). The study shows that together with a profound enhancement of aerobic power and physical performance, hsp72 mRNA induction immediately post-PPT and 45 min later, progressively increased throughout the study period (relative change in median lymphocyte hsp72 mRNA first PPT, 4.22 and 12.82; second PPT, 17.19 and 109.05, respectively), whereas induction of HSP72 protein was stable. These responses suggest that cellular/molecular adaptive tools for maintaining HSP72 homeostasis exist. There was also a significant rise in basal and peak median optical density extracellular HSP at the end of each exercise test (first PPT, 0.13 and 0.15; second PPT, 1.04 and 1.52, respectively). The relationship between these enhancements and improved aerobic power capacity is not yet fully understood. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Laura M.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J.; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E.; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A.; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C.; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J.; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B.; Todhunter, Rory J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Boyko, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups—a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations—including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt—show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short-range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin. PMID:26483491

  14. Genetic structure in village dogs reveals a Central Asian domestication origin.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Laura M; Boyko, Ryan H; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Elizabeth; Hayward, Jessica J; McLean, Corin; White, Michelle E; Abi Said, Mounir; Anita, Baddley A; Bondjengo, Nono Ikombe; Calero, Jorge; Galov, Ana; Hedimbi, Marius; Imam, Bulu; Khalap, Rajashree; Lally, Douglas; Masta, Andrew; Oliveira, Kyle C; Pérez, Lucía; Randall, Julia; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Trujillo-Cornejo, Francisco J; Valeriano, Carlos; Sutter, Nathan B; Todhunter, Rory J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Boyko, Adam R

    2015-11-03

    Dogs were the first domesticated species, originating at least 15,000 y ago from Eurasian gray wolves. Dogs today consist primarily of two specialized groups--a diverse set of nearly 400 pure breeds and a far more populous group of free-ranging animals adapted to a human commensal lifestyle (village dogs). Village dogs are more genetically diverse and geographically widespread than purebred dogs making them vital for unraveling dog population history. Using a semicustom 185,805-marker genotyping array, we conducted a large-scale survey of autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosome diversity in 4,676 purebred dogs from 161 breeds and 549 village dogs from 38 countries. Geographic structure shows both isolation and gene flow have shaped genetic diversity in village dog populations. Some populations (notably those in the Neotropics and the South Pacific) are almost completely derived from European stock, whereas others are clearly admixed between indigenous and European dogs. Importantly, many populations--including those of Vietnam, India, and Egypt-show minimal evidence of European admixture. These populations exhibit a clear gradient of short--range linkage disequilibrium consistent with a Central Asian domestication origin.

  15. Factor VII deficiency in a mixed breed dog.

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, R; Scherer, J; Ross, M L; Gentry, P A

    1999-01-01

    Abnormal bleeding following routine orchectomy of a 5-month-old mixed breed was determined to be due to factor VII deficiency. Although pedigree information was unavailable, failure to respond to vitamin K therapy and the absence of a plasma coagulation inhibitor suggested that the factor VII deficiency was likely inherited rather than acquired. PMID:10416073

  16. Breed-specific variation of hematologic and biochemical analytes in healthy adult Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lise; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2010-03-01

    Hematology and serum biochemistry reference intervals in dogs may be affected by internal factors, such as breed and age, and external factors, such as the environment, diet, and lifestyle. In humans, it is well established that geographic origin and age may have an impact on reference intervals and, therefore, more specific reference intervals are sought for subpopulations. The objective of this study was to validate and transfer standard laboratory reference intervals for healthy Bernese Mountain dogs and to create new intervals for analytes where the established laboratory reference intervals were rejected. The procedure was performed using the human Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-approved model modified for veterinary use. Thirty-two dogs were included in the study using a direct a priori method, as recommended. While 23 of the standard laboratory reference intervals were readily validated, 7 of the analytes (eosinophils, MCHC, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], gamma-glutamyltransferase, total bilirubin, amylase, and cholesterol) required new reference intervals according to the standard. These were calculated using the robust method. In particular, the new reference range for ALP was wide compared with the established laboratory reference interval. No clinical causes were found for differences in the results of these analytes. We found significant differences in 7 hematologic and serum biochemical analytes for which a breed-specific variation appears to be the most plausible explanation. Breed-specific reference intervals for Bernese Mountain dogs will help avoid misinterpretation of laboratory results in the diagnostic process.

  17. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, C.; López-Bao, J. V.; García, E. J.; Lema, F. J.; Llaneza, L.; Palacios, V.; Godinho, R.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km2 in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids. Genetic relatedness was assessed between hybrids and wolves. We identified 130 genotypes, including 67 wolves and 7 hybrids. Three of the hybrids were backcrosses to dog whereas the others were backcrosses to wolf, the latter accounting for a 5.6% rate of introgression into the wolf population. Our results show a previously undocumented scenario of multiple and widespread wolf-dog hybridization events at the population level. However, there is a clear maintenance of wolf genetic identity, as evidenced by the sharp genetic identification of pure individuals, suggesting the resilience of wolf populations to a small amount of hybridization. We consider that real-time population level assessments of hybridization provide a new perspective into the debate on wolf conservation, with particular focus on current management guidelines applied in wolf-dog hybridization events. PMID:28195213

  18. Spatial assessment of wolf-dog hybridization in a single breeding period.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, C; López-Bao, J V; García, E J; Lema, F J; Llaneza, L; Palacios, V; Godinho, R

    2017-02-14

    Understanding the dynamics of wolf-dog hybridization and delineating evidence-based conservation strategies requires information on the spatial extent of wolf-dog hybridization in real-time, which remains largely unknown. We collected 332 wolf-like scats over ca. 5,000km(2) in the NW Iberian Peninsula to evaluate wolf-dog hybridization at population level in a single breeding/pup-rearing season. Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) and 18 ancestry informative markers were used for species and individual identification, and to detect wolf-dog hybrids. Genetic relatedness was assessed between hybrids and wolves. We identified 130 genotypes, including 67 wolves and 7 hybrids. Three of the hybrids were backcrosses to dog whereas the others were backcrosses to wolf, the latter accounting for a 5.6% rate of introgression into the wolf population. Our results show a previously undocumented scenario of multiple and widespread wolf-dog hybridization events at the population level. However, there is a clear maintenance of wolf genetic identity, as evidenced by the sharp genetic identification of pure individuals, suggesting the resilience of wolf populations to a small amount of hybridization. We consider that real-time population level assessments of hybridization provide a new perspective into the debate on wolf conservation, with particular focus on current management guidelines applied in wolf-dog hybridization events.

  19. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. Methods A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages. Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. Results The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period). More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42). The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s) of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43) and vice versa (OR = 5.50). In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88) of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Conclusion Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life. The incidence of

  20. A longitudinal study on diarrhoea and vomiting in young dogs of four large breeds.

    PubMed

    Sævik, Bente K; Skancke, Ellen M; Trangerud, Cathrine

    2012-02-02

    Prospective studies to document the occurrence of canine diarrhoea and vomiting are relatively scarce in dogs, and the majority of published studies are based on information from clinical records. This study investigates the incidence risk of diarrhoea and vomiting as well as potential risk factors. A cohort study of 585 privately owned dogs of four breeds: Newfoundland, Labrador retriever, Leonberger, and Irish wolfhound. The owners maintained a continuous log regarding housing, exercise, nutrition, and health of their dogs. Episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting were recorded in a consecutive manner in a booklet. The owners completed the questionnaires and reported information at three, four, six, 12, 18, and 24/25 months of age, called observational ages.Associations with potential risk factors for diarrhoea and vomiting were investigated in separate generalized estimating equation analyses. The incidence of both diarrhoea and vomiting was influenced by breed. Both diarrhoea and vomiting were relatively common in young dogs, occurring most frequently during the first months of life. After three months of age, the odds of diarrhoea were significantly lower when compared to the observational period seven weeks to three months (OR ranging from 0.31 to 0.70 depending on the period). More males than females suffered from diarrhoea (OR = 1.42). The occurrence of diarrhoea was more common in dogs that also experienced episode(s) of vomiting during the study period (OR = 5.43) and vice versa (OR = 5.50). In the majority of dogs episodes of diarrhoea and vomiting did not occur at the same time. Dogs in urban areas had higher odds (OR = 1.88) of getting diarrhoea compared to dogs living in rural areas. The occurrence of both diarrhoea and vomiting demonstrated a seasonal variation with higher incidence during the summer months. Both diarrhoea and vomiting occurred most frequently during the first months of life. The incidence of diarrhoea and vomiting was significantly

  1. The prevalence of tail injuries in working and non-working breed dogs visiting veterinary practices in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Cameron, N; Lederer, R; Bennett, D; Parkin, T

    2014-05-03

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the prevalence of tail injuries that required veterinary examination in different breeds of dog in Scotland. The study population included all dogs that had visited one of 16 veterinary practices located in Scotland between 2002 and early 2012. The overall prevalence of tail injuries in dogs visiting one of the 16 veterinary practices was 0.59 per cent. The prevalence of tail injuries in dogs of working breeds was estimated to be 0.90 per cent. Working dog breeds that were examined by a veterinary surgeon were at a significantly greater risk of sustaining a tail injury than non-working breeds (P<0.001). To prevent one such tail injury in these working breeds approximately 232 dogs would need to be docked as puppies. To prevent one tail amputation in spaniels, 320 spaniel puppies would need to be docked. Spaniels presented after January 2009 were 2.3 times more likely to have a tail injury than those presented before April 29, 2007 (date of the legislation that banned tail docking in Scotland). Given the results of this and the accompanying paper it may be appropriate to consider changes to the current legislation for specific breeds of working dogs.

  2. Epidemiology of surgical castration of dogs and cats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Trevejo, Rosalie; Yang, Mingyin; Lund, Elizabeth M

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of surgical castration among dogs and cats evaluated at private US veterinary hospitals and to determine the influence of sex, age, breed, geographic location, and prepaid wellness plan enrollment on the likelihood of castration. Retrospective period prevalence study. 320,172 cats and 1,339,860 dogs examined at 651 hospitals during 2007 Procedures-Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare prevalence among subpopulations for each species. The overall prevalence of castration was 82% in cats and 64% in dogs. Prevalence increased significantly with age in both species. Among cats, males were slightly more likely to be castrated than females (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.03) and mixed breeds slightly less likely than purebreds (PR = 0.99). Among dogs, males were less likely to be castrated than females (PR = 0.93) and mixed breeds more likely than purebreds (PR = 1.19). Prevalence was lowest in dogs in the Southeastern United States (61%). Dogs and cats on a wellness plan were more likely to be castrated than those not on a plan (PR = 1.33 and 1.18, respectively). Among commonly reported dog breeds, pit bull-type dogs (27%) and Chihuahuas (46%) were least likely to be castrated. Many young adult (1- to < 4-year-old) dogs (32%) were uncastrated, signaling a need to promote earlier castration. Outreach efforts should be directed toward owners of pets least likely to be castrated, such as male dogs, dogs of specific breeds (ie, pit bull-type and Chihuahua), and dogs in the Southeastern United States. Additional research is needed to evaluate the potential impact of wellness programs on an owner's decision to have his or her pet castrated.

  3. Clinical and Breed Characteristics of Idiopathic Head Tremor Syndrome in 291 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Linda G.; Berezowski, John; Rishniw, Mark; Nibblett, Belle M.; Kelly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To establish signalment and phenomenology of canine idiopathic head tremor syndrome (IHTS), an episodic head movement disorder of undetermined pathogenesis. Design. Retrospective case series. Animals. 291 dogs with IHTS diagnosed between 1999 and 2013. Procedures. Clinical information was obtained from an online community of veterinary information aggregation and exchange (Veterinary Information Network, 777 W Covell Boulevard, Davis, CA 95616) and conducted with their approval. Information on breed, sex, age of onset, tremor description, mentation during the event, effect of distractions and drugs, diagnostics, presence of other problems, and outcome was analyzed. Results. IHTS was found in 24 pure breeds. Bulldogs, Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and Doberman Pinschers comprised 69%; mixed breeds comprised 17%. Average onset age was 29 months (range: 3 months to 12 years). First episode occurred before 48 months of age in 88%. Vertical (35%), horizontal (50%), and rotational (15%) movements were documented. Possible trigger events were found in 21%. Mentation was normal in 93%. Distractions abated the tremor in 87%. Most dogs did not respond to antiepileptic drugs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance. This retrospective study documents IHTS in many breeds including Labrador Retrievers, Boxers, and mixed breeds. PMID:26064776

  4. Long-term genetic selection reduced prevalence of hip and elbow dysplasia in 60 dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Keller, G. G.; Famula, T. R.

    2017-01-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and elbow dysplasia (ED) impact the health and welfare of all dogs. The first formally organized assessment scheme to improve canine health centered on reducing the prevalence of these orthopedic disorders. Phenotypic screening of joint conformation remains the currently available strategy for breeders to make selection decisions. The present study evaluated the efficacy of employing phenotypic selection on breed improvement of hips and elbows using the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals complete database spanning the 1970–2015 time period. Sixty breeds having more than 1000 unique hip evaluations and 500 elbow evaluations (1,056,852 and 275,129 hip and elbow records, respectively) were interrogated to derive phenotypic improvement, sex and age at time of assessment effects, correlation between the two joints, heritability estimates, estimated breeding values (EBV), and effectiveness of maternal/paternal selection. The data demonstrated that there has been overall improvement in hip and elbow conformation with a reduction in EBV for disease liability, although the breeds differed in the magnitude of the response to selection. Heritabilities also differed substantially across the breeds as did the correlation of the joints; in the absence of a universal association of these differences with breed size, popularity, or participation in screening, it appears that the breeds themselves vary in genetic control. There was subtle, though again breed specific, impact of sex and older ages on CHD and ED. There was greater paternal impact on a reduction of CHD. In the absence of direct genetic tests for either of these two diseases, phenotypic selection has proven to be effective. Furthermore, the data underscore that selection schemes must be breed specific and that it is likely the genetic profiles will be unique across the breeds for these two conditions. Despite the advances achieved with phenotypic selection, incorporation of EBVs into

  5. Pelvic limb alignment in small breed dogs: a comparison between affected and free subjects from medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Olimpo, Matteo; Piras, Lisa Adele; Peirone, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Small breed dogs are 12 times more likely to develop medial patellar luxation (MPL) than large breed dogs and breed predisposition has been reported. Many surgical techniques are available for correction of patellar luxation in dogs. However, recent studies reported an 8% incidence of reluxation when traditional techniques are used. The relatively high frequency of major complications and patellar reluxation may be partially caused by inadequate appreciation of the underlying skeletal deformity and subsequent incorrect selection and application of traditional techniques. The aims of this study were to report the normal values of the anatomic and mechanical joint angles of the femur and tibia in small breed dogs and to compare these data to a population of small breed dogs affected by different degrees of MPL. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the femur are similar to the ones reported in literature in Pomeranian dogs. Normal values of the anatomic and mechanical angles of the tibia have been described for the first time. Significant differences were found between normal population and dogs affected by grade 4 MPL in relation to anatomical Lateral Distal Femoral Angle (aLDFA), mechanical Medial Proximal Tibial Angle (mMPTA), and mechanical Caudal Proximal Tibial Angle (mCaPTA).

  6. Comparison of tick resistance of crossbred Senepol × Limousin to purebred Limousin cattle.

    PubMed

    Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Teurlai, Magali; Naves, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The comparison of resistance to natural tick infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) of crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle was investigated. The Senepol breed, originated from St Croix Island in the Caribbean is considered as a Bos taurus breed adapted to tropical conditions. Despite its B. taurus genetic background, it is believed to have a good tick resistance, but this resistance has never been assessed previously. Tick counts under natural infestation were carried out to investigate the difference of susceptibility between crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle. Mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of the breed on the number of ticks. Results show that Senepol × Limousin are five times less infested by ticks than purebred Limousin. These results underline the opportunity to use Senepol cattle for crossing with susceptible B. taurus breeds in tick infested areas, to combine tick resistance with beef production abilities.

  7. An expressed fgf4 retrogene is associated with breed-defining chondrodysplasia in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; VonHoldt, Bridgett M; Quignon, Pascale; Margulies, Elliott H; Shao, Stephanie; Mosher, Dana S; Spady, Tyrone C; Elkahloun, Abdel; Cargill, Michele; Jones, Paul G; Maslen, Cheryl L; Acland, Gregory M; Sutter, Nathan B; Kuroki, Keiichi; Bustamante, Carlos D; Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2009-08-21

    Retrotransposition of processed mRNAs is a common source of novel sequence acquired during the evolution of genomes. Although the vast majority of retroposed gene copies, or retrogenes, rapidly accumulate debilitating mutations that disrupt the reading frame, a small percentage become new genes that encode functional proteins. By using a multibreed association analysis in the domestic dog, we demonstrate that expression of a recently acquired retrogene encoding fibroblast growth factor 4 (fgf4) is strongly associated with chondrodysplasia, a short-legged phenotype that defines at least 19 dog breeds including dachshund, corgi, and basset hound. These results illustrate the important role of a single evolutionary event in constraining and directing phenotypic diversity in the domestic dog.

  8. [Post-mortem animal predation of the genital region caused by a half-breed dog].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Wrobel, Detlev; Tsokos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe and discuss the case of a 51-year-old man, who was lying mummified in his apartment. Beside the corpse, the well-fed half-breed dog of the deceased was found. Only the penis and testicles of the corpse were destroyed by post-mortem animal scavenging, whereas the face and the rest of the body were intact. There was plenty of dog food in the apartment. In contrast to wild animals, with domestic dogs hunger is the cause for post-mortem scavenging only in the minority of cases. It is rather a displacement activity. Frequently, the face and hands are destroyed by post-mortem animal predation, as these body regions are usually unclothed and thus easily accessible. Lesions in other localizations are seldom seen and injuries in the genital region are a rarity.

  9. Muscular dystrophy in dogs: does the crossing of breeds influence disease phenotype?

    PubMed

    Miyazato, L G; Moraes, J R E; Beretta, D C; Kornegay, J N

    2011-05-01

    Golden Retriever (GR) muscular dystrophy is an inherited degenerative muscle disease that provides an excellent model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy in humans. This study defined the histopathologic lesions, including the distribution of type I and II muscle fibers (FTI and FTII), in 12 dystrophic and 3 nondystrophic dogs between 7 and 15 months of age. The authors were interested in studying the influence on disease phenotype from crossing the base GR breed with Yellow Labrador Retrievers. The dystrophic dogs were divided according to breed: GRs and Golden Labrador Retrievers (GLRs). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, histopathologic lesions were more severe in GRs than GLRs. Six of eight GR muscles (75%) had a severe lesion grade (grade 3). In contrast, seven GLR muscles (87.5%) had mild lesions (grade 2), and only one had severe lesions (grade 3). Changes in fiber-type distribution were more pronounced in GRs versus GLRs. FTI:FTII ratio inversion was observed in three dystrophic GRs but only one GLR. The mean diameter of FTI and FTII was smaller in GRs and GLRs than in nondystrophic dogs (P < .01). The FTI of five GR muscles (62.5%) were larger than those of GLRs, whereas only one GLR muscle was larger (P < .05). The differential was less pronounced for FTII, with four GR muscles being larger and three GLR being larger. Observations indicate that crossing the base GR breed with Labrador Retrievers lessened the severity of the GR muscular dystrophy phenotype.

  10. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    PubMed

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations.

  11. Geometric analysis of macronutrient selection in breeds of the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although many herbivores and omnivores have been shown to balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable foods, study of this ability has been relatively neglected in carnivores, largely on the assumption that prey are less variable in nutrient composition than the foods of herbivores and omnivores and such mechanisms therefore unnecessary. We performed diet selection studies in 5 breeds of adult dog (Canis lupus familiaris) to determine whether these domesticated carnivores regulate macronutrient intake. Using nutritional geometry, we show that the macronutrient content of the diet was regulated to a protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of approximately 30%:63%:7% by energy, a value that was remarkably similar across breeds. These values, which the analysis suggests are dietary target values, are based on intakes of dogs with prior experience of the respective experimental food combinations. On initial exposure to the diets (i.e., when naive), the same dogs self-selected a diet that was marginally but significantly lower in fat, suggesting that learning played a role in macronutrient regulation. In contrast with the tight regulation of macronutrient ratios, the total amount of food and energy eaten was far higher than expected based on calculated maintenance energy requirements. We interpret these results in relation to the evolutionary history of domestic dogs and compare them to equivalent studies on domestic cats. PMID:23243377

  12. Etiology of patent ductus arteriosus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, James W; Patterson, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is the most common congenital heart disease in dogs and usually causes heart failure and death unless corrected at a young age. Previous histologic studies in a line of dogs derived from Miniature Poodles with hereditary PDA identified varying degrees of hypoplasia and asymmetry of ductus-specific smooth muscle and the presence of aortalike elastic tissue in the ductus wall sufficient to cause patency. To determine if similar structural abnormalities cause PDA in other dogs, serial-section, 3-dimensional histology of ductal architecture was studied in 8 non-Poodle purebred dogs with PDA with no immediate family history of PDA. Morphologic abnormalities were observed in 7 of 8 dogs with PDA and essentially were the same as those in dogs known to have a hereditary form of PDA. These findings suggest that apparently sporadic PDA in these breeds is caused by a genetic defect in the structure of the ductus arteriosus that is similar or identical to that in the Poodle. The relatives of dogs with PDA, particularly parents, offspring, and siblings, should be screened for evidence of PDA. Dogs with PDA should not be used for breeding, regardless of breed.

  13. Variance components and heritabilities for sow productivity traits estimated from purebred versus crossbred sows.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M J; Mabry, J W; Bertrand, J K; Stalder, K J

    2005-10-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for number of pigs born alive (NBA), adjusted litter weaning weight (ALWT), and the interval from weaning to first service (W2E) using 2002 purebred litter records and 14 583 crossbred litter records from a swine production unit with a defined great-grandparent, grandparent, and parent stock genetic system structure. Estimation of (co)variance components was carried out by REML methods. Heritability estimates from this study for NBA were 0.155, 0.146, 0.145 for the purebred, crossbred, and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for ALWT were 0.162, 0.195, and 0.183 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Heritability estimates for W2E were 0.205, 0.239 and 0.202 for the purebred, crossbred and pooled data, respectively. Genetic correlations between NBA and ALWT were weak and positive for the three groups. The genetic correlation between W2E and ALWT were -0.158 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.031 for the crossbreds and 0.051 for the pooled data. The genetic correlation between W2E and NBA was -0.027 for the purebred Yorkshires, 0.310 for the crossbreds and 0.236 for the pooled data. These similarities suggest that pooling of purebred and crossbred data may be considered, which may potentially increase the accuracy of breeding value estimates, which would result in increased genetic progress.

  14. Genetic and phenotypic variations of inherited retinal diseases in dogs: the power of within- and across-breed studies.

    PubMed

    Miyadera, Keiko; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2012-02-01

    Considerable clinical and molecular variations have been known in retinal blinding diseases in man and also in dogs. Different forms of retinal diseases occur in specific breed(s) caused by mutations segregating within each isolated breeding population. While molecular studies to find genes and mutations underlying retinal diseases in dogs have benefited largely from the phenotypic and genetic uniformity within a breed, within- and across-breed variations have often played a key role in elucidating the molecular basis. The increasing knowledge of phenotypic, allelic, and genetic heterogeneities in canine retinal degeneration has shown that the overall picture is rather more complicated than initially thought. Over the past 20 years, various approaches have been developed and tested to search for genes and mutations underlying genetic traits in dogs, depending on the availability of genetic tools and sample resources. Candidate gene, linkage analysis, and genome-wide association studies have so far identified 24 mutations in 18 genes underlying retinal diseases in at least 58 dog breeds. Many of these genes have been associated with retinal diseases in humans, thus providing opportunities to study the role in pathogenesis and in normal vision. Application in therapeutic interventions such as gene therapy has proven successful initially in a naturally occurring dog model followed by trials in human patients. Other genes whose human homologs have not been associated with retinal diseases are potential candidates to explain equivalent human diseases and contribute to the understanding of their function in vision.

  15. Genetic and phenotypic variations of inherited retinal diseases in dogs: the power of within- and across-breed studies

    PubMed Central

    Acland, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable clinical and molecular variations have been known in retinal blinding diseases in man and also in dogs. Different forms of retinal diseases occur in specific breed(s) caused by mutations segregating within each isolated breeding population. While molecular studies to find genes and mutations underlying retinal diseases in dogs have benefited largely from the phenotypic and genetic uniformity within a breed, within- and across-breed variations have often played a key role in elucidating the molecular basis. The increasing knowledge of phenotypic, allelic, and genetic heterogeneities in canine retinal degeneration has shown that the overall picture is rather more complicated than initially thought. Over the past 20 years, various approaches have been developed and tested to search for genes and mutations underlying genetic traits in dogs, depending on the availability of genetic tools and sample resources. Candidate gene, linkage analysis, and genome-wide association studies have so far identified 24 mutations in 18 genes underlying retinal diseases in at least 58 dog breeds. Many of these genes have been associated with retinal diseases in humans, thus providing opportunities to study the role in pathogenesis and in normal vision. Application in therapeutic interventions such as gene therapy has proven successful initially in a naturally occurring dog model followed by trials in human patients. Other genes whose human homologs have not been associated with retinal diseases are potential candidates to explain equivalent human diseases and contribute to the understanding of their function in vision. PMID:22065099

  16. Identification of the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluation of breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Villamil, J Armando; Henry, Carolyn J; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Ellersieck, Mark; Schultz, Loren; Tyler, Jeff W; Hahn, Allen W

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE-To identify the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluate breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms. DESIGN-Retrospective epidemiological study. SAMPLE-Records available through the Veterinary Medical Database of dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2002. PROCEDURES-Information on tumor type and patient breed and age was collected. Incidence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS-Records of 1,139,616 dogs were reviewed. Cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed in 25,996 of these dogs; records for the remaining 1,113,620 dogs did not indicate that cutaneous neoplasms had been diagnosed, and these dogs were considered controls. The most frequent age range for dogs with cutaneous neoplasms was 10 to 15 years. Lipoma, adenoma, and mast cell tumor were the most common skin tumor types. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results supported previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplasia in dogs but provided updated information on the most common skin tumors and on age and breed distributions.

  17. Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

    PubMed

    Holder, Angela L; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic

  18. Assessment of dental abnormalities by full-mouth radiography in small breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Geun; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Ju-Won; Park, Hee-Myung

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate full-mouth radiographic findings to determine the prevalence of dental abnormalities and analyze the relationship between dental abnormalities and age in small breed dogs. Sixteen predetermined categories of abnormal radiographic findings were evaluated in 233 small breed dogs. In total, 9,786 possible permanent teeth could be evaluated. Of those, 8,308 teeth were evaluated and abnormal radiographic findings were found in 2,458 teeth (29.6%). The most common teeth with abnormal radiographic findings were the mandibular first molars (74.5% on the left and 63.9% on the right) and the maxillary fourth premolars (40.5% on the left and 38.2% on the right). Bone loss of any type (15.8%) was the most commonly detected radiographic abnormal finding among the 16 categories. Dental conditions with a genetic predisposition were frequently occurred in the mandibular premolar teeth. Shih tzu frequently had unerupted teeth and dentigerous cysts. Among the teeth with abnormal radiographic findings, 4.5%, 19.8%, and 5.3% were considered incidental, additional, and important, respectively. Findings that were only detected on radiographs, which were not noted on routine oral examination, were more common in older dogs. Full-mouth radiographic evaluation should be performed to obtain important information for making accurate diagnoses.

  19. Epidemiology, pathology, and genetics of histiocytic sarcoma in the Bernese mountain dog breed.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Jérôme; Hédan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; De Brito, Clotilde; Devauchelle, Patrick; Bourgain, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G; Vaysse, Amaury; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Galibert, Francis; Ostrander, Elaine A; André, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) refers to a highly aggressive and frequently disseminated neoplastic disease belonging to the class of canine histiocytic proliferative disorders. Disseminated HS (previously called malignant histiocytosis) is highly breed specific, with Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs), rottweilers, and retrievers having a high prevalence with a frequency of approximately 25% in the BMD breed. We collected DNA samples and clinical information from 800 BMDs, of which 200 are affected by HS. To better characterize the physiopathology and epidemiology, an in-depth analysis of 89 BMD cases has been performed. The mean age of onset was 6.5 years, males and females being equally affected. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, and pathological features have been determined. The life span after diagnosis has been estimated to be 49 days. A large BMD pedigree of 327 dogs, 121 of which are affected, was assembled. Using a subset of 160 BMDs, encompassing 21 complete sibships, we now propose an oligogenic transmission mode of the disease. Whole-genome linkage scans as well as association studies using a case/control analysis, in parallel with expression profiling of neoplastic versus normal histiocytes, are all underway. Altogether, these complementary approaches are expected to localize the genes for HS in the BMD, leading to advances in our knowledge of histiocyte diseases in dogs and humans.

  20. Epidemiology, Pathology, and Genetics of Histiocytic Sarcoma in the Bernese Mountain Dog Breed

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Jérôme; Hédan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; De Brito, Clotilde; Devauchelle, Patrick; Bourgain, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G.; Vaysse, Amaury; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Galibert, Francis; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2009-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) refers to a highly aggressive and frequently disseminated neoplastic disease belonging to the class of canine histiocytic proliferative disorders. Disseminated HS (previously called malignant histiocytosis) is highly breed specific, with Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs), rottweilers, and retrievers having a high prevalence with a frequency of approximately 25% in the BMD breed. We collected DNA samples and clinical information from 800 BMDs, of which 200 are affected by HS. To better characterize the physiopathology and epidemiology, an in-depth analysis of 89 BMD cases has been performed. The mean age of onset was 6.5 years, males and females being equally affected. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, and pathological features have been determined. The life span after diagnosis has been estimated to be 49 days. A large BMD pedigree of 327 dogs, 121 of which are affected, was assembled. Using a subset of 160 BMDs, encompassing 21 complete sibships, we now propose an oligogenic transmission mode of the disease. Whole-genome linkage scans as well as association studies using a case/control analysis, in parallel with expression profiling of neoplastic versus normal histiocytes, are all underway. Altogether, these complementary approaches are expected to localize the genes for HS in the BMD, leading to advances in our knowledge of histiocyte diseases in dogs and humans. PMID:19531730

  1. Breed differences in dogs' (Canis familiaris) gaze to the human face.

    PubMed

    Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2010-06-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been submitted to a vast process of artificial selection and to date, there are hundreds of breeds that differ in their physical and behavioral features. In addition, dogs possess important skills to communicate with humans. Previous evidence indicates that those abilities are related to the domestication process and are modulated by instrumental learning processes. Very few studies, however, have evaluated breed differences in the use and learning of interspecific communicative responses. In Study 1 Retrievers, German Shepherds and Poodles were compared in the acquisition and extinction of their gaze toward the human face, in a conflict situation involving food within sight but out of reach. The groups did not differ in the acquisition of the response, but throughout the extinction phase Retrievers gazed to the human significantly more than the other groups. In Study 2, similar results were obtained in a test without any previous explicit training. These results suggest that these three major popular breeds differ in gazing to humans in a communicative situation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Breed relationships facilitate fine-mapping studies: a 7.8-kb deletion cosegregates with Collie eye anomaly across multiple dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; Kukekova, Anna V; Akey, Dayna T; Goldstein, Orly; Kirkness, Ewen F; Baysac, Kathleen C; Mosher, Dana S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2007-11-01

    The features of modern dog breeds that increase the ease of mapping common diseases, such as reduced heterogeneity and extensive linkage disequilibrium, may also increase the difficulty associated with fine mapping and identifying causative mutations. One way to address this problem is by combining data from multiple breeds segregating the same trait after initial linkage has been determined. The multibreed approach increases the number of potentially informative recombination events and reduces the size of the critical haplotype by taking advantage of shortened linkage disequilibrium distances found across breeds. In order to identify breeds that likely share a trait inherited from the same ancestral source, we have used cluster analysis to divide 132 breeds of dog into five primary breed groups. We then use the multibreed approach to fine-map Collie eye anomaly (cea), a complex disorder of ocular development that was initially mapped to a 3.9-cM region on canine chromosome 37. Combined genotypes from affected individuals from four breeds of a single breed group significantly narrowed the candidate gene region to a 103-kb interval spanning only four genes. Sequence analysis revealed that all affected dogs share a homozygous deletion of 7.8 kb in the NHEJ1 gene. This intronic deletion spans a highly conserved binding domain to which several developmentally important proteins bind. This work both establishes that the primary cea mutation arose as a single disease allele in a common ancestor of herding breeds as well as highlights the value of comparative population analysis for refining regions of linkage.

  3. Radiographic assessment of the cardiac silhouette in clinically normal large- and small-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ayman A; Berry, Clifford R

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine manubrium heart scores (MHSs) from measurements of cardiac short-axis length (cSAL) and long-axis length (cLAL) relative to the corresponding manubrium length (ML) on thoracic radiographic views of dogs and assess correlation of MHSs with vertebral heart scores (VHSs). ANIMALS 120 clinically normal large-breed dogs (LBDs) and small-breed dogs (SBDs). PROCEDURES On right lateral views (RLVs) and ventrodorsal views (VDVs) for each dog, cSAL and cLAL were measured and expressed as a ratio; the cSAL:ML ratio (short-MHS), cLAL:ML ratio (long-MHS), and cSAL-and-cLAL:ML ratio (overall-MHS) were also calculated. The VHS was determined from the RLV. Correlation of VHS with MHS was assessed. RESULTS On RLVs and VDVs, mean cSAL:cLAL ratios were 0.77 (SD, 0.05) and 0.72 (SD, 0.05), respectively, in 60 LBDs and 0.81 (SD, 0.06) and 0.78 (SD, 0.06), respectively, in 60 SBDs. In LBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.1 (SD, 0.22), 2.7 (SD, 0.24), and 4.8 (SD, 0.5), respectively, on RLVs and 2.3 (SD, 0.26), 3.2 (SD, 0.34), and 5.4 (SD, 0.6), respectively, on VDVs. In SBDs, mean short-MHS, long-MHS, and overall-MHS were 2.4 (SD, 0.39), 2.9 (SD, 0.50), and 5.3 (SD, 0.83), respectively, on RLVs and 2.5 (SD, 0.44), 3.2 (SD, 0.51), and 5.8 (SD, 0.92), respectively, on VDVs. Mean VHSs were 10.73 (SD, 0.52) and 10.27 (SD, 0.81) in LBDs and SBDs, respectively. A significant correlation was identified between VHS and each MHS in LBDs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In the dogs evaluated, radiographic cardiac dimensions and MHSs were correlated. Validity of the MHS for cardiac dimension assessment in other healthy dogs and dogs with cardiac disease warrants investigation.

  4. What’s in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Lisa M.; Barber, Rebecca T.; Wynne, Clive D. L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters. PMID:27008213

  5. What's in a Name? Effect of Breed Perceptions & Labeling on Attractiveness, Adoptions & Length of Stay for Pit-Bull-Type Dogs.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Lisa M; Barber, Rebecca T; Wynne, Clive D L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that certain breeds of dogs stay longer in shelters than others. However, exactly how breed perception and identification influences potential adopters' decisions remains unclear. Current dog breed identification practices in animal shelters are often based upon information supplied by the relinquishing owner, or staff determination based on the dog's phenotype. However, discrepancies have been found between breed identification as typically assessed by welfare agencies and the outcome of DNA analysis. In Study 1, the perceived behavioral and adoptability characteristics of a pit-bull-type dog were compared with those of a Labrador Retriever and Border Collie. How the addition of a human handler influenced those perceptions was also assessed. In Study 2, lengths of stay and perceived attractiveness of dogs that were labeled as pit bull breeds were compared to dogs that were phenotypically similar but were labeled as another breed at an animal shelter. The latter dogs were called "lookalikes." In Study 3, we compared perceived attractiveness in video recordings of pit-bull-type dogs and lookalikes with and without breed labels. Lastly, data from an animal shelter that ceased applying breed labeling on kennels were analyzed, and lengths of stay and outcomes for all dog breeds, including pit bulls, before and after the change in labeling practice were compared. In total, these findings suggest that breed labeling influences potential adopters' perceptions and decision-making. Given the inherent complexity of breed assignment based on morphology coupled with negative breed perceptions, removing breed labels is a relatively low-cost strategy that will likely improve outcomes for dogs in animal shelters.

  6. Neuropharmacological lesion localization in idiopathic Horner's syndrome in Golden Retrievers and dogs of other breeds.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Katherine M; Williams, David L; Cherubini, Giunio B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether idiopathic Horner's syndrome (HS) in Golden Retrievers is an exclusively preganglionic disorder based on denervation hypersensitivity pharmacological testing with phenylephrine. Medical records of dogs presented with HS between 2000 and 2012. Dogs presented with additional ocular or systemic signs were excluded. Clinical data examined included age, sex, duration of clinical signs, ancillary diagnostic test results, and time to mydriasis on topical ocular application of 1% phenylephrine. Lesions were diagnosed as postganglionic (mydriasis within 20 min) or preganglionic (mydriasis between 20 and 45 min). Medical records of 21 dogs of nine different breeds were included. An etiopathogenesis for Horner's syndrome was determined in five dogs, none of which were Golden Retrievers. All diagnoses correlated with pharmacological lesion localization. Ten Golden Retrievers were included (eight male and two female) with a mean age of 8.5 years (range: 4-13). Lesion localization was diagnosed as postganglionic in eight (mean: 10 min [range: 6-18]) and preganglionic in two Golden Retrievers (20 and 24 min). All cases were unilateral and had completely resolved within 15 weeks (range: 11-20). Recurrence was not reported in any of the patients. Idiopathic postganglionic HS was diagnosed in eight of 10 Golden Retrievers contradicting previous reports of a purely preganglionic localization. Etiopathogenesis of canine idiopathic HS remains to be determined; nevertheless, a vascular etiology cannot be excluded. Future studies using magnetic resonance angiography may aid in clarifying the pathogenesis. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Whole-genome sequencing of six dog breeds from continuous altitudes reveals adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Xiao; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ning; Qiu, Feng; Xu, Ze; Yan, Dawei; Yang, Shuli; Jia, Jia; Kong, Xiaoyan; Wei, Zehui; Lu, Shaoxiong; Lian, Linsheng; Wu, Changxin; Wang, Xueyan; Li, Guozhi; Ma, Teng; Jiang, Qiang; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Baohong; Wei, Dongkai; Li, Hong; Yang, Jianfa; Yan, Yulin; Zhao, Guiying; Dong, Xinxing; Li, Mingli; Deng, Weidong; Leng, Jing; Wei, Chaochun; Wang, Chuan; Mao, Huaming; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Guohui; Li, Yixue

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxic environment imposes severe selective pressure on species living at high altitude. To understand the genetic bases of adaptation to high altitude in dogs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 60 dogs including five breeds living at continuous altitudes along the Tibetan Plateau from 800 to 5100 m as well as one European breed. More than 150× sequencing coverage for each breed provides us with a comprehensive assessment of the genetic polymorphisms of the dogs, including Tibetan Mastiffs. Comparison of the breeds from different altitudes reveals strong signals of population differentiation at the locus of hypoxia-related genes including endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1) and beta hemoglobin cluster. Notably, four novel nonsynonymous mutations specific to high-altitude dogs are identified at EPAS1, one of which occurred at a quite conserved site in the PAS domain. The association testing between EPAS1 genotypes and blood-related phenotypes on additional high-altitude dogs reveals that the homozygous mutation is associated with decreased blood flow resistance, which may help to improve hemorheologic fitness. Interestingly, EPAS1 was also identified as a selective target in Tibetan highlanders, though no amino acid changes were found. Thus, our results not only indicate parallel evolution of humans and dogs in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia, but also provide a new opportunity to study the role of EPAS1 in the adaptive processes. PMID:24721644

  8. Coat colour in dogs: identification of the Merle locus in the Australian shepherd breed

    PubMed Central

    Hédan, Benoit; Corre, Sébastien; Hitte, Christophe; Dréano, Stéphane; Vilboux, Thierry; Derrien, Thomas; Denis, Bernard; Galibert, Francis; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Background Coat colours in canines have many natural phenotypic variants. Some of the genes and alleles involved also cause genetic developmental defects, which are also observed in humans and mice. We studied the genetic bases of the merle phenotype in dogs to shed light on the pigmentation mechanisms and to identify genes involved in these complex pathways. The merle phenotype includes a lack of eumelanic pigmentation and developmental defects, hearing impairments and microphthalmia. It is similar to that observed in microphthalmia mouse mutants. Results Taking advantage of the dog as a powerful genetic model and using recently available genomic resources, we investigated the segregation of the merle phenotype in a five-generation pedigree, comprising 96 sampled Australian shepherd dogs. Genetic linkage analysis allowed us to identify a locus for the merle phenotype, spanning 5.5 megabases, at the centromeric tip of canine chromosome 10 (CFA10). This locus was supported by a Lod score of 15.65 at a recombination fraction θ = 0. Linkage analysis in three other breeds revealed that the same region is linked to the merle phenotype. This region, which is orthologous to human chromosome 12 (HSA12 q13-q14), belongs to a conserved ordered segment in the human and mouse genome and comprises several genes potentially involved in pigmentation and development. Conclusion This study has identified the locus for the merle coat colour in dogs to be at the centromeric end of CFA10. Genetic studies on other breeds segregating the merle phenotype should allow the locus to be defined more accurately with the aim of identifying the gene. This work shows the power of the canine system to search for the genetic bases of mammalian pigmentation and developmental pathways. PMID:16504149

  9. The investigation of Toxocara canis eggs in coats of different dog breeds as a potential transmission route in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Aydenizöz-Ozkayhan, M; Yağci, B B; Erat, S

    2008-03-25

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs on the coats of dogs (a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis) and to see if there were mainly a dog breed and coat type effects for the presence of eggs on the coat. Hair samples were collected from the different breeds of 51 domestic pet dogs and examined for the presence of T. canis eggs. A total of 62 T. canis eggs (all viable) were found in 21.56% of the dogs. Forty-nine (79.03%) of the eggs recovered were unembryonated, 8 (12.90%) were embryonating, and 5 (8.06%) were embryonated. The maximum densities of the embryonating and embryonated eggs were 93 and 8.45 eggs per gram (epg) of hair, respectively. The number of eggs recovered was much higher than those previously reported for soil samples. Although the statistical analysis for all dogs in this study showed that there were no breed (P>0.4), coat type (P>0.8), sex (P>0.1), age group (P>0.1) and hair length (P>0.3) effects for the presence of T. canis eggs per gram of hair, the majority of dogs (82%) with T. canis eggs in their coats were breeds that had double coats with thick undercoats suggesting that the coat characteristic may play a role for providing a suitable environment for the development of T. canis eggs. Also 82% of infected dogs were under 1 year of age indicating that the age of dog is a very important risk factor. The present study indicates that direct contact with T. canis infected dogs may be a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis.

  10. Does perceived trainability of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) breeds reflect differences in learning or differences in physical ability?

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2010-03-01

    Researchers have reported perceived differences in trainability between different dog breeds. These reports could either be the result of underlying differences in learning or differences in physical capabilities. Four studies were conducted to investigate this issue. In Study 1 the level of agility metal-winners amongst those breeds perceived to be high and low in trainability did not deviate significantly from their respective levels of participation in the sport. In Study 2 the level of precision amongst those dogs perceived to be high and low in trainability did not deviate significantly in a real agility competition (P>0.05), but these dogs did differ in speed (P<0.05). In Study 3 the amount of training time necessary to achieve agility precision mastery did not significantly differ amongst dogs from breeds perceived to be high and low in trainability (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference in speed. Finally, in Study 4 breeds considered to be high in trainability were found to be relatively physically homogenous in respects to height, in comparison to breeds considered to be low in trainability. Overall, the results of these studies are more supportive of a physical capability interpretation of perceived breed differences in trainability, than a more cognitive interpretation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior uveal spindle cell tumor in a blue-eyed mixed-breed dog.

    PubMed

    Olbertz, Letícia; Langohr, Ingeborg; Werner, Juliana; Pessoa, Lenita; Kiupel, Matti; Agnew, Dalen; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2013-07-01

    A female, eight-year-old, mixed-breed blue-eyed dog was presented for ophthalmic evaluation because its left eye had "changed color" one year previously. The before left eye was enucleated and submitted for evaluation. Histopathological analysis revealed an invasive neoplastic mass effacing most of the ventral aspect of the iris stroma. A diagnosis of an anterior uveal spindle cell tumor was made. Immunohistochemical results were strongly suggestive of a schwannoma, but some smooth muscle differentiation was also observed. Two and a half years after therapeutic enucleation there was no evidence of neoplasm recurrence or metastasis.

  12. Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Joydip; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Prabal Ranjan; Banerjee, Dipak; Sharma, Tripti; Basak, Debananda; Sanyal, Sagar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate the variation in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters among different trained breeds of dogs (viz. Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever) used for security reasons. Materials and Methods: The ECG was recorded by single channel ECG at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and calibration of 10 mm=1 mV. The recordings were taken from all the standard bipolar limb leads (Lead-I, II, and III) and unipolar augmented limb leads (Lead-aVR, aVL, and aVF). Results: Heart rate was found to be highest in Labrador and lowest in German Shepherd. P-wave duration was maximum in Golden Retriever breed and lowest in Labrador. Maximum amplitude of P-wave was found in Labrador followed by German Shepherd and Golden Retriever. There was significantly (p<0.05) higher values of PR interval in German Shepherd compared to other breeds. The variation in QRS duration, ST segment duration, T-wave duration, and T-wave amplitude was found to be non-significant among breeds. Inverted T-waves were most common in Golden Retriever and German Shepherd, whereas positive T-waves were found in Labrador. There was significant (p<0.05) variation in mean electrical axis of QRS complex among different breeds and it ranges from +60° to +80°. Conclusion: The present study provides the reference values for different ECG parameters to monitor the cardiac health status among Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever breeds. PMID:27047036

  13. Identification of novel genetic risk loci in Maltese dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis and evidence of a shared genetic risk across toy dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Barber, Renee M; Schatzberg, Scott J; Siniard, Ashley L; Corneveaux, Jason J; Porter, Brian F; Vernau, Karen M; Keesler, Rebekah I; Matiasek, Kaspar; Flegel, Thomas; Miller, Andrew D; Southard, Teresa; Mariani, Christopher L; Johnson, Gayle C; Huentelman, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10-7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10-7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10-11 and p = 2.5×10-7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated.

  14. Identification of Novel Genetic Risk Loci in Maltese Dogs with Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis and Evidence of a Shared Genetic Risk across Toy Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Schatzberg, Scott J.; Siniard, Ashley L.; Corneveaux, Jason J.; Porter, Brian F.; Vernau, Karen M.; Keesler, Rebekah I.; Matiasek, Kaspar; Flegel, Thomas; Miller, Andrew D.; Southard, Teresa; Mariani, Christopher L.; Johnson, Gayle C.; Huentelman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) affects toy and small breed dogs causing progressive, often fatal, inflammation and necrosis in the brain. Genetic risk loci for NME previously were identified in pug dogs, particularly associated with the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex on chromosome 12, but have not been investigated in other susceptible breeds. We sought to evaluate Maltese and Chihuahua dogs, in addition to pug dogs, to identify novel or shared genetic risk factors for NME development. Genome-wide association testing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Maltese dogs with NME identified 2 regions of genome-wide significance on chromosomes 4 (chr4:74522353T>A, p = 8.1×10−7) and 15 (chr15:53338796A>G, p = 1.5×10−7). Haplotype analysis and fine-mapping suggests that ILR7 and FBXW7, respectively, both important for regulation of immune system function, could be the underlying associated genes. Further evaluation of these regions and the previously identified DLA II locus across all three breeds, revealed an enrichment of nominal significant SNPs associated with chromosome 15 in pug dogs and DLA II in Maltese and Chihuahua dogs. Meta-analysis confirmed effect sizes the same direction in all three breeds for both the chromosome 15 and DLA II loci (p = 8.6×10–11 and p = 2.5×10−7, respectively). This suggests a shared genetic background exists between all breeds and confers susceptibility to NME, but effect sizes might be different among breeds. In conclusion, we identified the first genetic risk factors for NME development in the Maltese, chromosome 4 and chromosome 15, and provide evidence for a shared genetic risk between breeds associated with chromosome 15 and DLA II. Last, DLA II and IL7R both have been implicated in human inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, suggesting that similar pharmacotherapeutic targets across species should be investigated. PMID:25393235

  15. Prolonged activated prothromboplastin time and breed specific variation in haemostatic analytes in healthy adult Bernese Mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Nikolic Nielsen, Lise; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard Hansen, Mads; Jensen, Asger Lundorf; Kristensen, Annemarie T

    2011-10-01

    Coagulation tests are often performed in dogs suspected of haemostatic dysfunction and are interpreted according to validated laboratory reference intervals (RIs). Breed specific RIs for haematological and biochemical analytes have previously been identified in Bernese Mountain dogs, but it remains to be determined if breed specific RIs are necessary for haemostasis tests. Activated prothromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), selected coagulation factors, D-dimers, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and thromboelastography (TEG) were analyzed in healthy Bernese Mountain dogs using the CLSI model. Three analytes (aPTT, TEG [MA] and TEG [G]) were different according to the CLSI model. For aPTT the new RI was markedly different (0-100s). Whereas the new intervals for TEG (MA) and TEG (G) may be due to breed related biological variation, the cause of the prolonged RI for aPTT is at present uncertain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mating practices and the dissemination of genetic disorders in domestic animals, based on the example of dog breeding.

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of simulations and genealogical data of ten dog breeds, three popular mating practices (popular sire effect, line breeding, close breeding) were investigated along with their effects on the dissemination of genetic disorders. Our results showed that the use of sires in these ten breeds is clearly unbalanced. Depending on the breed, the effective number of sires represented between 33% and 70% of the total number of sires. Mating between close relatives was also found to be quite common, and the percentage of dogs inbred after two generations ranged from 1% to about 8%. A more or less long-term genetic differentiation, linked to line breeding practices, was also emphasized in most breeds. F(IT) index based on gene dropping proved to be efficient in differentiating the effects of the different mating practices, and it ranged from -1.3% to 3.2% when real founders were used to begin a gene dropping process. Simulation results confirmed that the popular sire practice leads to a dissemination of genetic disorders. Under a realistic scenario, regarding the imbalance in the use of sires, the dissemination risk was indeed 4.4 times higher than under random mating conditions. In contrast, line breeding and close breeding practices tend to decrease the risk of the dissemination of genetic disorders.

  17. Polymorphisms in the canine monoamine oxidase a (MAOA) gene: identification and variation among five broad dog breed groups.

    PubMed

    Sacco, James; Ruplin, Andrew; Skonieczny, Paul; Ohman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain). Fifty dogs representing these five breed groups were sequenced. A total of eleven polymorphisms were found. Seven were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; two exonic, two intronic and three in the promoter), while four were repeat intronic variations. The most polymorphic loci were repeat regions in introns 1, 2 (7 alleles) and 10 (3 alleles), while the exonic and the promoter regions were highly conserved. Comparison of the allele frequencies of certain microsatellite polymorphisms among the breed groups indicated a decreasing or increasing trend in the number of repeats at different microsatellite loci, as well as the highest genetic diversity for the ancient breeds and the lowest for the most recent mountain breeds, perhaps attributable to canine domestication and recent breed formation. While a specific promoter SNP (-212A > G) is rare in the dog, it is the major allele in wolves. Replacement of this ancestral allele in domestic dogs may lead to the deletion of heat shock factor binding sites on the MAOA promoter. Dogs exhibit significant variation in certain intronic regions of the MAOA gene, while the coding and promoter regions are well-conserved. Distinct genetic differences were observed between breed groups. Further studies are now required to establish whether such polymorphisms are associated in any way with MAOA level and canine behaviour including aggression.

  18. Key determinants of dog and cat welfare: behaviour, breeding and household lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Q; Overall, K L

    2014-04-01

    The changing role of companion animals, accompanied by changes in human lifestyle and demands, places them at risk of poor welfare. They are increasingly subjected to stressors that prevent the adequate expression of normal behaviour. Fear and anxiety often go unrecognised, leading to behavioural disorders that are accompanied by negative affective states and poor welfare. Irresponsible breeding practices result in increased incidences of inherited defects in pets, which adversely affect physical and mental aspects of welfare, either directly, through the anomaly itself, or indirectly, due to secondary effects. Increased urbanisation has resulted in smaller living spaces, higher population densities and longer working hours, all factors that affect the well-being of pets. A better understanding of animal behaviour by both pet owners and professionals, to more effectively meet the needs of dogs and cats and recognise their problems, should inform the formulation of objective welfare assessments to ensure a better quality of life for the animals. Responsible breeding practices that increase genetic diversity and select for traits that help dogs and cats fill their niche in a changing world should be based on evidence to minimise welfare risk.

  19. The seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jaqueline M; Avelar, Gleide F; França, Luiz R

    2009-01-01

    Testis structure and function in dogs are relatively poorly investigated. The aim of the present study was to carry out a comparative investigation of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and its duration in different breeds of dog. Fifty-six sexually mature dogs (mongrel, n = 12; pinscher, n = 12; beagle, n = 5; American pit bull, n = 9; poodle, n = 12; and Labrador retriever, n = 6) were analysed. Intratesticular injections of tritiated thymidine were given to determine the duration of spermatogenesis. Orchiectomy was performed at different time periods following injection (1 h, 2 and 4 weeks). Testis fragments were embedded in plastic and routinely prepared for histological and autoradiographic evaluations. Eight stages were characterized based on the acrosome system. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were found for the frequencies of the different stages characterized (except Stages V, VI and VIII), particularly for the mongrel. Stage IV (when spermiation occurs) was the most frequent in all six breeds (∼25%), whereas Stages II and VIII were the least frequent (< 8%). Each spermatogenic cycle and the total duration of spermatogenesis lasted 13.73 ± 0.03 and 61.9 ± 0.14 days, respectively, for the mongrel, poodle, pinscher, beagle, and Labrador retriever. These values were ∼10% lower (P < 0.03) for the American pit bull (12.55 ± 0.26 and 56.5 ± 1.17 days, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to perform a careful investigation of stage frequencies and seminiferous epithelium cycle duration in this very important domestic species. PMID:19627387

  20. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  1. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  2. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  3. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  4. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for...

  5. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator...

  6. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator will...

  7. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for a...

  8. 9 CFR 151.3 - Application for certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.3 Section 151.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.3 Application for certificate of pure breeding. An application for a...

  9. 9 CFR 151.2 - Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... breeding. 151.2 Section 151.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Certification of Purebred Animals § 151.2 Issuance of a certificate of pure breeding. The Administrator will...

  10. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations.

  11. Characterization of Proteinuria in Dogue de Bordeaux Dogs, a Breed Predisposed to a Familial Glomerulonephropathy: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Rachel; Trumel, Catherine; Smets, Pascale M Y; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Aresu, Luca; Daminet, Sylvie; Concordet, Didier; Palanché, Florence; Peeters, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Dogue de Bordeaux dog has been reported to be predisposed to a familial glomerulonephropathy that displays some morphological modifications reported in focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Prevalence of quantitatively abnormal renal proteinuria was recently reported to be 33% in this breed. The nature of the proteinuria was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and determinations of urinary markers (urinary retinol-binding protein, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, urinary albumin and urinary immunoglobulin G) on stored specimens. Diagnostic performances of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis to identify dogs with elevated urinary biomarkers were assessed. Samples from 102 adult Dogue de Bordeaux dogs (47 non-proteinuric [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤ 0.2], 20 borderline-proteinuric [0.2< urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ≤ 0.5] and 35 proteinuric dogs [urine protein-to-creatinine ratio >0.5]) were used, of which 2 were suffering from familial glomerulonephropathy. The electrophoretic protein patterns, for all but one proteinuric dog, were indicative of a glomerular origin and, in all dogs, the urinary albumin concentration related to creatinine concentration and the urinary immunoglobulin G concentration related to creatinine concentration were above the upper limit of the reference interval established for the breed. Sensitivity and specificity of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis identifying dogs with elevated urinary albumin concentration were 94% and 92%, respectively, while diagnostic performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis in detecting dogs with elevated urinary immunoglobulin G concentration yielded sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 74%, respectively. These results suggest that all proteinuric and some borderline-proteinuric Dogue de Bordeaux dogs likely have underlying glomerular lesions and that sodium dodecyl sulfate-agarose gel electrophoresis and

  12. Genetic analyses of beef traits of crossbred and purebred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects for beef traits of steers produced by purebred and crossbred matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus. Steers (n = 469) were spring-born from 2002 to 2004 and weaned at an average of 7 mo of age. They were transported to Oklahoma and...

  13. Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

    PubMed

    Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P < 0.05); the other breeds were in-between (11.9 (SD 2.0) %; n 19). Absolute growth was faster in larger breeds than in smaller breeds. In relation to expected mature weight, there was good agreement with data from colony cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds.

  14. Aging of Attentiveness in Border Collies and Other Pet Dog Breeds: The Protective Benefits of Lifelong Training.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, Durga; Virányi, Zsófia; Wallis, Lisa J; Huber, Ludwig; Serra, Jessica; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Aging of attentiveness affects cognitive functions like perception and working memory, which can seriously impact communication between dogs and humans, potentially hindering training and cooperation. Previous studies have revealed that aged laboratory beagles and pet Border collies (BC) show a decline in selective attention. However, much less is known about the aging of attentiveness in pet dogs in general rather than in specific breeds. Using 185 pet dogs (75 BC and 110 dogs of other breeds) divided into three age groups [late adulthood (6- < 8 year), senior (8- < 10 year) and geriatric (≥10 year)], we assessed the progress of aging of attentional capture, sustained and selective attention in older dogs in order to explore if prior results in BC are generalizable and to evaluate the influence of lifelong training on measures of attention. Each dog's lifelong training score (ranging from 0 to 52) was calculated from a questionnaire filled in by the owners listing what kinds of training the dog participated in during its entire life. Dogs were tested in two tasks; the first, measuring attentional capture and sustained attention toward two stimuli (toy and human); and the second, measuring selective attention by means of clicker training for eye contact and finding food on the floor. In the first task, results revealed a significant effect of age but no effect of lifelong training on latency to orient to the stimuli. Duration of looking decreased with age and increased with lifelong training. In the second task, while lifelong training decreased the latency of dogs to form eye contact, aged dogs needed longer to find food. BC did not differ from other dogs in any measures of attention except latency to find food. In conclusion, aged dogs showed a decline in attentional capture and sustained attention demonstrating that these tests are sensitive to detect aging of attentiveness in older pet dogs. Importantly, selective attention remained unchanged with age and

  15. Survey of babesiosis in symptomatic dogs from Romania: occurrence of Babesia gibsoni associated with breed.

    PubMed

    Imre, Mirela; Farkas, Róbert; Ilie, Marius Stelian; Imre, Kálmán; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe

    2013-12-01

    Blood samples from 49 symptomatic dogs from 5 western and north-western counties of Romania were screened using microscopic examination, polymerase-chain-reaction-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism procedure (PCR-RFLP), and sequence analysis. Results of the microscopic evaluation of stained blood smears revealed 45 positive samples with the presence of large and small intraerythrocytic piroplasms in 35 and 10 samples, respectively. Babesia canis (35/49, 71.4%) and Babesia gibsoni (14/49, 28.6%) were identified and differentiated by PCR-RFLP targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Results of the sequence analysis of all B. gibsoni and 17 randomly selected B. canis PCR products confirmed the PCR-RFLP-diagnosed species. The distribution of B. gibsoni infection was positively associated (p<0.001) with fighting dog breeds including infection in 12 American Pit Bull Terriers and one American Staffordshire Terrier. This report is the first to present molecular evidence of the occurrence of B. gibsoni in Romania confirmed by sequencing.

  16. Serological and biomolecular survey on canine herpesvirus-1 infection in a dog breeding kennel

    PubMed Central

    BOTTINELLI, Marco; RAMPACCI, Elisa; STEFANETTI, Valentina; MARENZONI, Maria Luisa; MALMLOV, Ashley M; COLETTI, Mauro; PASSAMONTI, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus-1 (CaHV-1) is a globally distributed pathogen causing reproductive, respiratory, ocular and neurological disorders in adult dogs and neonatal death in puppies. This pathogen is considered poorly immunogenic, and neutralizing antibodies are found for only a short time following exposure. Further, seroprevalence can be affected by several epidemiological factors. A virological survey was conducted in a high-density population breeding kennel in Central Italy. There were several factors predisposing animals to CaHV-1 infection, such as age, number of pregnancies, experience with mating and dog shows, cases of abortion, management and environmental hygiene. Serum neutralization (SN) and nested PCR assays were used to estimate prevalence of CaHV-1. None of the submitted samples tested positive for nested PCR, and none of the sera tested CaHV-1 positive. No association was observed between antibody titers and risk factors, and no sign of viral reactivation was detected in either males or females. These results suggest that CaHV-1 is not circulating within this kennel and that further studies are needed in order to better understand the distribution of the virus within Italy. PMID:26726105

  17. Human hospitalisations due to dog bites in Ireland (1998-2013): Implications for current breed specific legislation.

    PubMed

    Ó Súilleabháin, Páraic

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of the current breed specific legislation in Ireland by investigating all dog bite hospital admissions throughout Ireland since that legislation was introduced. Data for statistical analyses were acquired through the National Hospital In-Patient Enquiry Scheme. In years 1998-2013, a total of 3164 human hospitalisations (admissions for dog bite) occurred in Ireland. Incidence of hospitalisations increased over this period (P <0.001). Male humans were at greater risk than females of dog bite hospitalisation (P = 0.015). Children under 10 years were identified as an at-risk group. The present legislation is not effective as a dog bite mitigation strategy in Ireland and may be contributing to a rise in hospitalisations.

  18. A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guevar, Julien; Stalin, Catherine; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations are common in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds such as French bulldogs, English bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether a radiographic classification scheme developed for use in humans would be feasible for use in these dog breeds. Inclusion criteria were hospital admission between September 2009 and April 2013, neurologic examination findings available, diagnostic quality lateral and ventro-dorsal digital radiographs of the thoracic vertebral column, and at least one congenital vertebral malformation. Radiographs were retrieved and interpreted by two observers who were unaware of neurologic status. Vertebral malformations were classified based on a classification scheme modified from a previous human study and a consensus of both observers. Twenty-eight dogs met inclusion criteria (12 with neurologic deficits, 16 with no neurologic deficits). Congenital vertebral malformations affected 85/362 (23.5%) of thoracic vertebrae. Vertebral body formation defects were the most common (butterfly vertebrae 6.6%, ventral wedge-shaped vertebrae 5.5%, dorsal hemivertebrae 0.8%, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae 0.5%). No lateral hemivertebrae or lateral wedge-shaped vertebrae were identified. The T7 vertebra was the most commonly affected (11/28 dogs), followed by T8 (8/28 dogs) and T12 (8/28 dogs). The number and type of vertebral malformations differed between groups (P = 0.01). Based on MRI, dorsal, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae were the cause of spinal cord compression in 5/12 (41.6%) of dogs with neurologic deficits. Findings indicated that a modified human radiographic classification system of vertebral malformations is feasible for use in future studies of brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  19. Breed-Specific Hematological Phenotypes in the Dog: A Natural Resource for the Genetic Dissection of Hematological Parameters in a Mammalian Species

    PubMed Central

    Szladovits, Balazs; Davison, Lucy J.; Garden, Oliver A.

    2013-01-01

    Remarkably little has been published on hematological phenotypes of the domestic dog, the most polymorphic species on the planet. Information on the signalment and complete blood cell count of all dogs with normal red and white blood cell parameters judged by existing reference intervals was extracted from a veterinary database. Normal hematological profiles were available for 6046 dogs, 5447 of which also had machine platelet concentrations within the reference interval. Seventy-five pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by 10 or more dogs. All measured parameters except mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) varied with age. Concentrations of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and platelets, but not red blood cell parameters, all varied with sex. Neutering status had an impact on hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCHC, and concentrations of WBCs, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and platelets. Principal component analysis of hematological data revealed 37 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, all hematological parameters except MCHC showed significant differences between specific individual breeds and the mixed breed group. Twenty-nine breeds had distinctive phenotypes when assessed in this way, of which 19 had already been identified by principal component analysis. Tentative breed-specific reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis. This study represents the first large-scale analysis of hematological phenotypes in the dog and underlines the important potential of this species in the elucidation of genetic determinants of hematological traits, triangulating phenotype, breed and genetic predisposition. PMID:24282579

  20. Life expectancy and causes of death in Bernese mountain dogs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Klopfenstein, Michael; Howard, Judith; Rossetti, Menga; Geissbühler, Urs

    2016-07-25

    New regulations by the Swiss Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office provide for the monitoring of breed health by Swiss breeding clubs. In collaboration with the Swiss Bernese Mountain Dog Club, the purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of death in purebred dogs registered by the club and born in 2001 and 2002. Of a total of 1290 Bernese mountain dogs (BMDs) born in 2001 and 2002 in Switzerland, data was collected from owners and veterinarians using a questionnaire designed for this study from 389 dogs (30.2 %). By the end of the study, 381/389 dogs (97.9 %) had died. The median life expectancy of all dogs was 8.4 years (IQR, 6.9-9.7). Female dogs had a significantly longer median survival (8.8 years; IQR, 7.1-10.3) than male dogs (7.7 years; IQR, 6.6-9.3) (P < 0.00). The cause of death was unknown in 89/381 dogs (23.4 %). For the remaining dogs, the most frequent causes of death were neoplasia (222/381, 58.3 %), degenerative joint disease (16/381, 4.2 %), spinal disorders (13/381, 3.4 %), renal injury (12/381, 3.1 %), and gastric or mesenteric volvulus (7/381, 1.8 %). However, large numbers of dogs were diagnosed with neoplasia without histopathologic or cytologic confirmation. Dogs with neoplasms had a shorter median survival than dogs with other disorders. The shortest median survival (6.8 years) was found for dogs with renal injury. Findings of this study confirm a high prevalence of neoplasia and associated low life expectancy in BMDs. The results underline a need for more widespread precise diagnostics and further research on malignant tumours in this breed to improve overall breed health.

  1. Retinal dysplasia in American pit bull terriers--phenotypic characterization and breeding study.

    PubMed

    Rodarte-Almeida, Ana Carolina Veiga; Petersen-Jones, Simon; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Occelli, Laurence; Dornbusch, Peterson T; Shiokawa, Naoye; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inheritance and phenotype of retinal dysplasia (RD) in the American pit bull terrier. A breeding colony established from a single female pure-bred American pit bull terrier dog with RD. A female pure-bred American pit bull terrier with RD was donated to the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil. A breeding colony was established and the phenotype and inheritance of the condition investigated. Regular ophthalmic examinations and fundus photography were performed on three generations of offspring from the founder animal. Some animals were additionally studied by optical coherence tomography. Ocular histopathology was performed on some animals from the colony. Fifty-seven offspring were produced in two generations from the affected founder female. Thirty-two were diagnosed with RD and showed a spectrum of severity of lesions including multifocal, and or geographic lesions and some developed retinal detachment. Histologic examination demonstrated retinal folds, rosettes, and areas of retinal detachment. The affected dogs were shorter in stature than the unaffected littermates. Breeding studies suggested the trait has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. DNA testing showed that the affected dogs were negative for the known gene mutations for canine dwarfism with RD. This is a report of a novel inherited form of RD that affects American pit bull terriers. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Aging of Attentiveness in Border Collies and Other Pet Dog Breeds: The Protective Benefits of Lifelong Training

    PubMed Central

    Chapagain, Durga; Virányi, Zsófia; Wallis, Lisa J.; Huber, Ludwig; Serra, Jessica; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    Aging of attentiveness affects cognitive functions like perception and working memory, which can seriously impact communication between dogs and humans, potentially hindering training and cooperation. Previous studies have revealed that aged laboratory beagles and pet Border collies (BC) show a decline in selective attention. However, much less is known about the aging of attentiveness in pet dogs in general rather than in specific breeds. Using 185 pet dogs (75 BC and 110 dogs of other breeds) divided into three age groups [late adulthood (6- < 8 year), senior (8- < 10 year) and geriatric (≥10 year)], we assessed the progress of aging of attentional capture, sustained and selective attention in older dogs in order to explore if prior results in BC are generalizable and to evaluate the influence of lifelong training on measures of attention. Each dog’s lifelong training score (ranging from 0 to 52) was calculated from a questionnaire filled in by the owners listing what kinds of training the dog participated in during its entire life. Dogs were tested in two tasks; the first, measuring attentional capture and sustained attention toward two stimuli (toy and human); and the second, measuring selective attention by means of clicker training for eye contact and finding food on the floor. In the first task, results revealed a significant effect of age but no effect of lifelong training on latency to orient to the stimuli. Duration of looking decreased with age and increased with lifelong training. In the second task, while lifelong training decreased the latency of dogs to form eye contact, aged dogs needed longer to find food. BC did not differ from other dogs in any measures of attention except latency to find food. In conclusion, aged dogs showed a decline in attentional capture and sustained attention demonstrating that these tests are sensitive to detect aging of attentiveness in older pet dogs. Importantly, selective attention remained unchanged with age and

  3. Association of DNA methylation and monoamine oxidase A gene expression in the brains of different dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Eo, JungWoo; Lee, Hee-Eun; Nam, Gyu-Hwi; Kwon, Yun-Jeong; Choi, Yuri; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Bohyun; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2016-04-15

    The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene is an important candidate gene for human behavior that encodes an enzyme regulating the metabolism of key neurotransmitters. The regulatory mechanisms of the MAOA gene in dogs are yet to be elucidated. We measured MAOA gene transcription and analyzed the VNTR genotype and methylation status of the gene promoter region in different dog breeds to determine whether MAOA expression is correlated with the MAOA genotype or epigenetic modification in dogs. We found brain-specific expression of the MAOA gene and different transcription levels in different dog breeds including Beagle, Sapsaree, and German shepherd, and also a robust association of the DNA methylation of the gene promoter with mRNA levels. However, the 90 bp tandem repeats that we observed near the transcription start site were not variable, indicating no correlation with canine MAOA activity. These results show that differential DNA methylation in the MAOA promoter region may affect gene expression by modulating promoter activity. Moreover, the distinctive patterns of MAOA expression and DNA methylation may be involved in breed-specific or individual behavioral characteristics, such as aggression, because behavioral phenotypes are related to different physiological and neuroendocrine responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Missense Mutation in SLC45A2 Is Associated with Albinism in Several Small Long Haired Dog Breeds.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Hiruni R; Schmutz, Sheila M

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a large deletion in the solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2) gene causes oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) in the Doberman Pinscher breed. An albino Lhasa Apso did not have this g.27141_31223del (CanFam2) deletion in her SLC45A2 sequence. Therefore, SLC45A2 was investigated in this female Lhasa Apso to search for other possible variants that caused her albinism. The albino Lhasa Apso was homozygous for a nonsynonymous substitution in the seventh exon, a c.1478G>A base change that resulted in a glycine to aspartic acid substitution (p.G493D). This mutation was not found in a wolf, a coyote, or any of the 15 other Lhasa Apso dogs or 32 other dogs of breeds related to the Lhasa Apso. However, an albino Pekingese, 2 albino Pomeranians, and an albino mixed breed dog that was small and long haired were also homozygous for the 493D allele. The colored puppies of the albino Lhasa Apso and the colored dam of the 2 albino Pomeranians were heterozygous for this allele. However, an albino Pug was homozygous for the 493G allele and therefore although we suggest the 493D allele causes albinism when homozygous in several small, long haired dog breeds, it does not explain all albinism in dogs. A variant effect prediction for the albino Lhasa Apso confirms that p.G493D is a deleterious substitution, and a topology prediction for SLC45A2 suggests that the 11th transmembrane domain where the 493rd amino acid was located, has an altered structure.

  5. Evaluation of the occurrence of canine congenital sensorineural deafness in puppies of predisposed dog breeds using the brainstem auditory evoked response.

    PubMed

    Płonek, Marta; Giza, Elżbieta; Niedźwiedź, Artur; Kubiak, Krzysztof; Nicpoń, Józef; Wrzosek, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Canine congenital sensorineural deafness (CCSD) affects predisposed breeds of dogs and is primarily caused by an atrophy of the stria vascularis of the organ of Corti. The analysis of the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) is a reliable method for the evaluation of hearing in animals as it allows an accurate detection of unilateral or bilateral deafness. The occurrence of unilateral and bilateral deafness using the BAER was determined in a representative group of dogs in Poland, including Bull Terriers (n = 117), Australian Cattle Dogs (n = 62), English Setters (n = 32) and the Dogo Argentino (n = 32). Overall deafness, deafness in each dog breed and an association between deafness and phenotype were studied. Among the 243 dogs tested, 156 (81%) had a normal BAER, 27 (11%) were unilaterally deaf, and 12 (5%) were bilaterally deaf. The amplitudes and latencies of waves I, II, III, V, the V/I wave amplitude ratio, and wave I-V, I-III and III-V inter-peak intervals were recorded for each dog. Unilaterally and bilaterally deaf dogs were present in all the dog breeds studied. There were 17 (14.5%) deaf Bull Terriers, three (4.8%) deaf Australian Cattle Dogs, seven (21.9%) deaf English Setters, and 12 (37.5%) deaf Dogos Argentinos. Preventive BAER screening should be routinely performed in these four breeds to prevent the spread of genes responsible for deafness.

  6. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) contributes to reduced size in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Barbara C; Rimbault, Maud; Liebers, David; Ostrander, Elaine A; Sutter, Nathan B

    2012-12-01

    Domestic dog breeds have undergone intense selection for a variety of morphologic features, including size. Among small-dog breeds, defined as those averaging less than ~15 in. at the withers, there remains still considerable variation in body size. Yet essentially all such dogs are fixed for the same allele at the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene, which we and others previously found to be a size locus of large effect. In this study we sought to identify additional genes that contribute to tiny size in dogs using an association scan with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset CanMap, in which 915 purebred dogs were genotyped at 60,968 SNP markers. Our strongest association for tiny size (defined as breed-average height not more than 10 in. at the withers) was on canine chromosome 3 (p = 1.9 × 10(-70)). Fine mapping revealed a nonsynonymous SNP at chr3:44,706,389 that changes a highly conserved arginine at amino acid 204 to histidine in the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). This mutation is predicted to prevent formation of several hydrogen bonds within the cysteine-rich domain of the receptor's ligand-binding extracellular subunit. Nine of 13 tiny dog breeds carry the mutation and many dogs are homozygous for it. This work underscores the central importance of the IGF1 pathway in controlling the tremendous size diversity of dogs.

  7. Differences in the histochemical properties of skeletal muscles of different breeds of horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, H M

    1978-12-01

    Histochemical profiles of individual muscle fibres were established using myosin adenosine triphosphatase (myosin ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHase), and glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) reactions in three muscles (semitendinosus, diaphragm, and pectoralis transversus) of the horse and dog. The major histochemical difference between fibres lies in their myosin ATPase activity; fibres can be subdivided into those with a high and those with a low activity. In horse muscle, all fibres have a high activity of GPase. In the diaphragm and pectoralis transversus, all fibres have a high SDHase activity, but fibres with a low activity of SDHase are also present in samples of the semitendinosus. In dog muscle, all fibres have a high SDHase activity; myosin ATPase low-reacting fibres also have a low activity of GPase. There is a greater fractional area of myosin ATPase high-reacting fibres in the pectoralis transversus and semitendinosus of thoroughbred horses and greyhounds (breeds selected for high speed running) and in the diaphragm of greyhounds. In adults this feature does not appear to be due to training, as are the differences in aerobic and anaerobic capacity (shown in other studies). The preponderance of myosin Atpase high-reacting fibres suggests that there may be differences in the nervous systems of athletes and non-athletes. It is concluded that the proportions of fibre types in muscles are related to the functions of muscles and of their parts. No sex differences or detraining effects were apparent, although the value for the proportion of fibre types (as differentiated by the myosin ATPase reaction) in the limb muscles of thoroughbred crosses lies between those of thoroughbreds and non-thoroughbreds.

  8. Differences in the histochemical properties of skeletal muscles of different breeds of horses and dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, H M

    1978-01-01

    Histochemical profiles of individual muscle fibres were established using myosin adenosine triphosphatase (myosin ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHase), and glycogen phosphorylase (GPase) reactions in three muscles (semitendinosus, diaphragm, and pectoralis transversus) of the horse and dog. The major histochemical difference between fibres lies in their myosin ATPase activity; fibres can be subdivided into those with a high and those with a low activity. In horse muscle, all fibres have a high activity of GPase. In the diaphragm and pectoralis transversus, all fibres have a high SDHase activity, but fibres with a low activity of SDHase are also present in samples of the semitendinosus. In dog muscle, all fibres have a high SDHase activity; myosin ATPase low-reacting fibres also have a low activity of GPase. There is a greater fractional area of myosin ATPase high-reacting fibres in the pectoralis transversus and semitendinosus of thoroughbred horses and greyhounds (breeds selected for high speed running) and in the diaphragm of greyhounds. In adults this feature does not appear to be due to training, as are the differences in aerobic and anaerobic capacity (shown in other studies). The preponderance of myosin Atpase high-reacting fibres suggests that there may be differences in the nervous systems of athletes and non-athletes. It is concluded that the proportions of fibre types in muscles are related to the functions of muscles and of their parts. No sex differences or detraining effects were apparent, although the value for the proportion of fibre types (as differentiated by the myosin ATPase reaction) in the limb muscles of thoroughbred crosses lies between those of thoroughbreds and non-thoroughbreds. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:154495

  9. Use of the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M H; Langley Hobbs, S J

    2005-01-01

    The use of the AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen) veterinary mini 'T'-plate for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs was evaluated in a retrospective study. All of the 14 dogs in the study weighed 3.5 kg or less. The AO mini 'T'-plate was used as the final means of fixation in all cases. It was used as the primary form of stabilisation in ten dogs, and in four dogs it was used at revision surgery. In all cases, of the fractures healed. Return to function was graded 'as excellent' in six cases, 'good' in four and 'fair' in two. Two dogs were lost to long-term follow up. It was concluded that the AO veterinary mini 'T'-plate is a suitable choice of implant for stabilisation of distal radius and ulna fractures in toy breed dogs, especially when the distal fragment is very small.

  10. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 to 2005. After their first exposure to bulls as young cows, crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the third breed, and straightbred cows were bred in to bulls of the other 2 breeds. Calves were spring-born from 2005 through 2011. Evaluated calf (n = 1,254) traits included birth weight and weight, ADG, BCS, and hip height at weaning. Cow weight (n = 1,389) was recorded at weaning. Maternal efficiency traits evaluated included weaning weight per 100 kg cow weight, weaning weight per calving interval, and weaning weight per cow exposed to breeding (n = 1,442). Fixed effects and their interactions were investigated included sire and dam breed of cow, sire breed of calf, cow age, year, calf gender, and weaning age as a linear covariate (calf traits at weaning). Direct and maternal additive genetic effects were random in models for calf traits; only direct additive effects were modeled for cow traits. Cows sired by Angus bulls from outside the research herd had calves that were heavier at birth and weaning and greater ADG, BCS, and hip height (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for weaning weight, BCS, and ADG ranged from 1.3 to 13.2% for all pairs of breeds (P < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis for birth weight (3.2 to 8.2%) and hip height (2.3%) were significant for Romosinuano-Angus and Brahman-Angus. Heterosis for cow weight was 65 ± 8 kg for Brahman-Angus (P < 0.001), and estimates for other pairs of breeds were approximately one-half that value. Heterosis for weaning weight/100 kg cow weight was 3.4 ± 0.75 kg for Romosinuano-Angus. Heterosis estimates for weaning weight/calving interval (P < 0.001) ranged from 0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.12 ± 0.01. Heterosis for weaning weight

  11. DNA methylation patterns of behavior-related gene promoter regions dissect the gray wolf from domestic dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Cimarelli, Giulia; Viranyi, Zsofia; Kubinyi, Eniko; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the relationship between epigenetics, especially DNA methylation, and population divergence as well as speciation. However, little is known about how general the phenomenon of epigenetics-wise separation of different populations is, or whether population assignment is, possible based on solely epigenetic marks. In the present study, we compared DNA methylation profiles between four different canine populations: three domestic dog breeds and their ancestor the gray wolf. Altogether, 79 CpG sites constituting the 65 so-called CpG units located in the promoter regions of genes affecting behavioral and temperamental traits (COMT, HTR1A, MAOA, OXTR, SLC6A4, TPH1, WFS1)-regions putatively targeted during domestication and breed selection. Methylation status of buccal cells was assessed using EpiTYPER technology. Significant inter-population methylation differences were found in 52.3% of all CpG units investigated. DNA methylation profile-based hierarchical cluster analysis indicated an unambiguous segregation of wolf from domestic dog. In addition, one of the three dog breeds (Golden Retriever) investigated also formed a separate, autonomous group. The findings support that population segregation is interrelated with shifts in DNA methylation patterns, at least in putative selection target regions, and also imply that epigenetic profiles could provide a sufficient basis for population assignment of individuals.

  12. Acute non-ambulatory tetraparesis with absence of the dens in two large breed dogs: case reports with a radiographic study of relatives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-ambulatory tetraparesis with an absence of the dens of C2 (axis) has not previously been reported in large breed dogs. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens has been reported in both small, medium and large breed dogs, but not in closely related animals. Methods Two young large-breed dogs (a German shepherd and a Standard poodle) both with an acute onset of non-ambulatory tetraparesis were subjected to physical, neurological and radiographic examinations. Both dogs were euthanased and submitted for postmortem examination within one week of onset of clinical signs. To investigate possible heritability of dens abnormalities, oblique radiographs of the cranial cervical vertebrae were taken of nine and eighteen dogs related to the German shepherd and the Standard poodle, respectively. Results Absence of the dens, atlantoaxial instability and extensive spinal cord injury was found in both case dogs. Radiographs revealed a normal dens in both parents and in the seven littermates of the German shepherd. An absence or hypoplasia of the dens was diagnosed in six relatives of the Standard poodle. Conclusions Atlantoaxial subluxation with cervical spinal cord injury should be considered as a differential diagnosis in non-ambulatory tetraparetic young large breed dogs. Absence of the dens and no history of external trauma increase the likelihood for this diagnosis. This study provides evidence to suggest that absence or hypoplasia of the dens is inherited in an autosomal way in Standard poodle dogs. PMID:23591104

  13. Serum cobalamin, urine methylmalonic acid, and plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Border Collies and dogs of other breeds.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Sabina; Sewell, Adrian C; Bigler, Beat; Riond, Barbara; Reusch, Claudia E; Kook, Peter H

    2012-08-01

    To determine reference ranges for serum cobalamin (Cbl), urine methylmalonic acid (uMMA), and plasma total homocysteine (tHcys) concentrations and to compare values for healthy control dogs with values for Border Collies (BCs), a breed in which hereditary cobalamin deficiency has been identified. 113 BCs, 35 healthy control dogs fed a typical diet, and 12 healthy dogs fed a bone and raw food diet exclusively. Urine and blood samples were obtained from each dog and Cbl, uMMA, and tHcys concentrations were determined. Reference ranges for Cbl (261 to 1,001 ng/L), uMMA (0 to 4.2 mmol/mol of creatinine), and tHcys (4.3 to 18.4 μmol/L) concentrations were determined. Four BCs had a Cbl concentration lower than the assay detection limit (150 ng/L); median uMMA and tHcys concentrations in these dogs were 4,064 mmol/mol of creatinine and 51.5 μmol/L, respectively. Clinical abnormalities included stunted growth, lethargy, anemia, and proteinuria. Abnormalities improved after administration of cobalamin. Of the 109 healthy BCs with Cbl and tHcys concentrations within reference ranges, 41 (37.6%) had a high uMMA concentration (range, 5 to 360 mmol/mol). Results for dogs fed raw food were similar to those for control dogs. Hereditary cobalamin deficiency is a rare disease with various clinical signs. The finding of methylmalonic aciduria in healthy eucobalaminemic BCs and BCs with clinical signs of Cbl deficiency was surprising and indicated these dogs may have defects in intracellular processing of Cbl or intestinal Cbl malabsorption, respectively. Studies investigating Cbl absorption and metabolic pathways are warranted.

  14. Evaluation of the Criollo breed Romosinuano as purebred and crossbred cows with Brahman and Angus in Florida. II. Maternal influence on calf traits, cow weight, and measures of maternal efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to compare the Criollo breed Romosinuano as straightbred and crossbred cows with Angus and Brahman in subtropical Florida and to estimate heterosis for size traits of their calves, their own weight, and maternal efficiency traits. Cows (n = 404) were born from 2002 ...

  15. The prevalence of the electrocardiographic J wave in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen compared to 10 different dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Rudling, E H; Schlamowitz, S; Pipper, C B; Nilsson, E; Höllmer, M; Willesen, J L; Berendt, M; Fredholm, M; Gulløv, C H; Christiansen, M; Koch, J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence and amplitudes of the electrocardiographic J wave in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen compared to 10 other dog breeds. Electrocardiograms from 206 healthy dogs representing 11 dog breeds were included in the study. Besides Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen (PBGV; n = 23) 10 other dog breeds were included. An electrocardiogram ruler was used for measuring the amplitudes of the J waves. The definition of a J wave was a positive deflection at the J point of ≥0.1 mV in more than 1 lead of the bipolar standard limb leads (I, II, III) or the unipolar standard limb leads (aVL and aVF). The prevalence of J waves in the PBGV (n = 23) was 91% (n = 21, standard error (SE) = 5.9%), which was significantly higher compared to seven other dog breeds (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of J waves in all 11 dog breeds (n = 206) was 43% (n = 89, robust SE = 7.8%). There was no significant difference in the prevalence between male and female dogs (p = 0.79). Neither did age (p = 0.22) nor heart rate (p = 0.25) significantly affect the prevalence of J wave. The PBGV had the highest prevalence of J waves and the highest amplitudes compared to 10 other dog breeds. However J waves were also seen in other breeds. Therefore, J waves may be considered a normal variant on the canine electrocardiogram and should not be interpreted as cardiac disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IQCB1 and PDE6B Mutations Cause Similar Early Onset Retinal Degenerations in Two Closely Related Terrier Dog Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Mezey, Jason G.; Schweitzer, Peter A.; Boyko, Adam R.; Gao, Chuan; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Jordan, Julie Ann; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify the causative mutations in two early-onset canine retinal degenerations, crd1 and crd2, segregating in the American Staffordshire terrier and the Pit Bull Terrier breeds, respectively. Methods. Retinal morphology of crd1- and crd2-affected dogs was evaluated by light microscopy. DNA was extracted from affected and related unaffected controls. Association analysis was undertaken using the Illumina Canine SNP array and PLINK (crd1 study), or the Affymetrix Version 2 Canine array, the “MAGIC” genotype algorithm, and Fisher's Exact test for association (crd2 study). Positional candidate genes were evaluated for each disease. Results. Structural photoreceptor abnormalities were observed in crd1-affected dogs as young as 11-weeks old. Rod and cone inner segment (IS) and outer segments (OS) were abnormal in size, shape, and number. In crd2-affected dogs, rod and cone IS and OS were abnormal as early as 3 weeks of age, progressing with age to severe loss of the OS, and thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) by 12 weeks of age. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified association at the telomeric end of CFA3 in crd1-affected dogs and on CFA33 in crd2-affected dogs. Candidate gene evaluation identified a three bases deletion in exon 21 of PDE6B in crd1-affected dogs, and a cytosine insertion in exon 10 of IQCB1 in crd2-affected dogs. Conclusions. Identification of the mutations responsible for these two early-onset retinal degenerations provides new large animal models for comparative disease studies and evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches for the homologous human diseases. PMID:24045995

  17. Canine Population Structure: Assessment and Impact of Intra-Breed Stratification on SNP-Based Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Quignon, Pascale; Herbin, Laetitia; Cadieu, Edouard; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Hédan, Benoit; Mosher, Dana S.; Galibert, Francis; André, Catherine; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Hitte, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Background In canine genetics, the impact of population structure on whole genome association studies is typically addressed by sampling approximately equal numbers of cases and controls from dogs of a single breed, usually from the same country or geographic area. However one way to increase the power of genetic studies is to sample individuals of the same breed but from different geographic areas, with the expectation that independent meiotic events will have shortened the presumed ancestral haplotype around the mutation differently. Little is known, however, about genetic variation among dogs of the same breed collected from different geographic regions. Methodology/Principal Findings In this report, we address the magnitude and impact of genetic diversity among common breeds sampled in the U.S. and Europe. The breeds selected, including the Rottweiler, Bernese mountain dog, flat-coated retriever, and golden retriever, share susceptibility to a class of soft tissue cancers typified by malignant histiocytosis in the Bernese mountain dog. We genotyped 722 SNPs at four unlinked loci (between 95 and 271 per locus) on canine chromosome 1 (CFA1). We showed that each population is characterized by distinct genetic diversity that can be correlated with breed history. When the breed studied has a reduced intra-breed diversity, the combination of dogs from international locations does not increase the rate of false positives and potentially increases the power of association studies. However, over-sampling cases from one geographic location is more likely to lead to false positive results in breeds with significant genetic diversity. Conclusions These data provide new guidelines for association studies using purebred dogs that take into account population structure. PMID:18091995

  18. Effective Population Size, Extended Linkage Disequilibrium and Signatures of Selection in the Rare Dog Breed Lundehund

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    The Lundehund is an old dog breed with remarkable anatomical features including polydactyly in all four limbs and extraordinary flexibility of the spine. We genotyped 28 Lundehund using the canine Illumina high density beadchip to estimate the effective population size (Ne) and inbreeding coefficients as well as to identify potential regions of positive selection. The decay of linkage disequilibrium was slow with r2 = 0.95 in 50 kb distance. The last 7-200 generations ago, Ne was at 10-13. An increase of Ne was noted in the very recent generations with a peak value of 19 for Ne at generation 4. The FROH estimated for 50-, 65- and 358-SNP windows were 0.87, 087 and 0.81, respectively. The most likely estimates for FROH after removing identical-by-state segments due to linkage disequilibria were at 0.80-0.81. The extreme loss of heterozygosity has been accumulated through continued inbreeding over 200 generations within a probably closed population with a small effective population size. The mean inbreeding coefficient based on pedigree data for the last 11 generations (FPed = 0.10) was strongly biased downwards due to the unknown coancestry of the founders in this pedigree data. The long-range haplotype test identified regions with genes involved in processes of immunity, olfaction, woundhealing and neuronal development as potential targets of selection. The genes QSOX2, BMPR1B and PRRX2 as well as MYOM1 are candidates for selection on the Lundehund characteristics small body size, increased number of digits per paw and extraordinary mobility, respectively. PMID:25860808

  19. An overall assessment of circumanal gland adenoma in a terrier mix breed dog

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Javad; Tavassoli, Abbas; Sasani, Farhang; Sabbagh, Atefeh; Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohamad; Samakkhah, Shohreh Alian; Shafiee, Radmehr; Jani, Meysam; Alimohammadi, Samad; Samani, Reza; Barati, Fardin; Ghalee, Vahideh Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    In September 2012, a 10-year-old, intact male, terrier mix breed dog was evaluated because of multiple, 0.5 to 1.2 cm in diameter, round, intradermal nodules around the anus. It had surgery to excise a firm, painful swelling in the left ventrolateral perianal region and the excision part was observed under light microscopy. The mass spreading in to sub acute was of left hind leg out from the ventro-lateral of anus, 1.2 cm×1 cm/ 0 cm×0.5 cm in size and 125 g in weight. A complete blood cell count, serum biochemistry panel, and urinalysis (cystocentesis sample) were evaluated. Significant laboratory data demonstrated microcytic anemia (hemoglobin of 6.4 mg/dL) and normal coagulation times. No remarkable abnormalities were found in the complete blood count and an ionized calcium of 1.91 mmol/L (reference range, 1.1-1.3 mmol/L) was confirmed hypercalcemia. On cytologic and histopathologic examinations, evaluation of the aspirate revealed a prominent population of round-to-polygonal nucleated cells arranged as cohesive groups with isolated individual cells. A mild degree of anisocytosis and anisokaryosis was observed. In addition, smaller reserve type cells, with darker cytoplasm and a higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. The adenomas generally retain the lobular architecture, but some may contain focal areas of cellular pleomorphism. These changes may suggest malignant transformation and have led to discordant interpretations, the well-developed stroma surrounding the lobules and hepatoid cells was noted. Ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and secondary infection with inflammatory cell infiltrates are common. These cytology and histopathology features are consistent with hepatoid gland adenoma. PMID:23835432

  20. [Multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip and elbow dysplasia as well as humeral osteochondrosis in the Bernese mountain dog].

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Peter; Stock, Kathrin-Friederike; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was the multivariate prediction of breeding values for canine hip dysplasia (CHD), elbow dysplasia (ED) and humeral osteochondrosis (OCD) for Bernese mountain dogs of the Schweizer Sennenhund-Verein für Deutschland e. V. (SSV). For the analysis the pedigrees of eight generations and radiographic screening results of the birth cohorts from 1995-2008 were used. The number of dogs with scores for CHD was 5513, for ED 5175 and OCD 1240. Breeding values were multivariately predicted using a mixed linear model for CHD, ED and OCD as well as for the occurrence of a fragmented coronoid process of the medial ulna (FCP) and the ED-score without FCP. The pedigree breeding value (eRZWp) which is used as the selection criterion reached a reliability to predict the phenotype of the offspring at 2.8-2.9% for CHD, 2.9% for ED, 1.1% for ED without FCP, 1.8% for FCP and 0.8-1.3% for OCD. The reason for the low predictive value of the eRZW(P) is caused by the very high influence of the own performance of the animal and the very uniform distribution of contributions of the breeding values of the relatives.These results indicate that even a multivariate prediction of breeding values does not lead to a faster progress in breeding against CHD and ED, however, does allow breeding against OCD in the Bernese mountain dog. In comparison to phenotypic selection, there is some improvement in the selection response when using breeding values. Due to the general low predictive power of breeding values better approaches for selection of future breeding animals are urgently warranted to achieve improvements in breeding Bernese mountain dogs.

  1. Rapid prototyping to design a customized locking plate for pancarpal arthrodesis in a giant breed dog.

    PubMed

    Petazzoni, M; Nicetto, T

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the treatment of traumatic carpal hyperextension in a giant breed dog by pancarpal arthrodesis using a custom-made Fixin locking plate, created with the aid of a three-dimensional plastic model of the bones of the antebrachium produced by rapid prototyping technology. A three-year-old 104 kg male Mastiff dog was admitted for treatment of carpal hyperextension injury. After diagnosis of carpal instability, surgery was recommended. Computed tomography images were used to create a life-size three-dimensional plastic model of the forelimb. The model was used as the basis for constructing a customized 12-hole Fixin locking plate. The plate was used to attain successful pancarpal arthrodesis in the animal. Radiographic examination after 74 and 140 days revealed signs of osseous union of the arthrodesis. Further clinical and radiographic follow-up examination three years later did not reveal any changes in implant position or complications.

  2. Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Runstadler, J A; Angles, J M; Pedersen, N C

    2006-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism at the dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II loci DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 was studied in a large genetically diverse population of feral and wild-type dogs from the large island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea (Bali street dog, dingo and New Guinea singing dog, respectively). Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the hypervariable region of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles was used to determine genetic diversity. No new DQA1 alleles were recognized among the three dog populations, but five novel DLA-DRB1 and 2 novel DLA-DQB1 allele sequences were detected. Additional unknown alleles were postulated to exist in Bali street dogs, as indicated by the large percentage of individuals (15%-33%) that had indeterminate DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles by SBT. All three groups of dogs possessed alleles that were relatively uncommon in conventional purebreds. The New Guinea singing dog and dingo shared alleles that were not present in the Bali street dogs. These findings suggested that the dingo was more closely related to indigenous dogs from New Guinea. Feral dog populations, in particular large ones such as that of Bali, show genetic diversity that existed prior to phenotypic selection for breeds originating from their respective regions. This diversity needs to be identified and maintained in the face of progressive Westernization. These populations deserve further study as potential model populations for the evolution of major histocompatibility complex alleles, for the study of canine genetic diversity, for the development of dog breeds and for studies on the comigration of ancestral human and dog populations.

  3. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Infants and Young Children Publications & Materials Announcements Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... and to prevent infectious diseases. Tips for preventing dog-associated diseases Before choosing a dog Certain types ...

  4. Age, breed, sex distribution and nutrition of a population of working farm dogs in New Zealand: results of a cross-sectional study of members of the New Zealand Sheep Dog Trial Association.

    PubMed

    Singh, I; Tucker, L A; Gendall, P; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K J; Cline, J; Thomas, D G

    2011-05-01

    To establish baseline information about age, breed, sex distribution and feeding practices for a population of working farm dogs owned by members of the New Zealand Sheep Dog Trial Association (NZSDTA) throughout New Zealand. Questionnaires were sent to members of the NZSDTA in August 2007, requesting information on the size and terrain of the farms where they worked, as well as the breed, weight, age and sex of each working dog they owned, feeding regime employed, diet fed, work levels, and general health of their dogs. The survey was completed by 542/676 (81%) of the eligible sample population, and provided information on 2,861 dogs, excluding those <1 year old. All of the dog owners surveyed worked on sheep and beef-cattle farms. The median farm size was 440 [Inter-quartile range (IQR) 132-1,200] ha and varied with region. The majority of farms were situated on either hill country (184/542; 34%) or a mixture of hilly and flat terrain (260/542; 48%), and had a median of six (IQR 5-8) working dogs per farm. The median age of dogs was 3.0 (IQR 2.0-6.0) years. Heading dogs were the most common type of working dog (1,510/2,861; 52.8%), followed by Huntaways (1,161/2,861; 40.6%). The gender distribution of all dogs was biased towards males (57%), but this decreased with age. There was a positive association between the number of dogs on a farm and perceived level of tiredness of dogs (p<0.001), but there were no differences in levels of tiredness between farms of different terrain. Most owners (526/542; 97%) fed their dogs once a day. The most common diet fed was a combination of dry food and homekill, which was fed by 328/542 (61%) owners during peak and 313/542 (58%) during off-peak periods of work. This study has established baseline information on the age, breed, gender and nutrition of a large population of working farm dogs in New Zealand. Current feeding practices employed by owners include offering a substantial amount of homekill to their animals. Homekill

  5. Retrospective study on the occurrence of canine lymphoma and associated breed risks in a population of dogs in NSW (2001-2009).

    PubMed

    Yau, Ppy; Dhand, N K; Thomson, P C; Taylor, R M

    2017-05-01

    To identify risk factors for canine lymphoma in dogs from New South Wales, Australia, and to compare factors affecting remission duration. Client-owned dogs diagnosed with lymphoma presented to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVTH), University of Sydney, between 2001 and 2009 (n = 134) were compared with a control population of dogs seen in that period of time with a diagnosis other than lymphoma to evaluate association of explanatory variables (breed, age and sex) with the outcome (case or control status). The Australian Cattle Dog (odds ratio (OR) = 4.71; 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.31-9.62; P < 0.001), Doberman (OR = 7.64; 95% Cl 2.87-20.34; P = 0.001) and Rottweiler (OR = 4.52; 95% Cl 2.09-9.73; P = 0.001) had increased odds of lymphoma among dogs attending the UVTH compared with crossbreds. The results suggested that the Border Collie (OR = 3.38; 95% Cl 1.52-7.53; P = 0.008) and Boxer (OR = 3.85; 95% Cl 1.65-8.95; P = 0.006) also have increased odds of lymphoma among the pure-breed dogs attending the UVTH when compared with crossbred dogs. The results of this study confirmed a breed predilection for lymphoma in dogs, with the Australian Cattle Dog and Doberman having increased odds of lymphoma. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Prediction of adoption versus euthanasia among dogs and cats in a California animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Merry; Kass, Philip H; Hart, Lynette A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate determinants of adoption of cats and dogs from a large municipal animal shelter. The subjects were 4,813 cats and 3,301 dogs impounded by the Sacramento County Department of Animal Care and Regulation and offered for adoption September 9, 1994 to May 26, 1995. The study constructed models predicting the conditional probability of adoption using logistic regression and a final multiple logistic regression model from variables found to be important predictors of adoption. Age, sex, coat color, and reason for relinquishment were major determinants of adoption in cats. Age, sex, coat color, reason for relinquishment, breed, purebred status, and injury status were major determinants of adoption in dogs. Shelter personnel could utilize this information to increase the adoption of frequently overlooked animals. Alternatively, shelters could use this to focus their resources on animals with characteristics the public prefers.

  7. Criterion analysis and content validity for standardized behavioral tests in a detector-dog breeding program.

    PubMed

    Rocznik, Dorothee; Sinn, David L; Thomas, Scott; Gosling, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Many working-dog programs assess behavior during a dog's first year of life with the aim of predicting success in the field. However, decisions about which tests to administer are frequently made on the basis of tradition or intuition. This study reports results from a survey given to U.S.A.'s Transportation Security Administration (TSA) detection-dog handlers (N = 34). We categorized and summarized handlers' responses regarding traits they felt were important for work. We used this criterion analysis to examine the content validity of the TSA's puppy tests. Results indicate that 13 of 15 traits that are currently being measured are relevant. However, several traits not currently measured were identified as being highly important, notably "play" and off-duty "calmness." These results provide support that the TSA tests are measuring traits relevant to operational search team performance but also highlight other traits that may be profitable to assess in this and other detection-dog programs.

  8. Dog leukocyte antigen class II-associated genetic risk testing for immune disorders of dogs: simplified approaches using Pug dog necrotizing meningoencephalitis as a model.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels; Liu, Hongwei; Millon, Lee; Greer, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    A significantly increased risk for a number of autoimmune and infectious diseases in purebred and mixed-breed dogs has been associated with certain alleles or allele combinations of the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II complex containing the DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1 genes. The exact level of risk depends on the specific disease, the alleles in question, and whether alleles exist in a homozygous or heterozygous state. The gold standard for identifying high-risk alleles and their zygosity has involved direct sequencing of the exon 2 regions of each of the 3 genes. However, sequencing and identification of specific alleles at each of the 3 loci are relatively expensive and sequencing techniques are not ideal for additional parentage or identity determination. However, it is often possible to get the same information from sequencing only 1 gene given the small number of possible alleles at each locus in purebred dogs, extensive homozygosity, and tendency for disease-causing alleles at each of the 3 loci to be strongly linked to each other into haplotypes. Therefore, genetic testing in purebred dogs with immune diseases can be often simplified by sequencing alleles at 1 rather than 3 loci. Further simplification of genetic tests for canine immune diseases can be achieved by the use of alternative genetic markers in the DLA class II region that are also strongly linked with the disease genotype. These markers consist of either simple tandem repeats or single nucleotide polymorphisms that are also in strong linkage with specific DLA class II genotypes and/or haplotypes. The current study uses necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Pug dogs as a paradigm to assess simple alternative genetic tests for disease risk. It was possible to attain identical necrotizing meningoencephalitis risk assessments to 3-locus DLA class II sequencing by sequencing only the DQB1 gene, using 3 DLA class II-linked simple tandem repeat markers, or with a small single nucleotide polymorphism array

  9. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D.; Green, Martin; England, Gary C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided. PMID:28804710

  10. Application of Survival Analysis and Multistate Modeling to Understand Animal Behavior: Examples from Guide Dogs.

    PubMed

    Asher, Lucy; Harvey, Naomi D; Green, Martin; England, Gary C W

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health-related states or events in populations. Statistical models developed for epidemiology could be usefully applied to behavioral states or events. The aim of this study is to present the application of epidemiological statistics to understand animal behavior where discrete outcomes are of interest, using data from guide dogs to illustrate. Specifically, survival analysis and multistate modeling are applied to data on guide dogs comparing dogs that completed training and qualified as a guide dog, to those that were withdrawn from the training program. Survival analysis allows the time to (or between) a binary event(s) and the probability of the event occurring at or beyond a specified time point. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, was used to examine the time taken to withdraw a dog from training. Sex, breed, and other factors affected time to withdrawal. Bitches were withdrawn faster than dogs, Labradors were withdrawn faster, and Labrador × Golden Retrievers slower, than Golden Retriever × Labradors; and dogs not bred by Guide Dogs were withdrawn faster than those bred by Guide Dogs. Multistate modeling (MSM) can be used as an extension of survival analysis to incorporate more than two discrete events or states. Multistate models were used to investigate transitions between states of training to qualification as a guide dog or behavioral withdrawal, and from qualification as a guide dog to behavioral withdrawal. Sex, breed (with purebred Labradors and Golden retrievers differing from F1 crosses), and bred by Guide Dogs or not, effected movements between states. We postulate that survival analysis and MSM could be applied to a wide range of behavioral data and key examples are provided.

  11. Frequency of the codon 807 mutation in the cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene in Irish setters and other dog breeds with hereditary retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, G D; Baldwin, V; Weeks, K M; Acland, G M; Ray, K

    1999-01-01

    Rod-cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1) in Irish setters is caused by a nonsense mutation in the cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene (PDE6B). We examined the frequency of the mutant allele in the Irish setter population and determined if the defect is present in dogs of other breeds which are affected with other inherited photoreceptor diseases. Between 1994 and 1997, samples were obtained from 436 clinically normal Irish setters, a red wolf, and dogs from 23 different breeds. The mutation in codon 807 of PDE6B was detected in genomic DNA by heteroduplex analysis, allele-specific PCR, or restriction enzyme digestion. Of the 436 samples from clinically normal setters, 34 contained the mutation in one of the two PDE6B alleles (carrier rate = 7.8%). In contrast, the same mutation was not found in the red wolf or dogs of other breeds affected with PRA or inherited photoreceptor diseases. The high percentage of tested carriers, however, is not representative of the number of carriers in the population since some dogs tested were closely related and did not represent a random sample of the Irish setter breed.

  12. Genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs identifies candidate genes involved in T helper cells and macrophage signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted a genome-wide scan for visceral leishmaniasis in mixed-breed dogs from a highly endemic area in Brazil using 149,648 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in 20 cases and 28 controls. Using a mixed model approach, we found two candidate loci on canine autosomes 1 and 2....

  13. Computer-Assisted Radiographic Calculation of Spinal Curvature in Brachycephalic “Screw-Tailed” Dog Breeds with Congenital Thoracic Vertebral Malformations: Reliability and Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Guevar, Julien; Penderis, Jacques; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Stalin, Catherine; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: To investigate computer-assisted digital radiographic measurement of Cobb angles in dogs with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations, to determine its intra- and inter-observer reliability and its association with the presence of neurological deficits. Medical records were reviewed (2009–2013) to identify brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with radiographic studies of the thoracic vertebral column and with at least one vertebral malformation present. Twenty-eight dogs were included in the study. The end vertebrae were defined as the cranial end plate of the vertebra cranial to the malformed vertebra and the caudal end plate of the vertebra caudal to the malformed vertebra. Three observers performed the measurements twice. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to calculate the intra- and inter-observer reliabilities. The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent for all intra- and inter-observer measurements using this method. There was a significant difference in the kyphotic Cobb angle between dogs with and without associated neurological deficits. The majority of dogs with neurological deficits had a kyphotic Cobb angle higher than 35°. No significant difference in the scoliotic Cobb angle was observed. We concluded that the computer assisted digital radiographic measurement of the Cobb angle for kyphosis and scoliosis is a valid, reproducible and reliable method to quantify the degree of spinal curvature in brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations. PMID:25198374

  14. Computer-assisted radiographic calculation of spinal curvature in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations: reliability and clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guevar, Julien; Penderis, Jacques; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Stalin, Catherine; Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: To investigate computer-assisted digital radiographic measurement of Cobb angles in dogs with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations, to determine its intra- and inter-observer reliability and its association with the presence of neurological deficits. Medical records were reviewed (2009-2013) to identify brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with radiographic studies of the thoracic vertebral column and with at least one vertebral malformation present. Twenty-eight dogs were included in the study. The end vertebrae were defined as the cranial end plate of the vertebra cranial to the malformed vertebra and the caudal end plate of the vertebra caudal to the malformed vertebra. Three observers performed the measurements twice. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to calculate the intra- and inter-observer reliabilities. The intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent for all intra- and inter-observer measurements using this method. There was a significant difference in the kyphotic Cobb angle between dogs with and without associated neurological deficits. The majority of dogs with neurological deficits had a kyphotic Cobb angle higher than 35°. No significant difference in the scoliotic Cobb angle was observed. We concluded that the computer assisted digital radiographic measurement of the Cobb angle for kyphosis and scoliosis is a valid, reproducible and reliable method to quantify the degree of spinal curvature in brachycephalic screw-tailed dog breeds with congenital thoracic vertebral malformations.

  15. Molecular Detection of Giardia intestinalis from Stray Dogs in Animal Shelters of Gyeongsangbuk-do (Province) and Daejeon, Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Cheol; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Suk; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Giardia is a major public health concern and considered as reemerging in industrialized countries. The present study investigated the prevalence of giardiosis in 202 sheltered dogs using PCR. The infection rate was 33.2% (67/202); Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon showed 25.7% (39/152, P<0.0001) and 56% (28/50), respectively. The prevalence of infected female dogs (46.7%, P<0.001) was higher than in male dogs (21.8%). A higher prevalence (43.5%, P<0.0001) was observed in mixed breed dogs than purebred (14.1%). Although most of the fecal samples collected were from dogs of ≥1 year of age which showed only 27.4% positive rate, 61.8% (P<0.001) of the total samples collected from young animals (<1 year of age) were positive for G. intestinalis. A significantly higher prevalence in symptomatic dogs (60.8%, P<0.0001) was observed than in asymptomatic dogs (23.8%). Furthermore, the analysis of nucleotide sequences of the samples revealed that G. intestinalis Assemblages A and C were found in the feces of dogs from Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon. Since G. intestinalis Assemblage A has been known to infect humans, our results suggest that dogs can act as an important reservoir of giardiosis in Korea. Hence, hygienic management should be given to prevent possible transmission to humans.

  16. Molecular Detection of Giardia intestinalis from Stray Dogs in Animal Shelters of Gyeongsangbuk-do (Province) and Daejeon, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jin-Cheol; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Kim, Sang-Hun; Kim, Suk; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Giardia is a major public health concern and considered as reemerging in industrialized countries. The present study investigated the prevalence of giardiosis in 202 sheltered dogs using PCR. The infection rate was 33.2% (67/202); Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon showed 25.7% (39/152, P<0.0001) and 56% (28/50), respectively. The prevalence of infected female dogs (46.7%, P<0.001) was higher than in male dogs (21.8%). A higher prevalence (43.5%, P<0.0001) was observed in mixed breed dogs than purebred (14.1%). Although most of the fecal samples collected were from dogs of ≥1 year of age which showed only 27.4% positive rate, 61.8% (P<0.001) of the total samples collected from young animals (<1 year of age) were positive for G. intestinalis. A significantly higher prevalence in symptomatic dogs (60.8%, P<0.0001) was observed than in asymptomatic dogs (23.8%). Furthermore, the analysis of nucleotide sequences of the samples revealed that G. intestinalis Assemblages A and C were found in the feces of dogs from Gyeongsangbuk-do and Daejeon. Since G. intestinalis Assemblage A has been known to infect humans, our results suggest that dogs can act as an important reservoir of giardiosis in Korea. Hence, hygienic management should be given to prevent possible transmission to humans. PMID:26323847

  17. Association of breed and histopathological grade in canine mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, H; Motsinger-Reif, A; Bettini, C; Moroff, S; Breen, M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between breed and the histopathological grade of canine mast cell tumours (MCTs). A retrospective survey of pathology data of 9375 histopathologically confirmed diagnoses of cutaneous MCTs in the US was evaluated in the context of breed prevalence in over two million registered purebred dogs. Association of histopathological grade with breed, age, sex and spay/neuter status was assessed. The data indicate that the proportion of high-grade tumours increases with advancing age, and that male and intact dogs have increased odds of developing high-grade tumours. A significant difference in the proportion of high-grade tumours between breeds was detected. The Pug was at significantly increased risk of developing low/intermediate-grade tumours, but not high-grade tumours, resulting in preponderance of less aggressive MCTs in this breed. The results of this study suggest a genetic association for the development of high-grade MCTs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old chihuahua mixed breed dog.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alice K Y

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old, female, Chihuahua mixed breed was presented on multiple occasions with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnostic tests, including blood analyses and ultrasonography, established pancreatitis as the cause of gastrointestinal irritation. Hospitalization and supportive care, followed by maintenance of a prescription gastrointestinal diet, allowed management of the disease.

  19. Efficacy of drug detection by fully-trained police dogs varies by breed, training level, type of drug and search environment.

    PubMed

    Jezierski, Tadeusz; Adamkiewicz, Ewa; Walczak, Marta; Sobczyńska, Magdalena; Górecka-Bruzda, Aleksandra; Ensminger, John; Papet, Eugene

    2014-04-01

    Some recent publications claim that the effectiveness of police canine drug detection is uncertain and likely minimal, and that the deterrent effect of dogs on drug users is low. It is also claimed that more scientific evidence is needed to demonstrate to what extent dogs actually detect drugs. The aim of this research was to assess experimentally, but in actual training and testing environments used by the Polish police, how effective dogs trained by the police were at illicit substance detection depending on factors such as type of drug, dog breed, dog experience with the searching site, and drug odor residuals. 68 Labrador retrievers, 61 German shepherds, 25 Terriers and 10 English Cocker Spaniels, of both sexes in each breed, were used. Altogether 1219 experimental searching tests were conducted. On average, hidden drug samples were indicated by dogs after 64s searching time, with 87.7% indications being correct and 5.3% being false. In 7.0% of trials dogs failed to find the drug sample within 10min. The ranking of drugs from the easiest to the most difficult to detect was: marijuana, hashish, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin. German shepherds were superior to other breeds in giving correct indications while Terriers showed relatively poor detection performance. Dogs were equally efficient at searching in well-known vs. unknown rooms with strange (i.e., non-target novelty) odors (83.2% correct indications), but they were less accurate when searching outside or inside cars (63.5% and 57.9% correct indications respectively). During police examination trials the dogs made more false alerts, fewer correct indications and searching time was longer compared to the final stage of the training. The drug odor may persist at a site for at least 48h. Our experiments do not confirm the recent reports, based on drug users' opinions, of low drug detection efficiency. Usefulness of drug detection dogs has been demonstrated here, even if their effectiveness may not be 100%, but

  20. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping in Domestic Dog Breeds Narrows the Progressive Rod-Cone Degeneration (prcd) Interval and Identifies Ancestral Disease Transmitting Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J.; Kijas, James W.; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2014-01-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the ∼6.4 Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5 Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed which reduced the LD interval to 106 Kb, and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds, and demonstrate the power of LD approach in the canine model. PMID:16859891

  1. Linkage disequilibrium mapping in domestic dog breeds narrows the progressive rod-cone degeneration interval and identifies ancestral disease-transmitting chromosome.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Orly; Zangerl, Barbara; Pearce-Kelling, Sue; Sidjanin, Duska J; Kijas, James W; Felix, Jeanette; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2006-11-01

    Canine progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd) is a retinal disease previously mapped to a broad, gene-rich centromeric region of canine chromosome 9. As allelic disorders are present in multiple breeds, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) to narrow the approximately 6.4-Mb interval candidate region. Multiple dog breeds, each representing genetically isolated populations, were typed for SNPs and other polymorphisms identified from BACs. The candidate region was initially localized to a 1.5-Mb zero recombination interval between growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2) and SEC14-like 1 (SEC14L). A fine-scale haplotype of the region was developed, which reduced the LD interval to 106 kb and identified a conserved haplotype of 98 polymorphisms present in all prcd-affected chromosomes from 14 different dog breeds. The findings strongly suggest that a common ancestor transmitted the prcd disease allele to many of the modern dog breeds and demonstrate the power of the LD approach in the canine model.

  2. Semen Characteristics of Purebred and Crossbred Male Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams. PMID:26020961

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of osteochondrosis in 309 Spanish Purebred horses.

    PubMed

    Boado, A; López-Sanromán, F J

    2016-01-01

    Articular osteochondrosis (OC) is commonly reported in horses but there are no reports of its prevalence in the Spanish Purebred (SP). The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of OC of the tarsocrural, dorsal metacarpo-metatarsophalangeal and femoropatellar joints in the SP in a retrospective study. The data were obtained from the radiographs of 309 SP horses and the prevalence and characteristics of lesions were calculated. Osteochondral lesions at predilected sites were diagnosed in 48.8% of the horses. It was more common to find the presence of fragments (28.8%) than flattening of the subchondral bone contour (20.1%). The percentage with abnormal articular margins was 1.3% for the femoropatellar joint, 33.3% for the tarsocrural and 25% for the dorsal fetlock region, where flattening was more common than the presence of fragments; in the tarsus and stifle, fragments were more common. The severity of the disease in the dorsal fetlock area was higher in hindlimbs than in forelimbs. Femoropatellar lesions were rare. Osteochondrosis is a common disease in the SP and this study provides information about the prevalence of osteochondrosis lesions in the breed and the interrelationships between the joints.

  4. Semen characteristics of purebred and crossbred male rabbits.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams.

  5. Distal tibial tuberosity translation using TTA implants for the treatment of patella alta in large breed dogs. Surgical technique and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, L C; Pike, F S; Aiken, S W

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellar luxation frequently occurs in dogs resulting in lameness with increasing incidence in large breed dogs. Patella alta has been defined as a patellar ligament length to patellar length ratio that is greater than two and may predispose to patellar luxation. To describe the surgical technique for stabilization of the distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement plates and the clinical outcomes with follow-up for clinical cases of dogs. Dogs that were presented with the complaint of patellar luxation and that were concurrently diagnosed with patella alta and were greater than 20 kg in body weight underwent surgery using a tibial tuberosity advancement plate to stabilize the osteotomy. Radiographic assessment of A:PL distance (the ratio of the proximal aspect of the patella to the femoral condyle [A] to the patellar length [PL]), L:P ratio (ratio of the length of the patellar ligament to the diagonal length of the patella), and owner assessment were obtained. Eleven stifles in nine dogs underwent surgical correction with a mean preoperative L:P ratio of 2.47. There were no complications and the lameness resolved clinically. The mean A:PL ratios preoperatively (2.6 ± 0.22) and postoperatively (2.1 ± 0.25) were significantly different (p = 0.0003). All owners were satisfied with the outcome and all dogs had a resolution of lameness with no recurrence of patellar luxation. Stabilization of distal translation of the tibial tuberosity using tibial tuberosity advancement implants to correct patella alta in large breed dogs was feasible and resulted in good clinical outcome.

  6. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. II. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic breeds with grade I brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pichetto, Michela; Arrighi, Silvana; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    In brachycephalic dogs, the skull bone shortening is not paralleled by a decreased development of soft tissues. Relatively longer soft palate is one of the main factors contributing to pharyngeal narrowing during normal respiratory activity of these dog breeds, which are frequent carriers of the brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS), which affects most part of them during their postnatal life. No histological studies assessing the morphology and the normal tissue composition of the soft palate in brachycephalic dogs are available, neither has ever been determined whether the elongated soft palate is a primary or secondary event. Aim of this study was to describe the morphology of the caudal soft palate in brachycephalic dogs with Grade I BAOS to identify potential features possibly favoring the pathogenesis of BAOS. Specimens from brachycephalic dogs (N = 11) that underwent preventive surgery were collected from surgery, processed for histology, and examined at six transversal levels. The brachycephalic soft palates showed peculiar features such as thickened superficial epithelium, extensive oedema of the connective tissue, and mucous gland hyperplasia. Several muscular alterations were evidenced in addition. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information on the morphological basis of the soft palate thickening in brachycephalic dogs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A quantitative study of ganglion cells in the German shepherd dog retina.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Soriano, J; Rodriguez-Veiga, E; Martinez-Sainz, P; Mayayo-Vicente, S; Marin-Garcia, P

    1995-03-01

    As in the number of mammals, the most prominent feature of the ganglion-cell layer in the retina of the German shepherd dog is the sharp increase in the density of ganglion cells in the central area. There is an area of maximum density and also a 'cat-like' visual streak, located dorsal to the optic disc. The isodensity lines of ganglion-cell distribution is roughly concentric. Their values vary from 5300-13,000 cells/mm2 in the central area, with the cells densely packed, to 1000 cells/mm2 or less in the periphery, where the cells are sparsely distributed. There were some individual differences amongst the animals studied, although all of them were pure-bred dogs. This suggests that the configuration of the retina in the canine species is not only dependent on the breed itself but also on some other parameters such as phylogenetic heritage, environment, aptitude, lifestyle, or even training.

  8. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books of...

  9. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books of...

  10. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED ANIMALS Recognition of Breeds and Books of Record § 151.10 Recognition of additional breeds and books of...

  11. Analysis of body measurements of newborn purebred Belgian Blue calves.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, I; Opsomer, G; Aerts, S; Hoflack, G; Laevens, H; Lips, D

    2010-05-01

    At calving, purebred animals of the Belgian Blue (BB) breed are compromised by the incompatibility in size and shape of the dam and her calf, resulting in a very high incidence of dystocia problems. To clarify which body parts of the calf are of decisive importance to allow natural delivery and to investigate both the mean value as well as the variation among these body sizes within this breed (variation being an important condition for selection), measurements of nine body parts (body weight at birth (BW), body length (BL), length of the head (LH), shoulder width (SW), hip width (HW), heart girth (HG), withers height (WH) and the circumference of the fetlock of both the front (CFF) and the hind leg (CFH)) were assessed in 147 newborn purebred BB calves on 17 farms. Simple and partial correlations were assessed and we examined whether environmental factors (gender of the calf, parity of the cow, type of calving, season of birth and time of measurement after birth) were significantly associated with these specific calf measurements. The mean BW was 49.2 ± 7.1 kg. The average BL was 56.4 ± 4.5 cm and the mean LH was 24.4 ± 2.3 cm. Measurements obtained for SW and HW were 22.4 ± 2.2 and 22.9 ± 2.1 cm, respectively, whereas the mean WH was 71.1 ± 4.7 cm. Measurements of circumferences revealed a CFF of 17.9 ± 1.1 cm, a CFH of 18.0 ± 1.0 cm and a mean HG of 78.0 ± 5.4 cm. Partial correlations of the BW with eight body measurements were significant (P < 0.01) and ranged between 0.17 and 0.85; 0.42 and 0.88; and 0.24 and 0.88 when corrected for gender, parity and type of calving, respectively. BL (P < 0.01) and the CFF and CFH (P < 0.001) are larger in bull calves than in heifer calves. Calves born through caesarean section had broader SW (P < 0.01) and HW (P < 0.01) when compared with calves born after natural calving (defined as born per vaginam without assistance or with slight traction). Sizes of calves born out of multiparous cows were generally larger than

  12. Merging pedigree databases to describe and compare mating practices and gene flow between pedigree dogs in France, Sweden and the UK.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Leroy, G; Malm, S; Lewis, T; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2017-04-01

    Merging pedigree databases across countries may improve the ability of kennel organizations to monitor genetic variability and health-related issues of pedigree dogs. We used data provided by the Société Centrale Canine (France), Svenska Kennelklubben (Sweden) and the Kennel Club (UK) to study the feasibility of merging pedigree databases across countries and describe breeding practices and international gene flow within the following four breeds: Bullmastiff (BMA), English setter (ESE), Bernese mountain dog (BMD) and Labrador retriever (LBR). After merging the databases, genealogical parameters and founder contributions were calculated according to the birth period, breed and registration country of the dogs. Throughout the investigated period, mating between close relatives, measured as the proportion of inbred individuals (considering only two generations of pedigree), decreased or remained stable, with the exception of LBR in France. Gene flow between countries became more frequent, and the origins of populations within countries became more diverse over time. In conclusion, the potential to reduce inbreeding within purebred dog populations through exchanging breeding animals across countries was confirmed by an improved effective population size when merging populations from different countries.

  13. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed.

  14. Foraminal and paraspinal extraforaminal attachments of the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in large breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Breit, S; Giebels, F; Kneissl, S

    2013-09-01

    Fresh cadaveric lumbar spines of 20 adult large breed dogs were used to study the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves along their course through their respective intervertebral foramen. The relationship between the periosteum lining the vertebral canal (endorhachis; peridural membrane) and the vessels inside the vertebral canal, and the relationship between the nerves and the wall of the intervertebral foramen and the extraspinal suspensory apparatus were investigated. Each intervertebral foramen contained a fibrous septum that divided it into two sub-compartments by connecting the fibrous capsule of the facet joints with the intervertebral disc and the adjoining vertebral body. The lumbar nerves and the main artery passed through the cranial sub-compartment and the main vein passed through the caudal sub-compartment. In all cases, there was a circumneural sleeve that connected the ventral branches of the lumbar nerves extraspinally with the fibrous capsule of the facet joints dorsally, the fibrous septum caudally, and the caudal vertebral notch and accessory process cranioventrally. The deep layer of the circumneural sleeve was formed by the periosteum lining the vertebral canal pouching laterally through the intervertebral foramen; the superficial (lateral) layer was formed by the deep sheet of the thoracolumbar fascia. The deep sheet of the thoracolumbar fascia continued cranially and caudally to the circumneural sleeve to attach it to the vertebral body and the intervertebral disc. Regional and individual differences were noted in the composition and length of the circumneural sleeve. The potential biomechanical and clinical roles of these variations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Age-associated and breed-associated variations in haematological and biochemical variables in young labrador retriever and miniature schnauzer dogs

    PubMed Central

    Brenten, Thomas; Morris, Penelope J.; Salt, Carina; Raila, Jens; Kohn, Barbara; Schweigert, Florian J.; Zentek, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Breed, sex and age effects on haematological and biochemical variables were investigated in 24 labrador retriever and 25 miniature schnauzer dogs during the first year of life. Blood samples were taken regularly between weeks 8 and 52. White blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count as well as total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine and urea were evaluated. For all haematological and biochemical parameters, there were significant effects of age on test results. Statistically significant effects for breed and the breed×age interaction on test results were observed for most of the parameters with the exception of haemoglobin. Variations in test results illustrate growth related alterations in body tissue and metabolism leading to dynamic and marked changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, which have to be considered for the interpretation of clinical data obtained from dogs in the first year of life. PMID:27252875

  16. Genetic parameters for egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Tongsiri, S; Jeyaruban, M G; Van Der Werf, J H J

    2015-01-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for 5 economically important egg production traits using records collected over 9 years in chickens reared under tropical conditions in Thailand. The data were from two purebred lines and two hybrid lines of layer parent stocks. The two purebred lines were Rhode Island Red (RIR) and White Plymouth Rock (WPR) and the hybrid lines were formed by crossing a commercial brown egg laying strain to Rhode Island Red (RC) and White Plymouth Rock (WC), respectively. Five egg production traits were analysed, including age at first egg (AFE), body weight at first egg (BWT), egg weight at first egg (EWFE), number of eggs from the first 17 weeks of lay (EN) and average egg weight over the 17th week of lay (EW). Fixed effects of year and hatch within year were significant for all 5 traits and were included in the model. Maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects of the dam were not significant, except for EN and EW in RIR and BWT and EW in WPR. Estimated heritability of AFE, BWT, EWFE, EN and EW were 0.45, 0.50, 0.29, 0.19 and 0.43 in RIR; 0.44, 0.38, 0.33, 0.20 and 0.38 in WPR; 0.37, 0.41, 0.38, 0.18 and 0.36 in RC; and 0.46, 0.53, 0.36, 0.38 and 0.45 in WC lines, respectively. The EN was negatively correlated with other traits, except for BWT in RC and AFE and BWT in WC. It was concluded that selection for increased EN will reduce other egg production traits in purebred and hybrid chicken and therefore EN needs to be combined with other egg production traits in a multi-trait selection index to improve all traits optimally according to a defined breeding objective.

  17. The use of native fluorescence analysis of synovial fluid in the diagnosis of medial compartment disease in medium- and large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Bilská, Kamila; Šteffeková, Zuzana; Birková, Anna; Mareková, Mária; Ledecký, Valent; Hluchý, Marián; Kisková, Terézia

    2016-05-01

    We assumed that proteins are most likely responsible for synovial fluid fluorescence and that changes detected in fluorescence intensity are most likely the result of changes in the concentration of fluorescent proteins. Synchronous fluorescent matrices from synovial fluid samples were measured in the excitation wavelength range of 200-350 nm using a luminescence spectrophotometer. The synchronous matrix of synovial fluid consists of 2 dominant fluorescent centers (F1 and F2) in the ultraviolet region. The fluorescence intensities of both centers were significantly higher in pathological samples, with p = 0.001 (a 59% increase of the median value) for the F1 center and p = 0.002 (a 52% increase of the median value) for the F2 center. Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that synovial fluid autofluorescence is a significant predictor of medial compartment disease in dogs, with the area under the curve at 0.776 (F1) and 0.778 (F2). We did not detect any differences in the autofluorescence of synovial fluid between male and female, or any breed-based changes. No position changes of fluorescent centers were recorded in the synovial fluid in diseased dogs compared with healthy dogs. The synovial fluid metabolic fingerprint of canine patients with medial compartment disease differed from that of healthy dogs. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of synovial fluid fingerprinting to identify disease-specific profiles of synovial fluid metabolites.

  18. Empirical determination of breed-of-origin of alleles in three-breed cross pigs.

    PubMed

    Sevillano, Claudia A; Vandenplas, Jeremie; Bastiaansen, John W M; Calus, Mario P L

    2016-08-04

    Although breeding programs for pigs and poultry aim at improving crossbred performance, they mainly use training populations that consist of purebred animals. For some traits, e.g. residual feed intake, the genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred performance is low and thus including crossbred animals in the training population is required. With crossbred animals, the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be breed-specific because linkage disequilibrium patterns between a SNP and a quantitative trait locus (QTL), and allele frequencies and allele substitution effects of a QTL may differ between breeds. To estimate the breed-specific effects of alleles in a crossbred population, the breed-of-origin of alleles in crossbred animals must be known. This study was aimed at investigating the performance of an approach that assigns breed-of-origin of alleles in real data of three-breed cross pigs. Genotypic data were available for 14,187 purebred, 1354 F1, and 1723 three-breed cross pigs. On average, 93.0 % of the alleles of three-breed cross pigs were assigned a breed-of-origin without using pedigree information and 94.6 % with using pedigree information. The assignment percentage could be improved by allowing a percentage (fr) of the copies of a haplotype to be observed in a purebred population different from the assigned breed-of-origin. Changing fr from 0 to 20 %, increased assignment of breed-of-origin by 0.6 and 0.7 % when pedigree information was and was not used, respectively, which indicates the benefit of setting fr to 20 %. Breed-of-origin of alleles of three-breed cross pigs can be derived empirically without the need for pedigree information, with 93.7 % of the alleles assigned a breed-of-origin. Pedigree information is useful to reduce computation time and can slightly increase the percentage of assignments. Knowledge on the breed-of-origin of alleles allows the use of models that implement breed-specific effects of SNP

  19. A CLN8 nonsense mutation in the whole genome sequence of a mixed breed dog with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and Australian Shepherd ancestry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juyuan; Johnson, Gary S; Brown, Holly A; Provencher, Michele L; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Mhlanga-Mutangadura, Tendai; Taylor, Jeremy F; Schnabel, Robert D; O'Brien, Dennis P; Katz, Martin L

    2014-08-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are hereditary neurodegenerative diseases characterized by seizures and progressive cognitive decline, motor impairment, and vision loss accompanied by accumulation of autofluorescent lysosomal storage bodies in the central nervous system and elsewhere in the body. Mutations in at least 14 genes underlie the various forms of NCL. One of these genes, CLN8, encodes an intrinsic membrane protein of unknown function that appears to be localized primarily to the endoplasmic reticulum. Most CLN8 mutations in people result in a form of NCL with a late infantile onset and relatively rapid progression. A mixed breed dog with Australian Shepherd and Blue Heeler ancestry developed neurological signs characteristic of NCL starting at about 8months of age. The signs became progressively worse and the dog was euthanized at 21months of age due to seizures of increasing frequency and severity. Postmortem examination of the brain and retinas identified massive accumulations of intracellular autofluorescent inclusions characteristic of the NCLs. Whole genome sequencing of DNA from this dog identified a CLN8:c.585G>A transition that predicts a CLN8:p.Trp195* nonsense mutation. This mutation appears to be rare in both ancestral breeds. All of our 133 archived DNA samples from Blue Heelers, and 1481 of our 1488 archived Australian Shepherd DNA samples tested homozygous for the reference CLN8:c.585G allele. Four of the Australian Shepherd samples tested heterozygous and 3 tested homozygous for the mutant CLN8:c.585A allele. All 3 dogs homozygous for the A allele exhibited clinical signs of NCL and in 2 of them NCL was confirmed by postmortem evaluation of brain tissue. The occurrence of confirmed NCL in 3 of 4 CLN8:c.585A homozygous dogs, plus the occurrence of clinical signs consistent with NCL in the fourth homozygote strongly suggests that this rare truncating mutation causes NCL. Identification of this NCL-causing mutation provides the

  20. A survey of polymorphisms detected from sequences of popular beef breeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome sequence was obtained from 270 sires used in the Germplasm Evaluation project (GPE). These bulls included 154 purebred AI sires from GPE Cycle VII breeds (Hereford, Angus, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Red Angus), 83 F1 crosses of those breeds, and 33 AI sires from 8 other breeds...

  1. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  2. 9 CFR 151.10 - Recognition of additional breeds and books of record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recognition of additional breeds and books of record. 151.10 Section 151.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  3. Genomic evaluations and breed composition for crossbred U.S. dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic evaluations are desired for crossbred as well as purebred populations when selection is applied to commercial and not only breeding herds. Genomic breed composition was estimated from 60 671 markers using the known breeds of daughter-proven Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss and Ayrshire bulls as...

  4. A pilot study of the body weight of pure-bred client-owned adult cats.

    PubMed

    Kienzle, Ellen; Moik, Katja

    2011-10-01

    A total of 539 pure-bred and seventy-five cats without a pedigree were weighed and scored at cat shows or in veterinary surgeries. Data from normal-weight cats with a body condition score (BCS) of 5 (ideal) were only used. Breeds were grouped into five classes. For female cats, the mean weight for these groups were as follows: very light (2.8 kg); light (3.2 kg); medium (3.5 kg); large (4.0 kg); giant (4.9) kg. For male cats, the corresponding values were 3.6, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1 and 6.1 kg. Siamese/Oriental Shorthair were identified as a very light breed, the Norwegian Forest and the Siberian Cat as a large breed and the Maine Coon as a giant breed. Males and females of the same breed did not always belong to the same class. In some breeds, individuals of the same sex were found in two different classes. The percentage of intact overweight cats (BCS >5) was low (7 % of intact males, 3 % of intact females). Incidence of overweight in neutered cats was 50 % in males and 38 % in females. Among pedigreed cats, there were differences in the incidence of overweight in neutered cats: high in Norwegian Forest Cats (males 75 %, females 50 %) and low in Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cats (males 25 %, females 1 %). Cats with a BCS of 6, 7 and 8 had on average 120, 154 and 214 % of the normal weight of their breed, respectively.

  5. An insertion in the RSPO2 gene correlates with improper coat in the Portuguese water dog.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; Chase, Kevin; Cadieu, Edouard; Lark, Karl Gordon; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2010-01-01

    We recently showed that genes at 3 loci account for the majority of variation in canine fur. Allelic variation at genes controlling length of fur, texture, and curl is responsible for the striking phenotypic variety observed among purebred dogs in the United States today. In this paper, we investigate the phenomenon of "improper coat" (IC) or a coat that is not typical of the breed. IC is occasionally observed among specific breeds, such as the Portuguese Water Dog (PWD), and is characterized by short hair on the head, face, and lower legs, rather than a thick and even coat covering the whole body. The IC is reminiscent of that observed on the curly or flat-coated retriever, thus making such dogs unable to compete effectively in conformation events. We have found that the presence of the wild-type allele, rather than the expected variant allele at the R-spondin 2 (RSPO2) gene, accounts for this phenotype. The development of a genetic test that distinguishes these 2 allelic types would allow breeders to easily avoid producing PWD with ICs.

  6. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Cahyadi, Muhammad; Park, Hee-Bok; Seo, Dong-Won; Jin, Shil; Choi, Nuri; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Kang, Bo-Seok; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC). F1 samples (n = 595) were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM) of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3) for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001) and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003). Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007) and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027) were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds. PMID:26732327

  7. A Novel Unstable Duplication Upstream of HAS2 Predisposes to a Breed-Defining Skin Phenotype and a Periodic Fever Syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Mia; Mauceli, Evan; Quilez, Javier; Tonomura, Noriko; Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, Maria José; Bassols, Anna; Avery, Anne C.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Thomas, Anne; Kastner, Daniel L.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Webster, Matthew T.; Sanchez, Armand; Hedhammar, Åke; Remmers, Elaine F.; Andersson, Leif; Ferrer, Lluis; Tintle, Linda; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (praw = 2.3×10−6, pgenome = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p<0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation. PMID:21437276

  8. A novel unstable duplication upstream of HAS2 predisposes to a breed-defining skin phenotype and a periodic fever syndrome in Chinese Shar-Pei dogs.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mia; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Truvé, Katarina; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Puppo, Francesca; Mauceli, Evan; Quilez, Javier; Tonomura, Noriko; Zanna, Giordana; Docampo, Maria José; Bassols, Anna; Avery, Anne C; Karlsson, Elinor K; Thomas, Anne; Kastner, Daniel L; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Webster, Matthew T; Sanchez, Armand; Hedhammar, Ake; Remmers, Elaine F; Andersson, Leif; Ferrer, Lluis; Tintle, Linda; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2011-03-01

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and inflammation with no known pathogenic or autoimmune cause. In humans, several genes have been implicated in this group of diseases, but the majority of cases remain unexplained. A similar periodic fever syndrome is relatively frequent in the Chinese Shar-Pei breed of dogs. In the western world, Shar-Pei have been strongly selected for a distinctive thick and heavily folded skin. In this study, a mutation affecting both these traits was identified. Using genome-wide SNP analysis of Shar-Pei and other breeds, the strongest signal of a breed-specific selective sweep was located on chromosome 13. The same region also harbored the strongest genome-wide association (GWA) signal for susceptibility to the periodic fever syndrome (p(raw) = 2.3 × 10⁻⁶, p(genome) = 0.01). Dense targeted resequencing revealed two partially overlapping duplications, 14.3 Kb and 16.1 Kb in size, unique to Shar-Pei and upstream of the Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) gene. HAS2 encodes the rate-limiting enzyme synthesizing hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the skin. HA is up-regulated and accumulates in the thickened skin of Shar-Pei. A high copy number of the 16.1 Kb duplication was associated with an increased expression of HAS2 as well as the periodic fever syndrome (p < 0.0001). When fragmented, HA can act as a trigger of the innate immune system and stimulate sterile fever and inflammation. The strong selection for the skin phenotype therefore appears to enrich for a pleiotropic mutation predisposing these dogs to a periodic fever syndrome. The identification of HA as a major risk factor for this canine disease raises the potential of this glycosaminoglycan as a risk factor for human periodic fevers and as an important driver of chronic inflammation.

  9. Prevalence of disorders recorded in dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in England.

    PubMed

    O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported

  10. Prevalence of Disorders Recorded in Dogs Attending Primary-Care Veterinary Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    O′Neill, Dan G.; Church, David B.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Thomson, Peter C.; Brodbelt, Dave C.

    2014-01-01

    Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3–10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1–8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7–34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9–38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8–34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence

  11. The anatomy of the dog soft palate. I. Histological evaluation of the caudal soft palate in mesaticephalic breeds.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Silvana; Pichetto, Michela; Roccabianca, Paola; Romussi, Stefano

    2011-07-01

    The gross anatomy and overall structure of the soft palate has been described in the average dog's head, however, no descriptive microanatomical studies of the dog soft palate are available, despite their possible utility in view of the manifold and important repercussions of this organ physiology. This is the first of two companion papers, dealing with the caudal part of the soft palate in the canine species, in mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs. Specimens from mesaticephalic healthy dogs (N = 8) were collected after euthanasia, processed for histology and sectioned at six transversal levels. Morphological stainings were used for a microscopic evaluation of the tissue layers composing the distal part of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic dogs, and histochemical reactions were applied to assess mucin types within glandular tissue and to investigate the connective tissues. The organ was characteristically organized into a major deep musculo-connective axis mixed with salivary glands and covered by the mucosal lining on either the nasopharyngeal or the oral sides. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of the anatomy of soft palate in the canine species and establish baseline information for the parallel study on the long and thickened soft palate, which is typical of adult brachycephalic dogs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of short-term outcome after lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy in medium- to large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Philipp D; Hunt, Geraldine B; Steffey, Michele A; Culp, William T N; Mayhew, Kelli N; Fuller, Mark; Johnson, Lynelle R; Pascoe, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures. Retrospective cohort study. 46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors. Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated. VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively). In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.

  13. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  14. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication. PMID:19666600

  15. Chronic kidney disease in dogs in UK veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors, and survival.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, D G; Elliott, J; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs varies widely (0.05-3.74%). Identified risk factors include advancing age, specific breeds, small body size, and periodontal disease. To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with CKD diagnosis and survival in dogs. Purebred dogs were hypothesized to have higher CKD risk and poorer survival characteristics than crossbred dogs. A merged clinical database of 107,214 dogs attending 89 UK veterinary practices over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011). A longitudinal study design estimated the apparent prevalence (AP) whereas the true prevalence (TP) was estimated using Bayesian analysis. A nested case-control study design evaluated risk factors. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier survival curve method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. The CKD AP was 0.21% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24%) and TP was 0.37% (95% posterior credibility interval 0.02-1.44%). Significant risk factors included increasing age, being insured, and certain breeds (Cocker Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel). Cardiac disease was a significant comorbid disorder. Significant clinical signs included halitosis, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. The median survival time from diagnosis was 226 days (95% CI 112-326 days). International Renal Interest Society stage and blood urea nitrogen concentration at diagnosis were significantly associated with hazard of death due to CKD. Chronic kidney disease compromises dog welfare. Increased awareness of CKD risk factors and association of blood biochemistry results with survival time should facilitate diagnosis and optimize case management to improve animal survival and welfare. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Inference of population structure of purebred dairy and beef cattle using high-density genotype data.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M M; Berry, D P; Kearney, J F; McParland, S; Buckley, F; Purfield, D C

    2017-01-01

    Information on the genetic diversity and population structure of cattle breeds is useful when deciding the most optimal, for example, crossbreeding strategies to improve phenotypic performance by exploiting heterosis. The present study investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of the most prominent dairy and beef breeds used in Ireland. Illumina high-density genotypes (777 962 single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) were available on 4623 purebred bulls from nine breeds; Angus (n=430), Belgian Blue (n=298), Charolais (n=893), Hereford (n=327), Holstein-Friesian (n=1261), Jersey (n=75), Limousin (n=943), Montbéliarde (n=33) and Simmental (n=363). Principal component analysis revealed that Angus, Hereford, and Jersey formed non-overlapping clusters, representing distinct populations. In contrast, overlapping clusters suggested geographical proximity of origin and genetic similarity between Limousin, Simmental and Montbéliarde and to a lesser extent between Holstein, Friesian and Belgian Blue. The observed SNP heterozygosity averaged across all loci was 0.379. The Belgian Blue had the greatest mean observed heterozygosity (HO=0.389) among individuals within breed while the Holstein-Friesian and Jersey populations had the lowest mean heterozygosity (HO=0.370 and 0.376, respectively). The correlation between the genomic-based and pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients was weak (r=0.171; P<0.001). Mean genomic inbreeding estimates were greatest for Jersey (0.173) and least for Hereford (0.051). The pair-wise breed fixation index (F st) ranged from 0.049 (Limousin and Charolais) to 0.165 (Hereford and Jersey). In conclusion, substantial genetic variation exists among breeds commercially used in Ireland. Thus custom-mating strategies would be successful in maximising the exploitation of heterosis in crossbreeding strategies.

  17. Open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of fractures involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna in miniature- and toy-breed dogs: 102 cases (2008-2015).

    PubMed

    De Arburn Parent, Rebecca; Benamou, Jérôme; Gatineau, Matthieu; Clerfond, Pierre; Planté, Jérôme

    2017-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine outcomes and complication rates of open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of fractures involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna in miniature- and toy-breed dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 102 miniature- and toy-breed dogs (105 fractures) weighing ≤ 7 kg (15.4 lb) that had undergone open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation of a fracture involving the distal aspect of the radius and ulna from 2008 through 2015. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and information extracted regarding dog and fracture characteristics, surgical variables, and follow-up examination data (including postoperative complications). Postoperative radiographs were examined for distal fragment size, implant placement, apposition, alignment, and healing stage. A long-term follow-up questionnaire was completed by telephone interview with dog owners at least 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Mean length of the distal bone fragment in all fractures was 19.2 mm, with a mean distal-to-total radial length ratio of 0.21. At last follow-up examination (typically 6 weeks after surgery), 97 (95%) dogs had no signs of lameness; minor lameness was identified in 5 (5%) dogs. Complications developed in 26 (25%) fractures (23 [22%] minor and 3 [3%] major complications). Sixty-eight of 71 (96%) owners rated the overall and long-term outcome as excellent and 3 (4%) as good; 68 of 71 (96%) dogs reportedly had no signs of residual lameness. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Open reduction and cranial bone plate fixation for the treatment of radius-ulna fractures in miniature- and toy-breed dogs provided an excellent outcome with a low complication rate.

  18. Comparison of plasma biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian horses during the same-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Kedzierski, W; Bergero, D

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare changes of blood parameters induced by the same work and performed in the same conditions in two racehorse breeds, Thoroughbred and Purebred Arabian. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise was studied in 20 stallions--ten Thoroughbreds, aged 2-3 years and the same number of Purebred Arabians, 3-4 years old. All the horses were administrated the same effort test consisting in 1200 m gallop at a speed typical of the daily training sessions. Three jugular venous blood samples were collected for each horse: at rest, just after the end of the gallop and after 30-minute rest. In the gathered blood, a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration was determined as well as plasma level of glucose (Glc), triacylglycerols (TG), glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), total plasma proteins (TP) and the activity of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the Arabian horses, an increase in levels of TP, glycerol, FFA and CK activity measured just after exercise was higher than that in Thoroughbreds. Similarly, after a 30-minute rest, a post-exercise rise of TP, AST, glycerol and FFA proved to be higher in the Arabian horses compared to that in the Thoroughbreds. Only TG plasma concentration measured 30 minutes following the effort was significantly lower in the Arabian horses than in Thoroughbreds. It can be concluded that the Thoroughbred horses adapted better to the effort test applied in this study as compared to the Purebred Arabian horses. The parameters related to lipid metabolism proved to be the most sensitive indicators of breed differences in relation to moderate-intensity exercise.

  19. No Dog Left Behind: A Hedonic Pricing Model for Animal Shelters.

    PubMed

    Reese, Laura A; Skidmore, Mark; Dyar, William; Rosebrook, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Companion animal overpopulation is a growing problem in the United States. In addition to strays, an average of 324,500 nonhuman animals are relinquished to shelters yearly by their caregivers due to family disruption (divorce, death), foreclosure, economic problems, or minor behavioral issues. As a result, estimates of animals in shelters range from 3 million to 8 million, and due to overcrowding, euthanasia is common. This analysis seeks to determine the appropriate pricing mechanisms to clear animal shelters of dogs in the manner most desirable-that is, through adoption. Based on a survey of Michigan residents, it is clear there are a number of correlations between the traits of dogs and the individuals who care for them. Hedonic pricing models indicate that animal shelters need to proactively vary their pricing systems to discount particular traits, specifically for mixed-breed, older, and black dogs. Premiums can be charged for puppies, purebred dogs, and those who have received specific services such as microchipping.

  20. Effect of pre-warming on perioperative hypothermia and anesthetic recovery in small breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Aarnes, Turi K; Bednarski, Richard M; Lerche, Phillip; Hubbell, John A E

    2017-02-01

    This study compared perianesthetic body temperatures and times to recovery from general anesthesia in small dogs that were either warmed for 20 minutes prior to anesthesia or not warmed. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs that were presented for ovariohysterectomy were included in the study. Small (<10 kg body weight) dogs with normal circulatory status were randomly assigned to receive pre-warming for 20 minutes or no treatment. Body temperature was measured during the procedure using a calibrated rectal probe. Duration of anesthesia and surgery, time to rescue warming, time to extubation, presence and duration of shivering, and time to return to normal temperature were recorded. Temperature at the end of surgery was significantly higher in the control group than the pre-warmed group. There was no difference in time to extubation or duration of postoperative shivering between groups. Pre-warming did not result in improved temperature or recovery from anesthesia.

  1. Effect of pre-warming on perioperative hypothermia and anesthetic recovery in small breed dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aarnes, Turi K.; Bednarski, Richard M.; Lerche, Phillip; Hubbell, John A.E.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared perianesthetic body temperatures and times to recovery from general anesthesia in small dogs that were either warmed for 20 minutes prior to anesthesia or not warmed. Twenty-eight client-owned dogs that were presented for ovariohysterectomy were included in the study. Small (<10 kg body weight) dogs with normal circulatory status were randomly assigned to receive pre-warming for 20 minutes or no treatment. Body temperature was measured during the procedure using a calibrated rectal probe. Duration of anesthesia and surgery, time to rescue warming, time to extubation, presence and duration of shivering, and time to return to normal temperature were recorded. Temperature at the end of surgery was significantly higher in the control group than the pre-warmed group. There was no difference in time to extubation or duration of postoperative shivering between groups. Pre-warming did not result in improved temperature or recovery from anesthesia. PMID:28216687

  2. Seroprevalence and factors associated with seropositivity to equine arteritis virus in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, R

    2016-09-01

    Equine viral arteritis (EVA), a disease caused by infection with the equine arteritis virus (EAV), is present in many European countries. In Spain, the last confirmed outbreak was reported in 1992 and there is a paucity of seroprevalence studies. The disease has a major impact on the equine breeding industry, which is mainly represented by Spanish Purebred (SP) horses in Spain. To estimate the seroprevalence of EAV in the breeding SP horse population in central Spain and identify potential horse and studfarm level factors associated with seropositivity to EAV. Cross-sectional study. Individual serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 35 studfarms, were tested using a commercially available EAV antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test for samples with positive and equivocal results. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EAV were collected via a questionnaire and examined using random effects logistic regression for analysis of clustered data. Equine arteritis virus seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was estimated to be 16.8% (95% confidence interval 5.2-28.5%). Increasing numbers of breeding mares on the studfarm and increasing percentage of mares with reproductive problems during the last 12 months were identified as being positively associated with EAV seropositivity. Mares vaccinated against Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) and/or -4 (EHV-4) were also positively associated with EAV seropositivity. These findings are of importance to ensure appropriate biosecurity measures for studfarms are carried out and may help facilitate the development of an EVA surveillance programme in the SP breeding horse population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of canine distemper virus strains detected from breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Yan, Xi-Jun; Chai, Xiu-Li; Martella, Vito; Luo, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Hai-Ling; Gao, Han; Liu, Ying-Xue; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Tao; Xu, Lei; Zhao, Chun-Fei; Wang, Feng-Xue; Shao, Xi-Qun; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Shi-Peng

    2010-01-06

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a variety of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. Genetic/antigenic heterogeneity has been observed among the various CDV strains, notably in the haemagglutinin (H) gene, that appears as a good target to gather epidemiological information. Based on sequence analysis of the H gene, wild-type CDV strains cluster into distinct geographic lineages (genotypes), irrespective of the species of isolation. The sequence of the H gene of 28 CDV strains detected from both vaccinated and non-vaccinated breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks from different geographical areas of China during the years 2004-2008 was determined. All the CDV strains but two (strains HL and HLJ2) were characterized as Asia-1 genotype and were highly similar to each other (96.2-99.7% at the amino acid [aa] level) and to other Asia-1 strains (96.1-99.5% aa) previously detected in China. The CDV strains HL and HLJ2 were both collected from foxes in Heilongjiang province in 2005. Strain HL resembled CDVs of the Arctic genotype (GR88-like) and displayed high aa identity (98.0%) to the Chinese canine strain Liu. By converse, strain HLJ2 was barely related to CDVs of the Asia-2 genotype (88.7-90.3% aa identity), and could represent a novel CDV genotype, tentatively proposed as Asia-3. These results suggest that at least three different CDV genotypes, distantly related (81.8-91.6% aa identity) to the vaccine strains, Onderstepoort-like (America-1 genotype), are currently circulating in breeding foxes, raccoon dogs and minks in China, and that the genotype Asia-1 is predominant. Whether the diversity between wild-type CDVs and the vaccine strains may affect, to some extent, the efficacy of the vaccines deserves further investigations.

  5. Cephalic index and perceived dog trainability.

    PubMed

    Helton, William S

    2009-11-01

    People rank breeds of dogs for trainability despite a lack of evidence of breed differences in underlying behaviour. Instead of using behavioural information, people may use dog morphology to determine the trainability of breeds. Dogs are categorized as dolichocephalic, mesocephalic, or brachycephalic based on cephalic index, a ratio between skull width and length. Dolichocephalic breeds are anatomically more specialized for running and brachycephalic breeds are more specialized for fighting. Dog breeds rated as highly trainable are instead mesocephalic, morphological generalists. Looking trainable in dogs may reflect differences in physical morphology.

  6. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico. PMID:25992997

  7. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    PubMed

    Salas, Yaritza; Márquez, Adelys; Diaz, Daniel; Romero, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign) and 47.5% (malignant). The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old) were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  8. Protothecosis in 17 Australian dogs and a review of the canine literature.

    PubMed

    Stenner, V J; Mackay, B; King, T; Barrs, V R D; Irwin, P; Abraham, L; Swift, N; Langer, N; Bernays, M; Hampson, E; Martin, P; Krockenberger, M B; Bosward, K; Latter, M; Malik, R

    2007-05-01

    Systemic protothecosis was diagnosed in 17 Australian dogs between 1988 and 2005. There was a preponderance of young-adult (median 4 years), medium- to large-breed dogs. Females (12/17 cases) and Boxer dogs (7 cases, including 6 purebreds and one Boxer cross) were over-represented. Sixteen of 17 dogs died, with a median survival of four months. A disproportionate number of cases were from coastal Queensland. In most patients, first signs were referable to colitis (11/17 cases), which varied in severity, and was often present for many months before other symptoms developed. Subsequent to dissemination, signs were mostly ocular (12 cases) and/or neurologic (8 cases). Two dogs had signs due to bony lesions. Once dissemination was evident, death or euthanasia transpired quickly. Prototheca organisms had a tropism for the eye, central nervous system (CNS), bone, kidneys and myocardium, tissues with a good blood supply. Microscopic examination and culture of urine (5 cases), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF;1 case), rectal scrapings (4 cases), aspirates or biopsies of eyes (5 cases) and histology of colonic biopsies (6 cases) as well as skin and lymph nodes (2 cases) helped secure a diagnosis. Of the cases where culture was successful, P wickerhamii was isolated from two patients, while P zopfii was isolated from five. P zopfii infections had a more aggressive course. Treatment was not attempted in most cases. Combination therapy with amphotericin B and itraconazole proved effective in two cases, although in one of these treatment should have been for a longer duration. One surviving dog is currently still receiving itraconazole. Protothecosis should be considered in all dogs with refractory colitis, especially in female Boxers.

  9. Genomic deletion of CNGB3 is identical by descent in multiple canine breeds and causes achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achromatopsia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the loss of cone photoreceptor function that results in day-blindness, total colorblindness, and decreased central visual acuity. The most common causes for the disease are mutations in the CNGB3 gene, coding for the beta subunit of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in cones. CNGB3-achromatopsia, or cone degeneration (cd), is also known to occur in two canine breeds, the Alaskan malamute (AM) and the German shorthaired pointer. Results Here we report an in-depth characterization of the achromatopsia phenotype in a new canine breed, the miniature Australian shepherd (MAS). Genotyping revealed that the dog was homozygous for a complete genomic deletion of the CNGB3 gene, as has been previously observed in the AM. Identical breakpoints on chromosome 29 were identified in both the affected AM and MAS with a resulting deletion of 404,820 bp. Pooled DNA samples of unrelated purebred Australian shepherd, MAS, Siberian husky, Samoyed and Alaskan sled dogs were screened for the presence of the affected allele; one Siberian husky and three Alaskan sled dogs were identified as carriers. The affected chromosomes from the AM, MAS, and Siberian husky were genotyped for 147 SNPs in a 3.93 Mb interval within the cd locus. An identical shared affected haplotype, 0.5 Mb long, was observed in all three breeds and defined the minimal linkage disequilibrium (LD) across breeds. This supports the idea that the mutated allele was identical by descent (IBD). Conclusion We report the occurrence of CNGB3-achromatopsia in a new canine breed, the MAS. The CNGB3-deletion allele previously described in the AM was also observed in a homozygous state in the affected MAS, as well as in a heterozygous carrier state in a Siberian husky and Alaskan sled dogs. All affected alleles were shown to be IBD, strongly suggesting an affected founder effect. Since the MAS is not known to be genetically related to the AM, other

  10. [Analysis of genetic variation in dogs (American Pit Bull Terrier breed) with high inbreeding level using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, L N; Guliakova, O G; Malienko, V A; Mel'nichuk, S D; Spiridonov, V G

    2010-01-01

    The level of gene polymorphism of 10 microsatellite loci in 27 American Pit Bull Terrier dogs which have a high value of the percentage of blood and inbreeding coefficient achieved 43.8% was studied. The excess of heterozigosity over expected for this level of inbreeding coefficient was established. Suggestion that the high level of heterozigosity is the result of the selection against homozygotes was made.

  11. [Bilateral renal sclerotherapy as a treatment option in a mixed breed male dog with idiopathic renal haematuria].

    PubMed

    Heilmann, R M; Thieman-Mankin, K M; Cook, A K

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old male castrated German Shepherd dog mix was presented with chronic macroscopic haematuria. Further diagnostics included abdominal ultrasound and urethrocystoscopy and led to a diagnosis of severe bilateral idiopathic renal haematuria (IRH). Medical treatment with Yunnan Baiyao was unsuccessful. Bilateral renal-sparing sclerotherapy was performed and, despite distal migration of both ureteral stents within 12 days, permanently resolved the macroscopic haematuria.

  12. Prevalence and breed predisposition for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in cats.

    PubMed

    De Decker, Steven; Warner, Anne-Sophie; Volk, Holger A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the prevalence and possible breed predilections for thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) in cats. Methods Medical records and imaging studies of cats diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD between January 2008 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and compared with the general hospital population. The association between type of IVDD (ie, intervertebral disc extrusion [IVDE] or intervertebral disc protrusion [IVDP]) and breed, age, sex, and duration and severity of clinical signs was also evaluated. Results Of 12,900 cats presented during the study period, 31 (0.24%) were diagnosed with IVDD, including 17 purebred and 14 non-purebred cats. Of all presented purebred cats, 0.52% were diagnosed with thoracolumbar IVDD. More specifically, 1.29% of all British Shorthairs and 1.83% of all presented Persians were diagnosed with IVDD. Compared with the general hospital population, purebred cats ( P = 0.0001), British Shorthairs ( P <0.0001) and Persians ( P = 0.0006) were significantly overrepresented with thoracolumbar IVDD. Affected purebred cats were younger than affected non-purebred cats ( P = 0.02). Of 31 cats with IVDD, 19 were diagnosed with IVDE and 12 with IVDP. Cats with IVDE had a significantly shorter duration of clinical signs ( P = 0.0002) and demonstrated more severe neurological deficits ( P = 0.04) than cats with IVDP. Conclusions and relevance Although thoracolumbar IVDD is an uncommon condition in cats, purebred cats, British Shorthairs and Persians, were overrepresented. It is currently unclear if this represents a true breed predisposition or a higher likelihood of owners of purebred cats seeking referral for advanced diagnostic imaging procedures.

  13. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A.; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Aims and objectives Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Materials and methods Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. Results All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. Conclusions These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries. PMID:26392894

  14. Freedom from equine infectious anaemia virus infection in Spanish Purebred horses.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fatima; Fores, Paloma; Ireland, Joanne; Moreno, Miguel A; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    No cases of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) have been reported in Spain since 1983. Factors that could increase the risk of reintroducing equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) into Spain include the recent occurrence of the disease in Europe and the absence of compulsory serological testing before importation into Spain. Given the importance of the Spanish Purebred (SP) horse breeding industry in Spain, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to provide evidence of freedom from EIAV in SP stud farms in Central Spain. Serum samples from 555 SP horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013, were tested using a commercially available EIAV ELISA with a published sensitivity of 100 per cent. All 555 samples were negative for antibody to EIAV, providing evidence of a true EIAV seroprevalence between 0 per cent and 0.53 per cent (95% CIs of the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA technique used Q10 were 100 per cent and 99.3 per cent, respectively) among the SP breeding population in Central Spain. These findings should serve to increase confidence when exporting SP horses to other countries.

  15. Genomic selection in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of gen...

  16. Cyto-histopathological and outcome features of the prepuce squamous cell carcinoma of a mixed breed dog

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are uncommon, high-grade tumors, predominantly composed of round cells in the prepuce. The aim of this study is to better define the clinicopathologic features of this neoplasm. Case report We conducted cyto-histopathologic analysis on the manifestations of the prepuce SCC by H & E staining in a terrier mix dog. Grossly, tumor was large, multiple erythematous patch, and ulcerated masses frequently affecting the prepuce and deeply invading to distal prepuce out from the ventro-lateral of penis and the tumor covered by a necrotic discharge. Cytological evaluation of fine-needle aspirates from the cutaneous mass from the prepuce comprised of round nuclei, coarse chromatin pattern, distinct nucleoli and nuclear pleomorphism. Furthermore, the neoplastic cells were pleomorphic, round to caudate in shape, exhibiting prominent anisokaryosis and anisocytosis with rare mitotic features. Microscopically, the lesions were predominantly composed of atypical round cells disposed in interlacing fascicles. Frequent findings include keratin formation, horn pearls, mitoses and cellular atypia. The cells showed distinct borders, ranged from polygonal to round or elongate and had moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm. Conclusion The histopathologic features coupled with the cytopathology findings led to a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that multiple erythematous plaques have undergone malignant transformation in a terrier mix dog. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5748771971272873 PMID:24903567

  17. Mammary gland tumors in male dogs.

    PubMed

    Saba, Corey F; Rogers, Kenita S; Newman, Shelley J; Mauldin, Glenna E; Vail, David M

    2007-01-01

    Reports of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are lacking. To describe the clinical characteristics of mammary-gland tumors in male dogs. Eight male dogs diagnosed with mammary-gland tumors. Retrospective study. Medical databases from 3 institutions were searched. Medical records were abstracted, and owners and referring veterinarians contacted for follow-up information. Tissues were reviewed for histologic type, and immunohistochemical staining for estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) was performed. Eight dogs with histologically confirmed mammary-gland tumors were included in this retrospective study. Median age at diagnosis was 11.5 years. Four dogs were sexually intact; 4 were neutered. All were purebred. Mammary-gland tumors were incidental findings in 7 of 8 dogs. All dogs were treated with only surgical excision. All but 1 dog had benign epithelial tumors. The dog with the malignant tumor was the only dog to develop possible local recurrence but de novo tumor development cannot be excluded. No dog had evidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Based on institutional population data, it was determined that female dogs are 62 times more likely to develop mammary-gland tumors than male dogs (P < .001). Estrogen-receptor expression was strong in the majority of tumors; progesterone-receptor expression, although present in all tumors, was less intense. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: This study suggests that mammary-gland tumors in male dogs are rare, usually benign, and surgery alone can provide long-term control in most dogs.

  18. Assigning breed origin to alleles in crossbred animals.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Calus, Mario P L; Sevillano, Claudia A; Windig, Jack J; Bastiaansen, John W M

    2016-08-22

    For some species, animal production systems are based on the use of crossbreeding to take advantage of the increased performance of crossbred compared to purebred animals. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may differ between purebred and crossbred animals for several reasons: (1) differences in linkage disequilibrium between SNP alleles and a quantitative trait locus; (2) differences in genetic backgrounds (e.g., dominance and epistatic interactions); and (3) differences in environmental conditions, which result in genotype-by-environment interactions. Thus, SNP effects may be breed-specific, which has led to the development of genomic evaluations for crossbred performance that take such effects into account. However, to estimate breed-specific effects, it is necessary to know breed origin of alleles in crossbred animals. Therefore, our aim was to develop an approach for assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals (termed BOA) without information on pedigree and to study its accuracy by considering various factors, including distance between breeds. The BOA approach consists of: (1) phasing genotypes of purebred and crossbred animals; (2) assigning breed origin to phased haplotypes; and (3) assigning breed origin to alleles of crossbred animals based on a library of assigned haplotypes, the breed composition of crossbred animals, and their SNP genotypes. The accuracy of allele assignments was determined for simulated datasets that include crosses between closely-related, distantly-related and unrelated breeds. Across these scenarios, the percentage of alleles of a crossbred animal that were correctly assigned to their breed origin was greater than 90 %, and increased with increasing distance between breeds, while the percentage of incorrectly assigned alleles was always less than 2 %. For the remaining alleles, i.e. 0 to 10 % of all alleles of a crossbred animal, breed origin could not be assigned. The BOA approach accurately assigns

  19. Evaluation of birth and weaning traits of Romosinuano calves as purebreds and crosses with Brahman and Angus.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate birth and weaning traits, to estimate genetic effects, including heterosis and direct and maternal breed effects, and to evaluate calving difficulty, calf vigor at birth, and calf mortality of Romosinuano as purebreds and as crosses with Brahman and Angus. Calves (n = 1,348) were spring-born from 2002 through 2005 and weaned in the fall of each year at about 7 mo of age. Traits evaluated included birth and weaning weight, ADG, BCS, and weaning hip height. Models used to analyze these traits included the fixed effects of year, sire and dam breeds, management unit, calf sex, cow age, and source of Angus sire (within or outside of the research herd). Calf age in days was investigated as a covariate for weaning traits. Sire within sire breed and dam within dam breed were random effects. Estimates of Romosinuano-Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus heterosis (P < 0.05) were 2.6 +/- 0.3 (8.6%) and 1.4 +/- 0.3 kg (4.7%) for birth weight, 20.5 +/- 1.5 (9.5%) and 14.6 +/- 1.4 kg (7.4%) for weaning weight, 79.2 +/- 6.1 (9.8%) and 55.1 +/- 6.0 g (7.5%) for ADG, 0.16 +/- 0.03 (2.7%) and 0.07 +/- 0.03 (1.2%) for BCS, and 2.77 +/- 0.32 cm (2.4%) and 1.87 +/- 0.32 cm (1.7%) for hip height. Heterosis for Brahman-Angus was greater (P < 0.05) than all Romosinuano estimates except those for Romosinuano-Brahman and Romosinuano-Angus BCS. Romosinuano direct effects were negative and lowest of the breeds, except for the Angus estimate for hip height. Romosinuano maternal effects were the largest of the 3 breeds for birth weight and hip height but intermediate to the other breeds for weaning weight and ADG. A large proportion of Brahman-sired calves from Angus dams (0.09 +/- 0.03; n = 11) was born in difficult births and died before 4 d of age. Brahman and Angus purebreds and Romosinuano-sired calves from Brahman dams also had large proportions of calves that died before weaning (0.09 or greater). Results indicated that Romosinuano may be used as a

  20. Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from breeding dogs housed in kennels with differing neonatal mortality and use of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Milani, C; Corrò, M; Drigo, M; Rota, A

    2012-10-01

    This work examines the antimicrobial resistance of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus canis, Escherichia coli) found in the vaginal tract in prepartum mammary secretions and postpartum milk of bitches housed in breeding kennels (N = 20; 92 bitches). The kennels were divided into three categories: no routine antimicrobial administration around parturition (category 1); routine administration of one antibiotic around parturition (category 2); routine administration of multiple antimicrobials around parturition (category 3). Bacteriological cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on vaginal specimens, prepartum mammary secretions, and postpartum milk. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths were recorded for each whelping and analyzed as "within-litter stillbirths" and "within-litter neonatal deaths" according to kennel category, by Pearson χ(2) test and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, respectively. The frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were analyzed according to kennel category by Pearson χ(2) test. Kennel category was not significantly associated with differing numbers of stillbirths or neonatal death events, nor was the frequency of isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the three kennel categories significantly different. Kennel category 3 had a significantly higher frequency of isolation of multiresistant gram-positive bacterial strains. Our results show that intense administration of antibiotics to breeding bitches does not effectively reduce neonatal mortality; on the contrary, it induces multiresistance in potentially pathogenic bacteria. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of the risk of selecting pathogenic bacteria by uncontrolled treatment in prepartum bitches.

  1. [Dangerous dogs in Berlin in comparison to the dog population--ways to reduce the dangerousness of dogs].

    PubMed

    Kuhne, Franziska; Struwe, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The law for handling and control of dogs in Berlin of September 29, 2004 was enacted to prevent the risks for humans and animals when ever they have contact with dogs. "Dangerous dogs" are defined by this law. There are 10 breeds of dogs supposed to be dangerous due to specific characteristics of their breed ("listed breeds"). The dangerousness of a dog's breed is not identical with the dangerousness of an individual dog. The subject of this study is to examine the potential dangerousness of dog breeds and not the individual dangerousness of a dog. This study refers to statistics of incidents between dogs and humans in Berlin for the years 1998 to 2004. The population density of a breed is based on the dogs assessed for tax purposes in Berlin of January 1, 2005 and on the dog registrations maintained at veterinary hospitals. The fourfold-table-test was used to compare the quantity of the recorded incidents of two statistically independent dog breeds. Of the total population of 107,804 tax assessed dogs in Berlin in 2004, 0.9% was documented as dogs involved in incidents with humans. The incidents per year decreased in the "listed breeds"about 68% and in the "unlisted breeds" about 41% during the last 7 years in Berlin. Therefore, the probability (the odds ratio) of a breed to be conspicuous was analysed. The values for the calculation of this probability were the number of dogs of a breed having been involved in incidents compared to the population of this breed based on tax records. The comparison of the probability of a breed with another to be conspicuous was used to compile a cluster of breeds which had the same probability to be conspicuous in 2004. A cluster was assessed for dogs of the following breeds: Sheep dogs, Rottweiler, Doberman, Pitbull Terrier and American Staffordshire Terrier. A listing of breeds is not the right way to reduce the potential dangerousness of a dog, especially in the private domain of their owners. Most incidents with dogs occur in

  2. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    PubMed

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. British Veterinary Association.

  3. Identification of purebred Crocodylus siamensis for reintroduction in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Nancy Nelson; Buchan, Jason Craig; Lam, Phan Viet; Polet, Gert; Hung, Ton That; Thang, Nguyen Quoc; Gratten, Jacob

    2002-12-15

    Crocodylus siamensis, the Siamese crocodile, is a critically endangered species of freshwater crocodile previously distributed throughout much of SE Asia. Recovery plans call for reintroductions to the wild using founder individuals currently in captivity, mostly in commercial crocodile farms. On many farms C. siamensis has been intentionally hybridised with either Cuban crocodiles, C. rhombifer, or the estuarine crocodile, C. porosus, and hybrids may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. We report on the combined use of microsatellite and mtDNA genetic markers to determine the species status of potential founder individuals for reintroduction of C. siamensis. Genetic markers were used to characterise 103 captive and wild-caught individuals of C. siamensis, C. rhombifer and C. porosus in Vietnam and to distinguish purebred versus hybrid individuals. Although the microsatellite loci used had some overlap of allele sizes among species, assignment tests allowed differentiation. Four hybrids were identified, two of which had not been recognised morphologically as hybrids, and one of these was thought to be a C. siamensis suitable for reintroduction. Ten of the identified purebred C. siamensis were subsequently released into Cat Tien National Park in southern Vietnam.

  4. [Assessment of a Bullterrier bloodline in the temperament test of Lower Saxony--comparison with six dog breeds affected by breed specific legislation and a control group of Golden Retrievers].

    PubMed

    Ott, Stefanie; Schalke, Esther; Hirschfeld, Jennifer; Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    2009-04-01

    The expertise on the interpretation of section 11b TierSchG implies a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour in some bloodlines of Bullterriers, American Staffordshire Terriers, and Pitbull type dogs. This study aimed at finding out whether a hypertrophy of aggressive behaviour occurred in a certain Bullterrier bloodline. Dogs of this line were tested according to the guidelines of the Dangerous Animals Act of Lower Saxony, Germany (GefTVO) enacted on July 5th 2000. The Bullterriers' test results towards humans and environment were compared to those of 415 dogs affected by the legislation (Mittmann, 2002) and those of 70 Golden Retrievers (Johann, 2004) in order to detect possible differences in the occurrence of inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour. Of 38 Bullterriers, ten showed no aggressive behaviour towards humans and the environment. 27 dogs displayed visual or acoustic threats at most. Only one dog reacted by "biting or attacking with preceding threatening behaviour". Thus, according to the test guidelines, 37 dogs (97.37%) reacted appropriately in all test situations. Only one dog (2.63%) displayed inadequate agressive behaviour. No indication for inadequate or disturbed aggressive behaviour in this Bullterrier bloodline was found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found when comparing Bullterriers and dogs of the two others studies concerning inadequate or disturbed aggressive towards humans and the environment. On the contrary, throughout the entire study the broad majority of dogs proved to possess excellent social skills as well as the ability to communicate competently and to solve conflicts appropriately.

  5. Genomic prediction of simulated multibreed and purebred performance using observed fifty thousand single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kizilkaya, K; Fernando, R L; Garrick, D J

    2010-02-01

    Genomic prediction involves characterization of chromosome fragments in a training population to predict merit. Confidence in the predictions relies on their evaluation in a validation population. Many commercial animals are multibreed (MB) or crossbred, but seedstock populations tend to be purebred (PB). Training in MB allows selection of PB for crossbred performance. Training in PB to predict MB performance quantifies the potential for across-breed genomic prediction. Efficiency of genomic selection was evaluated for a trait with heritability 0.5 simulated using actual SNP genotypes. The PB population had 1,086 Angus animals, and the MB population had 924 individuals from 8 sire breeds. Phenotypic values were simulated for scenarios including 50, 100, 250, or 500 additive QTL randomly selected from 50K SNP panels. Panels containing various numbers of SNP, including or excluding the QTL, were used in the analysis. A Bayesian model averaging method was used to simultaneously estimate the effects of all markers on the panels in MB (or PB) training populations. Estimated effects were utilized to predict genomic merit of animals in PB (or MB) validation populations. Correlations between predicted and simulated genomic merit in the validation population was used to reflect predictive ability. Panels that included QTL were able to account for 50% or more of the within-breed genetic variance when the trait was influenced by 50 QTL. The predictive power eroded as the number of QTL increased. Panels that composed the QTL and no other markers were able to account for 50% or more genetic variance even with 500 QTL. Panels that included genomic markers as well as QTL had less predictive power as the number of markers on the panel was increased. Panels that excluded the QTL and relied on markers in linkage disequilibrium (LD) to predict QTL effects performed more poorly than marker panels with QTL. Real-life situations with 50K panels that excluded the QTL could account for no

  6. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p < 0.026, 95% CI 0.37-0.94). Seropositivity to B. canis was 3.41 times higher for dogs that lived outdoors/shelter (p < 0.006) or 4.57 times higher in mixed/hunting (p < 0.001) compared to indoor/companion dogs. This is the first comprehensive survey of VBP seropositivity conducted in Croatia. Some

  7. Estimating the purebred-crossbred genetic correlation for uniformity of eggshell color in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Han A; Visscher, Jeroen; Fablet, Julien

    2016-05-05

    Uniformity of eggs is an important aspect for retailers because consumers prefer homogeneous products. One of these characteristics is the color of the eggshell, especially for brown eggs. Existence of a genetic component in environmental variance would enable selection for uniformity of eggshell color. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the genetic variance in environmental variance of eggshell color in purebred and crossbred laying hens, to estimate the genetic correlation between environmental variance of eggshell color in purebred and crossbred laying hens and to estimate genetic correlations between environmental variance at different times of the laying period. We analyzed 167,651 and 79,345 eggshell color records of purebred and crossbred laying hens, respectively. The purebred and crossbred laying hens originated mostly from the same sires. Since eggshell color records of crossbred laying hens were collected per cage, these records could be related only to cage and sire family. A double hierarchical generalized linear sire model was used to estimate the genetic variance of the mean of eggshell color and its environmental variance. Approximate standard errors for heritability and the genetic coefficient of variation for environmental variance were derived. The genetic variance in environmental variance at the log scale was equal to 0.077 and 0.067, for purebred and crossbred laying hens, respectively. The genetic coefficient of variation for environmental variance was equal to 0.28 and 0.26, for purebred and crossbred laying hens, respectively. A genetic correlation of 0.70 was found between purebred and crossbred environmental variance of eggshell color, which indicates that there is some reranking of sires for environmental variance of eggshell color in purebred and crossbred laying hens. Genetic correlations between environmental variance of eggshell color in different laying periods were generally higher than 0.85, except between

  8. Breed and winter nutrition effects on diet digestibility and intake of cows grazing bahiagrass pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter feed comprises one of the largest costs for cattle production. This study was initiated to evaluate two winter nutrition programs for cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum nutatum) pastures in central Florida. Purebred Angus, Brahman, or Romosinuano cows (30/breed), aged 3 to 13 yrs, were assig...

  9. Invited review: genomic selection in multi-breed dairy cattle populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of gen...

  10. Comparison of Bayesian models to estimate direct genomic values in multi-breed commercial beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background Several studies have examined the accuracy of genomic selection both within and across purebred beef or dairy populations. However, the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values (DGVs) has been less well studied in crossbred or admixed cattle populations. We used a population of 3,240 cr...

  11. Genome-wide mapping for fatty acid composition and melting point of fat in a purebred Duroc pig population.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Y; Soma, Y; Sato, S; Ishida, M; Shibata, T; Kadowaki, H; Kobayashi, E; Suzuki, K

    2012-02-01

    The fatty acid composition and melting point of fatty tissue are among the most important economic traits in pig breeding because of their influence on the eating quality of meat. Identifying the quantitative trait locus (QTL) of these traits may help reveal the genetic structure of fatty acid composition and the melting point of fatty tissue and improve meat-quality traits by marker-assisted selection. We conducted whole-genome QTL analysis for fatty acid composition and melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat and inter- and intramuscular fat in a purebred Duroc population. A total of 129 markers were genotyped and used for QTL analysis. For fatty acid compositions of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, three significant QTL and 17 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14 and 18. For the melting point of inner and outer subcutaneous fat, two significant QTL were detected on the same region of SSC14. For fatty acid compositions of inter- and intramuscular fat, five significant QTL and 13 suggestive QTL were detected on SSC2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14 and 15. On SSC14, significant QTL for C18:0 and C18:1 of outer subcutaneous fat and intramuscular fat, and melting point of subcutaneous fat, which had high likelihood of odds (LOD) scores (2.67-5.78), were detected in the same region. This study determined QTL affecting fatty acid composition and melting point of different fat tissues in purebred Duroc pigs. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Detection of kobuvirus RNA in Japanese domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether kokuvirus is present in Japanese dogs, we examined the fecal samples obtained from 94 diarrheal household dogs and 50 clinically healthy kenneled dogs by RT-PCR. The gene was detected in 37.2% and 48.0% in the former and the latter, respectively, suggesting that canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) is circulating among Japanese dogs. From the result of the latter, however, CaKoV may not be a primary pathogen. Furthermore, all gene-positive dogs were purebreds aged four months or younger. This finding suggests that CaKoV endemic is confined in multi-dog environments, and the dogs have a strong age-dependent resistance to CaKoV.

  13. Detection of kobuvirus RNA in Japanese domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    SOMA, Takehisa; MATSUBAYASHI, Makoto; SASAI, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether kokuvirus is present in Japanese dogs, we examined the fecal samples obtained from 94 diarrheal household dogs and 50 clinically healthy kenneled dogs by RT-PCR. The gene was detected in 37.2% and 48.0% in the former and the latter, respectively, suggesting that canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) is circulating among Japanese dogs. From the result of the latter, however, CaKoV may not be a primary pathogen. Furthermore, all gene-positive dogs were purebreds aged four months or younger. This finding suggests that CaKoV endemic is confined in multi-dog environments, and the dogs have a strong age-dependent resistance to CaKoV. PMID:27488907

  14. Genetic and Non-Genetic Inheritance of Natural Antibodies Binding Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in a Purebred Layer Chicken Line

    PubMed Central

    Berghof, T. V. L.; van der Klein, S. A. S.; Arts, J. A. J.; Parmentier, H. K.; van der Poel, J. J.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are defined as antibodies present in individuals without known antigenic challenge. Levels of NAb binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in chickens were earlier shown to be heritable, and to be associated with survival. Selective breeding may thus provide a strategy to improve natural disease resistance. We phenotyped 3,689 white purebred laying chickens for KLH binding NAb of different isotypes around 16 weeks of age. Heritabilities of 0.12 for the titers of total antibodies (IgT), 0.14 for IgM, 0.10 for IgA, and 0.07 for IgG were estimated. We also estimated high, positive genetic, and moderate to high, positive phenotypic correlations of IgT, IgM, IgA, and IgG, suggesting that selective breeding for NAb can be done on all antibody isotypes simultaneously. In addition, a relatively substantial non-genetic maternal environmental effect of 0.06 was detected for IgM, which may reflect a transgenerational effect. This suggests that not only the genes of the mother, but also the maternal environment affects the immune system of the offspring. Breaking strength and early eggshell whiteness of the mother’s eggs were predictive for IgM levels in the offspring, and partly explained the observed maternal environmental effects. The present results confirm that NAb are heritable, however maternal effects should be taken into account. PMID:26114750

  15. Necrosuppurative orchitis and scrotal necrotizing dermatitis following intratesticular administration of zinc gluconate neutralized with arginine (EsterilSol) in 2 mixed-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Forzán, M J; Garde, E; Pérez, G E; Vanderstichel, R V

    2014-07-01

    Intratesticular injection of EsterilSol (zinc gluconate neutralized with arginine) is a chemical sterilant for male dogs sometimes used in population control campaigns. Adverse reactions have been reported in 1% to 4% of treated dogs, but detailed histomorphologic descriptions are lacking. During a behavioral study conducted in the Chilean Patagonia in 2012, severe necrosuppurative orchitis and ulcerative dermatitis were observed in 2 of 36 (6%) dogs sterilized with EsterilSol according to the manufacturer's instructions. Reactions were noted on days 8 and 7 postinjection and required scrotal ablation on days 8 and 13, respectively; neither reaction was associated with the injection site. Although self-trauma following administration may have contributed, the cause of the adverse reactions is uncertain. EsterilSol is a relatively uncomplicated method to sterilize male dogs, but the occurrence of severe adverse reactions several days after administration emphasizes the need for the provision of long-term monitoring and veterinary care during sterilization campaigns using this product. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Sex chromosomal abnormalities associated with equine infertility: validation of a simple molecular screening tool in the Purebred Spanish Horse.

    PubMed

    Anaya, G; Molina, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M; Azor, P; Peral-García, P; Demyda-Peyrás, S

    2017-08-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities in the sex chromosome pair (ECAX and ECAY) are widely associated with reproductive problems in horses. However, a large proportion of these abnormalities remains undiagnosed due to the lack of an affordable diagnostic tool that allows for avoiding karyotyping tests. Hereby, we developed an STR (single-tandem-repeat)-based molecular method to determine the presence of the main sex chromosomal abnormalities in horses in a fast, cheap and reliable way. The frequency of five ECAX-linked (LEX026, LEX003, TKY38, TKY270 and UCDEQ502) and two ECAY-linked (EcaYH12 and SRY) markers was characterized in 261 Purebred Spanish Horses to determine the efficiency of the methodology developed to be used as a chromosomal diagnostic tool. All the microsatellites analyzed were highly polymorphic, with a sizeable number of alleles (polymorphic information content > 0.5). Based on this variability, the methodology showed 100% sensitivity and 99.82% specificity to detect the most important sex chromosomal abnormalities reported in horses (chimerism, Turner's syndrome and sex reversal syndromes). The method was also validated with 100% efficiency in 10 individuals previously diagnosed as chromosomally aberrant. This STR screening panel is an efficient and reliable molecular-cytogenetic tool for the early detection of sex chromosomal abnormalities in equines that could be included in breeding programs to save money, effort and time of veterinary practitioners and breeders. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. Genetic relations between natural antibodies binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin and production traits in a purebred layer chicken line.

    PubMed

    van der Klein, S A S; Berghof, T V L; Arts, J A J; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J; Bovenhuis, H

    2015-05-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are an important component of the first line of immune defense. Selective breeding for enhanced NAb levels in chickens may improve general disease resistance. It is unknown what the consequences of selection for NAb will be on the productive performance of laying hens. In this paper we describe the genetic relations between NAb titers binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 19 wk age and production traits in a white purebred leghorn chicken line observed in several time periods. A linear animal model was used to estimate (co)variance components, heritabilities, and correlations. Negative genetic correlations were found between egg weight and NAb titers, and between egg breaking strength and NAb titers. Positive genetic correlations were found between the feed conversion ratio (consumed feed/egg mass produced) and NAb titers, and egg production and NAb titers. Negative phenotypic correlations were found between body weight and NAb titers, between egg weight and NAb titers, and between egg breaking strength and NAb titers. Positive phenotypic correlations were found between egg production and NAb titers, and feed conversion ratio and NAb titers. In general, phenotypic correlations were more often significant, but less pronounced than genetic correlations. Other production traits were not found to be significant related to NAb titers. These findings suggest that there is a genetic tradeoff between levels of immunity and some production traits, although the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) unclear. The results suggest possible consequences for production efficiency as a result of selective breeding for improved general disease resistance by natural antibodies.

  18. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  19. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  20. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  1. Prevention and treatment of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Presutti, R J

    2001-04-15

    Almost one half of all dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or neighbors. A large percentage of dog bite victims are children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than other breeds, any dog may attack when threatened. All dog bites carry a risk of infection, but immediate copious irrigation can significantly decrease that risk. Assessment for the risk of tetanus and rabies virus infection, and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics, are essential in the management of dog bites. The dog bite injury should be documented with photographs and diagrams when appropriate. Family physicians should educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites.

  2. Breeding for profit: synergism between genetic improvement and livestock production (a review).

    PubMed

    Harris, D L; Newman, S

    1994-08-01

    Fifty years of research in animal breeding and genetics are examined from four perspectives: 1) genetic prediction, 2) animal testing and selection schemes, 3) dissemination of genetic improvement, and 4) definition of breeding objectives in economic form. Breeding in all classes of livestock has moved from a purebred appearance orientation to a performance (either purebred or crossbred) orientation. Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance orientation to an economic orientation is incomplete, especially for some livestock classes. Placing breeding objectives into a mathematical form on a sound economic basis is key to integrating modern developments in animal breeding into more purposeful industry programs. Procedures used to develop such objectives are reviewed with attention to common approaches. Where consensus is reached about a breeding objective (in economic form) for a class of livestock, this objective can be used in conjunction with genetic predictions to rank animals within a breeding population. Ranking without undue attention to herd of origin facilitates a pyramid-shaped hierarchy of animals that can be fundamental to the functioning of breeding enterprises contributing improvements to operations concerned with production. Genetic improvements should flow from proven genetically superior animals to improved production systems. The tiers of the pyramid need to be organized relative to animals with differing levels of economic evaluation.

  3. Economic evaluation of alternative crossbreeding systems involving four breeds of swine. I. The simulation model.

    PubMed

    McLaren, D G; Buchanan, D S; Williams, J E

    1987-10-01

    A static, deterministic computer model, programmed in Microsoft Basic for IBM PC and Apple Macintosh computers, was developed to calculate production efficiency (cost per kg of product) for nine alternative types of crossbreeding system involving four breeds of swine. The model simulates efficiencies for four purebred and 60 alternative two-, three- and four-breed rotation, rotaterminal, backcross and static cross systems. Crossbreeding systems were defined as including all purebred, crossbred and commercial matings necessary to maintain a total of 10,000 farrowings. Driving variables for the model are mean conception rate at first service and for an 8-wk breeding season, litter size born, preweaning survival rate, postweaning average daily gain, feed-to-gain ratio and carcass backfat. Predictions are computed using breed direct genetic and maternal effects for the four breeds, plus individual, maternal and paternal specific heterosis values, input by the user. Inputs required to calculate the number of females farrowing in each sub-system include the proportion of males and females replaced each breeding cycle in purebred and crossbred populations, the proportion of male and female offspring in seedstock herds that become breeding animals, and the number of females per boar. Inputs required to calculate the efficiency of terminal production (cost-to-product ratio) for each sub-system include breeding herd feed intake, gilt development costs, feed costs and labor and overhead costs. Crossbreeding system efficiency is calculated as the weighted average of sub-system cost-to-product ratio values, weighting by the number of females farrowing in each sub-system.

  4. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    PubMed

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  5. Behavioral profiles of feline breeds in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    To clarify the behavioral profiles of 9 feline purebreds, 2 Persian subbreeds and the Japanese domestic cat, a questionnaire survey was distributed to 67 small-animal veterinarians. We found significant differences among breeds in all behavioral traits examined except for "inappropriate elimination". In addition, sexual differences were observed in certain behaviors, including "aggression toward cats", "general activity", "novelty-seeking", and "excitability". These behaviors were more common in males than females, whereas "nervousness" and "inappropriate elimination" were rated higher in females. When all breeds were categorized into four groups on the basis of a cluster analysis using the scores of two behavioral trait factors called "aggressiveness/sensitivity" and "vivaciousness", the group including Abyssinian, Russian Blue, Somali, Siamese, and Chinchilla breeds showed high aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. In contrast, the group including the American Shorthair and Japanese domestic cat displayed low aggressiveness/sensitivity and high vivaciousness, and the Himalayan and Persian group showed mild aggressiveness/sensitivity and very low vivaciousness. Finally, the group containing Maine Coon, Ragdoll, and Scottish Fold breeds displayed very low aggressiveness/sensitivity and low vivaciousness. The present results demonstrate that some feline behavioral traits vary by breed and/or sex.

  6. Gene flow between wolf and shepherd dog populations in Georgia (Caucasus).

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Natia; Shakarashvili, Maia; Gurielidze, Zurab; Qurkhuli, Tamar; Tarkhnishvili, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes at 8 loci in 102 gray wolves, 57 livestock guarding dogs, and 9 mongrel dogs from Georgia (Caucasus). Most of the studied dogs had mitochondrial haplotypes clustered with presumably East Asian dog lineages, and most of the studied wolves had the haplotypes clustered with European wolves, but 20% of wolves and 37% of dogs shared the same mitochondrial haplotypes. Bayesian inference with STRUCTURE software suggested that more than 13% of the studied wolves had detectable dog ancestry and more than 10% of the dogs had detectable wolf ancestry. About 2-3% of the sampled wolves and dogs were identified, with a high probability, as first-generation hybrids. These results were supported by the relatedness analysis, which showed that 10% of wolves and 20% of dogs had closest relatives from an opposite group. The results of the study suggest that wolf-dog hybridization is a common event in the areas where large livestock guarding dogs are held in a traditional way, and that gene flow between dogs and gray wolves was an important force influencing gene pool of dogs for millennia since early domestication events. This process may have been terminated 1) in areas outside the natural range of gray wolves and 2) since very recent time, when humans started to more tightly control contacts of purebred dogs.

  7. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  8. Inheritance of cytosine methylation patterns in purebred versus hybrid chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Sun, D X; Li, J L; Liu, R; Wang, Y C; Zhang, Y

    2013-07-30

    We used methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism to examine DNA methylation levels and CCGG patterns in parents and offsprings of 3 groups of adult chickens, purebred White Leghorn (AA), White Plymouth Rock (EE), and crossbred individuals (EA) using 10 primer combinations. We found that about 66% of the cytosines at CCGG sites were not methylated. Fully methylated sites were less frequent than hemi-methylated sites in the chicken genome; these frequencies were different from those of plants. We observed that the probability that the offspring would inherit the methylation pattern for any given site from the parents was 88%; consequently, unexpected methylation patterns in offspring occurred at a rate of about 12%. The methylation degree in offspring was lower than in parents, and there were more sites with altered methylation patterns in EA crossbreds compared with AA and EE purebreds. Seven differentially methylated fragments between parental lines and their offspring were isolated, sequenced, and characterized, 4 of which were located in the coding regions. We conclude that most of the methylation status is transferred from parents to offspring in chickens, and that there are differences in the inheritance of methylation status in purebred versus crossbred offspring. We also concluded that methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism is highly efficient for large-scale detection of cytosine methylation in the chicken genome.

  9. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  10. [Assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of pet animals].

    PubMed

    Steiger, A; Stucki, F; Peyer, N; Keller, P

    2008-05-01

    In a review based on a literature search animal welfare related characteristics in extreme breed types of dogs and cats are summarized, animal welfare aspects are assessed and measures for improvement are described. The resolution of the Council of Europe on the breeding of dogs and cats, the declaration of intent of the International Dog and Cat Breeding Organisations and the resolution of the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe are cited.

  11. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  12. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A.

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species. PMID:26919479

  13. Evolutionary genomics of dog domestication.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett M

    2012-02-01

    We review the underlying principles and tools used in genomic studies of domestic dogs aimed at understanding the genetic changes that have occurred during domestication. We show that there are two principle modes of evolution within dogs. One primary mode that accounts for much of the remarkable diversity of dog breeds is the fixation of discrete mutations of large effect in individual lineages that are then crossed to various breed groupings. This transfer of mutations across the dog evolutionary tree leads to the appearance of high phenotypic diversity that in actuality reflects a small number of major genes. A second mechanism causing diversification involves the selective breeding of dogs within distinct phenotypic or functional groups, which enhances specific group attributes such as heading or tracking. Such progressive selection leads to a distinct genetic structure in evolutionary trees such that functional and phenotypic groups cluster genetically. We trace the origin of the nuclear genome in dogs based on haplotype-sharing analyses between dogs and gray wolves and show that contrary to previous mtDNA analyses, the nuclear genome of dogs derives primarily from Middle Eastern or European wolves, a result more consistent with the archeological record. Sequencing analysis of the IGF1 gene, which has been the target of size selection in small breeds, further supports this conclusion. Finally, we discuss how a black coat color mutation that evolved in dogs has transformed North American gray wolf populations, providing a first example of a mutation that appeared under domestication and selectively swept through a wild relative.

  14. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  15. Effect of 30 months in a locked environment on the microbial flora of dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed that the microbial flora of mammals would simplify to a few microbial species if the host animal was confined to a 'locked' environment and provided with sterile food, water, and air. This paper updates information on the microbial profile (feces, nose and throat) of purebred beagles housed in the above-mentioned conditions through a 30-month study period and demonstrates that no drastic decrease or simplification of the microbial profile occurred in isolated or control dogs.

  16. Effect of 30 months in a locked environment on the microbial flora of dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    It has been proposed that the microbial flora of mammals would simplify to a few microbial species if the host animal was confined to a 'locked' environment and provided with sterile food, water, and air. This paper updates information on the microbial profile (feces, nose and throat) of purebred beagles housed in the above-mentioned conditions through a 30-month study period and demonstrates that no drastic decrease or simplification of the microbial profile occurred in isolated or control dogs.

  17. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  18. Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs.

    PubMed

    Whitehair, J G; Vasseur, P B; Willits, N H

    1993-10-01

    Data from 10,769 dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) were compared with data from a control population of 591,548 dogs to determine whether age, breed, gender, or body weight was associated with prevalence of CCL rupture. Prevalence of CCL rupture increased as dogs became older, with peak prevalence in dogs 7 to 10 years old. Among breeds represented by > 1,000 individuals, Rottweilers, Newfoundlands, and Staffordshire Terriers had the highest prevalence of CCL rupture, whereas Dachshunds, Basset Hounds, and Old English Sheepdogs had the lowest. Neutered dogs, whether male or female, had a higher prevalence of CCL rupture than did sexually intact dogs. The dog's age at the time of ovariohysterectomy was not associated with prevalence of CCL rupture. Dogs weighing > 22 kg had a higher prevalence of CCL rupture, compared with dogs weighing < 22 kg, and tended to rupture their CCL at a younger age.

  19. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  20. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  1. Leading the Pack: Dog 3--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08168

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Experienced youth investigate responsible breeding, diseases, caring for geriatric dogs, training, service dogs, dog roles and careers related to dogs. This guide provides youth with numerous leadership opportunities. Because youth development programs help build tomorrow's leaders, leadership is a strong theme in Level 3 activities. One will be…

  2. Canine Connection: Dog 2--Fun Activities for You and Your Dog. 4-H Skills for Life Animal Series. National 4-H Curriculum. BU-08167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National 4-H Council, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Youth explore more about dog health, nutrition, and care, genetic problems, population control, showmanship, training, ethics and budgeting. Youth who engage in this curriculum will develop essential dog project skills such as selecting a dog; investigating breeds; appreciating dogs' places and roles in society; practicing grooming, fitting,…

  3. Within-breed heterozygosity of canine single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by across-breed comparison.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, J A; Venta, P J

    2002-12-01

    Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by DNA sequence comparison across breeds is a strategy for developing genetic markers that are useful for many breeds. However, the heterozygosity of SNPs identified in this way might be severely reduced within breeds by inbreeding or genetic drift in the small effective population size of a breed (population subdivision). The effect of inbreeding and population subdivision on heterozygosity of SNPs in dog breeds has never been investigated in a systematic way. We determined the genotypes of dogs from three divergent breeds for SNPs in four canine genes (ACTC, LMNA, SCGB, and TYMS) identified by across-breed DNA sequence comparison, and compared the genotype frequencies to those expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Although population subdivision significantly skewed allele frequencies across breeds for two of the SNPs, the deviations of observed heterozygosities compared with those expected within breeds were minimal. These results indicate that across-breed DNA sequence comparison is a reasonable strategy for identifying SNPs that are useful within many canine breeds.

  4. Apricot Breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apricot orchard area and fruit production are increasing worldwide. Breeding programs engage in apricot development to provide new varieties to meet needs of producers and consumers. Over the last 20 years, breeders have used new techniques to assist in variety development and to increase breeding...

  5. Molecular breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of molecular and genomic tools to assist selection of parents or progeny has become an integral part of modern cotton breeding. In this chapter, the basic components of molecular cotton breeding are described. These components include: molecular marker development, genetic and physical map const...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA from prehistoric canids highlights relationships between dogs and South-East European wolves.

    PubMed

    Verginelli, Fabio; Capelli, Cristian; Coia, Valentina; Musiani, Marco; Falchetti, Mario; Ottini, Laura; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; De Grossi Mazzorin, Iacopo; Mariani-Costantini, Renato

    2005-12-01

    The question of the origins of the dog has been much debated. The dog is descended from the wolf that at the end of the last glaciation (the archaeologically hypothesized period of dog domestication) was one of the most widespread among Holarctic mammals. Scenarios provided by genetic studies range from multiple dog-founding events to a single origin in East Asia. The earliest fossil dogs, dated approximately 17-12,000 radiocarbon ((14)C) years ago (YA), were found in Europe and in the Middle East. Ancient DNA (a-DNA) evidence could contribute to the identification of dog-founder wolf populations. To gain insight into the relationships between ancient European wolves and dogs we analyzed a 262-bp mitochondrial DNA control region fragment retrieved from five prehistoric Italian canids ranging in age from approximately 15,000 to approximately 3,000 (14)C YA. These canids were compared to a worldwide sample of 547 purebred dogs and 341 wolves. The ancient sequences were highly diverse and joined the three major clades of extant dog sequences. Phylogenetic investigations highlighted relationships between the ancient sequences and geographically widespread extant dog matrilines and between the ancient sequences and extant wolf matrilines of mainly East European origin. The results provide a-DNA support for the involvement of European wolves in the origins of the three major dog clades. Genetic data also suggest multiple independent domestication events. East European wolves may still reflect the genetic variation of ancient dog-founder populations.

  7. Vicious dogs: the antisocial behaviors and psychological characteristics of owners.

    PubMed

    Ragatz, Laurie; Fremouw, William; Thomas, Tracy; McCoy, Katrina

    2009-05-01

    Each year, 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs. Of those bitten each year, 386,000 are seriously injured and some killed. Consequently, many insurance companies refuse to issue homeowners insurance to owners of specific breeds of dogs considered "vicious" or high risk of causing injury. This study examined whether vicious dog owners were different on antisocial behaviors and personality dimensions. A total of 869 college students completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing type of dog owned, criminal behaviors, attitudes towards animal abuse, psychopathy, and personality. The sample was divided into four groups: vicious dog owners, large dog owners, small dog owners, and controls. Findings revealed vicious dog owners reported significantly more criminal behaviors than other dog owners. Vicious dog owners were higher in sensation seeking and primary psychopathy. Study results suggest that vicious dog ownership may be a simple marker of broader social deviance.

  8. Milk quality, coagulation properties, and curd firmness modeling of purebred Holsteins and first- and second-generation crossbred cows from Swedish Red, Montbéliarde, and Brown Swiss bulls.

    PubMed

    Malchiodi, F; Cecchinato, A; Penasa, M; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how the crossbreeding of Holstein (HO) cows with bulls from Nordic and Alpine European breeds affect milk quality traits, traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), and curd firmness modeling obtained from individual milk samples. A total of 506 individual milk samples were collected from evening milking at 3 commercial farms located in Northern Italy. Over the past decade, the 3 farms have followed crossbreeding programs in part of their herds, whereas the remainder of the animals consisted of purebred HO. The basic scheme was a 3-breed rotation based on the use of Swedish Red (SR) semen on HO cows (SR × HO), the use of Montbéliarde (MO) semen on first-cross cows [MO × (SR × HO)], and the use of HO semen in the third cross. In all herds, a smaller proportion of purebred HO were mated to M and Brown Swiss (BS) bulls, and these first crosses were mated to SR and MO bulls, respectively. Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and MCP, and parameters for curd firmness were modeled. Compared with purebred HO, crossbred cows produced less milk with lower lactose content, higher fat and protein content, and a tendency for higher casein content. Crossbred cows generally produced milk with a more favorable curd-firming rate (k₂₀) and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition, among traditional MCP, and better trends of curd firmness measures as shown by model parameters: estimated rennet coagulation time, asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and curd-firming instant rate constant. Among crossbred cows, SR × HO presented longer rennet coagulation time compared with MO × HO and BS × HO cows, and MO × HO showed shorter k₂₀ compared with BS × HO cows. Among second-generation cows, those sired by SR bulls showed a lower incidence of noncoagulated samples, higher curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition and asymptotical potential value of curd firmness, and faster curd-firming instant

  9. Polymorphisms in ten candidate genes are associated with conformational and locomotive traits in Spanish Purebred horses.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Dunner, Susana; Boado, Ana; Cañon, Javier

    2017-08-01

    The Spanish Purebred horses, also known as Andalusian horses, compete to the highest standards in international dressage events. Gait and conformation could be used as early selection criteria to detect young horses with promising dressage ability. Although the genetic background of equine size variation has been recently uncovered, the genetic basis of horse conformational and locomotive traits is not known, hampered by the complex genetic architecture underlying quantitative traits and the lack of phenotypic data. The aim of this study was to validate the loci associated with size in 144 Spanish Purebred horses, and to seek novel associations between loci previously associated with the development of osteochondrosis (OC) lesions and 20 conformational and locomotive traits. Ten loci were associated with different conformational and locomotive traits (LCORL/NCAPG, HMGA2, USP31, MECR, COL24A1, MGP, FAM184B, PTH1R, KLF3 and SGK1), and the LCORL/NCAPG association with size in the Spanish Purebred horse was validated. Except for HMGA2, all polymorphisms seem to influence both the prevalence of OC lesions and morphological characters, supporting the link between conformation and OC. Also, the implication of most genes in either immune and inflammatory responses and cellular growth, or ossification processes, reinforces the role that these mechanisms have in the aetiology of OC, as well as their reflection on the general conformation of the individual. These polymorphisms could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programmes to improve desirable conformational traits, but taking into account their possible detrimental effect on OC prevalence.

  10. Effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment on the microbial flora in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Ten purebred Beagle dogs (all males) were used to determine the effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment (i.e., no exogenous microbial contamination) on the microbial flora. At monthly intervals the microbial profile (feces, nose, and throat) of each dog was assessed. After 12 months it was found there was no drastic alteration or simplification of the microbial profile of isolated or control dogs. Although isolated dogs had slightly higher levels of anaerobic bacteria and somewhat lower levels of enterococci, the major groups of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria remained qualitatively and quantitatively similar for the 12-month study period. Although they were only minor components of the fecal flora, Candida albicans and Shigella sonnei were consistently isolated in larger numbers from the dogs in the locked environment.

  11. Effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment on the microbial flora in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balish, E.; Shih, C.-N.; Yale, C. E.; Mandel, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Ten purebred Beagle dogs (all males) were used to determine the effect of a prolonged stay in a locked environment (i.e., no exogenous microbial contamination) on the microbial flora. At monthly intervals the microbial profile (feces, nose, and throat) of each dog was assessed. After 12 months it was found there was no drastic alteration or simplification of the microbial profile of isolated or control dogs. Although isolated dogs had slightly higher levels of anaerobic bacteria and somewhat lower levels of enterococci, the major groups of anaerobic, aerobic, and facultative bacteria remained qualitatively and quantitatively similar for the 12-month study period. Although they were only minor components of the fecal flora, Candida albicans and Shigella sonnei were consistently isolated in larger numbers from the dogs in the locked environment.

  12. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    (CP)); the equation was as follows: BW(CP) = 14.38 + 0.24 × CPR (n = 240; R(2) = 0.59; MSE = 1.06). A sex effect was found for body water content (BW(W)); the equations were as follows: BW(W) = 38.31 + 0.33 × WR - 1.09 × VF + 0.50 × OV for BU; BW(W) = 45.67 + 0.25 × WR - 1.89 × VF + 0.50 × OV for STR; and BW(W) = 31.61 + 0.47 × WR - 1.06 × VF + 0.50 × OV for HF (n = 241; R(2) = 0.81; MSE = 3.84). The physical carcass composition indicated a breed effect on all components and a sex effect for fat in the carcass. We conclude that body and carcass compositions can be estimated with rib(9-11) for purebred and crossbred NEL animals, but specific equations have to be developed for different groups of animals.

  13. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    PubMed

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  14. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2012-08-01

    Chronic pancreatitis used to be considered uncommon in dogs, but recent pathological and clinical studies have confirmed that it is in fact a common and clinically significant disease. Clinical signs can vary from low-grade recurrent gastrointestinal signs to acute exacerbations that are indistinguishable from classical acute pancreatitis. Chronic pancreatitis is a significant cause of chronic pain in dogs, which must not be underestimated. It also results in progressive impairment of endocrine and exocrine function and the eventual development of diabetes mellitus or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency or both in some affected dogs at end stage. The etiology is unknown in most cases. Chronic pancreatitis shows an increased prevalence in certain breeds, and recent work in English Cocker Spaniels suggests it is part of a polysystemic immune-mediated disease in this breed. The histological and clinical appearance is different in different breeds, suggesting that etiologies may also be different. Diagnosis is challenging because the sensitivities of the available noninvasive tests are relatively low. However, with an increased index of suspicion, clinicians will recognize more cases that will allow them to institute supportive treatment to improve the quality of life of the patient.

  15. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds' sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics.

  16. [Pain caused by breeding: definition, judgment, pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Herzog, A

    1997-02-01

    Special terms of the "German Animal Protection Law (section 11b)"and the "European Agreement for Protection of Domestic Animals" particularly "torture-breeding, genetic characteristics, well-being, soundness, pains, injuries and specific use" are commented. Examples of torture-breedings are discussed: Dog (Merle-faktor, brachycephalie, atrichosis), cat (Mans-factor, W-gene, folded-ears), birds (tuffs, ear-drops, tailesness, hypertrophy of bill-warts, abnormal position of tarsal-joints, hypertrophy of imposing behavior).

  17. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K; Perri, Angela; Webster, Matthew T; Ho, Simon Y W; Peters, Joris; Stahl, Peter W; Piper, Philip J; Lingaas, Frode; Fredholm, Merete; Comstock, Kenine E; Modiano, Jaime F; Schelling, Claude; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Leegwater, Peter A; Dobney, Keith; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Vilà, Carles; Andersson, Leif; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-06-05

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called "ancient" breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog's wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication.

  18. Fatal dog attacks in Canada, 1990-2007.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi

    2008-06-01

    In Canada, public debates on dog attacks are dominated by studies from the United States. An electronic search of media reports in the Canadian Newsstand database, for the years 1990 to 2007, identified 28 fatalities from dog-bite injuries. Predominant factors in this case series were owned, known dogs; residential location; children's unsupervised access to area with dogs; and rural/remote areas, including aboriginal reserves in the prairies. A higher proportion of sled dogs and, possibly, mixed-breed dogs in Canada than in the United States caused fatalities, as did multiple dogs rather than single dogs. Free-roaming dog packs, reported only from rural communities, caused most on-reserve fatalities. Future studies are needed to assess if this rural/urban divide is observed in nonfatal attacks and if the breeds that bite in Canada are different from the breeds that killed. Breed representation in this paper and, perhaps, multiple-dog overrepresentation should be understood in the context of the overall Canadian dog population.

  19. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  20. Renal dysplasia in Beagle dogs: four cases.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Marc C; Shoieb, Ahmed M; Shirai, Norimitsu; Boucher, Germaine G; Brodie, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    Anomalies of renal development comprise abnormalities in the amount of renal tissue (agenesis and hypoplasia); anomalies of renal position, form, and orientation; and renal dysplasia. There are previous reports of canine renal dysplasia in different breeds but none in the Beagle breed. This is the first report of renal dysplasia in this breed of dog. Morphologic descriptions of the range of microscopic features observed in four cases of renal dysplasia from preclinical studies in laboratory Beagle dogs are presented (including persistent primitive mesenchyme, persistence of metanephric ducts, asynchronous differentiation of nephrons, and atypical tubular epithelium), along with a basis for the classification of the lesion.

  1. Lessons learned from the dog genome.

    PubMed

    Wayne, Robert K; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2007-11-01

    Extensive genetic resources and a high-quality genome sequence position the dog as an important model species for understanding genome evolution, population genetics and genes underlying complex phenotypic traits. Newly developed genomic resources have expanded our understanding of canine evolutionary history and dog origins. Domestication involved genetic contributions from multiple populations of gray wolves probably through backcrossing. More recently, the advent of controlled breeding practices has segregated genetic variability into distinct dog breeds that possess specific phenotypic traits. Consequently, genome-wide association and selective sweep scans now allow the discovery of genes underlying breed-specific characteristics. The dog is finally emerging as a novel resource for studying the genetic basis of complex traits, including behavior.

  2. [Diseases with relevance to protection of animals with an example of the musculoskeletal system of dogs].

    PubMed

    Petri, S; Distl, O; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Nolte, I

    2000-03-01

    Protection of animals needs major concern in breeding programmes especially if inherited diseases occur which cause pain, suffering and/or damages for the animals. Dogs breeders and people keeping dogs as well as veterinarians should be informed about the etiology on sequels of diseases which cause pain to the animals and from which the animals have to be protected in order to make them more conscious on these problems and to achieve changes in dog breeding programmes. The information system "Inherited Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System of Dogs" should display the already published knowledge about etiology, pathogenesis, appearance, therapy and genetics of these diseases. This information system was built up in such a way that it can be used by students as a learning programme to understand the basic relationships among animal protection, diseases, and dog breeding. The user is also supplied with support for breeding decisions as well as for interpretation of breeding values and genotype probabilities. Additionally, information can be obtained on all in the German Association for Dog Breeding (VDH) represented breeds and breeding clubs. Actions to reduce genetically caused diseases required for members of dog breeding clubs are also available. The information system ist programmed by using HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language). Publication is possible on CD-ROM and on Internet. The supplied hyperlinks allow to make use of other publications on the world wide web related to dog and diseases of dogs.

  3. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10−5 for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes. PMID:26645337

  4. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  5. Comparison of behavioral characteristics of dogs in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kanbayashi, Shunichi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Serpell, James A; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the difference in dog owning between Japan and the United States, and the effect of these differences on dogs' behavioral characteristics. Behavioral evaluations of privately-owned dogs were obtained by using online questionnaire. We compared background and demographic information from the two countries and analyzed the effects of these differences on behavioral characteristics in dogs. The results indicated that there was a bias in the dog breeds kept in Japan compared to the United States and that Japanese dogs' body weight was lower than the US dogs. The main source of dog acquisition was pet stores in Japan and breeders and/or shelters in the United States. Multiple linear regression analysis found that Japanese dogs showed more aggression to household members and higher energy, restlessness and fear of non-social stimuli than US dogs, while US dogs showed more fear of unfamiliar persons, separation-related behavior and excitability. US dogs also showed higher levels of trainability and attachment to owners. The lower dog's body weight was, the higher the behavioral scores except for trainability were. When dogs that were obtained under 3 months of age were analyzed, the younger the dogs were when their owners obtained them, the higher the scores on some behavioral problem factors were. The higher rates of problem behaviors among Japanese dogs compared with US dogs suggest that the preference for small breed dogs and poor early development environment influenced the behavioral characteristics of dogs.

  6. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  7. Dog sperm head morphometry: its diversity and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Carles; Alambiaga, Ana; Martí, Maria A; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Contell, Jesús; Campos, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Dogs have been under strong artificial selection as a consequence of their relationship with man. Differences between breeds are evident that could be reflected in seminal characteristics. The present study was to evaluate differences in sperm head morphometry between seven well-defined breeds of dog: the British Bulldog, Chihuahua, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, Staffordshire Terrier, and Valencian Rat Hunting dog. Semen samples were obtained by masturbation and smears stained with Diff-Quik. Morphometric analysis (CASA-Morph) produced four size and four shape parameters. Length, Ellipticity, and Elongation showed higher differences between breeds. MANOVA revealed differences among all breeds. Considering the whole dataset, principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PC1 was related to head shape and PC2 to size. Procluster analysis showed the British Bulldog to be the most isolated breed, followed by the German Shepherd. The PCA breed by breed showed the Chihuahua, Labrador Retriever, Spanish Mastiff, and Staffordshire Terrier to have PC1 related to shape and PC2 to size, whereas the British Bulldog, Valencia Rat Hunting dog, and German Shepherd had PC1 related to size and PC2 to shape. The dendrogram for cluster groupings and the distance between them showed the British Bulldog to be separated from the rest of the breeds. Future work on dog semen must take into account the large differences in the breeds’ sperm characteristics. The results provide a base for future work on phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of dogs, based on their seminal characteristics. PMID:27751991

  8. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela; Webster, Matthew T.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Peters, Joris; Stahl, Peter W.; Piper, Philip J.; Lingaas, Frode; Fredholm, Merete; Comstock, Kenine E.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Schelling, Claude; Agoulnik, Alexander I.; Leegwater, Peter A.; Dobney, Keith; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Vilà, Carles; Andersson, Leif; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs with the geographic locations of 14 so-called “ancient” breeds (defined by their genetic differentiation) resulted in a counterintuitive pattern. First, none of the ancient breeds derive from regions where the oldest archeological remains have been found. Second, three of the ancient breeds (Basenjis, Dingoes, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog’s wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds is a lack of recent admixture with other breeds likely facilitated by geographic and cultural isolation. Furthermore, these genetically distinct ancient breeds only appear so because of their relative isolation, suggesting that studies of modern breeds have yet to shed light on dog origins. We conclude by assessing the limitations of past studies and how next-generation sequencing of modern and ancient individuals may unravel the history of dog domestication. PMID:22615366

  9. A review of official data obtained from dog control records generated by the dog control service of county cork, Ireland during 2007

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are no peer reviewed data on dog control records from an official agency in Ireland. In order to address this, a total of 2,669 official dog control service records generated during 2007 by Cork County Council dog control service were reviewed. Results Over 70 percent of records related to unwanted dogs and dogs not under their owners control. Stray dogs were collected by the service regularly throughout the year but with notable increase in voluntary surrenders by owners from January through to April. The majority of dogs collected or surrendered were male (2:1 ratio), of medium size, described as having a friendly temperament and were not wearing a neck collar. The Crossbreed and Greyhound breeds were more frequently collected as strays, while Greyhounds and German Shepherds were more frequently voluntarily surrendered by their owner. Restricted breeds such as Pit Bull terriers, German Shepherds and Rottweilers were more frequently reported by members of the public for aggressive behaviour while the only restricted breed reported for biting or snapping was the German Shepherd. Conclusions Routine recording of dog control services in County Cork provide data on responsible dog ownership including the licensing of breeds, and surrender of owned dogs and the collection of stray dogs. Data capture and utilisation of dog control services by local authorities has potential to inform policy on responsible dog ownership and education programmes. PMID:22681751

  10. Simulated Breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  11. Blackberry breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful blackberry production and marketing depends on planting cultivars that are adapted to the region, efficiently produce high yields, and have the fruit quality the market, whether local or distant, demands. Blackberry breeding programs have developed cultivars that consumers like to eat and...

  12. Myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs: Does size matter?

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Kilroy-Glynn, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most commonly diagnosed cardiovascular disease in the dog accounting for more than 70% of all cardiovascular disease in dogs. As are most canine diseases with genetic underpinnings, risk of MMVD is greatly increased in a subset of breeds. What is uncommon is that the vast majority of the breeds at elevated risk for MMVD are small or toy breeds with average adult weights under 9 kg. These breeds appear to have little in common other than their diminutive size. In the following review we propose a number of mechanisms by which relatively unrelated small breeds may have developed a predisposition for chronic valvular disorders. Although factors such as age are key in the expression of MMVD, taking a comprehensive look at the commonalities, as well as the differences, between the susceptible breeds may assist in finding the causal variants responsible for MMVD and translating them to improved treatments for both dogs and humans. PMID:22356836

  13. Physiological reactions to fear provocation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hydbring-Sandberg, E; von Walter, L W; Höglund, K; Svartberg, K; Swenson, L; Forkman, B

    2004-03-01

    Fear is a common behavioral problem in dogs. In this paper, we studied the association between behavioral and physiological responses in two potentially fear-eliciting situations. The aim was to establish whether it is possible to separate dogs of the collie breed that are fearful of floors and gunshots from those that are not by studying changes in heart rate and hematocrit, plasma cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphin concentrations. Thirteen privately owned male dogs of the collie breed were studied during a floor test, using different types of floors, and a subsequent gunshot test. Seven of the dogs were identified as being fearful of floors and six were declared as fearless. Out of the 13 dogs, seven were fearful of gunshots and six were fearless of gunshots. Since fear of floors did not always occur concomitantly with fear of gunshots, there were consequently four different groups of dogs. The heart rate increased during the floor test in all groups, but dogs that were fearful of floors had higher heart rates than dogs that were fearless of floors. Dogs that were fearful of gunshots had higher heart rates, higher hematocrit levels and higher plasma concentrations of cortisol, progesterone, vasopressin, and beta-endorphins during the gunshot test than did dogs that were found to be fearless of gunshots. Plasma cortisol and progesterone increased drastically during the gunshot test in dogs identified as being fearful of gunshots. In fearful dogs, the testosterone concentration increased after completion of the floor test and before the gunshot test started, but there were no significant differences in testosterone between the groups. Since dogs fearful of gunshots had increased levels of several physiological parameters, the results demonstrated that this fear is a serious stress for the individual, a fear which it is possible to register with physiological variables.

  14. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey

    PubMed Central

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1–5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs’ behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner’s emotion and reactivity to other dogs’ behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner’s empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog’s emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement “My dog is more important for me than any human being”. In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose

  15. Ancient European dog genomes reveal continuity since the Early Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Botigué, Laura R.; Song, Shiya; Scheu, Amelie; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Pendleton, Amanda L.; Oetjens, Matthew; Taravella, Angela M.; Seregély, Timo; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bobo, Dean; Daly, Kevin; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Veeramah, Krishna R.

    2017-01-01

    Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication. By calibrating the mutation rate using our oldest dog, we narrow the timing of dog domestication to 20,000–40,000 years ago. Interestingly, we do not observe the extreme copy number expansion of the AMY2B gene characteristic of modern dogs that has previously been proposed as an adaptation to a starch-rich diet driven by the widespread adoption of agriculture in the Neolithic. PMID:28719574

  16. Ancient European dog genomes reveal continuity since the Early Neolithic.

    PubMed

    Botigué, Laura R; Song, Shiya; Scheu, Amelie; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Pendleton, Amanda L; Oetjens, Matthew; Taravella, Angela M; Seregély, Timo; Zeeb-Lanz, Andrea; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Bobo, Dean; Daly, Kevin; Unterländer, Martina; Burger, Joachim; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Veeramah, Krishna R

    2017-07-18

    Europe has played a major role in dog evolution, harbouring the oldest uncontested Palaeolithic remains and having been the centre of modern dog breed creation. Here we sequence the genomes of an Early and End Neolithic dog from Germany, including a sample associated with an early European farming community. Both dogs demonstrate continuity with each other and predominantly share ancestry with modern European dogs, contradicting a previously suggested Late Neolithic population replacement. We find no genetic evidence to support the recent hypothesis proposing dual origins of dog domestication. By calibrating the mutation rate using our oldest dog, we narrow the timing of dog domestication to 20,000-40,000 years ago. Interestingly, we do not observe the extreme copy number expansion of the AMY2B gene characteristic of modern dogs that has previously been proposed as an adaptation to a starch-rich diet driven by the widespread adoption of agriculture in the Neolithic.

  17. Evaluation of the energy requirements of adult kennel dogs.

    PubMed

    Finke, M D

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the energy requirements of healthy adult kennel dogs to those recommended by the National Research Council (NRC). The energy requirements of six beagles, six Siberian huskies and six Labrador retrievers were determined over a 54-wk period. Dogs were housed in groups of three in heated indoor-outdoor runs and fed a complete and balanced commercial dry dog food. Beagles had an average daily energy intake of 3414 kJ/dog with monthly averages ranging from 3146 to 3740 kJ/dog. Siberian huskies had an average daily energy intake of 5021 kJ/dog. Average monthly energy intakes ranged from 4715 to 5238 kJ/dog. Labrador retrievers had an average daily intake of 5611 kJ/dog with monthly averages ranging from 5063 to 6623 kJ/dog. Seasonal variation appeared to affect the breeds differently, with long-haired Siberian huskies showing less seasonal variation than the shorter-haired breeds. For all dogs energy intake (kJ/kg body weight 0.75) declined with age. The energy intake of each group of dogs was considerably below that recommended by the NRC. The reason for this discrepancy is unknown, although these data suggest that environmental conditions, breed and/or age play an important role.

  18. Impact of cloning on cattle breeding systems.

    PubMed

    McClintock, A E

    1998-01-01

    The concept of clone-family testing is compared with existing progeny testing systems. The critical factors that will decide how cloning is utilized are the potential size of cloned families, and the cost per embryo (or per calf born). If family sizes of 100,000 become routinely achievable (cheaply), then clone testing becomes viable. In rough figures, cloned embryos costing $30 with a 50% calving rate would be attractive to farmers and would be cheap enough that farmers would buy more (crossbred) embryos in order to breed further replacement cows. At $300 per embryo, farmers would be more inclined to buy a number of cloned pure-bred female embryos and then to use conventional artificial insemination to breed further replacements from these superior cows. At $3000 per embryo, farmers would probably only be interested in very small numbers of cloned animals, most of which would be males. The relative importance of adult versus fetal cloning is discussed. The need for gene banks to preserve genetic variation is emphasized; both gametes and somatic tissue cultures should be considered.

  19. A Simple Genetic Architecture Underlies Morphological Variation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Zhao, Keyan; Brisbin, Abra; Parker, Heidi G.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Cargill, Michele; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Castelhano, Marta; Mosher, Dana S.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Johnson, Gary S.; Novembre, John; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Siepel, Adam; Wayne, Robert K.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (≤3) explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species. PMID:20711490

  20. A simple genetic architecture underlies morphological variation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Adam R; Quignon, Pascale; Li, Lin; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Zhao, Keyan; Brisbin, Abra; Parker, Heidi G; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cargill, Michele; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Castelhano, Marta; Mosher, Dana S; Sutter, Nathan B; Johnson, Gary S; Novembre, John; Hubisz, Melissa J; Siepel, Adam; Wayne, Robert K; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2010-08-10

    Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (< or = 3) explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species.

  1. Gross Anatomical Study of the Nerve Supply of Genitourinary Structures in Female Mongrel Hound Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Amaya, S. M.; Ruggieri, M. R.; Arias Serrato, S. A.; Massicotte, V. S.; Barbe, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1–S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1–S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions. PMID:24730986

  2. Gross anatomical study of the nerve supply of genitourinary structures in female mongrel hound dogs.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Amaya, S M; Ruggieri, M R; Arias Serrato, S A; Massicotte, V S; Barbe, M F

    2015-04-01

    Anatomical variations in lumbosacral plexus or nerves to genitourinary structures in dogs are under described, despite their importance during surgery and potential contributions to neuromuscular syndromes. Gross dissection of 16 female mongrel hound dogs showed frequent variations in lumbosacral plexus classification, sympathetic ganglia, ventral rami input to nerves innervating genitourinary structures and pudendal nerve (PdN) branching. Lumbosacral plexus classification types were mixed, rather than pure, in 13 (82%) of dogs. The genitofemoral nerve (GFN) originated from ventral ramus of L4 in 67% of nerves, differing from the expected L3. Considerable variability was seen in ventral rami origins of pelvic (PN) and Pd nerves, with new findings of L7 contributions to PN, joining S1 and S2 input (23% of sides in 11 dogs) or S1-S3 input (5%), and to PdN, joining S1-S2, unilaterally, in one dog. L7 input was confirmed using retrograde dye tracing methods. The PN also received CG1 contributions, bilaterally, in one dog. The PdN branched unusually in two dogs. Lumbosacral sympathetic ganglia had variant intra-, inter- and multisegmental connectivity in 6 (38%). Thus, the anatomy of mongrel dogs had higher variability than previously described for purebred dogs. Knowledge of this variant innervation during surgery could aid in the preservation of nerves and reduce risk of urinary and sexual dysfunctions.

  3. Perineal herniorrhaphy: perioperative data from 100 dogs.

    PubMed

    Hosgood, G; Hedlund, C S; Pechman, R D; Dean, P W

    1995-01-01

    One hundred dogs (83 intact males, 15 castrated males, and two intact females) underwent 110 perineal herniorrhaphy procedures. Mixed-breed dogs (n = 32), miniature poodles (n = 14), Boston terriers (n = 11), and Pekingese (n = 9) were represented most frequently. Perineal swelling (n = 48) and a perineal defect on rectal palpation (n = 31) were common clinical signs. Twenty dogs had urinary bladder retroflexion and were significantly more likely to have elevated serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Only five of 43 dogs evaluated radiographically had prostatomegaly. Of 30 dogs receiving oral barium, all had rectal deviation. The most frequent complications during the hospitalization period were incisional (n = 35), followed by rectal prolapse (n = 9), tenesmus (n = 8), and depression (n = 8). Fifty-six of 70 dogs with follow-up had no complications.

  4. Use of pleural access ports for treatment of recurrent pneumothorax in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich; Flanders, James A

    2012-08-15

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog (dog 1) and a 13-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog (dog 2) were evaluated because of spontaneous pneumothorax. Both dogs had decreased bronchovesicular sounds with coughing, tachypnea, cyanosis, lethargy, or a combination of these clinical signs. Radiographic examination revealed pneumothorax in both dogs and consolidation of a lung lobe in dog 2. Pneumothorax was alleviated following thoracocentesis in both dogs but recurred. Dog 1 was initially treated by placement of a thoracostomy tube but underwent thoracotomy when pneumothorax recurred after tube removal; left caudal lung lobectomy was performed because a ruptured bulla was suspected, and a pulmonary bulla was histologically confirmed. Dog 2 underwent thoracotomy with left caudal lung lobectomy and partial removal of the left cranial lung lobe; diffuse pulmonary emphysema was diagnosed. This dog underwent a second surgery for right caudal lung lobectomy because of torsion. When pneumothorax recurred and additional surgery was not considered feasible, pleural access ports were placed in both dogs for repeated removal of air from the thoracic cavity. Ports were used clinically for 17 days in dog 1 and 14 days in dog 2. Dog 1 successfully underwent another surgery when pneumothorax recurred 18 days after port placement but was euthanized 17 months later when dyspnea and tachypnea recurred. Pneumothorax had not recurred further in dog 2 twenty-three months after port placement. Findings suggested that pleural access ports may have a role in the management of spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.

  5. [Biology of aggression in dogs].

    PubMed

    Feddersen-Petersen, D U

    2001-03-01

    The science of ethology is concerned with the way external stimuli and internal events cause animals to fight in a particular way. The classification of dog breeds with respect to their relative danger to humans makes no sense, as both, the complex antecedent conditions in which aggressive behaviour occurs, and its ramifying consequences in the individual dog's ecological and social environment, are not considered. From a biological point of view, environmental and learning effects are always superimposed upon genetic influences. Based on the recent developments in the study of ethology, aggression of wolves (Canis lupus L.) and domesticated dogs (Canis lupus f. familiaris) was put into context with respect to other aspects of the lifestyle of wild and domestic canids. Aggressive behaviour does not occur in a biological vacuum. This is also true for domestic dogs and their relationship to human partners. Individual dogs can become highly aggressive and dangerous. Their development and social situation will be presented and discussed in case studies. Finally, there is the question about defining "normal aggression" versus symptoms for maladaptive aggression resp. danger to humans as conspecifics. It is possible to protect the safety of the public and at the the same time practise animal care. Effective animal control legislation must focus on responsible ownership and socialisation of pups f.e. Problems are not unique to some breeds.

  6. Feasibility of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Marks, Stanley L; Douthitt, Katie L; Belafsky, Peter C

    2016-03-01

    To assess feasibility of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in awake dogs, determine whether specific variables associated with the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing can be recognized, and evaluate the safety and tolerability of FEES. 6 healthy client-owned large- and giant-breed adult dogs. A topical anesthetic was applied to the nasal passage of each dog, and a fiberoptic endoscope was passed transnasally until the tip of the scope was positioned in the oropharynx. All dogs voluntarily drank colored water followed by consumption of a commercial canned diet and then a kibble diet mixed with food color. During each swallow, laryngeal and pharyngeal anatomic structures were evaluated and depth of bolus flow prior to the pharyngeal phase of swallowing was assessed. Evidence of bolus retention in the vallecula or pyriform sinuses and laryngeal penetration of the bolus were recorded. FEES was completed without major adverse events and was tolerated well by all 6 dogs. Mild, self-limiting epistaxis was noted for 2 dogs. The nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx were observed in all dogs; movement of food boluses through the esophagus was observed in 2 dogs, and food boluses in the stomach were visible in 1 dog. Pharyngeal and laryngeal function was considered physiologically normal in all dogs. FEES appeared to be a feasible diagnostic tool for use in large- and giant-breed dogs. Studies are warranted in dogs with oropharyngeal dysphagia to determine whether FEES can be tolerated and whether it can augment videofluoroscopy findings.

  7. [Prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection in household dogs].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Muraoka, Noboru; Aoki, Mikiko; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1,505 household dogs were investigated for the prevalence of Strongyloides spp. infection by fecal examination in relation to their fecal conditions, rearing environments, origins, age, sex and breed. Strongyloides spp. infection was demonstrated in 29 of 1,505 (1.93%) dogs. Strongyloides stercoralis was detected in 28 dogs, and Strongyloides planiceps was detected in one dog. The rate of Strongyloides spp. infection was higher in dogs reared indoors, originated from pet shops/breeding kennels and aged 1-6 months. The infected rate was higher in dogs excreting soft feces. No significant sex-related difference was observed in Strongyloides spp. infection. The rate was high in Pomeranians and low in mongrels. The detection of S. stercolaris in dogs reared indoors will involve a serious problem in public health, because the parasite has zoonoitic potential. It suggests that a positive sanitary instruction against a dog's owner and a worker in pet shops/breeding kennels seems necessary for prevention of transmission from dogs to humans. Furthermore, the reliable treatment for dogs infected with S. stercoralis seems to be important.

  8. Inconsistent identification of pit bull-type dogs by shelter staff.

    PubMed

    Olson, K R; Levy, J K; Norby, B; Crandall, M M; Broadhurst, J E; Jacks, S; Barton, R C; Zimmerman, M S

    2015-11-01

    Shelter staff and veterinarians routinely make subjective dog breed identification based on appearance, but their accuracy regarding pit bull-type breeds is unknown. The purpose of this study was to measure agreement among shelter staff in assigning pit bull-type breed designations to shelter dogs and to compare breed assignments with DNA breed signatures. In this prospective cross-sectional study, four staff members at each of four different shelters recorded their suspected breed(s) for 30 dogs; there was a total of 16 breed assessors and 120 dogs. The terms American pit bull terrier, American Staffordshire terrier, Staffordshire bull terrier, pit bull, and their mixes were included in the study definition of 'pit bull-type breeds.' Using visual identification only, the median inter-observer agreements and kappa values in pair-wise comparisons of each of the staff breed assignments for pit bull-type breed vs. not pit bull-type breed ranged from 76% to 83% and from 0.44 to 0.52 (moderate agreement), respectively. Whole blood was submitted to a commercial DNA testing laboratory for breed identification. Whereas DNA breed signatures identified only 25 dogs (21%) as pit bull-type, shelter staff collectively identified 62 (52%) dogs as pit bull-type. Agreement between visual and DNA-based breed assignments varied among individuals, with sensitivity for pit bull-type identification ranging from 33% to 75% and specificity ranging from 52% to 100%. The median kappa value for inter-observer agreement with DNA results at each shelter ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 (poor to moderate). Lack of consistency among shelter staff indicated that visual identification of pit bull-type dogs was unreliable. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds: a genome-wide intercontinental study.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Elena; Lasagna, Emiliano; D'Andrea, Mariasilvia; Alloggio, Ingrid; Marroni, Fabio; Ceccobelli, Simone; Delgado Bermejo, Juan V; Sarti, Francesca M; Kijas, James; Lenstra, Johannes A; Pilla, Fabio

    2015-08-14

    Merino and Merino-derived sheep breeds have been widely distributed across the world, both as purebred and admixed populations. They represent an economically and historically important genetic resource which over time has been used as the basis for the development of new breeds. In order to examine the genetic influence of Merino in the context of a global collection of domestic sheep breeds, we analyzed genotype data that were obtained with the OvineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina) for 671 individuals from 37 populations, including a subset of breeds from the Sheep HapMap dataset. Based on a multi-dimensional scaling analysis, we highlighted four main clusters in this dataset, which corresponded to wild sheep, mouflon, primitive North European breeds and modern sheep (including Merino), respectively. The neighbor-network analysis further differentiated North-European and Mediterranean domestic breeds, with subclusters of Merino and Merino-derived breeds, other Spanish breeds and other Italian breeds. Model-based clustering, migration analysis and haplotype sharing indicated that genetic exchange occurred between archaic populations and also that a more recent Merino-mediated gene flow to several Merino-derived populations around the world took place. The close relationship between Spanish Merino and other Spanish breeds was consistent with an Iberian origin for the Merino breed, with possible earlier contributions from other Mediterranean stocks. The Merino populations from Australia, New Zealand and China were clearly separated from their European ancestors. We observed a genetic substructuring in the Spanish Merino population, which reflects recent herd management practices. Our data suggest that intensive gene flow, founder effects and geographic isolation are the main factors that determined the genetic makeup of current Merino and Merino-derived breeds. To explain how the current Merino and Merino-derived breeds were obtained, we propose a scenario that includes

  10. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. X.; Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Yeom, S. C.; Sohn, Y. G.; Kim, S. H; Nam, K. C.; Seo, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24) and shear force (−0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed. PMID:25049866

  11. Phylogenetic relationships, evolution, and genetic diversity of the domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Vilà, C; Maldonado, J E; Wayne, R K

    1999-01-01

    The spectacular diversity in size, conformation, and pelage that characterizes the domestic dog reflects not only the intensity of artificial selection but ultimately the genetic variability of founding populations. Here we review past molecular genetic data that are relevant to understanding the origin and phylogenetic relationships of the dog. DNA-DNA hybridization data show that the dog family Canidae diverged about 50 million years ago from other carnivore families. In contrast, the extant canids are very closely related and diverged from a common ancestor about 10 million years ago. The evidence supporting a close relationship of dogs with gray wolves is overwhelming. However, dogs are remarkably diverse in mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Mitochondrial DNA analysis suggests a more ancient origin of dogs than has been indicated by the fossil record. In addition, dogs have originated from or interbred with wolves throughout their history at different times and different places. We test the possibility of an independent domestication event in North America by analysis of mtDNA variation in the Xoloitzcuintli. This unusual breed is believed to have been kept isolated for thousands of years and may be one of the most ancient breeds in North America. Our results do not support a New World domestication of dogs nor a close association of the Xoloitzcuintli with other hair-less breeds of dogs. Despite their phenotypic uniformity, the Xoloitzcuintli has a surprisingly high level of mtDNA sequence variation. Other breeds are also genetically diverse, suggesting that dog breeds were often founded with a large number of dogs from outbred populations.

  12. Neospora caninum seropositivity and reproductive risk factors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Robbe, Domenico; Passarelli, Alessandra; Gloria, Alessia; Di Cesare, Angela; Capelli, Gioia; Iorio, Raffaella; Traversa, Donato

    2016-05-01

    Despite the importance of Neospora caninum in veterinary medicine, knowledge of distribution of neosporosis in dog populations in some countries is still poor. The aims of the present study were to determine the occurrence of anti-N. caninum antibodies in one-hundred dogs living in cattle farms or dog breedings in central Italy and to evaluate the risk factors associated with seropositivity. The incidence of reproductive system disorders (e.g. infertility after first pregnancy) was also evaluated. Serum from breeding and farm dogs was tested to an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to assess the occurrence of seropositivity. Management and individual data were collected and analysed both by linear and logistic multiple-regression models to find reliable predictors of seroprevalence and anti-N. caninum antibody level. The seropositivity for N. caninum was 32%. Dogs reared for breeding and presence of cattle on the farm were associated with seropositivity for N. caninum. Dogs living in the cattle farms showed a higher seropositivity for N. caninum (46%) compared with those living in dogs breeding (18%) (P < 0.05). The high presence of seropositive dogs in cattle farms of the study region demonstrates the potential risk of horizontal transmission of N. caninum between dogs and cattle, regardless the occurrence of reproductive system disorders or with infectious bovine tissues contact. Although the Neospora seropositivity in dog breedings may appear relatively low if compared with that found in dogs living with livestock, this infection, apparently underestimated, should be considered as a potential serious problem in canine medicine.

  13. Comparison of behavioral characteristics of dogs in the United States and Japan

    PubMed Central

    NAGASAWA, Miho; KANBAYASHI, Shunichi; MOGI, Kazutaka; SERPELL, James A.; KIKUSUI, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the difference in dog owning between Japan and the United States, and the effect of these differences on dogs’ behavioral characteristics. Behavioral evaluations of privately-owned dogs were obtained by using online questionnaire. We compared background and demographic information from the two countries and analyzed the effects of these differences on behavioral characteristics in dogs. The results indicated that there was a bias in the dog breeds kept in Japan compared to the United States and that Japanese dogs’ body weight was lower than the US dogs. The main source of dog acquisition was pet stores in Japan and breeders and/or shelters in the United States. Multiple linear regression analysis found that Japanese dogs showed more aggression to household members and higher energy, restlessness and fear of non-social stimuli than US dogs, while US dogs showed more fear of unfamiliar persons, separation-related behavior and excitability. US dogs also showed higher levels of trainability and attachment to owners. The lower dog’s body weight was, the higher the behavioral scores except for trainability were. When dogs that were obtained under 3 months of age were analyzed, the younger the dogs were when their owners obtained them, the higher the scores on some behavioral problem factors were. The higher rates of problem behaviors among Japanese dogs compared with US dogs suggest that the preference for small breed dogs and poor early development environment influenced the behavioral characteristics of dogs. PMID:26412048

  14. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.

  15. Causes for discharge of military working dogs from service: 268 cases (2000-2004).

    PubMed

    Evans, Rebecca I; Herbold, John R; Bradshaw, Benjamin S; Moore, George E

    2007-10-15

    To determine causes for discharge of military working dogs (MWDs) from service. Retrospective case series. 268 MWDs. Records of all MWDs approved for discharge from December 2000 through November 2004 were evaluated for cause of discharge. 23 dogs had been obtained through the Department of Defense breeding program but had failed to meet prepurchase or certification standards. The remaining 245 (120 German Shepherd Dogs, 100 Belgian Malinois, and 25 dogs of other breeds) had been purchased as adults or obtained through the breeding program and had passed prepurchase and certification standards. Eighty-five of the 245 (34.7%) adult dogs were 1 to < 5 years old at discharge, and 160 (65.3%) were >or= 5 years old at discharge. The proportion of adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (69.4%) was significantly greater than the proportion of adult dogs >or= 5 years old at discharge that were German Shepherd Dogs (38.1%). Within the subgroup of dogs >or= 5 years old at discharge, median age at discharge for the German Shepherd Dogs (8.59 years) was significantly less than median age at discharge for the Belgian Malinois (10.61 years). For adult dogs < 5 years old at discharge, the most common cause for discharge was behavioral problems (82.3%). Results suggested that longevity of service for MWDs may be influenced by breed differences and that selection criteria should be evaluated to reduce behavior-related discharge from service.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of oral amantadine in greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Norkus, C; Rankin, D; Warner, M; KuKanich, B

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in greyhound dogs after oral administration. Five healthy greyhound dogs were used. A single oral dose of 100 mg amantadine hydrochloride (mean dose 2.8 mg/kg as amantadine hydrochloride) was administered to nonfasted subjects. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points from 0 to 24 h after administration, and plasma concentrations of amantadine were measured by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Amantadine was well tolerated in all dogs with no adverse effects observed. The mean (range) amantadine CMAX was 275 ng/mL (225-351 ng/mL) at 2.6 h (1-4 h) with a terminal half-life of 4.96 h (4.11-6.59 h). The results of this study can be used to design dosages to assess multidose pharmacokinetics and dosages designed to achieve targeted concentrations in order to assess the clinical effects of amantadine in a variety of conditions including chronic pain. Further studies should also assess the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in other dog breeds or using population pharmacokinetics studies including multiple dog breeds to assess potential breed-specific differences in the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in dogs.

  17. The effect of relaxing massage on heart rate and heart rate variability in purebred Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Sylwester; Janczarek, Iwona; Kędzierski, Witold; Stachurska, Anna; Wilk, Izabela

    2016-09-04

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of relaxing massage on the heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in young racehorses during their first racing season. In the study, 72 Purebred Arabian racehorses were included. The study was implemented during the full race season. The horses from control and experimental groups were included in regular race training 6 days a week. The horses from the experimental group were additionally subject to the relaxing massage 3 days a week during the whole study. HR and HRV were assumed as indicators of the emotional state of the horses. The measurements were taken six times, every 4-5 weeks. The HRV parameters were measured at rest, during grooming and saddling the horse and during warm-up walking under a rider. The changes of the parameters throughout the season suggest that the relaxing massage may be effectively used to make the racehorses more relaxed and calm. Moreover, the horses from the experimental group had better race performance records.

  18. Optimizing purebred selection for crossbred performance using QTL with different degrees of dominance

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Jack CM; Chakraborty, Reena

    2004-01-01

    A method was developed to optimize simultaneous selection for a quantitative trait with a known QTL within a male and a female line to maximize crossbred performance from a two-way cross. Strategies to maximize cumulative discounted response in crossbred performance over ten generations were derived by optimizing weights in an index of a QTL and phenotype. Strategies were compared to selection on purebred phenotype. Extra responses were limited for QTL with additive and partial dominance effects, but substantial for QTL with over-dominance, for which optimal QTL selection resulted in differential selection in male and female lines to increase the frequency of heterozygotes and polygenic responses. For over-dominant QTL, maximization of crossbred performance one generation at a time resulted in similar responses as optimization across all generations and simultaneous optimal selection in a male and female line resulted in greater response than optimal selection within a single line without crossbreeding. Results show that strategic use of information on over-dominant QTL can enhance crossbred performance without crossbred testing. PMID:15107268

  19. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  20. Effect of the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on spine characteristics in purebred Texel lambs

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, C.L.; Lambe, N.R.; Maltin, C.A.; Knott, S.; Bünger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work showed that the Texel muscling QTL (TM-QTL) results in pronounced hypertrophy in the loin muscle, with the largest phenotypic effects observed in lambs inheriting a single copy of the allele from the sire. As the loin runs parallel to the spinal vertebrae, and the development of muscle and bone are closely linked, the primary aim of this study was to investigate if there were any subsequent associations between TM-QTL inheritance and underlying spine characteristics (vertebrae number, VN; spine region length, SPL; average length of individual vertebrae, VL) of the thoracic, lumbar, and thoracolumbar spine regions. Spine characteristics were measured from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans for 142 purebred Texel lambs which had been previously genotyped. Least-squares means were significantly different between genotype groups for lumbar and thoracic VN and lumbar SPL. Similarly for these traits, contrasts were shown to be significant for particular modes of gene action but overall were inconclusive. In general, the results showed little evidence that spine trait phenotypes were associated with differences in loin muscling associated with the different TM-QTL genotypes. PMID:25844019

  1. Toxoplasmosis and other intestinal coccidial infections in cats and dogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Much needs to be learned concerning the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis in dogs. Why does coccidiosis occurs after shipping, and nothing is known of biologic differences among isolates of Isospora species of dogs and cats. Transmission of Isospora felis in cats in breeding colonies despite of s...

  2. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dispelling dog dogma: an investigation of heterochrony in dogs using 3D geometric morphometric analysis of skull shape.

    PubMed

    Drake, Abby Grace

    2011-01-01

    Heterochrony is an evolutionary mechanism that generates diversity via perturbations of the rate or timing of development that requires very little genetic innovation. As such, heterochrony is thought to be a common evolutionary mechanism in the generation of diversity. Previous research has suggested that dogs evolved via heterochrony and are paedomorphic wolves. This study uses three-dimensional landmark-based coordinate data to investigate heterochronic patterns within the skull morphology of the domestic dog. A total of 677 adult dogs representing 106 different breeds were measured and compared with an ontogenetic series of 401 wolves. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals that the cranial shape of none of the modern breeds of dogs resembles the cranial shapes of adult or juvenile wolves. In addition, investigations of regional heterochrony in the face and neurocranium also reject the hypothesis of heterochrony. Throughout wolf cranial development the position of the face and the neurocranium remain in the same plane. Dogs, however, have a de novo cranial flexion in which the palate is tilted dorsally in brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds or tilted ventrally in dolichocephalic and down-face breeds. Dogs have evolved very rapidly into an incredibly morphologically diverse species with very little genetic variation. However, the genetic alterations to dog cranial development that have produced this vast range of phylogenetically novel skull shapes do not coincide with the expectations of the heterochronic model. Dogs are not paedomorphic wolves.

  4. Amylase activity is associated with AMY2B copy numbers in dog: implications for dog domestication, diet and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Maja; Fall, Tove; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Axelsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    High amylase activity in dogs is associated with a drastic increase in copy numbers of the gene coding for pancreatic amylase, AMY2B, that likely allowed dogs to thrive on a relatively starch-rich diet during early dog domestication. Although most dogs thus probably digest starch more efficiently than do wolves, AMY2B copy numbers vary widely within the dog population, and it is not clear how this variation affects the individual ability to handle starch nor how it affects dog health. In humans, copy numbers of the gene coding for salivary amylase, AMY1, correlate with both salivary amylase levels and enzyme activity, and high amylase activity is related to improved glycemic homeostasis and lower frequencies of metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigate the relationship between AMY2B copy numbers and serum amylase activity in dogs and show that amylase activity correlates with AMY2B copy numbers. We then describe how AMY2B copy numbers vary in individuals from 20 dog breeds and find strong breed-dependent patterns, indicating that the ability to digest starch varies both at the breed and individual level. Finally, to test whether AMY2B copy number is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes mellitus, we compare copy numbers in cases and controls as well as in breeds with varying diabetes susceptibility. Although we see no such association here, future studies using larger cohorts are needed before excluding a possible link between AMY2B and diabetes mellitus. PMID:24975239

  5. Canine atopic dermatitis: breed risk in Australia and evidence for a susceptible clade.

    PubMed

    Mazrier, Hamutal; Vogelnest, Linda J; Thomson, Peter C; Taylor, Rosanne M; Williamson, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Genetic studies on canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) indicate that large populations from one geographical location are preferred for the identification of relevant susceptibility genes. Australian dogs are relatively isolated; studies on CAD in this population are limited. To identify breeds at risk in the Australian dog population and to compare with worldwide breed predisposition. Case records (n = 23,000) from University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (UVTH) dogs, including 722 with CAD. The breed proportion of CAD and odds risk (OR) were calculated. A systematic review of 13 previous studies (1971-2010) was performed and compared to the study results by implementing an atopic dermatitis (AD)-to-reference population ratio (ADRPR). Eleven dog breeds with significant increased OR (≥1.0) were identified; all with breed CAD cases proportionally higher than their base hospital population. Gender risk in males from the pug dog breed (P = 0.007) was detected and the bichon frise breed had a similar trend (P = 0.05). Sixteen predisposed dog breeds were identified by systematic review. All breeds with significant increased OR in UVTH had ADRPR > 1.4; five (boxer, bulldog, Labrador retriever, pug, West Highland white terrier) were recognized as predisposed worldwide. One clade of breeds with common ancestry was highly represented in CAD cases worldwide and in Australia (81% of the significant OR cases). The use of a large population from one geographical location and ADRPR provided an objective comparison between worldwide AD studies; it identified one common clade of susceptible breeds. Breed genetics and related clinical presentation may help CAD diagnosis and treatment. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. [Coat color in dogs. 2: Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Laukner, A

    1998-04-01

    The meaning of the coat colour of the dog reaches further than only to the field of breeding for beauty. Besides aspects of destination (hunting dogs, herding dogs) the clinical meaning is of particular interest. Some colours can show certain defects. Diseases of allowed colours are the colour dilution alopecia (CDA) in diluted (mostly "blue") pigmentation with its subtype of Black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD) in black pigmentation and congenital deafness in extreme piebalds. Not allowed coat colours, which are connected with defects, are the extreme dapple of the Merle-syndrome and the "grey" Collie with cyclic hematopoesis.

  7. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

    PubMed

    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  8. Development of a genetic tool for product regulation in the diverse British pig breed market.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samantha; Archibald, Alan L; Haley, Chris S; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M; Wiener, Pamela; Ogden, Rob

    2012-11-15

    The application of DNA markers for the identification of biological samples from both human and non-human species is widespread and includes use in food authentication. In the food industry the financial incentive to substituting the true name of a food product with a higher value alternative is driving food fraud. This applies to British pork products where products derived from traditional pig breeds are of premium value. The objective of this study was to develop a genetic assay for regulatory authentication of traditional pig breed-labelled products in the porcine food industry in the United Kingdom. The dataset comprised of a comprehensive coverage of breed types present in Britain: 460 individuals from 7 traditional breeds, 5 commercial purebreds, 1 imported European breed and 1 imported Asian breed were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 beadchip. Following breed-informative SNP selection, assignment power was calculated for increasing SNP panel size. A 96-plex assay created using the most informative SNPs revealed remarkably high genetic differentiation between the British pig breeds, with an average FST of 0.54 and Bayesian clustering analysis also indicated that they were distinct homogenous populations. The posterior probability of assignment of any individual of a presumed origin actually originating from that breed given an alternative breed origin was > 99.5% in 174 out of 182 contrasts, at a test value of log(LR) > 0. Validation of the 96-plex assay using independent test samples of known origin was successful; a subsequent survey of market samples revealed a high level of breed label conformity. The newly created 96-plex assay using selected markers from the PorcineSNP60 beadchip enables powerful assignment of samples to traditional breed origin and can effectively identify mislabelling, providing a highly effective tool for DNA analysis in food forensics.

  9. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    PubMed

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  10. Dog models of naturally occurring cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Jennie L; McCarthy, Donna O; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2011-07-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models for natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has a vastly reduced genetic variation compared with humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five- to eight-fold faster than do humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the past decade, have developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here, we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer.

  11. An investigation of the association between socio-demographic factors, dog-exercise requirements, and the amount of walking dogs receive.

    PubMed

    Degeling, Chris; Burton, Lindsay; McCormack, Gavin R

    2012-07-01

    Risk factors associated with canine obesity include the amount of walking a dog receives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between canine exercise requirements, socio-demographic factors, and dog-walking behaviors in winter in Calgary. Dog owners, from a cross-sectional study which included a random sample of adults, were asked their household income, domicile type, gender, age, education level, number and breed(s) of dog(s) owned, and frequency and time spent dog-walking in a usual week. Canine exercise requirements were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) positively associated with the minutes pet dogs were walked, as was the owner being a female. Moreover, dog walking frequency, but not minutes of dog walking, was significantly associated with residing in attached housing (i.e., apartments). Different types of dogs have different exercise requirements to maintain optimal health. Understanding the role of socio-demographic factors and dog-related characteristics such as exercise requirements on dog-walking behaviors is essential for helping veterinarians and owners develop effective strategies to prevent and manage canine obesity. Furthermore, encouraging regular dog-walking has the potential to improve the health of pet dogs, and that of their owners.

  12. Incidence of and mortality from kidney disease in over 600,000 insured Swedish dogs.

    PubMed

    Pelander, L; Ljungvall, I; Egenvall, A; Syme, H; Elliott, J; Häggström, J

    2015-06-20

    Kidney disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Knowledge about the epidemiology of kidney disease in the dog population is valuable and large-scale epidemiological studies are needed. The aim of the present study was to use insurance data to estimate kidney-related morbidity and mortality in the Swedish dog population. Insurance company data from insured dogs during the years 1995-2006 were studied retrospectively. Incidence and mortality were calculated for the whole group of dogs as well as divided by sex and breed. The total number of veterinary care insured dogs was 665,245. The total incidence of kidney disease in this group of dogs was 15.8 (15.3-16.2) cases/10,000 dog-years at risk. The number of dogs in the life insurance was 548,346 and in this group the total kidney-related mortality was 9.7 (9.3-10.2) deaths/10,000 dog-years at risk. The three breeds with the highest incidence of kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, miniature schnauzer and boxer. The three breeds with the highest mortality caused by kidney disease were the Bernese mountain dog, Shetland sheepdog and flat-coated retriever. In conclusion, the epidemiological information provided in this study concerning kidney disease in dogs can provide valuable information for future research.

  13. Genetic architecture of the dog: sexual size dimorphism and functional morphology.

    PubMed

    Lark, Karl G; Chase, Kevin; Sutter, Nathan B

    2006-10-01

    Purebred dogs are a valuable resource for genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Quantitative traits are complex, controlled by many genes that are contained within regions of the genome known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). The genetic architecture of quantitative traits is defined by the characteristics of these genes: their number, the magnitude of their effects, their positions in the genome and their interactions with each other. QTL analysis is a valuable tool for exploring genetic architecture, and highlighting regions of the genome that contribute to the variation of a trait within a population.

  14. Signalment factors, comorbidity, and trends in behavior diagnoses in dogs: 1,644 cases (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Houpt, Katherine A

    2006-11-15

    To determine trends in behavior diagnoses; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same dog (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 1,644 dogs. Medical records of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems were reviewed for breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. Numbers of dogs with aggression, anxiety, and unruly behavior increased over the course of the study, as did the total number of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems. In general and for aggression, Dalmatians, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were evaluated more often than expected, whereas Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers were evaluated less often than expected. Labrador Retrievers were also underrepresented for anxiety, whereas mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented. Males were overrepresented except for interdog aggression, anxieties, and phobias, whereas females were overrepresented for phobias. Dogs with phobias were evaluated at a median age of 6.5 years, compared with dogs with other problems (median age, 2.5 years). A mean of 1.6 diagnoses/dog was observed, with certain diagnoses clustered. Results suggested that in dogs, behavioral problems changed over the course of the study; age, sex, and breed distributions varied among diagnoses; and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.

  15. Adaptive traits of indigenous cattle breeds: The Mediterranean Baladi as a case study.

    PubMed

    Shabtay, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review.

  16. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies in healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L N; Wiinberg, B; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Kristensen, A T

    2011-01-01

    The role of antiphospholipid antibodies in the prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) previously identified in healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs remains unknown. In people, an isolated prolonged aPTT without evidence of bleeding might be because of a thrombophilic condition caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. To examine if prolonged aPTT in healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs is because of antiphospholipid antibodies. Twenty-two healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs and 10 healthy adult dogs of various breeds. Prospective case control study. Healthy Bernese Moutain Dogs were examined twice over 6 months. Dogs were investigated for the presence of lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin (aCL) antibodies by the use of multiple aPTT tests with low and high lupus anticoagulant sensitivities, a mixing study, and an ELISA test for aCL antibody optical density to detect solid phase antiphospholipid antibodies. In all, 15 of 22 healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs were positive for lupus anticoagulants. The Bernese Mountain Dogs had markedly higher levels of aCL antibodies compared with the control dogs (P = .006). In all, 7 of 21 of the Bernese Mountain Dogs were positive for both lupus anticoagulants and aCL antibodies, whereas 4 of 21 Bernese Mountain Dogs were negative for both. Lupus anticoagulants and aCL antibodies could be the cause of prolonged aPTT in healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs. The importance of the antiphospholipid antibodies in the dogs remains unknown. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Transdiaphragmatic pericardiectomy in dogs.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, M; Kitshoff, A; Devriendt, N; Or, M; Rubio-Guzman, A; de Rooster, H

    2017-01-28

    In patients with recurrent pericardial effusions, pericardiectomy is indicated. The purpose of this study was to describe a transdiaphragmatic approach for subtotal pericardiectomy in dogs and to evaluate its feasibility. In total, 20 canine cadavers weighing less than 10 kg (group S) and 20 weighing more than 20 kg (group L) were used. Within each group, half underwent a subphrenic pericardiectomy via an intercostal approach and half via a transdiaphragmatic approach. For each approach and within each weight group, the percentage of resected pericardium was calculated and compared. Additionally, a case series of nine consecutive client-owned dogs that underwent a transdiaphragmatic pericardiectomy for pericardial effusion was reported. Exposure of pericardium and associated phrenic nerves was excellent in cadavers and clinical patients. In group S, the percentage of resected pericardium was not significantly different between the two approaches. In group L, on the other hand, the percentage of resected pericardium was lower with the transdiaphragmatic approach compared with the intercostal approach (P=0.001). In the clinical patients, no intraoperative complications were encountered and no recurrence of pericardial effusion was seen. Subtotal pericardiectomy via a transdiaphragmatic approach is straightforward and a safe surgical procedure to obtain permanent pericardial drainage in small and large breed dogs. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Characteristics and Outcomes of Dogs Admitted into Queensland RSPCA Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Jacquie; Morton, John; Paterson, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An up-to-date and comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters is required for implementing targeted strategies to reduce euthanasia of healthy and treatable dogs in Australia. Currently, there are few up-to-date Australian data published on dogs entering shelters, and their outcomes. Of dogs entering the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland shelters in 2014, the majority (58%) were strays and 26% were puppies. Only 18% of dogs >6 months were desexed. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%). Strategies targeted to locations and breeds overrepresented by admissions are required to reduce shelter admissions, particularly of strays and unwanted litters. Abstract Over 200,000 stray and surrendered dogs are admitted to shelters and municipal facilities in Australia each year, and approximately 20% are euthanized. Contemporary, comprehensive data on the characteristics and outcomes of dogs entering shelters are required to reduce shelter admissions and euthanasia. However, there are currently limited up-to-date data published on dog admission into shelters. A retrospective single cohort study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of the dog population entering Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Queensland (RSPCA-QLD) shelters in 2014 (n = 11,967). The majority of dog admissions were strays from the public (24%) or from municipal councils (34%). Just over a quarter of admissions were puppies, 18% of adults (>6 months) were desexed, and the majority of admissions were crossbred dogs (92%). The majority of owner surrenders (86%) were due to human-related reasons. Most dogs were reclaimed (32%) or adopted (43%) and aggression was the most common reason for euthanasia of adult dogs (45%). Low-cost or free desexing and identification programs targeted to areas and breeds contributing to high intake, and increased support services for owners at

  19. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2016-09-30

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs.

  20. Reproductive ability of a cloned male detector dog and behavioral traits of its offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Geon A; Kim, Rak Seung; Lee, Jong Su; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Hong, Do Kyo

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, seven detector dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using one nuclear donor dog, then trained and certified as excellent detector dogs, similar to their donor. In 2011, we crossed a cloned male and normal female by natural breeding and produced ten offspring. In this study, we investigated the puppies' temperaments, which we later compared with those of the cloned parent male. The results show that the cloned male had normal reproductive abilities and produced healthy offspring. All puppies completed narcotic detector dog training with a success rate for selection of 60%. Although the litter of cloned males was small in this study, a cloned male dog bred by natural mating produced puppies that later successfully completed the training course for drug detection. In conclusion, cloning an elite dog with superior genetic factors and breeding of the cloned dog was found to be a useful method to efficiently procure detector dogs. PMID:26435541

  1. Decline in human dog-bite cases during a street dog sterilisation programme in Jaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Reece, J F; Chawla, S K; Hiby, A R

    2013-05-04

    Human dog-bite injuries are a major public health problem, particularly where there are large populations of free-roaming or street dogs. Dog bites are also the major source of human rabies infections. There is little information on the means to reduce these injuries. Monthly human animal-bite injury records from January 2003 to June 2011 were obtained from the main government hospital in Jaipur, India. The data were analysed and compared with records of pregnancy in street dogs in Jaipur obtained from a street dog sterilisation programme. Human animal-bite injuries showed a seasonal pattern which followed by approximately 10 weeks the seasonal peak of street dog breeding. The number of human animal bites has declined significantly since 2003. It is concluded that a street dog sterilisation programme can reduce human dog-bite injuries by reducing the maternal protective behaviour of the street dogs, as well as reducing the total size of the roaming dog population.

  2. Mandatory desexing of dogs: one step in the right direction to reduce the risk of dog bite? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    D'Onise, Katina; Hazel, Susan; Caraguel, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Preventing dog bites is an intractable problem given the complex dog bite injury environment. Desexing of dogs has the opportunity of creating a safer injury environment, given the potential links between desexing and behaviour change in dogs. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the evidence for desexing of dogs to reduce dog bite risk within a population health paradigm. Medline and CAB Abstracts were searched for studies that reported data on the association of dog neuter status with the risk of dog bite. All definitions of dog bite were included and all empirical studies were included in the review, limited to those published in English. Quality appraisal and data extraction were based on the 2013 evidence-based practice and critical appraisal tool from the University of Auckland. Five out of six observational studies, from four study populations found evidence that intact dogs were associated with an increased risk of dog bite compared with desexed dogs. The effect sizes ranged across the studies and given the heterogeneity of the studies no single effect size on the association between desexing and dog bite risk could be estimated. There is consistent evidence that desexing dogs is associated with a reduced risk of dog bite, although the studies reflect association and may not be causal. Although recent publications have suggested desexing is associated with health and behavioural costs in some breeds, population level evidence supports desexed dogs having a longer lifespan, and being less likely to wander with the added benefit of reducing unwanted litters. Thus, mandatory desexing presents a possible opportunity for prevention of dog bites expanding dog bite prevention beyond an education-only approach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size.

  4. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    PubMed

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  5. Ultra-low-density genotype panels for breed assignment of Angus and Hereford cattle.

    PubMed

    Judge, M M; Kelleher, M M; Kearney, J F; Sleator, R D; Berry, D P

    2017-06-01

    Angus and Hereford beef is marketed internationally for apparent superior meat quality attributes; DNA-based breed authenticity could be a useful instrument to ensure consumer confidence on premium meat products. The objective of this study was to develop an ultra-low-density genotype panel to accurately quantify the Angus and Hereford breed proportion in biological samples. Medium-density genotypes (13 306 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)) were available on 54 703 commercial and 4042 purebred animals. The breed proportion of the commercial animals was generated from the medium-density genotypes and this estimate was regarded as the gold-standard breed composition. Ten genotype panels (100 to 1000 SNPs) were developed from the medium-density genotypes; five methods were used to identify the most informative SNPs and these included the Delta statistic, the fixation (F st) statistic and an index of both. Breed assignment analyses were undertaken for each breed, panel density and SNP selection method separately with a programme to infer population structure using the entire 13 306 SNP panel (representing the gold-standard measure). Breed assignment was undertaken for all commercial animals (n=54 703), animals deemed to contain some proportion of Angus based on pedigree (n=5740) and animals deemed to contain some proportion of Hereford based on pedigree (n=5187). The predicted breed proportion of all animals from the lower density panels was then compared with the gold-standard breed prediction. Panel density, SNP selection method and breed all had a significant effect on the correlation of predicted and actual breed proportion. Regardless of breed, the Index method of SNP selection numerically (but not significantly) outperformed all other selection methods in accuracy (i.e. correlation and root mean square of prediction) when panel density was ⩾300 SNPs. The correlation between actual and predicted breed proportion increased as panel density increased. Using

  6. Accuracy of genomic breeding values in multibreed beef cattle populations derived from deregressed breeding values and phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Weber, K L; Thallman, R M; Keele, J W; Snelling, W M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L; McDaneld, T G; Allan, M F; Van Eenennaam, A L; Kuehn, L A

    2012-12-01

    Genomic selection involves the assessment of genetic merit through prediction equations that allocate genetic variation with dense marker genotypes. It has the potential to provide accurate breeding values for selection candidates at an early age and facilitate selection for expensive or difficult to measure traits. Accurate across-breed prediction would allow genomic selection to be applied on a larger scale in the beef industry, but the limited availability of large populations for the development of prediction equations has delayed researchers from providing genomic predictions that are accurate across multiple beef breeds. In this study, the accuracy of genomic predictions for 6 growth and carcass traits were derived and evaluated using 2 multibreed beef cattle populations: 3,358 crossbred cattle of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Germplasm Evaluation Program (USMARC_GPE) and 1,834 high accuracy bull sires of the 2,000 Bull Project (2000_BULL) representing influential breeds in the U.S. beef cattle industry. The 2000_BULL EPD were deregressed, scaled, and weighted to adjust for between- and within-breed heterogeneous variance before use in training and validation. Molecular breeding values (MBV) trained in each multibreed population and in Angus and Hereford purebred sires of 2000_BULL were derived using the GenSel BayesCπ function (Fernando and Garrick, 2009) and cross-validated. Less than 10% of large effect loci were shared between prediction equations trained on (USMARC_GPE) relative to 2000_BULL although locus effects were moderately to highly correlated for most traits and the traits themselves were highly correlated between populations. Prediction of MBV accuracy was low and variable between populations. For growth traits, MBV accounted for up to 18% of genetic variation in a pooled, multibreed analysis and up to 28% in single breeds. For carcass traits, MBV explained up to 8% of genetic variation in a pooled, multibreed analysis and up to 42% in

  7. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ 2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  8. Suitability of cross-bred cows for organic farms based on cross-breeding effects on production and functional traits.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Y; Smolders, E A A; Hoorneman, J N; Nauta, W J; Veerkamp, R F

    2013-04-01

    Data from 113 Dutch organic farms were analysed to determine the effect of cross-breeding on production and functional traits. In total, data on 33 788 lactations between January 2003 and February 2009 from 15 015 cows were available. Holstein-Friesian pure-bred cows produced most kg of milk in 305 days, but with the lowest percentages of fat and protein of all pure-bred cows in the data set. Cross-breeding Holstein dairy cows with other breeds (Brown Swiss, Dutch Friesian, Groningen White Headed, Jersey, Meuse Rhine Yssel, Montbéliarde or Fleckvieh) decreased milk production, but improved fertility and udder health in most cross-bred animals. In most breeds, heterosis had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on milk (kg in 305 days), fat and protein-corrected milk production (kg in 305 days) and calving interval (CI) in the favourable direction (i.e. more milk, shorter CI), but unfavourably for somatic cell count (higher cell count). Recombination was unfavourable for the milk production traits, but favourable for the functional traits (fertility and udder health). Farm characteristics, like soil type or housing system, affected the regression coefficients on breed components significantly. The effect of the Holstein breed on milk yield was twice as large in cubicle housing as in other housing systems. Jerseys had a negative effect on fertility only on farms on sandy soils. Hence, breed effects differ across farming systems in the organic farming and farmers can use such information to dovetail their farming system with the type of cow they use.

  9. Canine sterile nodular panniculitis: a retrospective study of 39 dogs.

    PubMed

    Contreary, Caitlin L; Outerbridge, Catherine A; Affolter, Verena K; Kass, Philip H; White, Stephen D

    2015-12-01

    Canine sterile nodular panniculitis (SNP) is an inflammatory disease of the panniculus that is typically managed with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatments. It has been reported to be a cutaneous marker of an underlying systemic disease. To assess the presence or absence of concurrent systemic diseases associated with canine SNP and to document breed predispositions. Thirty nine dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital from 1990 to 2012 which met inclusion criteria. Inclusion in this retrospective study required a diagnosis of SNP via histopathological analysis and negative special stains for infectious organisms. Breed distributions of affected dogs were compared to all other dogs examined at this hospital during the study period. Correlations between the histological pattern of panniculitis and the histological presence of dermatitis, clinical presentation of lesions, dog breed and therapeutic outcomes were assessed. Australian shepherd dogs, Brittany spaniels, Dalmatians, Pomeranians and Chihuahuas were significantly over-represented, but correlations between inflammatory patterns of panniculitis and other histological and clinical factors were not identified. Based on the information available in medical records, 32 dogs (82.1%) had no concurrent systemic diseases identified. Four dogs had concurrent polyarthritis, which may be related to SNP through unknown mechanisms. This study identified several novel breed predilections for SNP; it failed to find any clear correlations with associated systemic diseases other than polyarthritis. The histological inflammatory pattern of SNP does not predict therapeutic outcome. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Epidemiology of Dog and Cat Abandonment in Spain (2008–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Fatjó, Jaume; Bowen, Jonathan; García, Elena; Calvo, Paula; Rueda, Silvia; Amblás, Silvia; Lalanza, Jaume F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In this paper we wanted to estimate the incidence of abandonment, as well as the general profile of dogs and cats entering animal shelters in our country. Also, we wanted to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs that had entered animal shelters. More than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. A considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was euthanized. We found that identification of dogs with a microchip increased by 3-fold the likelihood of them being returned to the owner. Abstract Millions of pets are abandoned worldwide every year, which is an important animal welfare and financial problem. This paper was divided into three studies. Our first two studies were designed as a national survey of animal shelters to profile the population of stray dogs and cats, as well as to gather information on both relinquishment and adoption. The aim of our third study was to test the impact of identification on the recovery of dogs entering animal shelters. Studies one and two indicate that more than 100,000 dogs and more than 30,000 cats enter animal shelters annually in Spain. We observed a seasonal effect in the number of admissions in cats. Two-thirds of dogs and cats entering shelters were found as strays, while the rest were relinquished directly to the shelter. Most pets admitted to animal shelters were adult, non-purebred, and without a microchip, with the majority of dogs being medium sized. Adult dogs spent significantly more time in shelters than puppies. While most animals were either adopted or recovered by their owner, a considerable percentage remained at the shelter or was euthanized. The identification of dogs with a microchip increased by 3-fold the likelihood of them being returned to the owner. PMID:26479243

  11. An insight into population structure and gene flow within pure-bred cats.

    PubMed

    Leroy, G; Vernet, E; Pautet, M B; Rognon, X

    2014-02-01

    Investigation of genetic structure on the basis of pedigree information requires indicators adapted to the specific context of the populations studied. On the basis of pedigree-based estimates of diversity, we analysed genetic diversity, mating practices and gene flow among eight cat populations raised in France, five of them being single breeds and three consisting of breed groups with varieties that may interbreed. When computed on the basis of coancestry rate, effective population sizes ranged from 127 to 1406, while the contribution of founders from other breeds ranged from 0.7 to 16.4%. In the five breeds, FIS ranged between 0.96 and 1.83%, with this result being related to mating practices such as close inbreeding (on average 5% of individuals being inbred within two generations). Within the three groups of varieties studied, FIT ranged from 1.59 to 3%, while FST¯ values were estimated between 0.04 and 0.91%, which was linked to various amounts of gene exchanges between subpopulations at the parental level. The results indicate that cat breeds constitute populations submitted to low selection intensity, contrasting with relatively high individual inbreeding level caused by close inbreeding practices. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genomic characterization of a circovirus associated with fatal hemorrhagic enteritis in dog, Italy.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Desario, Costantina; Lanave, Gianvito; Circella, Elena; Cavalli, Alessandra; Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-01-01

    Dog circovirus (DogCV) was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411-13) was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs.

  13. Genomic Characterization of a Circovirus Associated with Fatal Hemorrhagic Enteritis in Dog, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Desario, Costantina; Lanave, Gianvito; Circella, Elena; Cavalli, Alessandra; Elia, Gabriella; Camero, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-01-01

    Dog circovirus (DogCV) was identified in an outbreak of enteritis in pups in Italy. The disease was observed in 6 young dachshunds pups of a litter from a breeding kennel and caused the death of 2 dogs. Upon full-genome analysis, the virus detected in one of the dead pups (strain Bari/411–13) was closely related to DogCVs that have been recently isolated in the USA. The present study, if corroborated by further reports, could represent a useful contribution to the knowledge of the pathogenic potential of DogCV and its association with enteritis in dogs. PMID:25147946

  14. Naturally Occurring Adrenocortical Insufficiency--An Epidemiological Study Based on a Swedish-Insured Dog Population of 525,028 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Hanson, J M; Tengvall, K; Bonnett, B N; Hedhammar, Å