Science.gov

Sample records for purpose spacecraft interior

  1. The Rotation And Interior Of Mercury With The Bepicolombo Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, T.; Dehant, V.

    2007-07-01

    In the beginning of the next decade, the European Space Agency (ESA) will launch a spacecraft called BepiColombo to Mercury. It is expected to be inserted in orbit in 2019. The onboard radio science experiment will provide a detailed mapping of the planet's gravity field and in particular Mercury's quadrupole field, which will be drastically improved with respect to the Mariner 10 solution. Tidal effects will also be deduced. Camera picture of surface spots will enable determination of the obliquity value and the 88-day libration amplitude. All these quantities can be related to the interior of Mercury, like the presence of a liquid core, its size, and the light element concentration in the core. We shall present our theoretical results on the rotation of Mercury and compare with those of other teams. Our objectives are to model precisely the rotation, to characterize the Cassini state in which Mercury is expected to be, to compute the position of the Laplace plane and to study the implications on the interior of Mercury. The forced and free modes that can affect Mercury will be studied as well.

  2. Interior of Mars from spacecraft and complementary data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2015-04-01

    Mars, as Earth, Venus and Mercury is a terrestrial planet having, in addition to the mantle and lithosphere, a core composed of an iron alloy. This core might be completely liquid, completely solid or may contain a solid part (the inner core) and a liquid part. The existence of a magnetic field around a planet is mainly explained by the presence of motions in the liquid part in the core. The absence of a magnetic field does not help in constraining the state of the core as it might be completely solid or completely liquid but the motion (convection) might not be sufficient to maintain it, or even contain a growing inner core inside a liquid core composed of iron or Nickel and a percentage of light element corresponding to the eutectic composition (no precipitation). The planet Mars is smaller than Earth. It has evolved differently. We know for the Earth that the core is liquid and that the inner core is forming by precipitation of iron. For Mars spacecraft observation of the gravity field and its time variation allow us to obtain the effect of mass repartition, and in particular those induced by the solid tides. These tidal deformation of the planet are larger for a planet with a liquid core than for a completely solid planet. Recent spacecraft orbiting around Mars (MGS, Mars Odyssey, MRO, Mars Express) have allowed to obtain the k2 tidal Love numbers. This measurement is rather at the limit of what the observation can tell us but seems to indicate that Mars has a liquid core. The absence of a present-day global magnetic field places Mars in the situation where the inner core is not yet forming or has reached the eutectic. Physical observation of the planet other than tides also allow us to obtain information about the interior of Mars: its rotation and orientation changes. Planetary rotation can be separated into the rotation speed around an axis and the orientation of this axis (or another axis of the planet) in space. Most of us know that the rotation of a

  3. Microbial contaminants in the interiors of spacecraft components.

    PubMed

    Opfell, J B; Bandaruk, W

    1966-01-01

    The hazard from microbiological contamination in the interiors of components of planetary-impacting spacecraft has been generally recognized, but techniques for experimentally evaluating the significance of this hazard have been unavailable. A goal in sterilizing early Mars-impacting payloads is the elimination of the possibility that a microbial stowaway will cause the extraterrestrial-life detection techniques falsely to indicate existence of Martian life, particularly if none exists. Another goal is the prevention of changes in Martian ecology. Several promising life-detection techniques were evaluated in an experimental study of methods to detect microbial populations inside spacecraft-type materials after pulverization or being dissolved. The type of material inspected has a greater effect on the sensitivity of the detection method than any other parameter studied. Through culturing abraded particles, a bacillus inoculum of 100 spores per milliliter can be detected in solid propellants. Fifty percent of an inoculum can be recovered from some solids soluble in nontoxic solvents. For many of the solids studied, however, the culturing techniques used were unable to detect inoculums of 10(6) spores per milliliter of solid. The techniques other than culturing did not discriminate between living and dead cells. As with products of the food and pharmaceutical industries, assurance of sterility in the final product never rests in a negative sterility test on a copy of the product. A negative sterility test is certainly most meaningful for a product for which a very sensitive sterility test has been developed. When a sensitive final-product sterility test is not available, assurance of sterility depends more heavily on other information such as the manufacturing history of the product.

  4. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  5. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, E. J.; Nannelli, P.

    1975-01-01

    Coating formulations were developed consisting of latex blends of fluorocarbon polymers, acrylic resins, stabilizers, modifiers, other additives, and a variety of inorganic pigments. Suitable latex primers were also developed from an acrylic latex base. The formulations dried to touch in about one hour and were fully dry in about twenty-four hours under normal room temperature and humidity conditions. The resulting coatings displayed good optical and mechanical properties, including excellent bonding to (pre-treated) substrates. In addition, the preferred compositions were found to be self-extinguishing when applied to nonflammable substrates and could meet the offgassing requirements specified by NASA for the intended application. Improvements are needed in abrasion resistance and hardness.

  6. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillman, H. D.; Nannelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of intumescent coatings based on a fluorocarbon latex resin modified with either an acrylic resin or an epoxy resin were prepared. Several intumescent systems were used for these studies including some based on ammonium polyphosphate and others based on sulfanilamide. The best coatings developed had a high concentration (60-70% by wt.) of intumescent additives and had to be applied thick, approximately 100 mils, in order to have adequate intumescent/fire protection properties.

  7. Development of the Molecular Adsorber Coating for Spacecraft and Instrument Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin

    2011-01-01

    On-orbit Molecular Contamination occurs when materials outgas and deposit onto very sensitive interior surfaces of the spacecraft and instruments. The current solution, Molecular Adsorber Pucks, has disadvantages, which are reviewed. A new innovative solution, Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC), is currently being formulated, optimized, and tested. It is a sprayable alternative composed of Zeolite-based coating with adsorbing properties.

  8. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  9. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating. Phase 2. [fire resistant fluoropolymer coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, E. J.; Christofas, A.; Nannelli, P.

    1977-01-01

    Numerous acrylic and epoxy modifiers for the fluorocarbon latex resin base were investigated. Optimum coatings were developed by modifying the fluorocarbon latex with an epoxy acrylic resin system. In addition, a number of other formulations, containing hard acrylics as modifiers, displayed attractive properties and potential for further improvements. The preferred formulations dried to touch in about one hour and were fully dried in about twenty four hours under normal room temperature and humidity conditions. In addition to physical and mechanical properties either comparable or superior to those of commercial solvent base polyurethane or polyester coatings, the preferred compositions meet the flammability and offgassing requirements specified by NASA.

  10. Deep Interior: Spacecraft Initiatives for Near-Earth Object Geophysical Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M.; Huebner, W.; Kakuda, R.; Yeomans, D.

    2002-12-01

    Near-Earth objects (NEOs) represent a superlative sampling of protoplanetary materials from throughout the solar system. They also have come to focus in recent years as potential natural disasters in need of careful assessment - not only the determination of NEO populations and detailed orbits, but also an understanding of how they are put together, and how they will behave during the course of energetic surface operations (from penetrometry to human visitation to diversion). We describe a concept for a robust multiple-rendezvous science mission to three representative near-Earth objects including a dormant or extinct comet nucleus. Key features include solar electric propulsion, autonomous navigation, stereogrammetric imaging, plus dual-wavelength radio tomography from orbit and small cratering science experiments for material and dynamical studies. The cratering experiments (conducted by instrumented blast payloads) will serve as precursors to future landed seismic investigations, and will enable the construction of realistic simulation environments for lowering the risk of future landed NEO missions. Mission science goals include: (1) definitive test of the rubble pile hypothesis for asteroids, (2) definitive test of the mantling hypothesis for comets, and whether primitive materials inhabit their interior, and (3) definitive study of the depth and mobility of regolith. This mission can be delivered for under the NASA Discovery cost cap. Significant payload margins allow for the addition of auxiliary landed instruments (penetrometer/seismometer) at each NEO visited, in which case the existing cratering experiments would serve as seismic signals. This combination of multiple wavelength radar tomography and seismic analysis would be an especially powerful probe of NEO interiors.

  11. 41 CFR 102-73.200 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? 102-73.200 Section 102-73.200 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease Special Purpose Space...

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.200 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? 102-73.200 Section 102-73.200 Public Contracts and... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION Acquisition by Lease Special Purpose Space...

  13. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  14. Water vapor diffusion membrane development. [for water recovery purposes onboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The phase separator component used as a membrane in the vapor diffusion process (VRD) for the recovery of potable water from urine on manned space missions of extended duration was investigated, with particular emphasis on cation-selective membranes because of their noted mechanical strength, superior resistance to acids, oxidants, and germicides, and their potential resistance to organic foulants. Two of the membranes were tested for 700 hours continuously, and were selected on the basis of criteria deemed important to an effective water reclamation system onboard spacecraft. The samples of urine were successfully processed by removing 93 percent of their water content in 70 hours using the selected membranes. Pretreatment with an acid-oxidant formulation improved product quality. Cation exchange membranes were shown to possess superior mechanical strength and chemical resistance, as compared to cellulosic membranes.

  15. Spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, N. John

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging on spacecraft materials are studied. Spacecraft charging interactions seem to couple environment to system performance through materials. Technology is still developing concerning both environment-driven and operating system-driven interactions. The meeting addressed environment but lacked specific mission requirements, as a result system definition are needed to prioritize interactions.

  16. New materials for manned spacecraft, aircraft, and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    The application of fire resistant spacecraft materials to the interior design of commercial aircraft is discussed. The use of such materials for curtains, upholstery, carpets, decorative panels, cabinets, paper products, and oxygen lines is examined. It is concluded that the highest degree of nonflammability can be obtained with inorganic fibers such as asbestos and fiber glass. The application of various chemical compounds for specific purposes is presented.

  17. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  18. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  19. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  20. Interior of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Callisto. The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Callisto's radius is 2403 km, larger than our Moon's radius. Callisto's interior is shown as a relatively uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock. The surface layer of Callisto is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying ice/rock layer in a variety of ways including, for example, the percentage of rock it contains.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  1. Foam core shield (FCS) systems : a new dual - purpose technology for shielding against meteoroid strike damage and for thermal control of spacecrafts/satellite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.; Hayes, Charles; Fabensky, Beth; Cornelison, Charles; Alexander, Lesley; Bishop, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A new technology is being developed that can protect spacecraft and satellite components against damage from meteoroid strikes and control the thermal environment of the protected components. This technology, called Foam Core Shield (FCS) systems, has the potential to replace the multi-layer insulation blankets (MLI) that have been used on spacecraft for decades. In order to be an attractive candidate for replacing MLI, FCS systems should not only provide superior protection against meteoroid strikes but also provide an equal or superior ability to control the temperature of the protected component. Properly designed FCS systems can provide these principal functions, meteoroid strike protection and thermal control, with lower system mass and a smaller system envelope than ML.

  2. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Interiors of small bodies: foundations and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.; A'Hearn, Michael; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, M. Antonella; Belton, Michael; Benz, Willy; Cellino, Alberto; Festou, Michel C.; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Harris, Alan W.; Rossi, Alessandro; Zuber, Maria T.

    2003-06-01

    With the surface properties and shapes of solar system small bodies (comets and asteroids) now being routinely revealed by spacecraft and Earth-based radar, understanding their interior structure represents the next frontier in our exploration of these worlds. Principal unknowns include the complex interactions between material strength and gravity in environments that are dominated by collisions and thermal processes. Our purpose for this review is to use our current knowledge of small body interiors as a foundation to define the science questions which motivate their continued study: In which bodies do "planetary" processes occur? Which bodies are "accretion survivors", i.e., bodies whose current form and internal structure are not substantially altered from the time of formation? At what characteristic sizes are we most likely to find "rubble-piles", i.e., substantially fractured (but not reorganized) interiors, and intact monolith-like bodies? From afar, precise determinations of newly discovered satellite orbits provide the best prospect for yielding masses from which densities may be inferred for a diverse range of near-Earth, main-belt, Trojan, and Kuiper belt objects. Through digital modeling of collision outcomes, bodies that are the most thoroughly fractured (and weak in the sense of having almost zero tensile strength) may be the strongest in the sense of being able to survive against disruptive collisions. Thoroughly fractured bodies may be found at almost any size, and because of their apparent resistance to disruptive collisions, may be the most commonly found interior state for small bodies in the solar system today. Advances in the precise tracking of spacecraft are giving promise to high-order measurements of the gravity fields determined by rendezvous missions. Solving these gravity fields for uniquely revealing internal structure requires active experiments, a major new direction for technological advancement in the coming decade. We note the

  4. Scattered Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K. R.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen cannot only erode the external surfaces of polymers on spacecraft, but can cause degradation of surfaces internal to components on the spacecraft where openings to the space environment exist. Although atomic oxygen attack on internal or interior surfaces may not have direct exposure to the LEO atomic oxygen flux scattered impingement can have serious degradation effects where sensitive interior surfaces are present. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymer interior to an aperture on a spacecraft is simulated using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A 2-dimensional model is used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of distance into a parallel walled cavity. The degree of erosion re1ative is compared between the various interior locations and the external surface of a LEO spacecraft.

  5. Atomic Oxygen Effects on Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K. R.; deGroh, Kim K.; Demko, Rikako

    2003-01-01

    Low Earth orbital (LEO) atomic oxygen cannot only erode the external surfaces of polymers on spacecraft, but can cause degradation of surfaces internal to components on the spacecraft where openings to the space environment exist. Although atomic oxygen attack on internal or interior surfaces may not have direct exposure to the LEO atomic oxygen flux, scattered impingement can have can have serious degradation effects where sensitive interior surfaces are present. The effects of atomic oxygen erosion of polymers interior to an aperture on a spacecraft is simulated using Monte Carlo computational techniques. A 2-dimensional model is used to provide quantitative indications of the attenuation of atomic oxygen flux as a function of distance into a parallel walled cavity. The degree of erosion relative is compared between the various interior locations and the external surface of an LEO spacecraft.

  6. Last Flight for GRAIL's Twin Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GravityRecovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission spacecraft, which willimpact the moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. ...

  7. Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes -first results of the experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf

    Spore-forming microbes are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection, be-cause their endospores are highly resistant to a variety of environmental extremes, including certain sterilization procedures and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary sur-faces (Nicholson et al., 2000; Horneck et al. 2009). Furthermore, isolates from space craft and space craft assembly facilities have been identified that form spores of an elevated resistance to various physical and chemical conditions, such as ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress (La Duc et al., 2007). This observation led to the supposition that the spe-cial conditions of ultraclean spacecraft assembly facilities and the applied spacecraft cleaning and decontamination measures cause a selection of the most resistant organisms as survivors. To test this hypothesis, spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 isolated from these environments as well as spores of the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168 were subjected to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission (February 7, 2008 -September 12, 2009), attached to the EuTEF platform outside of the Columbus module of the International Space Station. The spores were mounted as dry layers onto spacecraft-qualified material (aluminum coupons) and exposed to the following parameters of space, applied sep-arately or in selected combinations: (i) space vacuum, (ii) solar extraterrestrial UV radiation including vacuum-UV, (iii) simulated Mars atmosphere and UV radiation climate, and (iv) galactic cosmic radiation. After recovery, visual inspection showed color changes of the sun-exposed spore samples from white to brownish demonstrating photochemical damage caused by solar extraterrestrial UV radiation. On-going analyses include studies of viability and capabil-ity of repair of damage, mutagenic spectrum, e.g. trp-revertants, rifampicin-resistant mutants, DNA lesion, global gene expression, and genomic and

  8. Unmanned spacecraft for research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of unmanned spacecraft for research purposes are discussed. Specific applications of the Communication and Navigation satellites and the Earth Observations satellites are described. Diagrams of communications on world-wide basis using synchronous satellites are developed. Photographs of earth resources and geology obtained from space vehicles are included.

  9. Spacecraft sterilization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalfayan, S. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.

  10. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  11. Precise radio Doppler and interferometric tracking of spacecraft in service of planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duev, Dmitry; PRIDE team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) project is designed as a multi-purpose, multidisciplinary enhancement of the space missions science return by means of Doppler and phase-referenced Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking of spacecraft. These measurements can be used in a multitude of scientific applications, both fundamental and applied, where an accurate estimate of the spacecraft state vector is essential. In particular, the gravitational field of planetary moons can be sampled with close spacecraft flybys, allowing to probe the moons' interior.In this presentation, we will describe the principles of PRIDE data collection, processing, and analysis. We will present the results of demonstrational observations of a Phobos flyby conducted by ESA's Mars Express spacecraft.

  12. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  13. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  14. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  15. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 3: General purpose spacecraft segment and module specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) general purpose aircraft segment are presented. The satellite is designed to provide attitude stabilization, electrical power, and a communications data handling subsystem which can support various mission peculiar subsystems. The various specifications considered include the following: (1) structures subsystem, (2) thermal control subsystem, (3) communications and data handling subsystem module, (4) attitude control subsystem module, (5) power subsystem module, and (6) electrical integration subsystem.

  16. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  17. Planetary Interiors and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2013-04-01

    Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its change. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for instance for Mercury (MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions) and for the Galilean satellite from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution.

  18. Understanding Jupiter's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Soubiran, François; Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provided constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principles computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ˜10 Mbar and temperatures ˜10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility that helium rain, core erosion, and double diffusive convection have affected the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understanding of gas giant interiors better than ever before.

  19. Active Spacecraft Potential Control Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Nakamura, R.; Tajmar, M.; Scharlemann, C.; Jeszenszky, H.; Laky, G.; Fremuth, G.; Escoubet, C. P.; Svenes, K.

    2016-03-01

    In tenuous plasma the floating potential of sunlit spacecraft reaches tens of volts, positive. The corresponding field disturbs measurements of the ambient plasma by electron and ion sensors and can reduce micro-channel plate lifetime in electron detectors owing to large fluxes of attracted photoelectrons. Also the accuracy of electric field measurements may suffer from a high spacecraft potential. The Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics. New features include the use of capillaries instead of needles, new materials for the emitters and their internal thermal insulators, an extended voltage and current range of the electronics, both for ion emission and heating purposes, and a more capable control software. This enables lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Results from on-ground testing demonstrate compliance with requirements. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. Finally, the various operating modes to adapt to changing boundary conditions are described along with the main data products.

  20. Spacecraft Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, Vahraz; Manshadi, Farzin; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya; Cramer, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Some of the various categories of issues that must be considered in the selection and design of spacecraft antennas for a Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) are addressed, and parametric studies for some of the antenna concepts to help the system designer in making the most appropriate antenna choice with regards to weight, size, and complexity, etc. are provided. The question of appropriate polarization for the spacecraft as well as for the User Terminal Antenna required particular attention and was studied in some depth. Circular polarization seems to be the favored outcome of this study. Another problem that has generally been a complicating factor in designing the multiple beam reflector antennas, is the type of feeds (single vs. multiple element and overlapping vs. non-overlapping clusters) needed for generating the beams. This choice is dependent on certain system design factors, such as the required frequency reuse, acceptable interbeam isolation, antenna efficiency, number of beams scanned, and beam-forming network (BFN) complexity. This issue is partially addressed, but is not completely resolved. Indications are that it may be possible to use relatively simple non-overlapping clusters of only a few elements, unless a large frequency reuse and very stringent isolation levels are required.

  1. View of Apollo Spacecraft 107 Command and Service Modules at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Apollo Spacecraft 107 Command and Service Modules being moved from workstand 134 for mating to Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) 14. Spacecraft 107 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  2. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  3. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  4. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  5. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  6. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  7. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  8. Modeling of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of modeling of spacecraft charging are discussed: statistical models, parametric models, and physical models. Local time dependence of circuit upset for DoD and communication satellites, and electron current to a sphere with an assumed Debye potential distribution are presented. Four regions were involved in spacecraft charging: (1) undisturbed plasma, (2) plasma sheath region, (3) spacecraft surface, and (4) spacecraft equivalent circuit.

  9. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  10. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  11. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  12. Development of lightweight reinforced plastic laminates for spacecraft interior applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, J.

    1975-01-01

    Lightweight, Kevlar - reinforced laminating systems that are non-burning, generate little smoke in the space shuttle environment, and are physically equivalent to the fiberglass/polyimide system used in the Apollo program for non-structural cabin panels, racks, etc. Resin systems representing five generic classes were screened as matrices for Kevlar 49 reinforced laminates. Of the systems evaluated, the polyimides were the most promising with the phenolics a close second. Skybond 703 was selected as the most promising resin candidate. With the exception of compression strength, all program goals of physical and mechanical properties were exceeded. Several prototype space shuttle mobility and translation handrail segments were manufactured using Kevlar/epoxy and Kevlar-graphite/epoxy. This application shows significant weight savings over the baseline aluminum configuration used previous. The hybrid Kevlar-graphite/epoxy is more suitable from a processing standpoint.

  13. Analyzing Dynamics of Cooperating Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen P.; Folta, David C.; Conway, Darrel J.

    2004-01-01

    A software library has been developed to enable high-fidelity computational simulation of the dynamics of multiple spacecraft distributed over a region of outer space and acting with a common purpose. All of the modeling capabilities afforded by this software are available independently in other, separate software systems, but have not previously been brought together in a single system. A user can choose among several dynamical models, many high-fidelity environment models, and several numerical-integration schemes. The user can select whether to use models that assume weak coupling between spacecraft, or strong coupling in the case of feedback control or tethering of spacecraft to each other. For weak coupling, spacecraft orbits are propagated independently, and are synchronized in time by controlling the step size of the integration. For strong coupling, the orbits are integrated simultaneously. Among the integration schemes that the user can choose are Runge-Kutta Verner, Prince-Dormand, Adams-Bashforth-Moulton, and Bulirsh- Stoer. Comparisons of performance are included for both the weak- and strongcoupling dynamical models for all of the numerical integrators.

  14. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  15. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  16. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  17. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  18. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  19. Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.

  20. Discussion meeting on Gossamer spacecraft (ultralightweight spacecraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brereton, R. G. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Concepts, technology, and application of ultralightweight structures in space are examined. Gossamer spacecraft represented a generic class of space vehicles or structures characterized by a low mass per unit area (approximately 50g/m2). Gossamer concepts include the solar sail, the space tether, and various two and three dimensional large lightweight structures that were deployed or assembled in space. The Gossamer Spacecraft had a high potential for use as a transportation device (solar sail), as a science instrument (reflecting or occulting antenna), or as a large structural component for an enclosure, manned platform, or other human habitats. Inflatable structures were one possible building element for large ultralightweight structures in space.

  1. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  2. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  3. The electrification of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akishin, A. I.; Novikov, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical and applied aspects of the electrification of space vehicles and natural celestial objects are discussed, the factors resulting in electrification of spacecraft are analyzed, and methods of investigating various phenomena associated with this electrification and ways of protecting spacecraft against the influence of static electricity are described. The booklet is intended for the general reader interested in present day questions of space technology.

  4. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; Lemke, Matthew; Wade, Randall; Wheeler, Scott; Baggerman, Clinton

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  5. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  6. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  7. Current LISA Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Castellucci, K. E.; Depalo, S. V.; Generie, J. A.; Maghami, P. G.; Peabody, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. a space based gravitational wave detector. uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. LISA is unique from a mission design perspective in that the three spacecraft and their associated operations form one distributed science instrument. unlike more conventional missions where an instrument is a component of an individual spacecraft. The design of the LISA spacecraft is also tightly coupled to the design and requirements of the scientific payload; for this reason it is often referred to as a "sciencecraft." Here we describe some of the unique features of the LISA spacecraft design that help create the quiet environment necessary for gravitational wave observations.

  8. Spacecraft exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Conway W.; Moroz, Vasilii I.

    1992-01-01

    Soviet and American spacecraft exploration of Mars over the past quarter century is reviewed. Data on the earliest Soviet attempts to send spacecraft to observe the planet are presented. Of the series of spacecraft that were announced (designated Mars 1 to Mars 7), none fulfilled all its scientific goals, but some good photographs and other important data were obtained. Of the six spacecraft in the Mariner series, two failed, but Mariner 4 first revealed the cratered surface of Mars, and Mariner 9 discovered all the major geologic features. The Viking mission, with its two Orbiters, two Landers, and its 6-yr duration, surpassed in quantity and variety of data all other missions combined. The Phobos mission ended in two failures, but the second of the two spacecraft acquired significant new data about Mars and Phobos. An appendix listing special issues of journals containing collections of papers about Mars is provided.

  9. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A.; Stevens, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  10. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A. C.; Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  11. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  12. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  13. 43 CFR 6.51 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 6.51 Section 6.51 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.51 Purpose. It is the purpose of the regulations in this subpart to secure for the people of the United States the full...

  14. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves...

  15. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves...

  16. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves...

  17. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves...

  18. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves...

  19. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  20. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1991-01-01

    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  1. Spacecraft Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghofranian, Siamak (Inventor); Chuang, Li-Ping Christopher (Inventor); Motaghedi, Pejmun (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and apparatus for docking a spacecraft. The apparatus comprises elongate members, movement systems, and force management systems. The elongate members are associated with a docking structure for a spacecraft. The movement systems are configured to move the elongate members axially such that the docking structure for the spacecraft moves. Each of the elongate members is configured to move independently. The force management systems connect the movement systems to the elongate members and are configured to limit a force applied by the each of the elongate members to a desired threshold during movement of the elongate members.

  2. WIND Spacecraft Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An international effort to learn more about the complex interaction between the Earth and Sun took another step forward with the launch of WIND spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). WIND spacecraft is studded with eight scientific instruments - six US, one French, and one - the first Russian instrument to fly on a US spacecraft - that collected data about the influence of the solar wind on the Earth and its atmosphere. WIND is part of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative, the US contribution to NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.

  3. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  4. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  6. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  7. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  8. Mars Global Surveyor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) workers in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) prepare the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft for transfer to the launch pad by placing it in a protective canister. The Surveyor spacecraft (upper) is already mated to its solid propellant upper stage booster (lower), which is actually the third stage of the Delta II expendable launch vehicle that will propel the spacecraft on its interplanetary journey to the Red Planet. Once at Launch Pad 17A on Cape Canaveral Air Station, the spacecraft and booster assembly will be stacked atop the Delta vehicle. The Surveyor is slated for liftoff on Nov. 6, 1996 at the beginning of a 20 day launch period.

  9. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  10. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  11. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  12. Mecury Spacecraft Boilerplate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Boilerplate Mercury spacecraft being manufactured 'in-house' by Langley technicians. The capsules were designed to test spacecraft recovery systems. The escape tower and rocket motors shown on the completed capsule would be removed before shipping and finally assembly for launching at Wallops Island. Design of the Little Joe capsules began at Langley before McDonnell started on the design of the Mercury capsule.

  13. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  14. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  15. Spacecraft environments interactions: Protecting against the effects of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, J. L.; Mccollum, M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer, second in the series, describes the interactions between a spacecraft and the natural space plasma. Under certain environmental/spacecraft conditions, these interactions result in the phenomenon known as spacecraft charging. It is the focus of this publication to describe the phenomenon of spacecraft charging and its possible adverse effects on spacecraft and to present the key elements of a Spacecraft Charging Effects Protection Plan.

  16. DMSP Spacecraft Charging in Auroral Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew; Minow, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft are a series of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites whose mission is to observe the space environment using the precipitating energetic particle spectrometer (SSJ/4-5). DMSP satellites fly in a geosynchronous orbit at approx.840 km altitude which passes through Earth s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of partially ionized gas (plasma) formed by the photoionization of neutral atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Earth. For satellites in LEO, such as DMSP, the plasma density is usually high and the main contributors to the currents to the spacecraft are the precipitating auroral electrons and ions from the magnetosphere as well as the cold plasma that constitutes the ionosphere. It is important to understand how the ionosphere and auroral electrons can accumulate surface charges on satellites because spacecraft charging has been the cause of a number of significant anomalies for on-board instrumentation on high altitude spacecraft. These range from limiting the sensitivity of measurements to instrument malfunction depending on the magnitude of the potential difference over the spacecraft surface. Interactive Data Language (IDL) software was developed to process SSJ/4-5 electron and ion data and to create a spectrogram of the particles number and energy fluxes. The purpose of this study is to identify DMSP spacecraft charging events and to present a preliminary statistical analysis. Nomenclature

  17. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  18. Spacecraft Environment Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Henry B.; Jun, Insoo

    2011-01-01

    As electronic components have grown smaller in size and power and have increased in complexity, their enhanced sensitivity to the space radiation environment and its effects has become a major source of concern for the spacecraft engineer. As a result, the description of the sources of space radiation, the determination of how that radiation propagates through material, and, ultimately, how radiation affects specific circuit components are primary considerations in the design of modern spacecraft. The objective of this paper will be to address the first 2 aspects of the radiation problem. This will be accomplished by first reviewing the natural and man-made space radiation environments. These environments include both the particulate and, where applicable, the electromagnetic (i.e., photon) environment. As the "ambient" environment is typically only relevant to the outer surface of a space vehicle, it will be necessary to treat the propagation of the external environment through the complex surrounding structures to the point inside the spacecraft where knowledge of the internal radiation environment is required. While it will not be possible to treat in detail all aspects of the problem of the radiation environment within a spacecraft, by dividing the problem into these parts-external environment, propagation, and internal environment-a basis for understanding the practical process of protecting a spacecraft from radiation will be established. The consequences of this environment will be discussed by the other presenters at this seminar.

  19. 43 CFR 21.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 21.1 Section 21.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.1 Purpose. This part establishes (a) when, and by what standards, use of...

  20. 43 CFR 21.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 21.1 Section 21.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.1 Purpose. This part establishes (a) when, and by what standards, use of...

  1. 43 CFR 21.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 21.1 Section 21.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.1 Purpose. This part establishes (a) when, and by what standards, use of...

  2. 43 CFR 21.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 21.1 Section 21.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.1 Purpose. This part establishes (a) when, and by what standards, use of...

  3. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  4. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  5. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  6. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  7. Multimission modular spacecraft (MMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkenhayn, Edward, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design requirements for the low-cost standard spacecraft development which has come to be known as the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS). The paper presents the wide range of launch configurations of the MMS users, the population of programs using the MMS, and the cost effectiveness of the MMS concept. The paper addresses the in-orbit serviceability of the design as demonstrated by the successful SMM repair, and the recent selection of MMS for the Explorer Platform, which features in-orbit payload exchanges.

  8. Spacecraft Attitude Determination Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is presentation in viewgraph form, which outlines the methods of determining spacecraft attitude. The presentation reviews several parameterizations relating to spacecraft attitude, such as Euler's Theorem, Rodriques parameters, and Euler-Rodriques parameters or Quaternion. Onboard attitude determination is the norm, using either single frame or filtering methods. The presentation reviews several mathematical representations of attitude. The mechanisms for determining attitude on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the Tropical Rainfall and Measuring Mission and the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer are reviewed. Wahba's problem, Procrustes Problem, and some solutions are also summarized.

  9. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  10. Fire extinguishment and inhibition in spacecraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deris, John

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that it is essential that NASA develop a comprehensive approach to fire extinguishment and inerting in spacecraft environments. Electronic equipment might be easily protected through use of an onboard inert gas generating system. The use of Halon 1301 presents serious technological challenges for agent cleanup and removal of the toxic and corrosive products of combustion. Nitrogen pressurization, while effective, probably presents a serious weight penality. The use of liquid water sprays appears to be the most effective approach to general purpose spacecraft fire protection.

  11. Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L

    2001-06-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation.

  12. Analysis of spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Support was provided for the maintenance and modifications of software for the production and detailed analysis of data from the DE-A spacecraft and new software developed for this end. Software for the analysis of the data from the Spacelab Experimental Particle Accelerator (SEPAC) was also developed.

  13. Microbial contamination of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation.

  14. Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L

    2001-06-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation. PMID:11865864

  15. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Limaye, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary 'ice', have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  16. Interior structure of neptune: comparison with uranus.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, W B; Nellis, W J; Mitchell, A C; Holmes, N C; Limaye, S S; McCandless, P C

    1991-08-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-calied planetary ;;ice,'' have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  17. Interior structure of Neptune: Comparison with Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B. ); Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C. ); Limaye, S.S. )

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary ice, have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  18. Spacecraft Images Comet Target's Jets

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Deep Impact spacecraft's High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers (HRI and MRI) have captured multiple jets turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers (5 million miles) away fro...

  19. NASA Now: EPOXI Flyby Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    Close Encounters of the Comet Kind: In this installment of NASA Now, you’ll meet spacecraft pilot and engineer Steven Wissler, who talks about the challenges of flying a spacecraft remotely from ...

  20. PASS spacecraft antenna technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeland, R. E.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose was to generate estimates of mechanical performance for the classes of spacecraft antenna under construction for application to the Personal Access Satellite System (PASS). These performance data are needed for the support of trade studies involving antenna system development. The classes of antenna considered included: (1) rigid non-deployable antenna structures; (2) mechanical deployable antenna concepts; (3) inflatable deployable antenna concepts; and (4) mesh deployable antenna concepts. The estimates of mechanical performance are presented in terms of structural weight and cost as a function of the reflector size. Estimates of aperture surface precision are presented for a few discrete antenna sizes. The range of reflector size is 1 to 4 meters for non-deployable structures and 2 to 8 meters for deployable structures. The range of reflector surface precision is lambda/30 to lambda/50 for 20 and 30 GHz, respectively.

  1. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  2. Coordination challenges for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A.

    2002-01-01

    While past flight projects involved a single spacecraft in isolation, over forty proposed future missions involve multiple coordinated spacecraft. This paper presents characteristics of such missions in terms of properties of the phenomena being measured as well as the rationale for using multiple spacecraft. We describe the coordination problems associated with operating these missions and identify needed technologies.

  3. Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

  4. Spacecraft crew escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B. A.

    Safe crew escape from spacecraft is extremely difficult to engineer and has large cost and vehicle payload penalties. Because of these factors calculated risks have apparently been taken and only the most rudimentary means of crew protecion have been provided for space programs. Although designed for maximum reliability and safety a calculated risk is taken that on-balance it is more acceptable to risk the loss of possibly some or all occupants than introduce the mass, cost and complexity of an escape system. This philosophy was accepted until the Challenger tragedy. It is now clear that the use of this previously acceptable logic is invalid and that provisions must be made for spacecraft crew escape in the event of a catastrophic accident. This paper reviews the funded studies and subsequent proposals undertaken by Martin-Baker for the use of both encapsullated and open ejection seats for the Hermes Spaceplane. The technical difficulties, special innovations and future applications are also discussed.

  5. LEO Spacecraft Charging Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft have gradually required ever-increasing power levels. As a rule, this has been accomplished through the use of high voltage systems. Recent failures and anomalies on such spacecraft have been traced to various design practices and materials choices related to the high voltage solar arrays. NASA Glenn has studied these anomalies including plasma chamber testing on arrays similar to those that experienced difficulties on orbit. Many others in the community have been involved in a comprehensive effort to understand the problems and to develop practices to avoid them. The NASA Space Environments and Effects program, recognizing the timeliness of this effort, has commissioned and funded a design guidelines document intended to capture the current state of understanding. We present here an overview of this document, which is now nearing completion.

  6. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  7. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  8. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  9. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  10. Gaia Spacecraft Mechanical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebranchu, C.; Blender, F.; Touzeau, S.; Escolar, D.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's cornerstone mission for global space astrometry. Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical system engineering and verification of the spacecraft. This development includes several technical challenges. First of all, the very high stability performance as required for the mission is a key driver for the design; which incurs a high degree of stability. This is achieved through decoupling between payload and service module, and the use of high-performance engineering tools and of Silicon Carbide (Boostec® SiC) for the Payload. Compliance of spacecraft mass and volume with launcher capability is another key challenge, as well as the development of the 10.3 meter diameter deployable sunshield. The spacecraft mechanical verification follows an innovative approach, with direct testing on the flight model, without dedicated structural model. Gaia mechanical development is the fruit of a successful international cooperation.

  11. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 77. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE EXHIBIT - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 78. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, MAIN AISLE, DETAIL OF LIGHT FIXTURE (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  15. Solar array/spacecraft biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Biasing techniques and their application to the control of spacecraft potential is discussed. Normally when a spacecraft is operated with ion thrusters, the spacecraft will be 10-20 volts negative of the surrounding plasma. This will affect scientific measurements and will allow ions from the charge-exchange plasma to bombard the spacecraft surfaces with a few tens of volts of energy. This condition may not be tolerable. A proper bias system is described that can bring the spacecraft to or near the potential of the surrounding plasma.

  16. 36 CFR 73.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 73.1 Section 73.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION § 73.1 Purpose. The purpose of these rules is to set forth the policies and procedures that the Department of the Interior, through...

  17. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P. (Editor); Lovell, R. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Over 50 papers from the spacecraft charging conference are included on subjects such as: (1) geosynchronous plasma environment, (2) spacecraft modeling, (3) spacecraft materials characterization, (4) spacecraft materials development, and (5) satellite design and test.

  18. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  19. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  20. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  1. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  2. 43 CFR 11.11 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 11.11 Section 11.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.11... natural resource damages. The results of an assessment performed by a Federal or State natural...

  3. 43 CFR 11.11 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 11.11 Section 11.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.11... natural resource damages. The results of an assessment performed by a Federal or State natural...

  4. 43 CFR 3105.4-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.4-2 Section 3105.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  5. 43 CFR 3105.5-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.5-2 Section 3105.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  6. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  7. 43 CFR 6301.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 6301.1 Section 6301.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS...

  8. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  9. 43 CFR 6301.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 6301.1 Section 6301.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PRESERVATION AND CONSERVATION (6000) MANAGEMENT OF DESIGNATED WILDERNESS...

  10. 43 CFR 3105.3-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.3-2 Section 3105.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  11. 43 CFR 3105.5-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.5-2 Section 3105.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  12. 43 CFR 3105.4-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.4-2 Section 3105.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  13. 43 CFR 3105.4-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.4-2 Section 3105.4-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  14. 43 CFR 3105.3-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.3-2 Section 3105.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  15. 43 CFR 3105.3-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.3-2 Section 3105.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  16. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  17. 43 CFR 27.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 27.1 Section 27.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS...-153 (87 Stat. 576) to the end that no person shall on the grounds of race, creed, color,...

  18. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  19. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  20. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  1. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning §...

  2. 43 CFR 12.970 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 12.970 Section 12.970 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations After-The-Award...

  3. 43 CFR 12.910 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 12.910 Section 12.910 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Pre-Award Requirements §...

  4. Xenia Spacecraft Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed design for the Xenia mission spacecraft. The goal of this study is to perform a mission concept study for the mission. Included in this study are: the overall ground rules and assumptions (GR&A), a mission analysis, the configuration, the mass properties, the guidance, Navigation and control, the proposed avionics, the power system, the thermal protection system, the propulsion system, and the proposed structures. Conclusions from the study indicate that the observatory fits within the Falcon 9 mass and volume envelope for launching from Omelek, the pointing, slow slewing, and fast slewing requirements and the thermal requirements are met.

  5. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  6. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  7. Furlable spacecraft antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.; Wilson, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large furlable spacecraft antennas using conical main reflectors is described. Two basic antenna configurations which utilize conical main reflectors have been conceived and are under development. In the conical-Gregorian configuration each ray experiences two reflections in traveling from the feed center to the aperture plane. In the Quadreflex (four reflection) configuration, each ray experiences four reflections, one at each of two subreflector surfaces and two at the main conical reflector surface. The RF gain measurements obtained from 6-ft and 30-in. models of the conical-Gregorian and Quadreflex concepts respectively were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development of the concepts.

  8. Gimballing Spacecraft Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Tim; Bossard, John

    2010-01-01

    A gimballing spacecraft reaction-control-system thruster was developed that consists of a small hydrogen/oxygen-burning rocket engine integrated with a Canfield joint. (Named after its inventor, a Canfield joint is a special gimbal mount that is strong and stable yet allows a wide range of motion.) One especially notable aspect of the design of this thruster is integration, into both the stationary legs and the moving arms of the Canfield joint, of the passages through which the hydrogen and oxygen flow to the engine. The thruster was assembled and subjected to tests in which the engine was successfully fired both with and without motion in the Canfield joint.

  9. Cluster Inter-Spacecraft Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a radio communication system being developed for exchanging data and sharing data-processing capabilities among spacecraft flying in formation. The system would establish a high-speed, low-latency, deterministic loop communication path connecting all the spacecraft in a cluster. The system would be a wireless version of a ring bus that complies with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus enhancement to the IEEE standard developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Every spacecraft in the cluster would be equipped with a ring-bus radio transceiver. The identity of a spacecraft would be established upon connection into the ring bus, and the spacecraft could be at any location in the ring communication sequence. In the event of failure of a spacecraft, the ring bus would reconfigure itself, bypassing a failed spacecraft. Similarly, the ring bus would reconfigure itself to accommodate a spacecraft newly added to the cluster or newly enabled or re-enabled. Thus, the ring bus would be scalable and robust. Reliability could be increased by launching, into the cluster, spare spacecraft to be activated in the event of failure of other spacecraft.

  10. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, R. C.; Smith, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo PMAD (power management and distribution system) is described, and the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware are discussed. The spacecraft is powered by two general-purpose heat-source-radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Power bus regulation is provided by a shunt regulator. Galileo PMAD distributes a 570-W beginning of mission (BOM) power source to a user complement of some 137 load elements. Extensive use of pyrotechnics requires two pyro switching subassemblies. They initiate 148 squibs which operate the 47 pyro devices on the spacecraft. Detection and correction of faults in the Galileo PMAD is an autonomous feature dictated by requirements for long life and reliability in the absence of ground-based support. Volatile computer memories in the spacecraft command and data system and attitude control system require a continuous source of backup power during all anticipated power bus fault scenarios. Power for the Jupiter Probe is conditioned, isolated, and controlled by a Probe interface subassembly. Flight performance of the spacecraft and the PMAD has been successful to date, with no major anomalies.

  11. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  12. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, A.R.; Cotts, D.B.; Wall, J.A.; Bouquet, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    With an eye towards applications in the space radiation environment and in nuclear instrumentation, the contributors to this volume provide a multi-disciplinary review of theory and experimentation with conductivity in dielectrics, especially insulators, to establish guidelines for design of materials which do not electrically discharge or breakdown. The authors' analysis of polymer literature suggests several candidates for the purpose of proposing anti-static polymers for use in the space radiation environment. Experimental data is systematically referenced and suggestions for improving such data are made. The book also contains an extensive reference list.

  13. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  14. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  15. Space power systems - 'Spacecraft 2000'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faymon, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The program 'Spacecraft 2000' has the objective to identify critical, high-payoff, potential spacecraft technologies, taking into account the formulation, advocation, and the management of the requisite technology development programs. This program represents a joint NASA-industry program. The technology areas addressed by 'Spacecraft 2000' are related to spacecraft power/energy storage, thermal control/thermal management, power management and distribution, autonomous operation-control, on-board system integration, spacecraft environmental interactions, secondary propulsion, communications technologies, a total system response approach, and system-subsystem technology verification. The expected benefits of a development of advanced technologies include decreased spacecraft bus system weights, decreased mission costs, increased reliability/lifetimes, and increased operational flexibility.

  16. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  17. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  18. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  19. Interiors That Stand Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "It's what's on the inside that counts"--at least when it comes to "American School & University's" (AS&U's) annual Educational Interiors Showcase competition. Each May, "AS&U" assembles at its Overland Park, Kansas headquarters a jury made up of education and architectural professionals from across the country to pore over an array of exceptional…

  20. Interior of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

  1. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  2. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  3. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  4. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  5. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  6. Spacecraft telecommunications system mass estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Sakamoto, L. L.

    1988-02-01

    Mass is the most important limiting parameter for present-day planetary spacecraft design, In fact, the entire design can be characterized by mass. The more efficient the design of the spacecraft, the less mass will be required. The communications system is an essential and integral part of planetary spacecraft. A study is presented of the mass attributable to the communications system for spacecraft designs used in recent missions in an attempt to help guide future design considerations and research and development efforts. The basic approach is to examine the spacecraft by subsystem and allocate a portion of each subsystem to telecommunications. Conceptually, this is to divide the spacecraft into two parts, telecommunications and nontelecommunications. In this way, it is clear what the mass attributable to the communications system is. The percentage of mass is calculated using the actual masses of the spacecraft parts, except in the case of CRAF. In that case, estimated masses are used since the spacecraft was not yet built. The results show that the portion of the spacecraft attributable to telecommunications is substantial. The mass fraction for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF (Mariner Mark 2) is 34, 19, and 18 percent, respectively. The large reduction of telecommunications mass from Voyager to Galileo is mainly due to the use of a deployable antenna instead of the solid antenna on Voyager.

  7. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  8. Demonstration of Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2012-01-01

    During the Constellation Program, the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies were focused on the immediate questions related to the atmosphere of the habitable volume and implementation of fire detection, suppression, and postfire clean-up systems into the vehicle architectures. One of the difficulties encountered during the trade studies for these systems was the frequent lack of data regarding the performance of a technology, such as a water mist fire suppression system or an optically-based combustion product monitor. Even though a spacecraft fire safety technology development project was being funded, there was insufficient time and funding to address all the issues as they were identified. At the conclusion of the Constellation Program, these knowledge gaps formed the basis for a project proposed to the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. This project, subsequently funded by the AES Program and in operation since October 2011, has as its cornerstone the development of an experiment to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the European Space Agency (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Science s Cygnus vehicle after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. The technology development efforts being conducted in this project include continued quantification of low- and partial-gravity maximum oxygen concentrations of spacecraft-relevant materials, development and verification of sensors for fire detection and post-fire monitoring, development of standards for sizing and selecting spacecraft fire suppression systems, and demonstration of post-fire cleanup strategies. The major technology development efforts are identified in this paper but its primary purpose is to describe the spacecraft fire safety demonstration being planned for the reentry vehicle.

  9. Magnetic bearings for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have been successfully applied to motorized rotor systems in the multi-kilogram range, at speeds up to 1200 radians per second. These engineering models also indicated the need for continued development in specific areas to make them feasible for spacecraft applications. Significant power reductions have recently been attained. A unique magnetic circuit, combining permanent magnets with electromagnetic control, has a bidirectional forcing capability with improved current sensitivity. The multi-dimensional nature of contact-free rotor support is discussed. Stable continuous radial suspension is provided by a rotationally symmetric permanent magnet circuit. Two bearings, on a common shaft, counteract the normal instability perpendicular to the rotational axis. The axial direction is servoed to prevent contact. A new bearing technology and a new field of application for magnetics is foreseen.

  10. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  11. Spacecraft stability and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite stability and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, stability requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for stability will also be considered.

  12. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  13. Interior of Spacewedge #3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows the instrumentation and equipment inside the Spacewedge #3, a remotely-piloted research vehicle flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to help develop technology for autonomous return systems for spacecraft as well as methods to deliver large Army cargo payloads to precise landings. From October 1991 to December 1996, NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) conducted a research program know as the Spacecraft Autoland Project. This Project was designed to determine the feasibility of the autonomous recovery of a spacecraft using a ram-air parafoil system for the final stages of flight, including a precision landing. The Johnson Space Center and the U.S. Army participated in various phases of the program. The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory developed the software for Wedge 3 under contract to the Army. Four generic spacecraft (each called a Spacewedge or simply a Wedge) were built; the last one was built to test the feasibility of a parafoil for delivering Army cargoes. Technology developed during this program has applications for future spacecraft recovery systems, such as the X-38 Crew Return Vehicle demonstrator. The Spacewedge program demonstrated precision flare and landing into the wind at a predetermined location. The program showed that a flexible, deployable system using autonomous navigation and landing was a viable and practical way to recover spacecraft NASA researchers conducted flight tests of the Spacewedge at three sites near Dryden, a hillside near Tehachapi, the Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, and the California City Airport Drop Zone. During the first phase of testing 36 flights were made. Phase II consisted of 45 flights using a smaller parafoil. A third Phase of 34 flights was conducted primarily by the Army and resulted in the development of an Army guidance system for precision offset cargo delivery. The wedge used

  14. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  15. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  16. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  17. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  18. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  19. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  20. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  1. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  2. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  3. Spacecraft Fire Detection and Extinguishment: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1988-01-01

    Pertinent fire detection and extinguishment references have been identified to further the knowledge of spacecraft fire safety. To broaden the scope of the bibliography, other unusual environments, e.g., aircraft, submarine, ship, have been included. In addition, for a more comprehensive view of the spacecraft fire safety problem, selected subjects are included, e.g., materials flammability, smoke, human behavior. The references will provide the researcher with access to state-of-the-art and historic works. Selected references from the 1960's have been included, but the emphasis is on references published from 1975 to 1987. The references are arranged by very broad categories. Often a paper will cover more than one topic, but for the purposes of this bibliography it will be cited only once.

  4. 43 CFR 17.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.501 Purpose. The purpose of this... discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs or activities conducted by Executive agencies or the...

  5. 43 CFR 17.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.501 Purpose. The purpose of this... discrimination on the basis of handicap in programs or activities conducted by Executive agencies or the...

  6. 43 CFR 17.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.501 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to... the basis of handicap in programs or activities conducted by Executive agencies or the U.S....

  7. 43 CFR 22.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EMPLOYEES Administrative Tort Claims § 22.1 Purpose... accruing on and after January 18, 1967, under the Federal Tort Claims Act (in part, 28 U.S.C. 2401(b), 2671... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public...

  8. 43 CFR 22.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EMPLOYEES Administrative Tort Claims § 22.1 Purpose... accruing on and after January 18, 1967, under the Federal Tort Claims Act (in part, 28 U.S.C. 2401(b), 2671... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public...

  9. 43 CFR 22.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EMPLOYEES Administrative Tort Claims § 22.1 Purpose... accruing on and after January 18, 1967, under the Federal Tort Claims Act (in part, 28 U.S.C. 2401(b), 2671... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public...

  10. 43 CFR 10000.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 10000.1 Section 10000.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.1 Purpose. This part describes the...

  11. 43 CFR 10000.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 10000.1 Section 10000.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.1 Purpose. This part describes the...

  12. 43 CFR 10000.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 10000.1 Section 10000.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 10000.1 Purpose. This part describes the...

  13. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 17.1 Section 17.1 Public Lands... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or...

  14. 43 CFR 8223.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....

  15. 43 CFR 2461.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) BUREAU INITIATED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple use... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 2461.0-1 Section 2461.0-1...

  16. The Galeleo spacecraft magnetometer boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T.; Benton, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft utilizes a deployable lattice boom to position three science instruments at remote distances from the spacecraft body. An improved structure and mechanism to precisely control deployment of the boom, and the unique deployment of an outer protective cover are described.

  17. 43 CFR 19.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... administration by the Department of the Interior of certain provisions of the Wilderness Act (78 Stat. 890; 16 U... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope and purpose. 19.1 Section 19.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION...

  18. 43 CFR 19.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... administration by the Department of the Interior of certain provisions of the Wilderness Act (78 Stat. 890; 16 U... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope and purpose. 19.1 Section 19.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION...

  19. 43 CFR 19.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by the Department of the Interior of certain provisions of the Wilderness Act (78 Stat. 890; 16 U.S.C... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Scope and purpose. 19.1 Section 19.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior WILDERNESS PRESERVATION National...

  20. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  1. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  2. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  3. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  4. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  5. On-orbit spacecraft reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C.; Demars, D.; Graham, W.; Henmi, P.

    1978-01-01

    Operational and historic data for 350 spacecraft from 52 U.S. space programs were analyzed for on-orbit reliability. Failure rates estimates are made for on-orbit operation of spacecraft subsystems, components, and piece parts, as well as estimates of failure probability for the same elements during launch. Confidence intervals for both parameters are also given. The results indicate that: (1) the success of spacecraft operation is only slightly affected by most reported incidents of anomalous behavior; (2) the occurrence of the majority of anomalous incidents could have been prevented piror to launch; (3) no detrimental effect of spacecraft dormancy is evident; (4) cycled components in general are not demonstrably less reliable than uncycled components; and (5) application of product assurance elements is conductive to spacecraft success.

  6. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study.

    The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg.

    The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn 'moons' seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device.

  7. Fault tolerant control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard

    Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying space missions demand the development of reliable control systems to ensure rapid, accurate, and effective response to various attitude and formation reconfiguration commands. Keeping in mind the complexities involved in the technology development to enable spacecraft formation flying, this thesis presents the development and validation of a fault tolerant control algorithm that augments the AOCS on-board a spacecraft to ensure that these challenging formation flying missions will fly successfully. Taking inspiration from the existing theory of nonlinear control, a fault-tolerant control system for the RyePicoSat missions is designed to cope with actuator faults whilst maintaining the desirable degree of overall stability and performance. Autonomous fault tolerant adaptive control scheme for spacecraft equipped with redundant actuators and robust control of spacecraft in underactuated configuration, represent the two central themes of this thesis. The developed algorithms are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. A reaction wheel testbed is used to validate the proposed fault tolerant attitude control scheme. A spacecraft formation flying experimental testbed is used to verify the performance of the proposed robust control scheme for underactuated spacecraft configurations. The proposed underactuated formation flying concept leads to more than 60% savings in fuel consumption when compared to a fully actuated spacecraft formation configuration. We also developed a novel attitude control methodology that requires only a single thruster to stabilize three axis attitude and angular velocity components of a spacecraft. Numerical simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experimental results along with rigorous analytical stability analysis shows that the proposed methodology will greatly enhance the reliability of the spacecraft, while allowing for potentially significant overall mission cost reduction.

  8. INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  10. 49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of the Gilley Room on the second floor of the powerhouse and ear barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  12. Interior view of hallway showing interior door with transom on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of hallway showing interior door with transom on second floor, south wing; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Wards, Cedar Avenue, eat side between Fourteenth Avenue & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Research on advanced spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Etou, Takao; Imai, Ryouichi; Oota, Kazuo; Kaneko, Yutaka; Maeda, Toshihide; Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    Engineering test satellite systems to validate element technologies required for spacecraft composing advanced space infrastructures are studied. Case studies are conducted on element technologies for diversified manned space technology and the outline of the engineering test satellite systems is demonstrated. Debris observing systems, their debris collection and retrieval methods which are being reviewed in many countries are examined. Technical problems are picked up, and the fundamental concept of experiment satellites is determined. Missions deemed to be suitable for micro-satellites and various civil on-ground technologies focusing on electronic technology applicable to them are picked up. Functions of extravehicular operation systems required by the missions, and fundamental concept of the systems and subsystems are made clear. Missions to which artificial gravity experiment satellites that are effective are examined and preparatory review is conducted on artificial gravity generation methods, methods to retrieve experiment equipment and samples, and outline of the satellite systems. Technical problems of engineering test satellites to validate on-orbit cryogenic propellant storage and transportation technologies are picked up and the fundamental concept of the satellites are determined. A review is conducted on electrical propulsion Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) technology satellite to validate fundamental technology for large electrical propulsion engine and electrical propulsion engine OTV operation technology, and to pick up problems on the orbit of electrical propulsion OTV.

  14. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  15. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  16. Hydrazine monitoring in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. H.; Beck, S. W.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrazine (HZ) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are highly toxic compounds used as fuels in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Engines and in its maneuvering and reaction control system. Satellite refueling during a mission may also result in release of hydrazines. During extravehicular activities, the potential exists for hydrazines to contaminate the suit and to be brought into the internal atmosphere inadvertantly. Because of the high toxicity of hydrazines, a very sensitive, reliable, interference-free, and real-time method of measurement is required. A portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has exhibited a low ppb detection limit for hydrazines suggesting a promising technology for the detection of hydrazines in spacecraft air. The Hydrazine Monitor is a modified airborne vapor monitor (AVM) with a custom-built datalogger. This off-the-shelf IMS was developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents on the battlefield. After early evaluations of the AVM for hydrazine measurements showed a serious interference from ammonia, the AVM was modified to measure HZ and MMH in the ppb concentration range without interference from ammonia in the low ppm range. A description of the Hydrazine Monitor and how it functions is presented.

  17. Spectra and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.

    2001-02-01

    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  18. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  19. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  20. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  1. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  2. POWOW: A Modular, High Power Spacecraft Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A robust space infrastructure encompasses a broad range of mission needs along with an imperative to reduce costs of satellites meeting those needs. A critical commodity for science, commercial and civil satellites is power at an affordable cost. The POWOW (POwer WithOut Wires) spacecraft concept was created to provide, at one end of the scale, multi-megawatts of power yet also be composed of modules that can meet spacecraft needs in the kilowatt range. With support from the NASA-sponsored Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology Program, the POWOW spacecraft concept was designed to meet Mars mission needs - while at the same time having elements applicable to a range of other missions. At Mars, the vehicle would reside in an aerosynchronous orbit and beam power to a variety of locations on the surface. It is the purpose of this paper to present the latest concept design results. The Space Power Institute along with four companies: Able Engineering, Inc., Entech, Inc., Primex Aerospace Co., and TECSTAR have produced a modular, power-rich electrically propelled spacecraft design that meets these requirements. In addition, it also meets a range of civil and commercial needs. The spacecraft design is based on multijunction Ill-V solar cells, the new Stretched Lens Aurora (SLA) module, a lightweight array design based on a multiplicity of 8 kW end-of-life subarrays and electric thrusters. The solar cells have excellent radiation resistance and efficiencies above 30%. The SLA has a concentration ratio up to 15x while maintaining an operating temperature of 80 C. The design of the 8 kW array building block will be presented and its applicability to commercial and government missions will be discussed. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have been conducted to define the most advantageous options. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 900 kW using technologies expected to be

  3. 11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway toward the front and east window. Note: This photograph shows that the building had been converted to a residence following its use as a school. In addition, the hazardous condition of the structure's interior is evident. Two ceilings which are visible in the photograph, (the upper, probably original plastered ceiling, and a secondary, adapted ceiling) as well as ceiling joists in the southernmost rooms have collapsed. Because of the dangerous condition of the interior of the building, additional interior photography was not attempted at this time. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  4. 43 CFR 34.1 - Statement of purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.1 Statement of purpose....

  5. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  6. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  7. Simple Systems for Detecting Spacecraft Meteoroid Punctures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes proposed systems to be installed in spacecraft to detect punctures by impinging meteoroids or debris. Relative to other systems that have been used for this purpose, the proposed systems would be simpler and more adaptable, and would demand less of astronauts attention and of spacecraft power and computing resources. The proposed systems would include a thin, hollow, hermetically sealed panel containing an inert fluid at a pressure above the spacecraft cabin pressure. A transducer would monitor the pressure in the panel. It is assumed that an impinging object that punctures the cabin at the location of the panel would also puncture the panel. Because the volume of the panel would be much smaller than that of the cabin, the panel would lose its elevated pressure much faster than the cabin would lose its lower pressure. The transducer would convert the rapid pressure drop to an electrical signal that could trigger an alarm. Hence, the system would provide an immediate indication of the approximate location of a small impact leak, possibly in time to take corrective action before a large loss of cabin pressure could occur.

  8. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Service Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merri, Mario; Schmidt, Michael; Ercolani, Alessandro; Dankiewicz, Ivan; Cooper, Sam; Thompson, Roger; Symonds, Martin; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton; Shames, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This CCSDS paper presents a reference architecture and service framework for spacecraft monitoring and control. It has been prepared by the Spacecraft Monitoring and Control working group of the CCSDS Mission Operations and Information Management Systems (MOIMS) area. In this context, Spacecraft Monitoring and Control (SM&C) refers to end-to-end services between on- board or remote applications and ground-based functions responsible for mission operations. The scope of SM&C includes: 1) Operational Concept: definition of an operational concept that covers a set of standard operations activities related to the monitoring and control of both ground and space segments. 2) Core Set of Services: definition of an extensible set of services to support the operational concept together with its information model and behaviours. This includes (non exhaustively) ground systems such as Automatic Command and Control, Data Archiving and Retrieval, Flight Dynamics, Mission Planning and Performance Evaluation. 3) Application-layer information: definition of the standard information set to be exchanged for SM&C purposes.

  9. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  10. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  11. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  12. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  13. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  14. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  15. Spacecraft attitude dynamics and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobotov, Vladimir A.

    This overview of spacecraft dynamics encompasses the fundamentals of kinematics, rigid-body dynamics, linear control theory, orbital environmental effects, and the stability of motion. The theoretical treatment of each issue is complemented by specific references to spacecraft control systems based on spin, dual-spin, three-axis-active, and reaction-wheel methodologies. Also examined are control-moment-gyro, gravity-gradient, and magnetic control systems with attention given to key issues such as nutation damping, separation dynamics of spinning bodies, and tethers. Environmental effects that impinge on the application of spacecraft-attitude dynamics are shown to be important, and consideration is given to gravitation, solar radiation, aerodynamics, and geomagnetics. The publication gives analytical methods for examining the practical implementation of the control techniques as they apply to spacecraft.

  16. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  17. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  18. Spacecraft external molecular contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Control of contamination on and around spacecraft is required to avoid adverse effects on the performance of instruments and spacecraft systems. Recent work in this area is reviewed and discussed. Specific issues and limitations to be considered as part of the effort to predict contamination effects using modeling techniques are addressed. Significant results of Space Shuttle missions in the field of molecule/surface interactions as well as their implications for space station design and operation are reviewed.

  19. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  20. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce periodic ventilation of the submarine's interior and thus put a greater burden on the various maintenance systems. We note that the spaceflight community has similar issues; their energy production mechanisms are essentially air independent in that they rely almost entirely on photovoltaic arrays for electricity generation, with only emergency back-up power from alcohol fuel cells. In response to prolonged underwater submarine AIP operations, months-long spaceflight operations onboard the ISS and planning for future years-long missions to Mars, there has been an increasing awareness that bio-monitoring is an important factor for assessing the health and awareness states of the crewmembers. SAMAP researchers have been proposing various air and bio-monitoring instruments and methods in response to these needs. One of the most promising new methodologies is the non-invasive monitoring of exhaled breath. So, what do the IABR and SAMAP communities have in common? Inhalation toxicology. We are both concerned with contamination from the environment, either as a direct health threat or as a confounder for diagnostic assessments. For example, the exhaled breath from subjects in a contaminated and enclosed artificial environment (submarine or spacecraft) can serve as a model system and a source of contamination for their peers in a cleaner environment. In a similar way, exhaled anaesthetics can serve as a source of contamination in hospital/clinical settings, or exhalation of occupational exposures to tetrachloroethylene can impact family members at home. Instrumentation development. Both communities have similar needs for better, more specific and more sensitive instruments. Certainly, the analytical instruments to be used onboard submarines and spacecraft have severe restrictions on energy use, physical size and ease of operation. The medical and clinical communities have similar long

  1. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce periodic ventilation of the submarine's interior and thus put a greater burden on the various maintenance systems. We note that the spaceflight community has similar issues; their energy production mechanisms are essentially air independent in that they rely almost entirely on photovoltaic arrays for electricity generation, with only emergency back-up power from alcohol fuel cells. In response to prolonged underwater submarine AIP operations, months-long spaceflight operations onboard the ISS and planning for future years-long missions to Mars, there has been an increasing awareness that bio-monitoring is an important factor for assessing the health and awareness states of the crewmembers. SAMAP researchers have been proposing various air and bio-monitoring instruments and methods in response to these needs. One of the most promising new methodologies is the non-invasive monitoring of exhaled breath. So, what do the IABR and SAMAP communities have in common? Inhalation toxicology. We are both concerned with contamination from the environment, either as a direct health threat or as a confounder for diagnostic assessments. For example, the exhaled breath from subjects in a contaminated and enclosed artificial environment (submarine or spacecraft) can serve as a model system and a source of contamination for their peers in a cleaner environment. In a similar way, exhaled anaesthetics can serve as a source of contamination in hospital/clinical settings, or exhalation of occupational exposures to tetrachloroethylene can impact family members at home. Instrumentation development. Both communities have similar needs for better, more specific and more sensitive instruments. Certainly, the analytical instruments to be used onboard submarines and spacecraft have severe restrictions on energy use, physical size and ease of operation. The medical and clinical communities have similar long

  2. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  3. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  4. 25 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Purpose, Definitions, and Policy § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to govern the provision of...

  5. 25 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Purpose, Definitions, and Policy § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to govern the provision of...

  6. 25 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Purpose, Definitions, and Policy § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to govern the provision of...

  7. 25 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Purpose, Definitions, and Policy § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to govern the provision of...

  8. 25 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Purpose, Definitions, and Policy § 23.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to govern the provision of...

  9. Planetary Gravity Fields and Their Impact on a Spacecraft Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.

    2005-01-01

    The present work touches an interdisciplinary aspect of space exploration: the improvement of spacecraft navigation by means of enhanced planetary interior model derivation. The better the bodies in our solar system are known and modelled, the more accurately (and safely) a spacecraft can be navigated. In addition, the information about the internal structure of a planet, moon or any other planetary body can be used in arguments for different theories of solar system evolution. The focus of the work lies in a new approach for modelling the gravity field of small planetary bodies: the implementation of complex ellipsoidal coordinates (figure 1, [4]) for irregularly shaped bodies that cannot be represented well by a straightforward spheroidal approach. In order to carry out the required calculations the computer programme GRASP (Gravity Field of a Planetary Body and its Influence on a Spacecraft Trajectory) has been developed [5]. The programme furthermore allows deriving the impact of the body s gravity field on a spacecraft trajectory and thus permits predictions for future space mission flybys.

  10. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  11. Spacecraft tables 1957 - 1990.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyman, J.

    This book presents a record of all space launches of all space-active countries from 1957 to 1990. In each case, the name and number designation, launch date, reentry date (when applicable) are given. Launches are organized by country, and by type of mission. If known, the purpose of the mission is indicated. The countries represented include the U.S., U.S.S.R., Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Pakistan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom. Among organizations covered are NASA, Amsat, Intelsat, ESA, Interkosmos, NATO, Inmarsat, Entelsat, Arabsat.

  12. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  13. Closeup view of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command Module after flash fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Closeup view of the interior of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command Module at Pad 34 showing the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew of the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission. Astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, Edward H. White II, and Roger B. Chaffee lost their lives in the accidental fire.

  14. Lean spacecraft avionics trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft design is generally an exercise in design trade-offs: fuel vs. weight, power vs. solar cell area, radiation exposure vs. shield weight, etc. Proper analysis of these trades is critical in the development of lightweight, efficient, 'lean' satellites. The modification of the launch plans for the Magnetosphere Imager (MI) to a Taurus launcher from the much more powerful Delta has forced a reduction in spacecraft weight availability into the mission orbit from 1300 kg to less than 500 kg. With weight now a driving factor it is imperative that the satellite design be extremely efficient and lean. The accuracy of engineering trades now takes on an added importance. An understanding of spacecraft subsystem interactions is critical in the development of a good spacecraft design, yet it is a challenge to define these interactions while the design is immature. This is currently an issue in the development of the preliminary design of the MI. The interaction and interfaces between this spacecraft and the instruments it carries are currently unclear since the mission instruments are still under development. It is imperative, however, to define these interfaces so that avionics requirements ideally suited to the mission's needs can be determined.

  15. Solar interior structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Helioseismology allows us to probe the interior structure and dynamics of the Sun, and long-term observations allow us to follow their temporal variations. This review describes the important findings of recent years, covering the interior structure, the near-surface changes related to the solar cycle and possible deeper-seated variations, the interior rotation profile, and solar-cycle related changes in the zonal and meridional flows.

  16. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  17. Disturbing effects of attitude control maneuvers on the orbital motion of the Helios spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgevic, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The position of the spin axis of the Helios A spacecraft has been maintained and updated by a series of attitude control maneuvers, by means of a sequence of unbalanced jet forces which produce an additional disturbed motion of the spacecraft's center of mass. The character of this motion, its magnitude and direction was studied. For practical purposes of the orbit determination of the spacecraft, a computer program is given which shows how the components of the disturbing acceleration in the spacecraft-fixed reference frame can be easily computed.

  18. 43 CFR 3465.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection § 3465.0-1 Purpose. This subpart establishes rules for the management and protection of the surface of leased...

  19. 43 CFR 3465.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection § 3465.0-1 Purpose. This subpart establishes rules for the management and protection of the surface of leased...

  20. 43 CFR 7.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this part implement provisions of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470aa-mm) by establishing the uniform definitions,...

  1. 43 CFR 3436.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... west of the 100th Meridian, west longitude, or materially damage the quantity or quality of water in... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3436.0-1 Section 3436.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  2. 43 CFR 3436.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... west of the 100th Meridian, west longitude, or materially damage the quantity or quality of water in... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3436.0-1 Section 3436.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  3. 43 CFR 2710.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2710.0-1 Section 2710.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1701, 1713)....

  4. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant to title I of the Water Research Act of 1984 (Pub. L... the Interior to promote a national program of water-resources research....

  5. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant to title I of the Water Research Act of 1984 (Pub. L... the Interior to promote a national program of water-resources research....

  6. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant to title I of the Water Research Act of 1984 (Pub. L... the Interior to promote a national program of water-resources research....

  7. 43 CFR 10005.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 10005.1 Section 10005.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... regarding the mitigation and conservation plan required by the Central Utah Project Completion Act,...

  8. 43 CFR 10005.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 10005.1 Section 10005.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... regarding the mitigation and conservation plan required by the Central Utah Project Completion Act,...

  9. 43 CFR 10005.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 10005.1 Section 10005.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND... regarding the mitigation and conservation plan required by the Central Utah Project Completion Act,...

  10. 43 CFR 12.901 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations General § 12.901 Purpose. This... institutions of higher education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations....

  11. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  13. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  17. Conductive spacecraft materials development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  18. Inner Heliospheric Sentinels Spacecraft Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, R. F.; Potocki, K. A.; Szabo, A.; Kirby, K. W.; Maldonado, H. M.; Adamsen, P. B.; Bokulic, R. S.; Dakermanji, G.; Dellinger, W. F.; Downing, J. P.; Ercol, C. J.; Folta, D. C.; Fielhauer, K. B.; Kelley, J. S.; Le, B. Q.; Leary, B. A.; Lewis, W. S.; Ling, S. X.; Marr, G.; Malouf, P. M.; Napollilo, D. H.; Persons, D. F.; Troll, J. R.; Wallis, R. E.; Lin, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    The Sentinels mission is a key component of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program. The Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) has completed a study to define the science objectives, measurement requirements and observational strategies, and mission design for the Sentinels mission. The Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (IHS) are one of the three flight elements [the others are the Near Earth Sentinel and Far Side Sentinel] that make up the Sentinels mission. The four spin-stabilized IHS spacecraft are in elliptical heliocentric orbit with perihelia at ~0.25 AU and aphelia at ~0.75 AU. This orbit presents unique spacecraft thermal control and power challenges. This study has demonstrated mission feasibility by developing a spacecraft design concept using conventional technologies that satisfies the science and mission requirements defined by the Sentinels STDT.

  19. Fire safety applications for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Olson, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    Fire safety for spacecraft is reviewed by first describing current practices, many of which are adapted directly from aircraft. Then, current analyses and experimental knowledge in low-gravity combustion, with implications for fire safety are discussed. In orbiting spacecraft, the detection and suppression of flames are strongly affected by the large reduction in buoyant flows under low gravity. Generally, combustion intensity is reduced in low gravity. There are some notable exceptions, however, one example being the strong enhancement of flames by low-velocity ventilation flows in space. Finally, the future requirements in fire safety, particularly the needs of long-duration space stations in fire prevention, detection, extinguishment, and atmospheric control are examined. The goal of spacecraft fire-safety investigations is the establishment of trade-offs that promote maximum safety without hampering the useful human and scientific activities in space.

  20. Swarms: Optimum aggregations of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Swarms are aggregations of spacecraft or elements of a space system which are cooperative in function, but physically isolated or only loosely connected. For some missions the swarm configuration may be optimum compared to a group of completely independent spacecraft or a complex rigidly integrated spacecraft or space platform. General features of swarms are induced by considering an ensemble of 26 swarms, examples ranging from Earth centered swarms for commercial application to swarms for exploring minor planets. A concept for a low altitude swarm as a substitute for a space platform is proposed and a preliminary design studied. The salient design feature is the web of tethers holding the 30 km swarm in a rigid two dimensional array in the orbital plane. A mathematical discussion and tutorial in tether technology and in some aspects of the distribution of services (mass, energy, and information to swarm elements) are included.

  1. Differential spacecraft tracking by interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Border, James S.; Folkner, William M.

    1990-01-01

    This study estimates measurement system errors for two space vehicles on the surface of Mars, and for two Mars orbiting spacecraft, which are being tracked by differential interferometry. In these examples, signals from all spacecraft lie within the same beamwidth of an earth-based radio antenna. The measurements of all spacecraft signals are made simultaneously; errors that scale with angular source separation or with temporal separation between measurement epochs are practically removed. It is shown that errors due to system thermal noise and to systematic effects within ground receiver electronics dominate, except for geometries when signals pass close to the sun, when solar plasma becomes the dominant error source. The instantaneous relative position of two orbiters may be measured to within ten meters, leading to 50-meter three-dimensional orbital accuracy.

  2. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  3. Universal Controller for Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levanas, Greg; McCarthy, Thomas; Hunter, Don; Buchanan, Christine; Johnson, Michael; Cozy, Raymond; Morgan, Albert; Tran, Hung

    2006-01-01

    An electronic control unit has been fabricated and tested that can be replicated as a universal interface between the electronic infrastructure of a spacecraft and a brushless-motor (or other electromechanical actuator) driven mechanism that performs a specific mechanical function within the overall spacecraft system. The unit includes interfaces to a variety of spacecraft sensors, power outputs, and has selectable actuator control parameters making the assembly a mechanism controller. Several control topologies are selectable and reconfigurable at any time. This allows the same actuator to perform different functions during the mission life of the spacecraft. The unit includes complementary metal oxide/semiconductor electronic components on a circuit board of a type called rigid flex (signifying flexible printed wiring along with a rigid substrate). The rigid flex board is folded to make the unit fit into a housing on the back of a motor. The assembly has redundant critical interfaces, allowing the controller to perform time-critical operations when no human interface with the hardware is possible. The controller is designed to function over a wide temperature range without the need for thermal control, including withstanding significant thermal cycling, making it usable in nearly all environments that spacecraft or landers will endure. A prototype has withstood 1,500 thermal cycles between 120 and +85 C without significant deterioration of its packaging or electronic function. Because there is no need for thermal control and the unit is addressed through a serial bus interface, the cabling and other system hardware are substantially reduced in quantity and complexity, with corresponding reductions in overall spacecraft mass and cost.

  4. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Allen Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. This paper describes the implementation of acoustic modeling for design purposes by incrementally increasing model fidelity and validating the accuracy of the model while predicting the noise of sources under various conditions. During FY 07, a simple-geometry Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was developed and validated using a physical mockup and acoustic measurements. A process for modeling the effects of absorptive wall treatments and the resulting reverberation environment were developed. During FY 08, a model with more complex and representative geometry of the Orion Crew Module (CM) interior was built, and noise predictions based on input noise sources were made. A corresponding physical mockup was also built. Measurements were made inside this mockup, and comparisons were made with the model and showed excellent agreement. During FY 09, the fidelity of the mockup and corresponding model were increased incrementally by including a simple ventilation system. The airborne noise contribution of the fans was measured using a sound intensity technique, since the sound power levels were not known beforehand. This is opposed to earlier studies where Reference Sound Sources (RSS) with known sound power level were used. Comparisons of the modeling result with the measurements in the mockup showed excellent results. During FY 10, the fidelity of the mockup and the model were further increased by including an ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) wall, associated closeout panels, and the gap between ECLSS wall and mockup wall. The effect of sealing the gap and adding sound absorptive treatment to ECLSS wall were also modeled and validated.

  5. Advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development and characteristics of advanced spacecraft fuel cell systems are discussed. The system is designed to operate on low pressure, propulsion grade hydrogen and oxygen. The specific goals are 10,000 hours of operation with refurbishment, 20 pounds per kilowatt at a sustained power of 7 KW, and 21 KW peaking capability for durations of two hours. The system rejects waste heat to the spacecraft cooling system at power levels up to 7 KW. At higher powers, the system automatically transfers to open cycle operation with overboard steam venting.

  6. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  7. Tools Automate Spacecraft Testing, Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "NASA began the Small Explorer (SMEX) program to develop spacecraft to advance astrophysics and space physics. As one of the entities supporting software development at Goddard Space Flight Center, the Hammers Company Inc. (tHC Inc.), of Greenbelt, Maryland, developed the Integrated Test and Operations System to support SMEX. Later, the company received additional Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from Goddard for a tool to facilitate the development of flight software called VirtualSat. NASA uses the tools to support 15 satellites, and the aerospace industry is using them to develop science instruments, spacecraft computer systems, and navigation and control software."

  8. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  9. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

  10. Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS). A serviceable design spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falkenhayn, Edward

    1987-01-01

    A standard spacecraft bus compatible with NASA launch vehicles, including STS, for four reference missions (Sun, Earth, stellar pointing from low Earth orbit, Earth pointing from geostationary orbit) was designed. The modular serviceable design stems from its use of passive acme screws for module attachment and scoop proof electrical connectors for electrical interfaces. A flight support system includes command and telemetry links.

  11. Data base architecture for instrument characteristics critical to spacecraft conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.; Allen, Cheryl L.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft designs are driven by the payloads and mission requirements that they support. Many of the payload characteristics, such as mass, power requirements, communication requirements, moving parts, and so forth directly affect the choices for the spacecraft structural configuration and its subsystem design and component selection. The conceptual design process, which translates mission requirements into early spacecraft concepts, must be tolerant of frequent changes in the payload complement and resource requirements. A computer data base was designed and implemented for the purposes of containing the payload characteristics pertinent for spacecraft conceptual design, tracking the evolution of these payloads over time, and enabling the integration of the payload data with engineering analysis programs for improving the efficiency in producing spacecraft designs. In-house tools were used for constructing the data base and for performing the actual integration with an existing program for optimizing payload mass locations on the spacecraft.

  12. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  13. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCNO device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  14. Statistical Evaluation of Molecular Contamination During Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip; Hedgeland, Randy; Montoya, Alex; Roman-Velazquez, Juan; Dunn, Jamie; Colony, Joe; Petitto, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the statistical molecular contamination data with a goal to improve spacecraft contamination control. The statistical data was generated in typical thermal vacuum tests at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The magnitude of material outgassing was measured using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) device during the test. A solvent rinse sample was taken at the conclusion of the each test. Then detailed qualitative and quantitative measurements were obtained through chemical analyses. All data used in this study encompassed numerous spacecraft tests in recent years.

  15. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Combined space environment on spacecraft engineering materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft structures and surface materials exposed to the space environment for extended periods, up to thirty years, have increased potential for damage from long term exposure to the combined space environment including solar ultraviolet radiation, electrons, and protons and orbiting space debris. The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/cm(sup 2)/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/cm(sup 2)/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the vacuum ultraviolet (less than 200 nm wavelength) is more difficult to characterize at this time. Very little data is available in the literature which can be used for determining the life cycle of a material placed in space for extended durations of time. In order to obtain critical data for planning and designing of spacecraft systems, use of a small vacuum system at the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC, which can be used for these purposes was used. A special effort was made to build up this capability during the course of this research effort and perform a variety of experiments on materials proposed for the Space Station. A description of the apparatus and the procedure devised to process potential spacecraft materials is included.

  17. 43 CFR 431.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.1 Purpose. (a) The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the..., and Replacement at the Boulder Canyon Project, Arizona/Nevada” (General Regulations) which...

  18. 30 CFR 1229.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 1229.1 Section 1229.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE... effective Federal royalty management system....

  19. 30 CFR 1229.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 1229.1 Section 1229.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE... effective Federal royalty management system....

  20. 30 CFR 1229.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 1229.1 Section 1229.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE... effective Federal royalty management system....

  1. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  2. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Satellite servicing has been a proven capability of NASA since the first servicing missions in the 1980s with astronauts on the space shuttle. This capability enabled the on-orbit assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and saved the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mission following the discovery of the flawed primary mirror. The effectiveness and scope of servicing opportunities, especially using robotic servicers, is a function of how cooperative a spacecraft is. In this paper, modularity will be presented as a critical design aspect for a spacecraft that is cooperative from a servicing perspective. Different features of modularity are discussed using examples from HST and the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) program from the 1980s and 1990s. The benefits of modularity will be presented including those directly related to servicing and those outside of servicing including reduced costs and increased flexibility. The new Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) concept is introduced as an affordable implementation of modularity that provides cost savings and flexibility. Key aspects of the ROSE architecture are discussed such as the module design and the distributed avionics architecture. The ROSE concept builds on the experience from MMS and due to its modularity, would be highly suitable as a future client for on-orbit servicing.

  3. Spacecraft materials HCl susceptibility assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, C.-T.; Liu, De-Ling; Kim, Hyun; Alaan, Diana R.

    2014-09-01

    The susceptibility of spacecraft materials to HCl exposure was investigated in light of concerns to potential contamination during evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) overflight scenarios. Overflight refers to the circumstance where one spacecraft, resident on a launch pad, may be exposed to HCl generated from an earlier solid rocket launch at an adjacent pad. One aspect of the overflight risk assessments involves spacecraft materials susceptibility to HCl exposure. This study examined a wide range of spacecraft materials after being exposed to HCl vapor in a well-characterized facility. Sample thermal/optical and electrostatic dissipation properties, as well as surface chemical and morphological features, were characterized before and after the HCl exposure. All materials tested, except for indium tin oxide (ITO) coated Kapton film, showed no significant degradation after HCl exposure of up to 4800 ppb-hr. The ITO coated Kapton sample showed slight signs of degradation after being exposed to 500 ppb-hr HCl, as the surface resistance was increased by a factor of 5. However, the potential HCl dose inside the payload fairing (PLF) was estimated to be far below 500 ppb-hr in an EELV overflight event. These results, along with other relevant laboratory test data on the HCl removal efficiency of the filtration media used on the launch sites, provide the technical rationale that properly filtered air as the PLF purge should pose little risk in terms of HCl contamination under EELV overflight scenarios.

  4. Microbial Contamination in the Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human spaceflight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) spaceflight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of spaceflight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft.

  5. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  6. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  7. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  8. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  9. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  10. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the...

  11. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the...

  12. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the...

  13. 30 CFR 570.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 570.1 Section 570.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 570.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 604...

  14. 30 CFR 570.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 570.1 Section 570.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 570.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 604...

  15. 30 CFR 570.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 570.1 Section 570.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 570.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 604...

  16. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  17. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  18. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  19. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  20. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  1. 25 CFR 286.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 286.2 Section 286.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part 286 is to prescribe the regulations and procedures under which...

  2. 25 CFR 286.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 286.2 Section 286.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part 286 is to prescribe the regulations and procedures under which...

  3. A Low Cost Spacecraft Architecture for Robotic Lunar Exploration Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Lawrence G.; Gonzales, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    constitute the majority of spacecraft mass; saving development and integration cost on these elements is critical to controlling cost. Therefore, a low cost, modular design for spacecraft structure and propulsion subsystems is presented which may be easily scaled up or down for either insertion into lunar orbit or braking for landing on the lunar surface. In order to effectively use the approx.3 Mt mass-to-TLI of the EELV, two low cost spacecraft will be manifested on the same launch. One spacecraft will be located on top of the other for launch and the two will have to be released in sequence in order to achieve all mission objectives. The two spacecraft could both be landers, both orbiters, or one lander and one orbiter. In order to achieve mass efficiency, the body of the spacecraft will serve the dual purposes of carrying launch loads and providing attachment points for all the spacecraft subsystems. In order to avoid unaffordable technology development costs, small liquid propulsion components and autonomous, scene-matching navigation cameras may be adapted from military missile programs in order to execute precision soft landings.

  4. Enhanced Attitude Control Experiment for SSTI Lewis Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Peoman G.

    1997-01-01

    The enhanced attitude control system experiment is a technology demonstration experiment on the NASA's small spacecraft technology initiative program's Lewis spacecraft to evaluate advanced attitude control strategies. The purpose of the enhanced attitude control system experiment is to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing robust multi-input/multi-output attitude control strategies for enhanced pointing performance of spacecraft to improve the quality of the measurements of the science instruments. Different control design strategies based on modern and robust control theories are being considered for the enhanced attitude control system experiment. This paper describes the experiment as well as the design and synthesis of a mixed H(sub 2)/H(sub infinity) controller for attitude control. The control synthesis uses a nonlinear programming technique to tune the controller parameters and impose robustness and performance constraints. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed attitude control design strategy. Introduction

  5. Geometric theory of horizon scanners. [onboard spacecraft for attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    The note presents a general geometrical theory of spacecraft horizon scanners for the purpose of actual attitude determination, as opposed to just attitude stabilization. Analysis is carried out in terms of the scanning angles and three sets of auxiliary axes: the scanner axes, the nonscanning axes, and the orbital axes. Euler angles (yaw, pitch, and roll) transform the orbital axes to the nonscanning axes, and spacecraft attitude is determined directly from the attitude of the nonscanning axes relative to the orbital axes. In most applications the scanning speed is fast, so that it can be assumed that the attitude of the spacecraft does not change during a scan; however, a perturbation analysis is provided for errors committed by neglecting attitude changes. The analysis is valid for all types of scanners; in addition, the case where two scanners with different half-cone angles are used is considered.

  6. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  7. Team X Spacecraft Instrument Database Consolidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallenstein, Kelly A.

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, many changes have been made to Team X's process of designing each spacecraft, with the purpose of making the overall procedure more efficient over time. One such improvement is the use of information databases from previous missions, designs, and research. By referring to these databases, members of the design team can locate relevant instrument data and significantly reduce the total time they spend on each design. The files in these databases were stored in several different formats with various levels of accuracy. During the past 2 months, efforts have been made in an attempt to combine and organize these files. The main focus was in the Instruments department, where spacecraft subsystems are designed based on mission measurement requirements. A common database was developed for all instrument parameters using Microsoft Excel to minimize the time and confusion experienced when searching through files stored in several different formats and locations. By making this collection of information more organized, the files within them have become more easily searchable. Additionally, the new Excel database offers the option of importing its contents into a more efficient database management system in the future. This potential for expansion enables the database to grow and acquire more search features as needed.

  8. 43 CFR 26.3 - Program purpose and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... law: (1) Accomplish needed conservation work on public lands. (2) Provide gainful employment for 15... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Program purpose and objectives. 26.3 Section 26.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES...

  9. 43 CFR 26.3 - Program purpose and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... law: (1) Accomplish needed conservation work on public lands. (2) Provide gainful employment for 15... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program purpose and objectives. 26.3 Section 26.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES...

  10. 43 CFR 26.3 - Program purpose and objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... law: (1) Accomplish needed conservation work on public lands. (2) Provide gainful employment for 15... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Program purpose and objectives. 26.3 Section 26.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES...

  11. Representation of the Geosynchronous Plasma Environment in Spacecraft Charging Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Mandell, M. J.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, our ability to predict and postdict spacecraft surface charging has been limited by the characterization of the plasma environment. One difficulty lies in the common practice of fitting the plasma data to a Maxwellian or Double Maxwellian distribution function, which may not represent the data well for charging purposes. We use electron and ion flux spectra measured by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) to examine how the use of different spectral representations of the charged particle environment in computations of spacecraft potentials during magnetospheric substorms affects the accuracy of the results. We calculate the spacecraft potential using both the measured fluxes and several different fits to these fluxes. These measured fluxes have been corrected for the difference between the measured and calculated potential. The potential computed using the measured fluxes and the best available material properties of graphite carbon, with a secondary electron escape fraction of 81%, is within a factor of three of the measured potential for 87% of the data. Potentials calculated using a Kappa function fit to the incident electron flux distribution function and a Maxwellian function fit to the incident ion flux distribution function agree with measured potentials nearly as well as do potentials calculated using the measured fluxes. Alternative spectral representations gave less accurate estimates of potential. The use of all the components of the net flux, along with spacecraft specific average material properties, gives a better estimate of the spacecraft potential than the high energy flux alone.

  12. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd test cell with VO (Viking Orbiter)-75 spacecraft engine mounted for testing. (Viking was a Mars orbiter and lander mission.) The end of the engine nozzle is inserted into a diffuser in order to conduct exhaust gases out of the chamber. All piping and tubing is stainless steel. Note ports in background through which instrumentation wiring passes. Nozzles at top of view are part of an internal fire suppression (or "Firex") system. (JPL negative no. 384-9428, 24 April 1972) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Manifold dynamics in the Earth-Moon system via isomorphic mapping with application to spacecraft end-of-life strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontani, Mauro; Giancotti, Marco; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, manifold dynamics has assumed an increasing relevance for analysis and design of low-energy missions, both in the Earth-Moon system and in alternative multibody environments. With regard to lunar missions, exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points L1 and L2 are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is focused on the definition and use of a special isomorphic mapping for low-energy mission analysis. A convenient set of cylindrical coordinates is employed to describe the spacecraft dynamics (i.e. position and velocity), in the context of the circular restricted three-body problem, used to model the spacecraft motion in the Earth-Moon system. This isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows the identification and intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Heteroclinic connections, i.e. the trajectories that belong to both the stable and the unstable manifolds of two distinct periodic orbits, can be easily detected by means of this representation. This paper illustrates the use of isomorphic mapping for finding (a) periodic orbits, (b) heteroclinic connections between trajectories emanating from two Lyapunov orbits, the first at L1, and the second at L2, and (c) heteroclinic connections between trajectories emanating from the Lyapunov orbit at L1 and from a particular unstable lunar orbit. Heteroclinic trajectories are asymptotic trajectories that travels at zero-propellant cost. In practical situations, a modest delta-v budget is required to perform transfers along the manifolds. This circumstance implies the possibility of performing complex missions, by combining different types of trajectory arcs belonging to the manifolds. This work studies also the possible

  14. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Electrical Grounding Architecture for Unmanned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This handbook is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and all NASA Centers and is intended to provide a common framework for consistent practices across NASA programs. This handbook was developed to describe electrical grounding design architecture options for unmanned spacecraft. This handbook is written for spacecraft system engineers, power engineers, and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) engineers. Spacecraft grounding architecture is a system-level decision which must be established at the earliest point in spacecraft design. All other grounding design must be coordinated with and be consistent with the system-level architecture. This handbook assumes that there is no one single 'correct' design for spacecraft grounding architecture. There have been many successful satellite and spacecraft programs from NASA, using a variety of grounding architectures with different levels of complexity. However, some design principles learned over the years apply to all types of spacecraft development. This handbook summarizes those principles to help guide spacecraft grounding architecture design for NASA and others.

  16. Second Venus spacecraft set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch phase of the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe spacecraft and cruise phases of both the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Multiprobe spacecraft are covered. Material pertinent to the Venus encounter is included.

  17. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Asmar, S.; Konopliv, A. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Melosh, H. J.; Neumann, G. A.; Phillips, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Watkins, M. M.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Williams, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, a component of NASA's Discovery Program, launched successfully from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011. GRAIL is the lunar analog of the successful Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin-spacecraft terrestrial gravity recovery mission that has continued to map Earth's gravity field since its launch in 2007. GRAIL was implemented with a science payload derived from GRACE and two spacecraft adapted from the Lockheed Martin Experimental Small Satellite-11 (XSS-11) mission, launched in 2005. After a 3.5-month cruise to the Moon on a low-energy trajectory, the dual spacecraft inserted to polar, elliptical orbits around the Moon on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. The spacecraft, operating independently, underwent a series of maneuvers to reduce altitude and circularize the orbits to an average altitude of 55 km. The spacecraft were aligned into orbiter-point configuration and began mapping on March 1, 2012. GRAIL determines the lunar gravity field by measuring the rate of change in distance between the orbiters to fractions of a micrometer per second. Range-rates (velocity changes) are converted to gravity after correcting for non-gravitational accelerations. GRAIL completed its primary mapping mission on May 29, 2012, and returned >99.9% of the possible ranging data to Earth. The primary mission data have yielded a gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 420 (equivalent to a block size of 13 km) with formal errors at least three orders of magnitude smaller than previous lunar gravity investigations from Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. The quality and resolution of the GRAIL field allow analysis over an unprecedented range of length scales. GRAIL has achieved its measurement requirements related to spatial studies of lunar gravity, and the current focus is on the correction for non-conservative forces that will allow recovery of parameters relevant to deep

  18. SAS-A spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Magnetic tests were conducted on the spacecraft for: (1) alignment, compensation, calibration, and bias determination for the spacecraft three-axis vector magnetometer; (2) determination of permanent, induced, and stray magnetic moments of the spacecraft and compensation of permanent magnetic moments by permanent magnets; and (3) evaluation of the spin and attitude control system.

  19. Spacecraft and their Boosters. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, one in the series on Aerospace Education I, provides a description of some of the discoveries that spacecraft have made possible and of the experience that American astronauts have had in piloting spacecraft. The basic principles behind the operation of spacecraft and their boosters are explained. Descriptions are also included on…

  20. Best-Fit Conic Approximation of Spacecraft Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkipal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates a best conic fit of a given spacecraft trajectory. Spacecraft trajectories are often propagated as conics onboard. The conic-section parameters as a result of the best-conic-fit are uplinked to computers aboard the spacecraft for use in updating predictions of the spacecraft trajectory for operational purposes. In the initial application for which this program was written, there is a requirement to fit a single conic section (necessitated by onboard memory constraints) accurate within 200 microradians to a sequence of positions measured over a 4.7-hour interval. The present program supplants a prior one that could not cover the interval with fewer than four successive conic sections. The present program is based on formulating the best-fit conic problem as a parameter-optimization problem and solving the problem numerically, on the ground, by use of a modified steepest-descent algorithm. For the purpose of this algorithm, optimization is defined as minimization of the maximum directional propagation error across the fit interval. In the specific initial application, the program generates a single 4.7-hour conic, the directional propagation of which is accurate to within 34 microradians easily exceeding the mission constraints by a wide margin.

  1. How Technology Influences Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavitt, Tish

    1999-01-01

    Examines telecommunication technology's influences on interior school design and effective learning, and discusses how to implement this technology into the school. Building the infrastructure to support telecommunications in an educational setting and the importance of effective lighting are discussed. (GR)

  2. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  3. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  4. MIDN: a spacecraft microdosimeter mission.

    PubMed

    Pisacane, V L; Ziegler, J F; Nelson, M E; Caylor, M; Flake, D; Heyen, L; Youngborg, E; Rosenfeld, A B; Cucinotta, F; Zaider, M; Dicello, J F

    2006-01-01

    MIDN (MIcroDosimetry iNstrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure microdosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. PMID:16785245

  5. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  6. Spacecraft materials and coatings experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slemp, Wayne S.

    1992-01-01

    The 5.8-year exposure data from the Long Duration Experiment Facility (LDEF) has demonstrated the benefits of long-term exposure in low Earth orbit (LEO) for understanding the behavior of spacecraft materials and coatings for use in extended space missions. The Space Station Freedom represents the next large area spacecraft available in NASA planned missions for obtaining this long term space exposure data. The advantages of using the Space Station Freedom for these studies are presented. Discrepancies between short-term flight exposure result from Shuttle Orbiter experiments and the long-term LDEF results are shown. The major objectives and benefits of conducting materials and coatings experiments on Space Station Freedom are emphasized.

  7. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  8. Foam Core Shielding for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marc

    2007-01-01

    A foam core shield (FCS) system is now being developed to supplant multilayer insulation (MLI) systems heretofore installed on spacecraft for thermal management and protection against meteoroid impacts. A typical FCS system consists of a core sandwiched between a face sheet and a back sheet. The core can consist of any of a variety of low-to-medium-density polymeric or inorganic foams chosen to satisfy application-specific requirements regarding heat transfer and temperature. The face sheet serves to shock and thereby shatter incident meteoroids, and is coated on its outer surface to optimize its absorptance and emittance for regulation of temperature. The back sheet can be dimpled to minimize undesired thermal contact with the underlying spacecraft component and can be metallized on the surface facing the component to optimize its absorptance and emittance. The FCS systems can perform better than do MLI systems, at lower mass and lower cost and with greater volumetric efficiency.

  9. Spacecraft dynamics and space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiulin, G. A.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research related to spacecraft dynamics and space exploration, with particular attention given to the libration and rotational motion of spacecraft containing a liquid. Topics discussed include resonance phenomena in the rotational motions of artificial and natural celestial bodies, simulation of the dynamics of launch vehicles, the motion of a rigid body whose cavity is partially filled with a liquid, and a rapidly converging variational algorithm in the problem of the natural vibrations of a liquid in a container. Papers are also presented on a study of transient processes in the case of large perturbations of a free liquid surface in a closed compartment, the motion of a rigid body with a liquid whose free surface is covered by a nonlinearly deformed shell, and an experimental study of the stability of the rotational motion of liquid-filled bodies.

  10. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  11. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  12. Spacecraft component heater control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtel, Frederick D. (Inventor); Owen, James W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A heater control circuit is disclosed as being constructed in a single integrated circuit, with the integrated circuit conveniently mounted proximate to a spacecraft component requiring temperature control. Redundant heater controllers control power applied to strip heaters disposed to provide heat to a component responsive to sensed temperature from temperature sensors. Signals from these sensors are digitized and compared with a dead band temperature and set point temperature stored in memory to generate an error signal if the sensed temperature is outside the parameter stored in the memory. This error signal is utilized by a microprocessor to selectively instruct the heater controllers to apply power to the strip heaters. If necessary, the spacecraft central processor may access or interrogate the microprocessor in order to alter the set point temperature and dead band temperature range to obtain operational data relating to the operation of an integrated circuit for relaying to the ground control, or to switch off faulty components.

  13. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  14. Teaching old spacecraft new tricks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, Robert; Dunham, David

    1988-01-01

    The technique of sending existing space probes on extended mission by altering their orbital paths with gravity-assist maneuvers and relatively brief rocket firings is examined. The use of the technique to convert the International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 mission into the International Cometary Explorer mission is discussed. Other examples are considered, including the extension of the Giotto mission and the retargeting of the Sakigake spacecraft. The original and altered trajectories of these three missions are illustrated.

  15. Outgassing data for spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. A., Jr.; Marriott, R. S.; Park, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    A system for determining the mass loss in vacuum and for collecting the outgassed compounds was developed. Outgassing data, derived from tests at 398 K (125 degrees C) for 24 hours in vacuum as per ASTM E 59577, are compiled for numerous materials for spacecraft use. The data presented are the total mass loss (TML) and the collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM). The various materials are compiled by likely usage and alphabetically.

  16. Radiation effects in spacecraft electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Effects on the internal spacecraft electronics due to exposure to the natural and enhanced space radiation environment will be reviewed. The emphasis will be placed on the description of the nature of both the exposure environment and failure mechanisms in semiconductors. Understanding both the system environment and device effects is critical in the use of laboratory simulation environments to obtain the data necessary to design and qualify components for successful application.

  17. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  18. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reppucci, George

    1995-01-01

    This is the second in a series of semi-annual reports that describe the technology areas being advanced under this contract and the progress achieved to date. The last technology report concentrated on the spacecraft. This report places greater emphasis on the payloads. White papers by several of the payload providers are attached. These are HSI, UCB, PRKE, and CAFE. This report covers the period from January 1995 through June 1995.

  19. Energy Storage Flywheels on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Robert O.; Brown, Gary; Levinthal, Joel; Brodeur, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With advances in carbon composite material, magnetic bearings, microprocessors, and high-speed power switching devices, work has begun on a space qualifiable Energy Momentum Wheel (EMW). An EMW is a device that can be used on a satellite to store energy, like a chemical battery, and manage angular momentum, like a reaction wheel. These combined functions are achieved by the simultaneous and balanced operation of two or more energy storage flywheels. An energy storage flywheel typically consists of a carbon composite rotor driven by a brushless DC motor/generator. Each rotor has a relatively large angular moment of inertia and is suspended on magnetic bearings to minimize energy loss. The use of flywheel batteries on spacecraft will increase system efficiencies (mass and power), while reducing design-production time and life-cycle cost. This paper will present a discussion of flywheel battery design considerations and a simulation of spacecraft system performance utilizing four flywheel batteries to combine energy storage and momentum management for a typical LEO satellite. A proposed set of control laws and an engineering animation will also be presented. Once flight qualified and demonstrated, space flywheel batteries may alter the architecture of most medium and high-powered spacecraft.

  20. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  1. EVA dosimetry in manned spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Thomson, I

    1999-12-01

    Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) will become a large part of the astronaut's work on board the International Space Station (ISS). It is already well known that long duration space missions inside a spacecraft lead to radiation doses which are high enough to be a significant health risk to the crew. The doses received during EVA, however, have not been quantified to the same degree. This paper reviews the space radiation environment and the current dose limits to critical organs. Results of preliminary radiation dosimetry experiments on the external surface of the BION series of satellites indicate that EVA doses will vary considerably due to a number of factors such as EVA suit shielding, temporal fluctuations and spacecraft orbit and shielding. It is concluded that measurement of doses to crew members who engage in EVA should be done on board the spacecraft. An experiment is described which will lead the way to implementing this plan on the ISS. It is expected that results of this experiment will help future crew mitigate the risks of ionising radiation in space.

  2. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  3. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John F.; Haggerty, James J.; Woodburn, John H.

    1961-01-01

    In this twentieth century, we are privileged to witness the first steps toward realization of an age-old dream: the exploration of space. Already, in the first few years of the Space Age, man has been able to penetrate the layer of atmosphere which surrounds his planet and to venture briefly into space. Scores of man-made objects have been thrust into space, some of them to roam the solar system forever. Behind each space mission are years of patient research, thousands of man-hours of labor, and large sums of money. Because the sums involved are so enormous, the question is frequently asked, "Is it worth it?" Many people want to know what return this huge investment will bring to mankind. The return on the investment is knowledge. The accumulation of knowledge over the centuries has made possible our advanced way of life. As we unlock more and more of the secrets of the universe through space exploration, we add new volumes to the encyclopedia of man's knowledge. This will be applied to the benefit of mankind. For the practical-minded, there are concrete benefits to our way of life. Although we are still in the Stone Age of space exploration, a number of immediate applications of space technology are already apparent. For instance, imagine the benefits of an absolutely perfect system of predicting the weather. Or, going a step further, even changing the weather. And wouldn't it be fascinating to watch the next Olympic games, telecast from Tokyo, on your TV set? These are just a few of the practical benefits made possible by space technology.

  4. Mercury's Interior From Geodesy of Librations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2003-12-01

    decoupled from the interior by a molten layer than it would have if the planet is a rigid body. The precise measurements necessitated by the small values of both the obliquity and the forced libration amplitude as well as similarly precise determination of C20 and C22 will be possible from either of two spacecraft, MESSENGER from the U.S. and BepiColombo from Europe, which will orbit Mercury during the next decade. More astounding, a radar technique called Radar Speckle Differential Interferometry (RSDI) (Holin, 1992) is capable of arcsec accuracy in determining both the obliquity and the forced libration amplitude from the ground, where feasibility has been demonstrated (Margot et al. 2002). The RSDI and spacecraft techniques will be described. Assumptions necessary for success of the experiment will be detailed, and recent numerical calculations of Mercury's spin evolution will be discussed. Some caveats will be pointed out, but as the assumptions are likely to be satisfied, there is a high probability that precise geodesy will yield the desired information about Mercury's interior.

  5. Using modified ballistic limit equations in spacecraft risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, William P.

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental components of any meteoroid/orbital debris (MOD) risk assessment calculation are environment models, damage response predictor equations, and failure criteria. In the case of a spacecraft operating in low earth orbit, the response predictor equation typically takes the form of a ballistic limit equation (BLE) that defines the threshold particle sizes that cause failure of a spacecraft wall or component. Spacecraft risk assessments often call for BLEs for spacecraft components that do not exist. In such cases, it is a common procedure to use an existing BLE after first equivalencing the actual materials and/or wall thicknesses to the materials that were used in the development of the existing BLE. The question naturally arises regarding how close are the predictions of such an 'adapted BLE' to the response characteristics of the actual materials/wall configurations under high speed projectile impacts. This paper presents the results of a study that compared the predictions of a commonly used BLE when adapted to the Soyuz OM wall configuration against those of a new BLE that was developed specifically for that Soyuz wall configuration. It was found that the critical projectile diameters predicted by the new Soyuz OM wall BLE can exceed those predicted by the adapted use of the existing BLE by as much as 50% of the existing BLE values. Thus, using the adapted version of the existing BLE in this particular case would contribute to a more conservative value of assessed risk. If the same trends were to hold true for other spacecraft wall configurations, then it is also possible that using existing BLEs, even after they have been adjusted for differences in materials, etc., may result in predictions of smaller critical diameters (i.e., increased assessed risk) than would using BLEs purposely developed for actual spacecraft configurations of interest.

  6. Preventing Spacecraft Failures Due to Tribological Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Many mechanical failures that occur on spacecraft are caused by tribological problems. This publication presents a study that was conducted by the author on various preventatives, analyses, controls and tests (PACTs) that could be used to prevent spacecraft mechanical system failure. A matrix is presented in the paper that plots tribology failure modes versus various PACTs that should be performed before a spacecraft is launched in order to insure success. A strawman matrix was constructed by the author and then was sent out to industry and government spacecraft designers, scientists and builders of spacecraft for their input. The final matrix is the result of their input. In addition to the matrix, this publication describes the various PACTs that can be performed and some fundamental knowledge on the correct usage of lubricants for spacecraft applications. Even though the work was done specifically to prevent spacecraft failures the basic methodology can be applied to other mechanical system areas.

  7. Enhancement of the flexible spacecraft dynamics program for open spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The modifications and additions made to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics (FSD) Program are described. The principal addition to the program was the capability to simulate a single axis gimble platform nadir pointing despin control system. The formulation for the single axis gimble equations of motion is a modification of the formulation. The details of the modifications made to the FSD Program are presented. Modifications to existing subroutines are briefly described and a detailed description of new subroutines is given. In addition, e program variables in new labelled COMMON blocks are described in detail. A description of new input symbols for the FSD Program is given.

  8. Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.

    2003-12-01

    Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.

  9. A comparative study of electric power distribution systems for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; King, Roger J.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power distribution systems for spacecraft are compared concentrating on two interrelated issues: the choice between dc and high frequency ac, and the converter/inverter topology to be used at the power source. The relative merits of dc and ac distribution are discussed. Specific converter and inverter topologies are identified and analyzed in detail for the purpose of detailed comparison. Finally, specific topologies are recommended for use in dc and ac systems.

  10. Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert

    2005-01-01

    GPHRAD is a computer code for analysis and design of disk or circular-sector heat-rejecting radiators for spacecraft power systems. A specific application is for Stirling-cycle/linear-alternator electric-power systems coupled to radioisotope general-purpose heat sources. GPHRAD affords capabilities and options to account for thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density) of either metal-alloy or composite radiator materials.

  11. Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-02-01

    Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies.

  12. Comet explorer spacecraft design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The small, chemically primitive objects of the solar system, comets and asteroids, are one of the most important frontiers remaining for future planetary exploration. So stated the Solar System Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council in its 1986 report 'Planetary Exploration Through the Year 2000.' The Halley's comet flyby missions completed last spring raised more questions than were answered about the nature of comets. The next mission to a comet must be able to explore some of these questions. In the late 1990's, a spacecraft might be built to explore the hazardous area surrounding a comet nucleus. Rigorous pointing requirements for remote sensing instruments will place a considerable burden on their attendant control systems. To meet these requirements we have pursued the initial design and analysis of a multi-bodied comet explorer spacecraft. Sized so as to be built on-orbit after the space station is operational, the spacecraft is comprised of Orbit Replaceable Unit (ORU) subsystems, packaged into two major components: a three-axis controlled instrument platform and a spinning, detached comet dust shield. Such a configuration decouples the dynamics of dust impaction from the stringent pointing out requirements of the imaging experiments. At the same time, it offers an abundance of simple analysis problems that may be carried out by undergraduates. These problems include the following: Selection of subsystem components, sizing trade studies, investigation of three-axis and simple spin dynamics, design of simple control systems, orbit determination, and intercept trajectory generation. Additionally, such topics as proposal writing project management, human interfacing, and costing have been covered. A new approach to design teaching has been taken, whereby students will 'learn by teaching.' They are asked to decompose trade options into a set of 'if-then' rules, which then 'instruct' the Mechanically Intelligent Designer (MIND) expert design system

  13. Variational Principle for Planetary Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-09-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass-radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass-radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  15. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  17. Coffee-can-sized spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1988-01-01

    The current status and potential scientific applications of intelligent 1-5-kg projectiles being developed by SDIO and DARPA for military missions are discussed. The importance of advanced microelectronics for such small spacecraft is stressed, and it is pointed out that both chemical rockets and EM launchers are currently under consideration for these lightweight exoatmospheric projectiles (LEAPs). Long-duration power supply is identified as the primary technological change required if LEAPs are to be used for interplanetary scientific missions, and the design concept of a solar-powered space-based railgun to accelerate LEAPs on such missions is considered.

  18. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  19. Spacecraft transformer and inductor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion process in spacecraft power electronics requires the use of magnetic components which frequently are the heaviest and bulkiest items in the conversion circuit. This handbook pertains to magnetic material selection, transformer and inductor design tradeoffs, transformer design, iron core dc inductor design, toroidal power core inductor design, window utilization factors, regulation, and temperature rise. Relationships are given which simplify and standardize the design of transformers and the analysis of the circuits in which they are used. The interactions of the various design parameters are also presented in simplified form so that tradeoffs and optimizations may easily be made.

  20. Advanced antennas for SAR spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gail, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Single and multi-frequency antenna concepts were developed to evaluate the feasibility of building large aperture polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to be launched in low cost vehicles such as the Delta 2. The antennas are 18.9 m long by 2.6 m wide (L-band) and achieve single polarization imaging to an incidence angle of 55 degrees and dual/quad imaging to 42 degrees. When combined with strawman spacecraft designs, both concepts meet the mass and volume constraints imposed by a Delta 2 launch.

  1. Spacecraft platform cost estimating relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruhl, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The three main cost areas of unmanned satellite development are discussed. The areas are identified as: (1) the spacecraft platform (SCP), (2) the payload or experiments, and (3) the postlaunch ground equipment and operations. The SCP normally accounts for over half of the total project cost and accurate estimates of SCP costs are required early in project planning as a basis for determining total project budget requirements. The development of single formula SCP cost estimating relationships (CER) from readily available data by statistical linear regression analysis is described. The advantages of single formula CER are presented.

  2. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, SShao-sheng R.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. In FY09, the physical mockup developed in FY08, with interior geometric shape similar to Orion CM (Crew Module) IML (Interior Mode Line), was used to validate SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) acoustic model development with realistic ventilation fan sources. The sound power levels of these sources were unknown a priori, as opposed to previous studies that RSS (Reference Sound Source) with known sound power level was used. The modeling results were evaluated based on comparisons to measurements of sound pressure levels over a wide frequency range, including the frequency range where SEA gives good results. Sound intensity measurement was performed over a rectangular-shaped grid system enclosing the ventilation fan source. Sound intensities were measured at the top, front, back, right, and left surfaces of the and system. Sound intensity at the bottom surface was not measured, but sound blocking material was placed tinder the bottom surface to reflect most of the incident sound energy back to the remaining measured surfaces. Integrating measured sound intensities over measured surfaces renders estimated sound power of the source. The reverberation time T6o of the mockup interior had been modified to match reverberation levels of ISS US Lab interior for speech frequency bands, i.e., 0.5k, 1k, 2k, 4 kHz, by attaching appropriately sized Thinsulate sound absorption material to the interior wall of the mockup. Sound absorption of Thinsulate was modeled in three methods: Sabine equation with measured mockup interior reverberation time T60, layup model based on past impedance tube testing, and layup model plus air absorption correction. The evaluation/validation was

  3. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  4. 48 CFR 1419.1003 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1419.1003 Section 1419.1003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program 1419.1003 Purpose. OSDBU...

  5. 48 CFR 1419.1003 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1419.1003 Section 1419.1003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Small Business Competitiveness Demonstration Program 1419.1003 Purpose. OSDBU...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...

  8. 43 CFR 3141.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...

  9. 43 CFR 3141.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide for the competitive leasing of lands and issuance of Combined Hydrocarbon Leases, Oil and Gas Leases, or Tar Sand Leases within...

  10. 43 CFR 4700.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the laws relating to the protection, management, and control of wild horses and burros under the administration...

  11. 43 CFR 4700.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the laws relating to the protection, management, and control of wild horses and burros under the administration...

  12. 43 CFR 4700.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the laws relating to the protection, management, and control of wild horses and burros under the administration...

  13. 43 CFR 4700.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS General § 4700.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to implement the laws relating to the protection, management, and control of wild horses and burros under the administration...

  14. 50 CFR 70.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 70.1 Section 70.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.1 Purpose. All national fish hatchery areas...

  15. 50 CFR 70.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 70.1 Section 70.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.1 Purpose. All national fish hatchery areas...

  16. 50 CFR 70.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 70.1 Section 70.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.1 Purpose. All national fish hatchery areas...

  17. 50 CFR 70.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 70.1 Section 70.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS NATIONAL FISH HATCHERIES § 70.1 Purpose. All national fish hatchery areas...

  18. 7 CFR 355.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Purpose and Definitions § 355.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Interior that correlate with the regulations in this part are contained in 50 CFR chapter I. 2 1...

  19. 7 CFR 355.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Purpose and Definitions § 355.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Interior that correlate with the regulations in this part are contained in 50 CFR chapter I. 2 1...

  20. 7 CFR 355.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Purpose and Definitions § 355.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Interior that correlate with the regulations in this part are contained in 50 CFR chapter I. 2 1...

  1. 7 CFR 355.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Purpose and Definitions § 355.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Interior that correlate with the regulations in this part are contained in 50 CFR chapter I. 2 1...

  2. 7 CFR 355.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE ENDANGERED SPECIES REGULATIONS CONCERNING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS Purpose and Definitions § 355.1 Purpose. Pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... Interior that correlate with the regulations in this part are contained in 50 CFR chapter I. 2 1...

  3. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  4. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  5. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  6. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 401.1 Section 401.1 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant to title I of the Water Research Act of 1984 (Pub....

  7. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 401.1 Section 401.1 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant to title I of the Water Research Act of 1984 (Pub....

  8. 36 CFR 79.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 79.1 Section 79.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CURATION OF FEDERALLY-OWNED AND ADMINISTERED ARCHAEOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS § 79.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this part establish definitions, standards,...

  9. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  10. 36 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this chapter provide for the proper use, management,...

  11. Analysis Methods of Environmental Induced Anomalies of Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catani, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Thirty years after the first evidence of in-flight electrostatic discharges on synchronous spacecraft, they are still a threat. Analysis of anomalies will be always necessary for improving design guidelines and standards. A Ground Control Center dedicated to a Space System is monitoring for the nominal configuration of the spacecraft. An alarm or warning is triggered when the spacecraft gets out of its nominal working state. How to know what happens in flight? An electrostatic discharge is never observed itself but only its permanent consequences. Telemetry data is never designed for detecting unforeseen events, it is only defined for command purpose and good-health diagnosis. Probes are exceptionally implemented on commercial spacecraft to determine the state of environment at the location of the spacecraft at the time of the anomaly. The first step is the elimination of non-environmental causes: electromagnetic interference problem, equipment failure, corona discharge inside a high-voltage powered box, or man-made spurious command. Heavy ions or micrometeoroids are environmental causes with consequences that look like electrostatic discharges, so involving charging needs detailed and exhaustive analysis. The spacecraft-charging anomaly is at the end of a long chain of causes and consequences. Some regions of space have a radiation and particle content able to build up absolute and differential potentials at the surface or inside the spacecraft up to exceeding the breakdown voltage. Charges are released that induce electromagnetic fields in coupling current and voltage transients to cables. The pulses penetrate boxes and propagate along printed circuit board tracks, reaching active devices, upsetting logical devices, saturating amplifiers, or fusing lanes inside integrated circuits. Spacecraft event understanding is the conclusion of three convergent ways of analysis: environmental data, vacuum charging tests, electromagnetic immunity tests. When there is no borne

  12. Phobos and Deimos. [ground based and spacecraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations of Phobos and Deimos are reviewed and the satellites' origin is discussed. The crater densities of both bodies are close to the saturation level. The largest impact events may have caused extensive fracturing of their surfaces. The surfaces are at least 1.5 billion years old and may date back to the early history of the solar system. The Martian satellites display large deviations from sphericity. As a result of tidal processes, they are in synchronous rotation. Several independent lines of evidence show that they have regoliths. Despite some provocative arguments, their internal strengths and the nature of their interior are poorly known at present. Photometric measurements suggest that they are made of either carbonaceous chondritic material or a basalt. Sinclair (1972), Born and Duxbury (1975) and Shor (1975) apparently have successfully determined Phobos' secular acceleration. Their value of approximately .001 deg/year/year implies that the interior of Mars has a low specific dissipation factor (about 100), may indicate that a portion of the Martian interior is experiencing partial melting. The low inclination of the satellites' orbits indicates that they were formed as part of the same process that resulted in Mars.

  13. The meaning of interior tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-08-21

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for the collection of un-truncated projections and the reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it was elevated to have the status of a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as 'omni-tomography' is being developed for a grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features.

  14. Instrument interface description for NOAA 2000 instruments with European morning spacecraft and/or NOAA-OPQ spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to describe at a high level the common interface provisions and constraints placed on the NOAA-2000 instruments and the interfacing spacecraft elements in the following areas: electrical interface, mechanical interface, thermal interface, magnetic interface, electromagnetic compatibility, structural/mechanical environmental interface, contamination control, and the ionizing radiation environment. The requirements reflect the fact that these instruments must be compatible with a number of different polar orbiting satellite vehicles including the NOAA-OPQ satellites and the EUMETSAT METOP satellites.

  15. Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility Restoration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernier, Robert; Bonalksy, Todd; Slavin, James

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) was constructed in the 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field environments. The facility includes a three axis Braunbek coil system consisting of 12 loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes; a remote earth field sensing magnetometer and servo control building; and a remote power control and instrumentation building. The inner coils are 42-foot in diameter and a 10-foot by 10-foot opening through the outer coils accommodates spacecraft access to the test volume. The physical size and precision of the facility are matched by only two other such facilities in the world. The facility was used extensively from the late 1960's until the early 1990's when the requirement for spacecraft level testing diminished. New NASA missions planned under the Living with a Star, Solar Terrestrial Probes, Explorer, and New Millennium Programs include precision, high-resolution magnetometers to obtain magnetic field data that is critical to fulfilling their scientific mission. It is highly likely that future Lunar and Martian exploration missions will also use precision magnetometers to conduct geophysical magnetic surveys. To ensure the success of these missions ground testing using a magnetic test facility such as the GSFC SMTF will be required. This paper describes the history of the facility, the future mission requirements that have renewed the need for spacecraft level magnetic testing, and the plans for restoring the facility to be capable of performing to its original design specifications.

  16. Autonomy Architectures for a Constellation of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Until the past few years, missions typically involved fairly large expensive spacecraft. Such missions have primarily favored using older proven technologies over more recently developed ones, and humans controlled spacecraft by manually generating detailed command sequences with low-level tools and then transmitting the sequences for subsequent execution on a spacecraft controller. This approach toward controlling a spacecraft has worked spectacularly on previous missions, but it has limitations deriving from communications restrictions - scheduling time to communicate with a particular spacecraft involves competing with other projects due to the limited number of deep space network antennae. This implies that a spacecraft can spend a long time just waiting whenever a command sequence fails. This is one reason why the New Millennium program has an objective to migrate parts of mission control tasks onboard a spacecraft to reduce wait time by making spacecraft more robust. The migrated software is called a "remote agent" and has 4 components: a mission manager to generate the high level goals, a planner/scheduler to turn goals into activities while reasoning about future expected situations, an executive/diagnostics engine to initiate and maintain activities while interpreting sensed events by reasoning about past and present situations, and a conventional real-time subsystem to interface with the spacecraft to implement an activity's primitive actions. In addition to needing remote planning and execution for isolated spacecraft, a trend toward multiple-spacecraft missions points to the need for remote distributed planning and execution. The past few years have seen missions with growing numbers of probes. Pathfinder has its rover (Sojourner), Cassini has its lander (Huygens), and the New Millenium Deep Space 3 (DS3) proposal involves a constellation of 3 spacecraft for interferometric mapping. This trend is expected to continue to progressively larger fleets. For

  17. First Spacecraft Orbit of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    After a 7.9-billion-kilometer flight since its launch on 3 August 2004—which included flybys of Earth, Venus, and Mercury—NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft entered a planned, highly elliptical orbit around the closest planet to our Sun on 17 March. Engineers in the mission operations center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) in Laurel, Md., which manages the mission for NASA, received radiometric signals indicating a successful orbit insertion at 9:10 P.M. local time. "Tonight we will have orbited the fifth planet in the solar system. This is a major accomplishment," Ed Weiler, NASA assistant administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, said at a 17 March public forum at JHU/APL, noting that spacecraft have previously entered orbit around several other planets. "You only go into orbit for the first time around Mercury once in human history, and that is what was accomplished tonight."

  18. Electrolysis Propulsion for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroot, Wim A.; Arrington, Lynn A.; McElroy, James F.; Mitlitsky, Fred; Weisberg, Andrew H.; Carter, Preston H., II; Myers, Blake; Reed, Brian D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrolysis propulsion has been recognized over the last several decades as a viable option to meet many satellite and spacecraft propulsion requirements. This technology, however, was never used for in-space missions. In the same time frame, water based fuel cells have flown in a number of missions. These systems have many components similar to electrolysis propulsion systems. Recent advances in component technology include: lightweight tankage, water vapor feed electrolysis, fuel cell technology, and thrust chamber materials for propulsion. Taken together, these developments make propulsion and/or power using electrolysis/fuel cell technology very attractive as separate or integrated systems. A water electrolysis propulsion testbed was constructed and tested in a joint NASA/Hamilton Standard/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories program to demonstrate these technology developments for propulsion. The results from these testbed experiments using a I-N thruster are presented. A concept to integrate a propulsion system and a fuel cell system into a unitized spacecraft propulsion and power system is outlined.

  19. The MESSENGER Spacecraft and Payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R. E.; Solomon, S. C.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Santo, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    The MErcury, Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission will send the first spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury. A Mercury orbiter mission is challenging from thermal and mass perspectives. MESSENGER overcomes these challenges while avoiding esoteric technologies by using an innovative approach with commonly available materials, minimal moving parts, and maximum heritage. The key concepts are a ceramic-cloth thermal shade, an integrated lightweight structure, a high performance propulsion system, and a solar array incorporating optical solar reflectors. A miniaturized set of seven instruments, along with the spacecraft telecommunications system, satisfy all scientific objectives of the mission. The payload includes a combined wide-angle and narrow-angle imaging system; amma-ray, neutron, and X-ray spectrometers for remote geochemical sensing; a vector magnetometer; a laser altimeter; a combined ultraviolet-visible and visible-infrared spectrometer to detect atmospheric species and map mineralogical absorption features; and an energetic particle and plasma spectrometer to characterize ionized species in the magnetosphere. MESSENGER construction is nearly complete and the integration and test phase is just beginning. Launch is March 2004.

  20. Spacecraft nitrogen generation. [liquid hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. D.; Carlson, J. N.; Powell, J. D.; Kacholia, K. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two spacecraft nitrogen (N2) generation systems based on the catalytic dissociation of hydrazine (N2H4) were evaluated. In the first system, liquid N2H4 is catalytically dissociated to yield an N2 and hydrogen (H2) gas mixture. Separation of the N2/H2 gas mixture to yield N2 and a supply of H2 is accomplished using a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator. In the second system, the N2/H2 gas mixture is separated in a two-stage palladium/silver (Pd/Ag) N2/H2 separator. The program culminated in the successful design, fabrication, and testing of a N2H4 catalytic dissociator, a polymer-electrochemical N2/H2 separator, and a two-stage Pd/Ag N2/H2 separator. The hardware developed was sized for an N2 delivery rate of 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day). Experimental results demonstrated that both spacecraft N2 generation systems are capable of producing 6.81 kg/d (15lb/day) of 99.9% pure N2 at a pressure greater than or equal to 1035 kN/m(2) (150 psia).

  1. Rapid Spacecraft Development: Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William A.

    2002-01-01

    The Rapid Spacecraft Development Office (RSDO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the management and direction of a dynamic and versatile program for the definition, competition, and acquisition of multiple indefinite delivery and indefinite quantity contracts - resulting in a catalog of spacecraft buses. Five spacecraft delivery orders have been placed by the RSDO and one spacecraft has been launched. Numerous concept and design studies have been performed, most with the intent of leading to a future spacecraft acquisition. A collection of results and lessons learned is recorded to highlight management techniques, methods and processes employed in the conduct of spacecraft acquisition. Topics include working relationships under fixed price delivery orders, price and value, risk management, contingency reserves, and information restrictions.

  2. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Krupnikov, K K; Makletsov, A A; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-10-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991 1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language. PMID:11542669

  3. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Krupnikov, K K; Makletsov, A A; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-10-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991 1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  4. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  5. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  6. Interior Design: Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Presents solutions to architectural challenges in school interior design; these solutions made the indoor environments more conducive and attractive for learning. Addresses four challenges: making a long corridor look less like a tunnel; maintaining tradition and minimizing cost in a new athletic facility; designing a kindergarten that is secure…

  7. Improvement in the Recovery Accuracy of the Lunar Gravity Field Based on the Future Moon-ILRS Spacecraft Gravity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2015-07-01

    This study mostly concentrates on the sensitivity analysis regarding the future dedicated Moon-ILRS spacecraft gravity mission. Firstly, the new single and combined analytical error models for the cumulative lunar geoid height impacted by the major error sources comprising the inter-spacecraft range-rate of the interferometric laser ranging system (ILRS), the spacecraft orbital position tracked by the deep space network (DSN) and the non-conservative force of the drag-free control system (DFCS) are developed on the basis of the spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking in the low-low mode (SST-LL) from the future twin Moon-ILRS spacecraft. Secondly, the correctness of the new single and combined analytical error models is proved according to the compliance of the cumulative lunar geoid height errors among the inter-spacecraft range-rate, orbital position and non-conservative force. Finally, in comparison with the past gravity recovery and interior laboratory (GRAIL) program, the preferred design for the future Moon-ILRS mission is achieved in this paper. We recommend that the future twin Moon-ILRS formation-flying spacecraft had better adopt the new-type space-borne instruments involving the ILRS and DFCS. We demonstrate the compatible accuracy indexes of the key sensors (e.g., 10-9 m/s in the inter-spacecraft range-rate, 1 m in the orbital position and 3 × 10-13 m/s2 in the non-conservative force) and the optimal orbital parameters (e.g., 25-km orbital altitude, 100-km inter-spacecraft range and 1-s sampling interval) in the future Moon-ILRS twin-spacecraft mission.

  8. Interior Design Factors in Library Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Patricia Ann

    When planning the interior of a library facility, the planning team of librarian, library consultant, architect, and interior design consultant must focus attention on the basic principles of interior design and the psychological needs of the user. Colors for an interior should be selected with careful regard to space, light, and emotional and…

  9. Fire suppression in human-crew spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Dietrich, Daniel L.

    1991-01-01

    Fire extinguishment agents range from water and foam in early-design spacecraft (Halon 1301 in the present Shuttle) to carbon dioxide proposed for the Space Station Freedom. The major challenge to spacecraft fire extinguishment design and operations is from the micro-gravity environment, which minimizes natural convection and profoundly influences combustion and extinguishing agent effectiveness, dispersal, and post-fire cleanup. Discussed here are extinguishment in microgravity, fire-suppression problems anticipated in future spacecraft, and research needs and opportunities.

  10. Neptune aerocapture mission and spacecraft design overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Hall, Jeff L.; Spliker, Tom R.; O'Kongo, Nora

    2004-01-01

    A detailed Neptune aerocapture systems analysis and spacecraft design study was performed as part of NASA's In-Space Propulsion Program. The primary objectives were to assess the feasibility of a spacecraft point design for a Neptune/Triton science mission. That uses aerocapture as the Neptune orbit insertion mechanism. This paper provides an overview of the science, mission and spacecraft design resulting from that study.

  11. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  12. 1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T. (Compiler); Benner, Steve M. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the presentation charts of talks given at the "1997 Spacecraft Contamination and Coatings Workshop," held July 9-10, 1997, in Annapolis, Maryland. The workshop was attended by representatives from NASA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Defense, industry, and universities concerned with the the spacecraft contamination engineering and thermal control coatings. The workshop provided a forum for exchanging new developments in spacecraft contamination and coatings.

  13. ISIS-B spacecraft magnetic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic tests of the ISIS B spacecraft were conducted to determine the various magnetic moments of the spacecraft, evalute its spin and attitude control systems, and calibrate the six onboard magnetometer probes. Test procedures and equipment are described. Techniques for evaluting the data are discussed, and test results are presented. The spacecraft's magnetic characteristics were found to be satisfactory. Proper threshold values for gating the torquing coils were obtained. The onboard magnetometers were satisfactorily calibrated.

  14. Interior design for passive solar homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  15. Interior design for passive solar homes

    SciTech Connect

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  16. Seismology and the Interior of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerdt, William

    2012-07-01

    In addition to its intrinsic interest, Mars is particularly well-suited for studying the full range of processes and phenomena related to early terrestrial planet evolution, from initial differentiation to the start of plate tectonics. It is large and complex enough to have undergone most of the processes that affected early Earth but, unlike the Earth, has apparently not undergone extensive plate tectonics or other major reworking that erased the imprint of early events (as evidenced by the presence of cratered surfaces older than 4 Ga). The martian mantle should have Earth-like polymorphic phase transitions and may even support a perovskite layer near the core (depending on the actual core radius), a characteristic that would have major implications for core cooling and mantle convection. Thus even the most basic measurements of planetary structure, such as crustal thickness, core radius, density and state (solid/liquid), and gross mantle velocity structure would provide invaluable constraints on models of early planetary evolution. The most effective means of making these measurements is seismology, as has been shown by its long and successful use on the Earth and the key discoveries it has made possible on the Moon. However, despite a wide recognition of its value to planetary science, the seismic investigation of Mars has remained tantalizingly out of reach for the past two decades, largely due to the relatively high cost of landing multiple long-lived spacecraft on Mars to comprise a seismic network for traditional body-wave travel-time analysis. In order to initiate a long-overdue mapping of the interior structure of Mars it appears necessary to begin with a single geophysical station, using methods that can derive interior information from a single seismometer. Fortunately many such methods exist, including source location through P-S and back-azimuth, receiver functions, identification of later phases (PcP, PKP, etc.), surface wave dispersion, and normal

  17. Ion thruster plume effects on spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Kuo, Y. S.

    1981-01-01

    A charge-exchange plasma, generated by an ion thruster, is capable of flowing upstream from the ion thruster and therefore represents a source of contamination to a spacecraft. An analytical model of the charge-exchange plasma density around a spacecraft was used to estimate the contamination which various spacecraft materials may be exposed to. Measurements of plasma density around an ion thruster were compared to this model. Results of experimental studied regarding the effects on various spacecraft materials' properties due to exposure to expected mercury contamination levels are presented.

  18. Optimizing Spacecraft Placement for Liaison Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. Channing; Villac, Benjamin F.; Lo, Martin W.

    2011-01-01

    A navigation and communications network is proposed to support an anticipated need for infrastructure in the Earth-Moon system. Periodic orbits will host the constellations while a novel, autonomous navigation strategy will guide the spacecraft along their path strictly based on satellite-to-satellite telemetry. In particular, this paper investigates the second stage of a larger constellation optimization scheme for multi-spacecraft systems. That is, following an initial orbit down-selection process, this analysis provides insights into the ancillary problem of spacecraft placement. Two case studies are presented that consider configurations of up to four spacecraft for a halo orbit and a cycler trajectory.

  19. Formation Flying Spacecraft Concept for Heliophysics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Davila, Joseph; Yang, Guangning; Lu, Wei; Shah, Neerav; Li, Steven X.

    2016-05-01

    A number of space-based heliophysics instruments would benefit from formation flying spacecraft. An occulter or a focusing optic such as a photon sieve could be mounted on a separate spacecraft rather than at the end of a boom. This would enable science measurements to be made on smaller, less expensive spacecraft. To accomplish this goal, the relative position of the spacecraft must be monitored and controlled to high precision. We describe two separate optical sensing systems that monitor relative position of the spacecraft to the level required for a photon sieve mission concept wherein the photon sieve is mounted on one spacecraft while the imaging detector is mounted on another. The first system employs a novel time of flight measurement of a laser beam that includes imbedded optical data packets. The contents of the returning data packet can be compared to the departing data packet to provide an extremely high resolution distance measurement. Employing three such systems allows measurement of pitch and yaw in addition to longitudinal separation. The second optical system monitors lateral motion. A mildy divergent laser beam is transmitted from one spacecraft to a sensor array on the second spacecraft. Monitoring the position of the brightest portion of the beam on the sensor array provides a direct measurement of lateral relative motion. Employing at least two such systems enables monitoring roll of the spacecraft as well as centration. We will also discuss low force thruster systems required for high precision station keeping.

  20. General Methodology for Designing Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald; Ocampo, Cesar; Mathur, Ravishankar; Morcos, Fady; Senent, Juan; Williams, Jacob; Davis, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    A methodology for designing spacecraft trajectories in any gravitational environment within the solar system has been developed. The methodology facilitates modeling and optimization for problems ranging from that of a single spacecraft orbiting a single celestial body to that of a mission involving multiple spacecraft and multiple propulsion systems operating in gravitational fields of multiple celestial bodies. The methodology consolidates almost all spacecraft trajectory design and optimization problems into a single conceptual framework requiring solution of either a system of nonlinear equations or a parameter-optimization problem with equality and/or inequality constraints.

  1. Failures and anomalies attributed to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, R. D.; Alexander, M. B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging can be very detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions. Assuring that subsystems and systems are protected against charging is an important engineering function necessary to assure mission success. Spacecraft charging is expected to have a significant role in future space activities and programs. Objectives of this reference publication are to present a brief overview of spacecraft charging, to acquaint the reader with charging history, including illustrative cases of charging anomalies, and to introduce current spacecraft charging prevention activities of the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  2. 43 CFR 44.10 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of this subpart? 44.10 Section 44.10 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS General Information § 44.10 What is the purpose of this subpart? This subpart sets...

  3. Nature of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, William; Ozaki, N.; Ahuja, R.; Mashimo, T.; Ramzan, M.; Kaewmaraya, T.

    2013-06-01

    Ever since the spacecraft flyby missions to Uranus and Neptune the nature of the interiors of these similar planets have been puzzles. Planetary materials are H-He; ``ice,'' hydrogenous molecular and ionic fluids; rock (oxides); and Fe. Measured gravitational moments cannot resolve mass distribution between 3-layer and 2-layer models, the former with sharp mass discontinuities and the latter with mass varying continuously. Also a puzzle is the material distribution that would produce the spherical annulus proposed to explain a dynamo that would generate the tilted magnetic fields. A mass distribution needs to be identified that is consistent with both the gravitational and magnetic data. If all materials become conductors then miscibility and dynamos are both possible. Gd3Ga5O12 is a strong insulator with Gd-O and Ga-O bond strengths similar to Mg-O and Si-O. We have measured optical reflectivities of shock fronts in melted Gd3Ga5O12 from 0.5 to 2 TPa at the Osaka laser facility. Measured reflectivities are ~0.1, in reasonable agreement with optical properties of amorphous Gd-Ga-O calculated in the corresponding density range. Thus, ``ices'', rock, decomposed hydrogenous molecules, pure H, and Fe are probably all poor metals at conditions in the deep planetary interiors and thus miscible to a significant degree. A qualitative picture of the interiors with radially continuous mass distributions will be proposed. 1Harvard University, 2Osaka University, 3Uppsala University, 4Kumamoto University.

  4. Gravity field of Jupiter’s moon Amalthea and the implication on a spacecraft trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinwurm, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last 'visit' to one of Jupiter's moons - Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecraft's successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amalthea's gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements of a three-axial ellipsoid in elliptic coordinates. To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEO's velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. The harmonic coefficients of Amalthea's gravity field have been derived up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Founded on these numbers the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO was calculated and compared to existing Doppler data. Furthermore, predictions for future spacecraft flybys were derived. No two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise. Nevertheless, the generated gravity field models reflect the most likely interior structure of the moon and can be a basis for further exploration of the Jovian system.

  5. Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

    2006-01-01

    A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to- spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. Work on the final year of this task is reported here.

  6. The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: A Truly General-Purpose Space RTG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Lombardo, James J.; Hemler, Richard J.; Silverman, Gil; Whitmore, C. W.; Amos, Wayne R.; Johnson, E. W.; Zocher, Roy W.; Hagan, James C.; Englehart, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) was developed for the originally planned International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM). [ISPM would later, with the elimination of the NASA spacecraft, become the Ulysses mission.] At 300 We beginning-of-life (BOL) power, the GPHS-RTG was the most powerful RTG with the highest specific power (5.3 We/kg) of any space RTG. These improved performance attributes of the GPHS-RTG made it attractive for use on the Galileo mission. Subsequently, the GPHS-RTG was selected to power the Cassini spacecraft, which is currently orbiting Saturn, and the New Horizons spacecraft which is on its way to Pluto. Truly, the GPHS-RTG is a ``general-purpose'' space RTG.

  7. Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (SWEGs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    As the protection of crew health is a primary focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) is vigilant in setting potable water limits for spaceflight that are health protective. Additional it is important that exposure limits not be set so stringently that water purification systems are unnecessarily over designed. With these considerations in mind, NASA has partnered with the National Research Council on Toxicology (NRCCOT) to develop spacecraft water exposure guidelines (SWEGs) for application in spaceflight systems. Based on documented guidance (NRC, 2000) NASA has established 28 SWEGs for chemical components that are particularly relevant to water systems on the International Space Station, the Shuttle and looking forward to Constellation.

  8. Thermal insulating coating for spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection systems are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100? F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  9. Thermal Insulating Coating for Spacecrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj K. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    To protect spacecraft and their contents from excessive heat thermal protection system are essential. For such thermal protection, metal coatings, ceramic materials, ablative materials, and various matrix materials have all been tried, but none have been found entirely satisfactory. The basis for this thermal protection system is the fact that the heat required to melt a substance is 80 to 100 times larger than the heat required to raise its temperature one degree. This led to the use herein of solid-liquid phase change materials. Unlike conventional heat storage materials, when phase change materials reach the temperature at which they change phase they absorb large amounts of heat without getting hotter. By this invention, then, a coating composition is provided for application to substrates subjected to temperatures above 100 F. The coating composition includes a phase change material.

  10. Transparent ceramics for spacecraft windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical properties of several transparent ceramics were investigated to determine if their use might lighten next generation spacecraft windows. The measured fracture toughness and slow crack growth parameters were used as inputs to functions describing the required mass for a desired window life. Transparent magnesium aluminate (spinel, MgAlO4) and AlON exhibit superior slow crack resistance relative to fused silica, which is the historical material of choice. For spinel, slow crack growth, strength and fracture toughness are significantly influenced by the grain size, and alumina rich phases and porosity at the grain boundaries lead to intergranular fracture in coarse grain spinel. The results imply that transparent ceramics can lighten window panes from a slow crack growth perspective.

  11. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  12. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Mission: Status at the Initiation of the Science Mapping Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Asmar, Sami W.; Alomon; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips. Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Williams, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, a component of NASA's Discovery Program, launched successfully from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on September 10, 2011. The dual spacecraft traversed independent, low-energy trajectories to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point and inserted into elliptical, 11.5-hour polar orbits around the Moon on December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2012. The spacecraft are currently executing a series of maneuvers to circularize their orbits at 55-km mean altitude. Once the mapping orbit is achieved, the spacecraft will undergo additional maneuvers to align them into mapping configuration. The mission is on track to initiate the Science Phase on March 8, 2012.

  13. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  14. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1987-01-01

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation; parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  15. Propeller aircraft interior noise model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the interior noise of propeller-driven aircraft. The fuselage model is that of a cylinder with a structurally-integral floor. The cabin sidewall is stiffened by stringers and ring frames, and the floor by longitudinal beams. The cabin interior is covered with a sidewall treatments consisting of layers of porous material and an impervious trim septum. Representation of the propeller pressure field is utilized as input data in the form of the propeller noise signature at a series of locations on a grid over the fuselage structure. Results obtained from the analytical model are compared with test data measured by NASA in a scale model cylindrical fuselage excited by a model propeller.

  16. Planetary Interior in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, R; Bastea, M; Mitchell, A C; Minich, R W; Nellis, W J

    2003-01-31

    In the three years of this project, we have provided a complete database of the electrical conductivity of planetary materials to 180 GPa. The electrical conductivities of these planetary materials now provide a basis for future modeling of planets taking into account full magnetohydrodynamics. By using a full magnetohydrodynamics simulation, the magnetic fields of the planets can then be taken into account. Moreover, the electrical conductivities of the planetary materials have given us insight into the structure and nature of these dense fluids. We showed that simple monoatomic fluids such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen at planetary interior conditions undergo a common metallization process which can be explained on a simple basis of their radial charge density distributions. This model also shows that the metallization process is actually rather common and likely to take place in a number of materials such as carbon monoxide which is also present within planetary objects. On the other hand, we have also showed that a simple two component fluid like water and methane take on much different behaviors than say nitrogen due to the chemical interactions within these systems. The dynamics of an even more complex system, ''synthetic Uranus'' are still being analyzed but suggest that on some levels the behavior is very simple, i.e. the electrical conductivity is essentially the same as water, but the local dynamics are very complex. This project has shed much light on the nature of electrical transport within planetary interiors but also has shown that understanding chemical processes in the complex fluids within planetary interiors to be very important. Understanding those local interactions and processes is required to gain further insight into planetary interiors.

  17. Optimization of payload placement on arbitrary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferebee, Melvin J., Jr.; Allen, Cheryl L.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic method for determining the optical placement of instrumentation on an arbitrary spacecraft is described. The method maximizes the resource utilization by minimizing the spacecraft's need for propulsive attitude control. The mathematical program developed with considerations toward reducing the size of the optimization effort is presented.

  18. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  19. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  20. Microbiological profiles of four Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Oxborrow, G. S.; Fields, N. D.; Herring, C. M.; Smith, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    The levels and types of microorganisms on various components of four Apollo spacecraft were determined and compared. Although the results showed that the majority of microorganisms isolated were those considered to be indigenous to humans, an increase in organisms associated with soil and dust was noted with each successive Apollo spacecraft.

  1. The microwave radiometer spacecraft: A design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A large passive microwave radiometer spacecraft with near all weather capability of monitoring soil moisture for global crop forecasting was designed. The design, emphasizing large space structures technology, characterized the mission hardware at the conceptual level in sufficient detail to identify enabling and pacing technologies. Mission and spacecraft requirements, design and structural concepts, electromagnetic concepts, and control concepts are addressed.

  2. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  3. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  4. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  5. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 869 et seq.), all lands within Recreation and Public Purposes leases and patents...

  6. Solar Manuvering Spacecraft Guidance and Control System Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to discuss the time of a transfer trajectory by consideration of the Earth's shadow. The time of transfer trajectory of a sail spacecraft was determined by consideration of the Earth's shadow and it was compared with the results in a case where the Earth's shadow was not taken into account. The solar sail spacecraft was demonstrated to be oriented in such a way that the solar force applies in one appropriate direction. The mathematical concept and feature shape of solar sail spacecraft were proven as correct design approaches. The equations of motion that were developed in the project were proven in correct format for transfer trajectory approach by means of the purposed CN (Cyrus Nejat) Equations of Motion. Four important comments were discussed from the observed results. The problem statement was depened along with appropriate assumptions. The solar sail craft was defined appropriately. The equations of motion were determined in order to evaluate the transfer trajectory of solar sail spacecraft. In this case, the time of flight was determined for two cases: with Earth's shadow, and without Earth's shadow. The results showed that the time of fight with the Earth's shadow consideration is higher than the time of fight without the Earth's shadow, but it had close responses due to small amount of force from the solar radiation pressure. The future of this project should also apply the Moon's shadow in the problem statement and determine the shadow of the Earth as it can be seen in a cone zone. There are also appropriate control system devices that should be designed for attitude determination. It is also necessary to apply appropriate damper system, composite and smart materials to remedy vibration problems.

  7. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  8. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  9. Implications of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft EMI margins of immunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inouye, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    Arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft EMI margins of immunity was determined. The configuration of the P78-2 spacecraft of the SCATHA program was analyzed. A brushfire arc discharge model was developed, and a technique for initiating discharges with a spark plug trigger was for data configuration. A set of best estimate arc discharge parameters was defined. The effects of spacecraft potentials in limiting the discharge current blowout component are included. Arc discharge source models were incorporated into a SEMCAP EMI coupling analysis code for the DSP spacecraft. It is shown that with no mission critical circuits will be affected.

  10. Spacecraft Charging Specification Using Model Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmer, R. V.; Cooke, D. L.

    2003-12-01

    The specification and prediction of spacecraft charging at geosynchronous orbit represents an important goal of space weather research. While significant correlations exist between geomagnetic indices and the occurrence of satellite frame charging, for example with sunlit frame charging of the DSCS III satellite [Krause et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 47(6), 2000], the relationships are inadequate for useful predictions of charging at specific locations. Charged particles drift across the geosynchronous orbital path, and not along it, so spacecraft within less than an hour in local time experience completely different charging conditions. To account for these differences, a simple geosynchronous spacecraft surface charging application is driven using particle environments from the Magnetospheric Specification Model (MSM). Preliminary analysis using the NASCAP spacecraft-plasma interaction code indicated that spacecraft geometry and materials are responsible for the partial suppression of photoelectrons leading to frequent daylight charging of the DSCS III B-7 spacecraft. Analysis of the minimal spacecraft approximation we employ, i.e., a sunlit kapton sphere, also indicates that this so-called bootstrap charging phenomena is active. Surface charging is therefore identified by the net electron current to the kapton spacecraft determined by integrating electron, proton, and oxygen fluxes from the MSM along with secondary and backscatter yields specified as a function of energy. Spacecraft frame charging measurements from the Charge Control System on board the DSCS III satellite are compared with results obtained from the MSM-driven charging model. MSM/charging algorithm simulation output will be characterized at all local times in an effort to evaluate the model's potential effectiveness as a practical spacecraft charging specification tool.

  11. Improving Spacecraft Data Visualization Using Splunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conte, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    EPOXI, like all spacecraft missions, receives large volumes of telemetry data from its spacecraft, DIF. It is extremely important for this data to be updated quickly and presented in a readable manner so that the flight team can monitor the status of the spacecraft. Existing DMD pages for monitoring spacecraft telemetry, while functional, are limited and do not take advantage of modern search technology. For instance, they only display current data points from instruments on the spacecraft and have limited graphing capabilities, making it difficult to see historical data. The DMD pages have fixed refresh rates so the team must often wait several minutes to see the most recent data, even after it is received on the ground. The pages are also rigid and require an investment of time and money to update. To more easily organize and visualize spacecraft telemetry, the EPOXI team has begun experimenting with Splunk, a commercially-available data mining system. Splunk can take data received from the spacecraft's different data channels, often in different formats, and index all the data into a common format. Splunk allows flight team members to search through the different data formats from a single interface and to filter results by time range and data field to make finding specific spacecraft events quick and easy. Furthermore, Splunk provides functions to create custom interfaces which help team members visualize the data in charts and graphs to show how the health of the spacecraft has changed over time.One of the goals of my internship with my mentor, Victor Hwang, was to develop new Splunk interfaces to replace the DMD pages and give the spacecraft team access to historical data and visualizations that were previously unavailable. The specific requirements of these pages are discussed in the next section.

  12. Navigation of the Twin GRAIL Spacecraft into Science Formation at the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antreasian, P. G.; Bhat, R. S.; Criddle, K. E.; Goodson, T. D.; Hatch, S. J; Jefferson, D. C.; Lau, E. L.; Mohan, S.; Parker, J. S.; Roncoli, R. B.; Ryne, M. S.; Sweetser, T. H.; You, T. H.; Young, B. T.; Broschat, S. B.; Chung, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    On February 29, 2012 the twin NASA Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft, Ebb and flow, achieved precise synchronized formation for collecting highly sensitive lunar gravity data. This was accomplished after performing a total of 27 propulsive maneuvers between the two spacecraft (13 on Ebb, 14 on Flow) over six months. Each 300 kg GRAIL spacecraft independently flew a 3.8-month, low-energy trajectory to reach the Moon after separation from the launch vehicle on September 10, 2011. The space craft were captured into 11.5 hr co- planar polar orbits after performing Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) maneuvers on New Years Eve (Dec 31, 2011) and New Years Day (Jan 1, 2012), respectively for Ebb, and Flow. Once captured, each spacecraft performed clusters of period reduction maneuvers to bring their orbit periods down to just less than 2 hrs. Finally, the orbiters we replaced into science formation by performing five strategic maneuvers (2 on Ebb, 3 on Flow). These maneuvers ensured 3 months of orbit life time with mean altitudes of 55 km and separations of 82-217 km by targeting the orbits' eccentricity vectors to specific locations. This paper will discuss the navigation strategy and performance of the twin GRAIL spacecraft from the September 10, 2011 launch through the end of the Prime Mission Science Phase in June 2012.

  13. Spacecraft Hybrid (Mixed-Actuator) Attitude Control Experiences on NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a heightened interest within NASA for the design, development, and flight implementation of mixed-actuator hybrid attitude control systems for science spacecraft that have less than three functional reaction wheel actuators. This interest is driven by a number of recent reaction wheel failures on aging, but what could be still scientifically productive, NASA spacecraft if a successful hybrid attitude control mode can be implemented. Over the years, hybrid (mixed-actuator) control has been employed for contingency attitude control purposes on several NASA science mission spacecraft. This paper provides a historical perspective of NASA's previous engineering work on spacecraft mixed-actuator hybrid control approaches. An update of the current situation will also be provided emphasizing why NASA is now so interested in hybrid control. The results of the NASA Spacecraft Hybrid Attitude Control Workshop, held in April of 2013, will be highlighted. In particular, the lessons learned captured from that workshop will be shared in this paper. An update on the most recent experiences with hybrid control on the Kepler spacecraft will also be provided. This paper will close with some future considerations for hybrid spacecraft control.

  14. Spacecraft capture and docking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kinyuen (Inventor); Rafeek, Shaheed (Inventor); Myrick, Thomas (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system for capturing and docking an active craft to a passive craft has a first docking assembly on the active craft with a first contact member and a spike projecting outwardly, a second docking assembly on the passive craft having a second contact member and a flexible net deployed over a target area with an open mesh for capturing the end of the spike of the active craft, and a motorized net drive for reeling in the net and active craft to mate with the passive craft's docking assembly. The spike has extendable tabs to allow it to become engaged with the net. The net's center is coupled to a net spool for reeling in. An alignment funnel has inclined walls to guide the net and captured spike towards the net spool. The passive craft's docking assembly includes circumferentially spaced preload wedges which are driven to lock the wedges against the contact member of the active craft. The active craft's docking assembly includes a rotary table and drive for rotating it to a predetermined angular alignment position, and mating connectors are then engaged with each other. The system may be used for docking spacecraft in zero or low-gravity environments, as well as for docking underwater vehicles, docking of ancillary craft to a mother craft in subsonic flight, in-flight refueling systems, etc.

  15. Micro Sun Sensor for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, Sohrab; Liebe, Carl; Bae, Youngsam; Schroeder, Jeffrey; Wrigley, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the development of a compact micro Sun sensor for use as a part of the attitude determination subsystem aboard future miniature spacecraft and planetary robotic vehicles. The prototype unit has a mass of only 9 g, a volume of only 4.2 cm(sup 3), a power consumption of only 30 mW, and a 120 degree field of view. The unit has demonstrated an accuracy of 1 arcminute. The unit consists of a multiple pinhole camera: A micromachined mask containing a rectangular array of microscopic pinholes, machined utilizing the microectromechanical systems (MEMS), is mounted in front of an active-pixel sensor (APS) image detector. The APS consists of a 512 x 512-pixel array, on-chip 10-bit analog to digital converter (ADC), on-chip bias generation, and on-chip timing control for self-sequencing and easy programmability. The digitized output of the APS is processed to compute the centroids of the pinhole Sun images on the APS. The Sun angle, relative to a coordinate system fixed to the sensor unit, is then computed from the positions of the centroids.

  16. Inertial Energy Storage for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides potential alternative that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions.

  17. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  18. S-band transponder experiment. [measurement of lunar gravitational field during orbit of Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Wollenhaupt, W. R.; Wimberly, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to measure the variations in the lunar gravitational field near the trajectory of orbiting space vehicles (the command and service module (CSM) and the small particles and fields subsatellites ejected from the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft). New information has been obtained from all Apollo orbiting spacecraft; however, this report shall be limited to the results from the Apollo 17 CSM and the Apollo 16 subsatellite. The data acquired are precise speed measurements of the orbiting spacecraft from which accelerations or gravity profiles may be inferred. Feature resolution is controlled by the spacecraft altitude and is almost a direct relationship (i.e., data taken from a 50-km altitude will resolve approximately a 50-km feature). Therefore, revolutions 3 to 12, when the CSM was in the low-altitude orbits, provided the clearest information.

  19. An extension of the dual magnetometer method for use on a dual spinning spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    A method of estimating and correcting for the magnetic field of a dual spinning spacecraft has been developed by employing an extension of the dual magnetometer technique. This new method is useful for those situations in which a magnetometer boom of modest length is attached to the spinning part of a large spacecraft. The purpose of using a dual spinning spacecraft is to accommodate two types of instruments: imaging and similar pointed remote sensing systems on the stationary platform, and fields, particles and other in-situ measuring instruments on the spinning portion. The new method assumes that the stationary part of the spacecraft possesses a magnetic field which is represented by a combination of a dipole and a quadrupole field.

  20. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    identification and bacterial fingerprinting have improved NASA s capability to better understand spacecraft environments and determine the source of contamination events. Preflight sampling has been completed for air, surface, and water samples. In-flight sample collection has been completed for a total of 8 air and surface sample collection sessions. In-flight hardware has performed well and the surface sampling device received positive feedback from the crew for its ease of use. While processing and analysis continue for these samples, early results have begun to provide information on the spacecraft environment. Using a method called Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), several air and samples were evaluated to determine the types of organisms that were present. Using only molecular techniques, DGGE does not depend on any microbial growth on culture media, allowing a more comprehensive assessment of the spacecraft interior. Preliminary results have identified several microorganisms that would not have been isolated using current technology, though none of these organisms would be considered medically significant. Interestingly, the isolation of Gram negative organisms is greater using DGGE than conventional media based isolation. The cause of this finding is unclear, though it may be the result of the technique s ability to isolate both viable and non-viable bacteria. The next phase of the SWAB sample analysis is the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to look for specific medically significant organisms. While not as broad as DGGE, QPCR is much more sensitive and may reveal findings that were not seen during the initial evaluation. Together, this information will lead toward an accurate microbial risk assessment to help set flight requirements to protect the safety, health, and performance of the crew.