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  1. Assessment of a Microsoft Kinect-based 3D scanning system for taking body segment girth measurements: a comparison to ISAK and ISO standards.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Sean; Wheat, Jon; Heller, Ben; Choppin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Use of anthropometric data to infer sporting performance is increasing in popularity, particularly within elite sport programmes. Measurement typically follows standards set by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). However, such techniques are time consuming, which reduces their practicality. Schranz et al. recently suggested 3D body scanners could replace current measurement techniques; however, current systems are costly. Recent interest in natural user interaction has led to a range of low-cost depth cameras capable of producing 3D body scans, from which anthropometrics can be calculated. A scanning system comprising 4 depth cameras was used to scan 4 cylinders, representative of the body segments. Girth measurements were calculated from the 3D scans and compared to gold standard measurements. Requirements of a Level 1 ISAK practitioner were met in all 4 cylinders, and ISO standards for scan-derived girth measurements were met in the 2 larger cylinders only. A fixed measurement bias was identified that could be corrected with a simple offset factor. Further work is required to determine comparable performance across a wider range of measurements performed upon living participants. Nevertheless, findings of the study suggest such a system offers many advantages over current techniques, having a range of potential applications.

  2. 76 FR 5826 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Philadelphia, OH; Robert Gummesson, London, UNITED KINGDOM; Isak Jonsson (individual member), Sollentuna..., SPAIN, have been added as parties to this venture. Also, 3T Technology, Taipei City, TAIWAN; Blue...

  3. [The virtuous doctor in cinema: the final examination].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    The virtuous doctor has subscribed an oath and by subscribing to this solemn promise, he is committed to live in accordance with the purposes, obligations and virtues established in the medical profession. Cinematic art has shown only a superficial interest in complex aspects of medical profession. An exception is Ingmar Bergman's film "Wild Strawberries", where Professor Isak Borg, a widowed 76-year-old physician, is to be awarded the Doctor Jubilaris degree, 50 years after he received his doctorate at Lund University. During the trip, Isak is forced by a nightmare to reevaluate his professional life as not being a virtuous doctor.

  4. Teaching the Short Story: A Guide to Using Stories from around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Bonnie H., Ed.; McDonnell, Helen M., Ed.

    An innovative and practical resource for teachers looking to move beyond English and American works, this book explores 175 highly teachable short stories from nearly 50 countries, highlighting the work of recognized authors from practically every continent, authors such as Chinua Achebe, Anita Desai, Nadine Gordimer, Milan Kundera, Isak Dinesen,…

  5. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure…

  6. Out of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2009-01-01

    Karen Blixen (Isak Dinesen), author of "Out of Africa," said, "God made the world round so people would never be able to see too far down the road." The author embraced this wonderful thought by venturing on a three-week journey to Kenya and Tanzania in search of grand adventure. In this article, the author shares her adventure…

  7. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kivelä, Riikka; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Rinnankoski-Tuikka,, Rita; Purhonen, Tatja; Ketola, Tarmo; Pullinen, Katri; Vuento, Meri; Mutanen, Niina; Sartor, Maureen A.; Reunanen, Hilkka; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    A strong link exists between low aerobic exercise capacity and complex metabolic diseases. To probe this linkage, we utilized rat models of low and high intrinsic aerobic endurance running capacity that differ also in the risk for metabolic syndrome. We investigated in skeletal muscle gene-phenotype relationships that connect aerobic endurance capacity with metabolic disease risk factors. The study compared 12 high capacity runners (HCRs) and 12 low capacity runners (LCRs) from generation 18 of selection that differed by 615% for maximal treadmill endurance running capacity. On average, LCRs were heavier and had increased blood glucose, insulin, and triglycerides compared with HCRs. HCRs were higher for resting metabolic rate, voluntary activity, serum high density lipoproteins, muscle capillarity, and mitochondrial area. Bioinformatic analysis of skeletal muscle gene expression data revealed that many genes up-regulated in HCRs were related to oxidative energy metabolism. Seven mean mRNA expression centroids, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, correlated significantly with several exercise capacity and disease risk phenotypes. These expression-phenotype correlations, together with diminished skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial area in LCR rats, support the general hypothesis that an inherited intrinsic aerobic capacity can underlie disease risks.—Kivelä, R., Silvennoinen, M., Lehti, M., Rinnankoski-Tuikka, R., Purhonen, T., Ketola, T., Pullinen, K., Vuento, M., Mutanen, N., Sartor, M. A., Reunanen, H., Koch, L. G., Britton, S. L., Kainulainen, H. Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk. PMID:20643908

  8. Protocol variations in arm position influence the magnitude of waist girth.

    PubMed

    Lennie, Susan C; Amofa-Diatuo, Tracy; Nevill, Alan; Stewart, Arthur D

    2013-01-01

    Waist girth is recognised as a better predictor of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, compared to other measures. Although several protocols for waist girth exist, arm position is either ignored, or not specified in unambiguous terms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if arm position influenced anthropometric waist girth measurement. Waist girth was measured in 92 adults (19 males, 73 females) with arms relaxed, abducted, horizontal, folded across the chest (three variations) and raised vertically. Duplicate measures, in all positions, were recorded by a single International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK)-trained technician to a precision of 0.2% technical error of measurement (TEM). Arm position had a significant effect (P < 0.001) on waist girth. Male participants had greater waist girth than females (P < 0.001) and the waist girth differences across the varying arm positions exhibited a significant position-by-gender interaction (P < 0.001). The arm position-by-body mass index (BMI) category interaction was also significant (P = 0.016) with greater differences observed at higher BMI. These findings suggest caution in comparing results of different studies where arm position is not specified and indicate that the arm position corresponding to the ISAK protocol has the lowest error and is therefore recommended.

  9. Body composition in sport: a comparison of a novel ultrasound imaging technique to measure subcutaneous fat tissue compared with skinfold measurement.

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfram; Horn, Martin; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Kröpfl, Julia M; Maughan, Ronald J; Ahammer, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Extremely low weight and rapid changes in weight and body composition have become major concerns in many sports, but sufficiently accurate field methods for body composition assessment in athletes are missing. This study aimed to explore the use of ultrasound methods for assessment of body fat content in athletes. 19 female athletes (stature: 1.67(± 0.06) m, weight: 59.6(± 7.6) kg; age: 19.5(± 3.3) years) were investigated by three observers using a novel ultrasound method for thickness measurement of uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue and of embedded structures. Two observers also measured skinfold thickness at eight International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthrometry (ISAK) sites; mean skinfold values were compared to mean subcutaneous adipose tissue thicknesses measured by ultrasound. Interobserver reliability of imaging and evaluation obtained by this ultrasound technique: intraclass correlation coefficient ICC=0.968 (95% CI 0.957 to 0.977); evaluation of given images: ICC=0.997 (0.993 to 0.999). Skinfold compared to ultrasound thickness showed that compressibility of subcutaneous adipose tissue depends largely on the site and the person: regression slopes ranged from 0.61 (biceps) to 1.59 (thigh) and CIs were large. Limits of agreement ranged from 2.6 to 8.6 mm. Regression lines did not intercept the skinfold axis at zero because of the skin thickness being included in the skinfold. The four ISAK trunk sites caused ultrasound imaging problems in 13 of 152 sites (8 ISAK sites, 19 athletes). The ultrasound method allows measurement of uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness with an accuracy of 0.1-0.5 mm, depending on the probe frequency. Compressibility of the skinfold depends on the anatomical site, and skin thickness varies by a factor of two. This inevitably limits the skinfold methods for body fat estimation. Ultrasound accuracy for subcutaneous adipose tissue measurement is limited by the plasticity of fat and furrowed tissue

  10. [BODY COMPOSITION AND SOMATOTYPE IN UNIVERSITY TRIATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Guillén Rivas, Laura; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Norte-Navarro, Aurora; Cejuela, Roberto; Cabañas, María Dolores; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel

    2015-08-01

    the triathlon is an endurance sport and individual that consists of three different disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype in male college triathletes. observational and descriptive study of anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of 39 male college athletes from 24 ± 4,5 years, participants in the championship of Spain university triathlon sprint mode (Alicante 2010), from different universities Spanish. According to anthropometric measurement techniques adopted by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) and the Spanish Group Cineantropometría (GREC) by an accredited assessor ISAK Level II. we find athletes of stunting, where you destacanvalores below normal in the subscapularis, supraspinatus, triceps and biceps skinfold, percentage of muscle mass (45.27 ± 3.29%) and fat mass (10.22 ± 2.92%) and bone (16.65 ± 1.34%) and where mesomorphy somatotipo predominates. the triathletes and runners have lower size that cyclists and swimmers. Triathletes and cyclists show a similar weight, less than swimmers line, and more than 10km runners. Iliac crest skinfold, abdominal and thigh front cyclists are less than triathletes. The percentage of fat mass of runners triathletes and swimmers are similar, however the muscle mass of athletes usually less than cyclists but similar to other forms. Somatotype resembles triathlete cyclist (mesomorph). The corridor is ectomorph and mesomorph-swimmer can range from a ectomorph mesomorph. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress-Related Job Analysis for Medical Students on Surgical Wards in Germany.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Meyer, Christine Y; Heinemann, Silvia; Meyer, Frank; Biberthaler, Peter; Bruns, Christiane J; Kanz, Karl-Georg

    Working conditions in hospitals generate stress within all professional groups. The aim of this study was to find out how German medical students during their senior student clerkship in surgery perceive their own stress and the stress of surgical residents. This was measured using "Instrument zur stressbezogenen Arbeitsanalyse bei KlinikÃrztInnen (ISAK-K)," a validated questionnaire of the German statutory occupational accident insurance system (BGW). This bi-institutional paper-and-pencil survey was performed on 52 medical students in their sixth year, who had been working in a surgical department for 4 months. Data were compared with those of the BGW on the stress perceived by physicians working in German surgical departments. The stress levels measured with the ISAK-K were similar in students and in physicians working in surgery. Students believe that surgical residents experience a higher time pressure (p < 0.03). Those students planning a surgical career feel to be more exposed to time pressure (p < 0.01), but to be more free to decide how to work (p < 0.03) than their "nonsurgical" colleagues do. In addition, in contrast to the "nonsurgical" students, students interested in surgery believe that surgical residents have more possibilities to learn at work (p < 0.05) and that they can rely on their supervisors (p < 0.03). All students believe that surgical residents commonly need to take decisions without having enough information (p < 0.05). When compared with the BGW data students overestimate the stress of surgical residents. Students overestimate time pressure and uncertainty of surgical residents. A possible way to increase their interest in surgery is offering a better insight in surgeons' work and strategies to deal with these stressors. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Habit based consumptions in the mediterranean diet and the relationship with anthropometric parameters in young female kayakers].

    PubMed

    Alacid, Fernando; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Sánchez-Pato, Antonio; Muyor, José María; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Dietary habits and body composition are possibly two of the most modifiable aspects that influence athletic performance in competition and training, especially in individual sports. To determine Mediterranean diet adherence in a group of elite women paddlers and the relationship between these variables with anthropometric parameters and somatotype of the athlete. A 90 women cadets who belonged to the national elite canoeing underwent a complete anthropometry according to ISAK instructions; and they selfcompleted KIDMED test to know their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. After that, anthropometric characteristics were compared based on their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. One kayaker had a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, 38 a medium adherence and 51 an excellent adherence. However, one in every three not eats nuts and one in every five makes sweets more than once a day or industrial pastries for breakfast. When it was dividing paddlers based on their Mediterranean diet adherence it was found that the two groups (low and medium adherence and excellent adherence) did not show differences in most of the anthropometric variables, composition body percentages, somatotype and body mass index. The paddlers show a medium or excellent Mediterranean diet adherence. There was not clear relationship between anthropometric parameters and the degree of Mediterranean diet adherence in these athletes. It is necessary to continue researching the interaction between these fields in order to indentify possible relationships with health and sport performance in elite kayakers.

  13. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  14. Stability of somatotypes in 4 to 10 year-old rural South African girls.

    PubMed

    Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; de Ridder, J H; Kemper, H C G; Steyn, N P; Nthangeni, M E; Twisk, J W R; van Lenthe, F J

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, a mixed Ellisras longitudinal study (ELS) was initiated to assess the stability of somatotypes in 408 girls who comprised 99 pre-school and 309 primary school children in Ellisras rural area in the Northern Province of South Africa. The children's somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Anthropometric dimensions were taken according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The most stable pre-school and primary school girl had migratory distances (MDs) of 2.6 and 3.4, respectively, while the least stable pre-school and primary school girl had MDs of 17.9 and 24.4, respectively. The mean somatotype of the pre-school children was mesomorph-ectomorph throughout the complete age range, while the mean somatotype of primary school girls was mesomorph-ectomorph for all the age groups except for the 9.5 years group at which it was in the balanced ectomorph. The inter-age partial correlations for endomorphy and ectomorphy were high and significant, but insignificant with regard to mesomorphy.

  15. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  16. [Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-09-01

    To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirty-two anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bone lenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [ANTHROPOMETRIC PROPORTIONALITY METHOD ELECTION IN A SPORT POPULATION; COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS].

    PubMed

    Almagià, Atilio; Araneda, Alberto; Sánchez, Javier; Sánchez, Patricio; Zúñiga, Maximiliano; Plaza, Paula

    2015-09-01

    the proportionality model application, based on ideal proportions, would have a great impact on high performance sports, due to best athletes to resemble anthropometrically. the objective of this study was to compare the following anthropometric methods of proportionality: Phantom, Combined and Scalable, in male champion university Chilean soccer players in 2012 and 2013, using South American professional soccer players as criterion, in order to find the most appropriate proportionality method to sports populations. the measerement of 22 kinanthropometric variables was performed, according to the ISAK protocol, to a sample constituted of 13 members of the men's soccer team of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. The Z-values of the anthropometrics variables of each method were obtained using their respective equations. It was used as criterion population South American soccer players. a similar trend was observed between the three methods. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in some Z-values of Scalable and Combined methods compared to Phantom method. No significant differences were observed between the results obtained by the Combined and Scalable methods, except in wrist, thigh and hip perimeters. it is more appropriate to use the Scalable method over the Combined and Phantom methods for the comparison of Z values in kinanthropometric variables in athletes of the same discipline. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Accuracy of prediction equations to assess percentage of body fat in children and adolescents with Down syndrome compared to air displacement plethysmography.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Ara, I; Moreno, L A; Casajús, J A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12 girls, 16 boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements height, weight, and skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac were performed following ISAK recommendations. Total body density (TBD) was estimated using three equations and was also measured with ADP; while %BF was calculated from all densities using the Siri equation and from skinfolds using the Slaughter et al. equation. Finally, the agreement between methods was assessed by plotting the results in Bland-Altman graphs. The presence of heteroscedasticity was also examined. Despite the equation of Slaughter et al. had a large 95% limits of agreement, it was the only one without a significant inter-methods difference and without heteroscedasticity. The equation of Slaughter seems to be, from the studied, the most accurate for estimating %BF in children and adolescents with DS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Anthropometric characteristics and skeletal maturity of male Venezuelan swimmers].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Lioggiodice, Marinés; Arroyo, Esteban; Pérez, Betty

    2006-06-01

    Knowledge of the morph-physiological conditions of young athletes, it of the utmost importance for planning better trainning programs and to identify those characteristics that lead to a better performance. This paper aims to classify a group of 114 male Venezuelan swimmers of the Miranda State contingent, aged between 7.00 and 18.99 years old, based on their anthropometric characteristics and skeletal maturity. For this purpose multivariate methods: Analysis of Principal Components (APC) and the Automatic Classification were employed. Anthropometric variables followed the International Society for the Advancement of Kinantropometry (ISAK) guidelines. Skeletal maturity and five indexes of body composition: brachial, crural, cormic and acromiale-iliac indexes, were additionally considered in the analysis. Three groups emerged very well defined and homogenous within and between groups. The first group identifies the younger swimmers with the smallest values in corporal dimensions. The second group comprises those swimmers characterized fundamentally by a greater development of the bicrestal diameter. In the third group, greater values of the anthropometrical variables were found, that shaped the typical profile of the swimmers, mainly characterized by a trapezoidal trunk. Most of the swimmers are advanced in skeletal age related to chronological age. This clustering of the swimmers permits a suitable way to identify the bio-morphological characteristics of the athletes.

  20. Neurosyphilis, or chronic heavy metal poisoning: Karen Blixen's lifelong disease.

    PubMed

    Weismann, K

    1995-01-01

    Since the 1490s, the treatment of syphilis has consisted of heavy metals--first mercurial and later arsenic and bismuth preparations. Tabes dorsalis, as described by Duchenne in the 1850s, is made up of various characteristic neurologic symptoms. "Gastric crises," sudden stabbing pains followed by vomiting and diarrhea, was originally included by Duchenne, but later, syphilologists disputed its relevance to syphilis. Poisoning by heavy metals, including mercury, may produce similar pain reactions and tabes-like neurologic symptoms. According to an earlier published pathography, the Danish author Karen Blixen (1885-1962), also known under the pseudonym Isak Dinesen, suffered from a lifelong disease described as tabes dorsalis. She got syphilis in 1914 and took mercury pills for a year, after which she experienced a severe mercurial intoxication. The Wassermann reaction (WR) in peripheral blood was positive only once, in 1915, before treatment with arsphenamine (Salvarsan), which she received during hospitalization in Copenhagen in 1915 to 1916. Her spinal fluid was examined several times from 1915 to 1956. Apart from an increased number of cells in 1915, the fluid remained unremarkable and the WR was always negative. It was postulated that her illness, ending with a cachectic state, was the result of heavy metal poisoning from the various treatments and not a monosymptomatic tabes dorsalis with negative serology.

  1. Anthropometric dimensions of male powerlifters of varying body mass.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In this study, we examined the anthropometric dimensions of powerlifters across various body mass (competitive bodyweight) categories. Fifty-four male Oceania competitive powerlifters (9 lightweight, 30 middleweight, and 15 heavyweight) were recruited from one international and two national powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. Powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. The powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and had large girths and bony breadths, both in absolute units and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974). These anthropometric characteristics were more pronounced in heavyweights, who were significantly heavier, had greater muscle and fat mass, were more endo-mesomorphic, and had larger girths and bony breadths than the lighter lifters. Although middleweight and heavyweight lifters typically had longer segment lengths than the lightweights, all three groups had similar Zp-scores for the segment lengths, indicating similar segment length proportions. While population comparisons would be required to identify any connection between specific anthropometric dimensions that confer a competitive advantage to the expression of maximal strength, anthropometric profiling may prove useful for talent identification and for the assessment of training progression in powerlifting.

  2. To what extent does sexual dimorphism exist in competitive powerlifters?

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter

    2008-03-01

    We examined sexual dimorphism in the anthropometry of 68 Australasian and Pacific powerlifters (14 females, 54 males) who were competing in one of two national or international powerlifting competitions held in New Zealand. All powerlifters were assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) Level II and III accredited anthropometrists. While the powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Z(p)-scores compared through the Phantom (Ross & Wilson, 1974), these characteristics were often more pronounced in male than female lifters. No significant inter-gender differences in any of the measures of adiposity were observed. When normalized through the Phantom, the female and male powerlifters had relatively similar segment lengths and bone breadths, indicating that regardless of gender, competitive powerlifters possess comparable skeletal proportions. These results indicate that although competitive powerlifters exhibit sexual dimorphism for many absolute anthropometric measures, little dimorphism is found for measures of adiposity and for proportional segment lengths and bone breadths. These results further support the importance of anthropometric profiling for powerlifting, and suggest that successful male and female powerlifters will possess similar proportional characteristics.

  3. Correlations of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences at exactly defined body sites with leptin in 10-12-year-old boys with different BMIs.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Stefanelli, Claudio; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Saar, Meeli

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations of leptin with values of skinfold thicknesses and circumferences in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 248) and these correlations were additionally studied in boys with different BMI subgroups (normal N = 190, overweight N = 34 and obese N = 24). In total, 9 skinfolds and 13 circumferences were measured using the recommendations of ISAK. Fasting leptin concentrations were also determined. No significant differences emerged between the three subgroups in age and Tanner stage. Skinfold thicknesses, circumferences and leptin concentrations were significantly higher in overweight and obese groups. In the total group, the correlation (partial correlation, eliminating age and Tanner stage) between separate skinfold thicknesses and leptin was higher than r = 0.70. The sum of 9 skinfold thicknesses correlated significantly to leptin in all groups (r = 0.558-0.779). In the obese group, triceps, biceps and front thigh skinfold thicknesses did not correlate (p > 0.05) with leptin. In the total group, all measured circumferences correlated significantly to leptin concentration (r = 0.328-0.724). However, in the obese group, the measured circumferences did not correlate to leptin (p > 0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio correlated with leptin only in the total group of boys. It was concluded that as a rule, close correlations emerged between leptin and skinfold thicknesses and circumferences. The strongest correlation with leptin was found with the sum of 9 skinfolds and waist-to-hip ratio.

  4. Anthropometric profile of powerlifters: differences as a function of bodyweight class and competitive success.

    PubMed

    Lovera, M; Keogh, J

    2015-05-01

    This study sought to better understand the relationship between anthropometric profile and maximal strength, as assessed in the sport of powerlifting as relatively little research has examined how differences in anthropometry may contribute to bodyweight-related differences in performance or between more and less successful lifters in the same bodyweight class. To address this aim, 63 male powerlifters from an Argentine National Tournament were assessed for 31 anthropometric variables taken using ISAK (International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry) protocols. Body fractionation (adipose, muscle, bone, residual and skin tissue masses) was determined using the validated Kerr & Ross five way fractionation model of body composition that has yet to be used with powerlifters. Results indicated that the powerlifters showed very elevated values of mesomorphy, muscle girths, muscle mass, bone breadths, and all this accompanied by a medium to low stature. Most of these characteristics were more pronounced in the heavier divisions. The winners had significantly larger proportional muscle mass (53.9 ± 2.2%), muscle to bone mass ratio (5.3 ± 1) and crural index (1.21 ± 0.12) than the non-winners. These comparisons reveal some potential key anthropometric determinants of high level powerlifting performance. These results further support the view that while powerlifters have unique anthropometric profiles, more successful powerlifters typically have higher degrees of muscle mass expressed per unit height and/or bone mass but similar segment lengths and segment length ratios to their less successful peers.

  5. Anthropometry and somatotypes of competitive DanceSport participants: a comparison of three different styles.

    PubMed

    Liiv, H; Wyon, M; Jürimäe, T; Purge, P; Saar, M; Mäestu, J; Jürimäe, J

    2014-04-01

    Anthropometry in dance and aesthetic sports has been shown to play an important role in selection and performance criteria. The aim of the present study was to examine variations in somatotype and anthropometry in three different competitive dance styles: DanceSport Standard, Latin American and Ten Dance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected from thirty couples competing in Standard (n=24 individuals), Latin American (n=14) and Ten Dance (n=22) styles. A single tester (ISAK Level 1) carried out all anthropometric measurements using the Heath-Carter protocol and somatotypes were calculated using the Heath-Carter's decimal equations. Results indicated that the mean somatotype for the male dancers was 2.4-3.9-3.2, whilst for females it was 2.7-2.7-3.5. Factorial analysis reported Standard dancers scored significantly higher for ectomorphy, sitting height and arm span than Latin dancers (p<0.05). Correlation analysis with the Standard dancer's International Ranking highlighted moderate positive correlation with mesomorphy (r=0.434, p<0.05) and negative correlation with ectomorphy (r=-0.546, p<0.001). The findings of this study show that somatotypes differ among DanceSport participants by dance style. Compared with other aesthetic sports, male and female dancers were less mesomorphic and more ectomorphic. Standard dancers tend to be more ectomorphic with greater height, longer arm span and greater sitting height compared with Latin American dancers. Although Standard dancers were ectomorphic, those dancers who had higher mesomorphic ranking had higher places in the dancers' international ranking.

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and injury profile in Portuguese children and adolescents according to their level of sports participation.

    PubMed

    Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia

    2016-10-13

    It's becoming increasingly apparent that sports can present danger in the form of injuries. The extent of this problem calls for preventive actions based on epidemiological research. Two questionnaires (LESADO and RAPIL II) were distributed in four schools to 651 subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, involved in different levels of physical activity (PA) - recreative sports, school sports, federated sports and no sports participation (except physical education classes). Bone age was evaluated through TW3 method and anthropometric measures according to ISAK. 247 subjects (37.9%) reported a sports injury during the previous 6 months. The most injured body areas were lower limbs (53.8%), followed by upper limbs (29.0%) and the type of injuries found was strains (33.7%), sprains (27.1%) and fractures (23.1%). The most frequent causes were direct trauma (51.9%), indirect trauma (29.5%) and overuse (12.7%). A high percentage was relapses and chronic injuries (40.9%). The OR for age group ≥16 years was 2.26 suggesting that those ≥16 years were 2.26 times more likely to have an injury than the younger subjects and concerning the PA level, school and federated sports subjects were 4.21 and 4.44 times more likely to have an injury than no sports participation subjects. Sports injuries in school age subjects were predominantly minor conditions where sprains and strains were the major injuries. They resulted mostly of trauma situations and lower and upper limbs were the most affected areas. Injury occurrence increased with age and was higher in school and federated athletes.

  8. Anthropometric Basis of Vertical Jump Performance: A Study in Young Indian National Players

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Shalini; Meitei, Konthoujam Kosana; Dvivedi, Jyoti; Dvivedi, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Vertical Jump (VJ) is a good measure of athletic performance and occupational activities. Earlier studies reported conflicting results on anthropometric influence. Aim To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and VJ in national level hockey and cycling players. Materials and Methods Fifty four (32 males) national level hockey and cycling players of 11-21 years were the volunteers. Following standard protocols, these variables were measured: VJ, Weight (WT), Height (HT), Trochanterion-Height (TH), Sum of Skinfold Thickness (SSF), Lengths [Acromiale-Stylion (AS) and Midstylion-Dactylion (SD)], Breadths [Biacromial (AB), Biiliocristal (IB), Biepicondylar Humerus (HB) and Biepicondylar Femur (FB)], Girths [Relaxed Arm (AG), Mid Thigh (TG) and Calf (CG)], Lower Back and Hamstring Flexibility (SR), Grip [Left Hand Grip (LHG) and Right Hand Grip (RHG)] and Back Strength (BS). International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) procedures were followed for anthropometric variables measurement. Unpaired-‘t’-test was used for comparison between genders. Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to evaluate correlates and predictors of VJ respectively. Results Males had significantly higher VJ, HT, SD, AB and BS; but lower SSF, AS and TG. VJ correlated positively with age, WT, HT, SD, TH, girths, SR and strength among males; but only with WT and LHG among females. After controlling gender, TH and LHG predicted VJ significantly with 69% of total variance. HT, SSF and BS; and LHG were the significant predictors among males and females respectively. Conclusion Anthropometric and physiological variables like TH, grip, HT, skinfold and BS had major influence on VJ. The result might help in training-monitoring and player’s selection. PMID:28384855

  9. Lifelong amateur endurance practice attenuates oxidative stress and prevents muscle wasting in senior adults.

    PubMed

    Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Aragón-Vela, Jerónimo; Casals, Cristina; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Villa-González, Emilio; Huertas, Jesús R

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress, muscle damage, enzymatic antioxidant defense and body composition in senior adults who have performed different lifelong physical activity practices. Twenty-three healthy senior men (60±1.88 years old) were divided into three groups according to their lifelong physical activity practice as follows: A) sedentary (N.=7); B) recreational (N.=9); and C) amateur (N.=7). Blood sampling was performed at rest to analyze plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by TBARs-assay, nuclear DNA-damage in peripheral lymphocytes using Comet-Assay, the plasma enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase by spectrophotometry and serum alpha-actin release as skeletal muscle damage marker through western blot. Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric assessments by the ISAK protocol through skinfold thickness. The lowest value of MDA was shown in the amateur group. Nuclear DNA-damage was significantly lower in the recreational group than in sedentary and amateur groups (MD=5.53±1.70; P=0.013. MD=5.61±1.62; P=0.008), respectively. The amateur group showed trends toward higher glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity than recreational and sedentary groups. Alpha-actin levels were significantly higher in the amateur compared with recreational (MD=4.34±0.46; P<0.001) and sedentary groups (MD=4.89±0.46; P<0.001). The sedentary group showed significantly lower muscle mass (MD=3.67±1.10; P=0.011) and higher fat mass (MD=4.19±0.98; P=0.001) than amateur group. The results described above suggest that the lifelong amateur endurance practice seems to improve oxidative stress response and strengthens hypertrophy mechanisms that might preserve muscle mass in senior adults.

  10. Anthropometric Profiling of New Zealand Junior Elite Triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhargav; Dave, Asmi; Kotecha, Nilesh; Oates, Myrtle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The triathlon involves a combination of three separate disciplines-swimming, cycling and running. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the anthropometric characteristics of the New Zealand junior elite triathletes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between physical traits of calf girth or sum of eight skinfolds (anthropometry) and running or cycling performances in the triathlon event. Methods Eleven junior elite triathletes (6 females, 5 males; (Av. age: 17) who were selected for the New Zealand national squad, were examined in this cross-sectional study. All athletes were measured for the complete anthropometric profile, as per the International Society for Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) guidelines. It was then correlated with the cycling and running performances using interclass correlation (ICC) with 90% confidence interval (CI) limits. Results A non-significant positive correlation observed between eight skinfolds tests on running performance (ICC: 0.10; 90% CI: −0.68–0.77; p>0.05) and biking performance (ICC: 0.15; 90% CI: −0.65–0.79; p>0.05), suggested athletes with greater body fat may render a better athletic performance. Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and running performance (ICC:−0.66; 90% CI: −0.94 – −0.12; p<0.05) and a non-significant negative correlation was observed between calf girth and cycling performance (ICC:−0.94; 90% CI: −0.97– 0.68; p>0.05). Conclusion Anthropometric data can help in predicting an ideal body profile. This research indicates the similarities and differences of the New Zealand junior profile and the world junior profile. PMID:27504176

  11. Percentage of body fat in adolescents with Down syndrome: Estimation from skinfolds.

    PubMed

    González-Agüero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Ángel; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Casajús, José A

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) have a unique morphology and body shape, and this needs to be taken into account when assessing body fat percentage (BF%). To develop a predictive equation from anthropometric variables (skinfolds) for estimating BF% in adolescents with DS. Twenty-three adolescents with DS (7 girls, 16 boys) participated in the study; seven skinfold measurements were taken (biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh, and medial calf), circumferences and diameters were measured following ISAK recommendations. Total body volume (and then body density) was measured with air displacement plethysmography (ADP); BF% was then calculated. Correlation between anthropometry data and BF% by ADP, and stepwise regression analyses were applied to develop a specific prediction equation. All the skinfolds, BMI, hip, waist and thigh circumferences correlated with BF% and were included in the regression analysis; sex and triceps were added into the model (R(2) = 0.89, p < 0.05). Therefore the proposed equation computed as follows: BF% = (0.97 TR) - (8.869·SEX) + 15.6 where TR is triceps skinfolds (mm) and SEX is equal to 0 for female and 1 for male. The proposed prediction equation is recommended for the assessment of BF% in adolescents with DS as it is the only one specifically developed and validated in this unique population. It is a cheap, reliable and accessible method that removes the need for use of expensive equipment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Anthropometry of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team - a descriptive study].

    PubMed

    Spieser, Laura; Clijsen, Ron; Rucker, Alfred M L; Cabri, Jan; Clarys, Peter

    2012-12-01

    To establish the anthropometrical characteristics and the hand grip strength of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team. The measured values were compared with data from the literature. 24 members, 19 males (23.01 ± 4.91 years) and five females (19.95 ± 2.02 years), were measured. The following anthropometric measurements were made: body size, body weight, six skinfolds (SFT), two breadths, two circumferences, body fat (tanita scale, Durnin and Womersley method), BMI and determination of somatotypes. In addition, the hand grip strength was measured. The anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with ISAK guidelines. The literature search was done electronically using PubMed. The mean somatotype of male judoka was 2,2 ± 0,8 for the endomorphy, 6,0 ± 0,9 for the mesomorphy and 2,0 ± 0,7 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was balanced mesomorph. The mean hand grip strength of male judoka was 47,4 ± 6,7 kg. The mean somatotype of female judoka was 3.7 ± 1.2 for the endomorphy, 4,9 ± 0,7 for the mesomorphy and 1,5 ± 0,3 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was mesomorphic endomorph. The mean hand grip strength of the female judoka was 27,0 ± 3,1 kg. There were anthropometric differences between the Swiss juniors and elite judoka and between the Swiss athletes and the athletes of the reference studies. The anthropometric data and the results of the hand grip strength give information, which components Swiss judoka should improve. A judoka who does not match the ideal profile can still be successful with the help of other factors (technical, tactical, mental strength). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Can absolute and proportional anthropometric characteristics distinguish stronger and weaker powerlifters?

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A; Pearson, Simon N; Mellow, Peter J

    2009-11-01

    This study sought to compare the anthropometric profiles of 17 weaker and 17 stronger Australasian and Pacific powerlifters who had competed in a regional-, national-, or international-level powerlifting competition in New Zealand. Stronger lifters were defined as those having a Wilks score greater than 410, whereas those in the weaker group had a Wilks score less than 370. Each powerlifter was assessed for 37 anthropometric dimensions by International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) level II and III accredited anthropometrists. Because all powerlifters were highly mesomorphic and possessed large girths and bone breadths, both in absolute terms and when expressed as Phantom-Z scores compared through the Phantom, relatively few significant anthropometric differences were observed. However, stronger lifters had significantly greater muscle mass and larger muscular girths in absolute terms as well as greater Brugsch Index (chest girth/height) and "Phantom"-normalized muscle mass, upper arm, chest, and forearm girths. In terms of the segment lengths and bone breadths, the only significant difference was that stronger lifters had a significantly shorter lower leg than weaker lifters. Because the majority of the significant differences were for muscle mass and muscular girths, it would appear likely that these differences contributed to the stronger lifters' superior performance. Powerlifters may therefore need to devote some of their training to the development of greater levels of muscular hypertrophy if they wish to continue to improve their performance. To better understand the anthropometric determinants of muscular strength, future research should recruit larger samples (particularly of elite lifters) and follow these subjects prospectively.

  14. [BODY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MAXIMAL AEROBIC POWER IN RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS].

    PubMed

    Siegel-Tike, Patricio; Rosales-Soto, Giovanni; Herrera Valenzuela, Tomás; Durán Agüero, Samuél; Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio consiste en relacionar parámetros de composición corporal sobre el rendimiento en ciclistas recreacionales, utilizando la masa grasa (MG), la masa muscular total (MM) y apendicular de la extremidad inferior (MMEI) con la potencia aeróbica máxima (PAM). Material y métodos: se reclutaron 11 ciclistas (27,7 ± 4,5 años; 72,4 ± 12,4 kg; 173,2 ± 6,7 cm) hombres. Las medidas antropométricas fueron realizadas de acuerdo a los protocolos de la International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK), y las pruebas de PAM se llevaron a cabo siguiendo un protocolo en rampa, que comenzó con una carga inicial de 150 W y, posteriormente, con incrementos de 30 W a intervalos de un minuto hasta llegar al agotamiento. Resultados: existe dependencia entre las variables de MG y el VO2máx que se correlacionan de forma negativa y significativa (p < 0,05). Respecto a las variables MM y el VO2máx, correlacionan significativamente de forma negativa (p < 0,05). En la correlación de la MMEI con la PAM puede apreciarse una correlación positiva y muy significativa (p < 0,01), lo que indicó que los sujetos que tienen un mayor componente muscular en las extremidades inferiores (EEII) son capaces de generar una mayor potencia. Conclusiones: podemos concluir que de los resultados obtenidos, tanto la MG como la MM no son un buen referente como parámetro de rendimiento respecto a la VAM. La MMEI fue el único parámetro que reflejó una relación positiva como marcador de rendimiento en ciclistas recreacionales.

  15. Correlates of longitudinal changes in the waist-to-height ratio of primary school children: Implications for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Traub, Meike; Lauer, Romy; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate correlates of changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in primary school children in order to identify modifiable factors usable for prevention. Methods Outcome evaluation of a statewide health promotion program in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Baseline (2010) and follow-up (2011) measurements provided data for the calculation of changes in WHtR. Further information on the health and living conditions of the children were assessed in parental questionnaires. Anthropometric measures were taken in 1733 (50.8% male) first and second grade children (age at baseline 7.1 ± 0.6 years) by staff trained according to ISAK-standards. Stepwise linear regression analysis was applied to identify variables with influence on changes in WHtR. Results According to the resulting regression model, changes in WHtR towards an increase were influenced by at least one parent being overweight/obese, at least one parent who smoked, low household income, higher age of the child and the skipping of breakfast. There was no clustering effect in schools observed. Conclusion A promising target for prevention of gain in WHtR in primary school children is to ensure the regularity of breakfast. Smoking cessation as well as dietary improvements would not only help children's health but also the health of their parents. The socioeconomic influence on the development of an unhealthy weight status has already been acknowledged and should be extensively targeted by all of society and policy makers. PMID:26844178

  16. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Estudios previos han analizado los efectos de la práctica de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en poblaciones sedentarias. No existen estudios sobre los beneficios del Pilates en estas varibles tras un corto periodo de desentrenamiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas, la composición coporal y el somatotipo, en mujeres adultas con experiencia previa tras 3 semanas de desentrenamiento. Metodología: A veintiuna mujeres se les realizó una valoración antropométrica completa siguiendo las indicaciones de la ISAK antes y después de un programa de Pilates mat de 16 semanas (2 días a la semana, una hora por día). Todas las mujeres tenían una experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates mat de entre 1 y 3 años y venían de un proceso de desentrenamiento de 3 semanas (vacaciones de Navidad). Resultados y discusión: Las mujeres mostraron una reducción significativa del peso corporal, el IMC, los pliegues cutáneos individuales del miembro superior (bíceps y tríceps) y el tronco (subescapular, cresta iliaca, supraespinal y abdominal), el sumatorio de 6 y 8 pliegues, la endomorfia y la masa grasa; y un aumento significativo de la masa muscular. El somatotipo medio se clasificó en meso-endomorfo para el pre- (4,91, 4,01, 1,47) y el post-test (4,68, 4,16, 1,69). Ocho mujeres cambiaron su clasificación del somatotipo tras el programa de intervención. Conclusiones: La práctica de Pilates mat durante 16 semanas provocó cambios asociados a una mejora del estado de salud en las variables antropométricas, sobre todo en los pliegues cutáneos que disminuyeron significativamente, la composición corporal (masa grasa y muscular, que disminuyeron y aumentaron, respectivamente) y el somatotipo (una reducción significativa del componente endomórfico) en mujeres con experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates después de tres semanas

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    San Mauro Martín, Ismael; Cevallos, Vanesa; Pina Ordúñez, Diana; Garicano Vilar, Elena

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: existen alteraciones frecuentes en la alimentación de la población infantil femenina, y especialmente en atletas de deportes estéticos por la presión ejercida para mantener un cuerpo.Objetivos: evaluar los aspectos nutricionales, antropométricos y la percepción del peso de niñas que realizan gimnasia rítmica frente a un grupo control.Métodos: estudio descriptivo comparativo. Se compararon 25 niñas gimnastas con 25 niñas no gimnastas (control). Se realizó una valoración antropométrica, mediante protocolo ISAK, y nutricional, mediante un registro dietético de siete días; así como una valoración cuantitativa y cualitativa de la ingesta alimentaria, mediante el software DIAL. Se rellenó un cuestionario de hábitos y sobre la percepción de su peso corporal.Resultados: los datos antropométricos no presentaron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos, excepto en los pliegues cutáneos y el porcentaje de grasa, el cual era estadísticamente inferior en gimnastas. La ingesta energética (1.413 ± 283 Kcal/día) de las gimnastas era inferior a la recomendada por la Food and Nutrition Board de acuerdo a su edad. La distribución de los macronutrientes cumplía con los valores normales establecidos (10-30% proteínas, 45-65% hidratos, 20-35% grasas). El 32% de las gimnastas y el 36,4% de las niñas control consideraron que les gustaría pesar menos.Conclusión: teniendo en cuenta la intensa actividad de las gimnastas, sus requerimientos energéticos deberían ajustarse a ello, ya que esto contribuirá a su desarrollo y crecimiento y a una mejor ejecución del ejercicio. En la muestra estudiada, el consumo de alimentos de las gimnastas se aleja de una alimentación equilibrada. No se observaron comportamientos diferentes en la percepción del peso entre ambos grupos.

  18. Skipping breakfast is detrimental for primary school children: cross-sectional analysis of determinants for targeted prevention.

    PubMed

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Traub, Meike; Lauer, Romy; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2017-03-14

    Skipping breakfast was found to be associated with abdominal obesity in primary school children. The aim of this research was to examine factors associated with skipping breakfast in primary school children in order to develop targeted preventive measures. Baseline data assessment (2010) of a cluster-randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a school-based health promotion program in primary school children in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Anthropometric measures of 1,943 primary school children aged 7.1 ± 0.6 years (51.2% boys) were conducted according to ISAK-standards (International Standard for Anthropometric Assessment) by trained staff. Further information on the health and living conditions of the children and their parents were assessed in parental questionnaires. Generalized linear mixed regression analysis was calculated to define correlates for skipping breakfast in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). According to the final regression models, significant correlates of skipping breakfast can be divided into modifiable behavioral components (high consumption of soft drinks (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.81; 3.43), screen media (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.77; 3.46) and high levels of physical activity (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44; 0.93)) on the one hand, and more or less static socio-economic factors (migration background (OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.02; 3.91), single parenting (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.34; 3.40), and high family education level (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28; 0.64)) on the other hand, and finally individual factors (female gender (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03; 1.99) and having a percentage of body fat at or above the 95th percentile (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.00; 2.17)). Targeted prevention should aim at health-related behaviors accompanying the habit of skipping breakfast. Focusing on vulnerable groups, characterized by not so easily modifiable socio-economic as well as individual factors, may improve results. Interventions should synergistically promote

  19. BODY COMPOSITION AND SOMATOTYPE OF PROFESSIONAL AND U23 HAND BASQUE PELOTA PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Valtueña, Jara; Holway, Francis; Cordova, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: casi no hay ninguna referencia sobre las características antropométricas, la composición corporal y el somatotipo de la mano de los jugadores de pelota vasca (pelotaris) en la literatura científica. Objetivos: el objetivo de esta investigación fue comparar la composición corporal de pelotaris profesionales y sub-23 para crear el perfil antropométrico de este deporte. Métodos: participaron diez pelotaris sub-23 y ocho pelotaris profesionales. Las medidas antropométricas fueron recogidas siguiendo el protocolo de la Sociedad Internacional de Promoción de Protocolo Cineantropometría (ISAK). La masa grasa (FM) se calculó utilizando la ecuación Yushasz modificada por Carter, y la masa muscular (MM) mediante la ecuación de Lee. Los componentes del somatotipo fueron estimados mediante la ecuación Carter y Heath. El nivel de hidratación de los pelotaris se midió con un analizador tetrapolar de impedancia bioeléctrica (BIA). Resultados: los pelotaris profesionales tienen significativamente menor FM (en % (p = 0,001); en kg (p = 0,025) y en los sumatorios de 4, 6 y 8 pliegues cutáneos (p = 0,001); mayor MM (p = 0,015) y un menor componente endomórfico (p < 0,001) que los pelotaris sub-23. Asimismo, los profesionales tienen una mayor cantidad de agua corporal (p = 0,001) y un diámetro mayor biestiloideo de muñeca (p = 0,014). Los pelotaris profesionales son un morfotipo caracterizado por una baja FM (8,9 ± 1,1%) y una intermedia MM (47 ± 1,7%), además de tener una altura de 183,0 ± 7,1 cm y un peso de 85,9 ± 7,6 kg. Conclusión: los principales resultados de este estudio mostraron que las características antropométricas no modificables por el entrenamiento (por ejemplo, altura, envergadura y diámetro de la muñeca) son componentes importantes para convertirse en un pelotari profesional. Por otra parte, las características relacionadas con el entrenamiento y la dieta han mostrado ser mejores en los pelotaris profesionales (menor FM

  20. [SOMATOTYPE JOINT MOBILITY AND RANGES OF HIP AND KNEE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; García Sandoval, Alan; Grandón Fuentes, Monica; Lagos Del Canto, Loreto; Aravena Turra, Raúl; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Bruneau Chavez, José; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: diversas investigaciones señalan una coherencia entre la falta de actividad física con menores niveles de movilidad articular en cadera y rodilla. Objetivo: determinar las diferencias en los rangos de movilidad articular de cadera y rodilla entre las distintas clasificaciones de somatotipo, en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Educación Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Chile, sede Temuco (EFUA). Material y método: la muestra incluyó 102 estudiantes de educación física (31,3% mujeres), se obtuvo el somatotipo a través del protocolo de la International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), y los rangos de movilidad articular de cadera y rodilla (ROM) utilizando un goniómetro universal. Resultados: el somatotipo promedio para mujeres EFUA fue endomesomorfo (4,8 - 3,4 - 2) y para varones EFUA mesoendomorfo (3,5 - 5,7 - 2), mientras que la evaluación de ROM señala que el 50% de los estudiantes presentó valores de movilidad articular inferiores a lo normal. Además, las mujeres EFUA clasificadas como endomesomorfas manifiestan valores más bajos de ROM para la rotación medial de cadera derecha (45,5°±10,2°; P=0,0125; t=2,732) y rotación lateral de cadera izquierda (41,7°±10,3°; P=0.0256; t=2.402) al compararlas con las mujeres EFUA mesoendomorfas. Conclusión: existe relación entre el somatotipo y los ROM de cadera en las mujeres EFUA, quienes manifiestan resultados más favorables de movilidad articular a mayor masa muscular, sin encontrarse diferencias significativas en los varones EFUA. Es importante propiciar el desarrollo de ejercicios de movilidad articular en función de las necesidades específicas de cada sexo.

  1. Assessment of body composition, through anthropometric and non-anthropometric methods, of university students from valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Olearo, Beatrice; Soriano Del Castillo, Jose Miguel; Boselli, Pietro Marco; Micó Pascual, Lydia

    2014-10-01

    Introducción y objetivo: La valoración del estado antropométrico y nutricional de la población universitaria es importante para detectar grupos de riesgo y realizar recomendaciones nutricionales. El objetivo fue analizar la composición corporal y el porcentaje de grasa en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y evaluar su metabolismo basal para ver si había una correlación con la composición corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo a través de diferentes métodos, para determinar si los resultados obtenidos son comparables. Sujetos y método: La muestra fueron 16 alumnos (4 hombres y 12 mujeres) de la Universidad de Valencia, 20- 33 años de edad. A todos se hizo el estudio de la composición corporal y a 6 de ellos se hizo también un estudio metabólico. Resultados: Se encontró que el 75% de los sujetos estudiados tienen un peso normal, el 12,5% tienen bajo peso y 12,5% tiene sobrepeso. El porcentaje de sujetos con grasa corporal superior a los valores normales son: 68,75% según BFMNU, el 25% a través del método ISAK y 7,69% según BIA. Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio mostró que los datos obtenidos a través de los diferentes métodos no son directamente comparables, ya que se basan en diferentes principios y supuestos. También se ha observado la importancia de considerar no sólo la masa grasa, si no toda la composición corporal para tener una visión completa del sujeto. Además, se ha podido notar que la calorimetría indirecta y las ecuaciones de predicción del metabolismo basal no son capaces de estimarlo correctamente. En cambio el método BFMNU es el que da más información y permite investigar a fondo el metabolismo.