Science.gov

Sample records for purpose spacecraft interior

  1. Interior of Mars from spacecraft and complementary data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2015-04-01

    Mars, as Earth, Venus and Mercury is a terrestrial planet having, in addition to the mantle and lithosphere, a core composed of an iron alloy. This core might be completely liquid, completely solid or may contain a solid part (the inner core) and a liquid part. The existence of a magnetic field around a planet is mainly explained by the presence of motions in the liquid part in the core. The absence of a magnetic field does not help in constraining the state of the core as it might be completely solid or completely liquid but the motion (convection) might not be sufficient to maintain it, or even contain a growing inner core inside a liquid core composed of iron or Nickel and a percentage of light element corresponding to the eutectic composition (no precipitation). The planet Mars is smaller than Earth. It has evolved differently. We know for the Earth that the core is liquid and that the inner core is forming by precipitation of iron. For Mars spacecraft observation of the gravity field and its time variation allow us to obtain the effect of mass repartition, and in particular those induced by the solid tides. These tidal deformation of the planet are larger for a planet with a liquid core than for a completely solid planet. Recent spacecraft orbiting around Mars (MGS, Mars Odyssey, MRO, Mars Express) have allowed to obtain the k2 tidal Love numbers. This measurement is rather at the limit of what the observation can tell us but seems to indicate that Mars has a liquid core. The absence of a present-day global magnetic field places Mars in the situation where the inner core is not yet forming or has reached the eutectic. Physical observation of the planet other than tides also allow us to obtain information about the interior of Mars: its rotation and orientation changes. Planetary rotation can be separated into the rotation speed around an axis and the orientation of this axis (or another axis of the planet) in space. Most of us know that the rotation of a

  2. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  3. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillman, H. D.; Nannelli, P.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of intumescent coatings based on a fluorocarbon latex resin modified with either an acrylic resin or an epoxy resin were prepared. Several intumescent systems were used for these studies including some based on ammonium polyphosphate and others based on sulfanilamide. The best coatings developed had a high concentration (60-70% by wt.) of intumescent additives and had to be applied thick, approximately 100 mils, in order to have adequate intumescent/fire protection properties.

  4. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, E. J.; Nannelli, P.

    1975-01-01

    Coating formulations were developed consisting of latex blends of fluorocarbon polymers, acrylic resins, stabilizers, modifiers, other additives, and a variety of inorganic pigments. Suitable latex primers were also developed from an acrylic latex base. The formulations dried to touch in about one hour and were fully dry in about twenty-four hours under normal room temperature and humidity conditions. The resulting coatings displayed good optical and mechanical properties, including excellent bonding to (pre-treated) substrates. In addition, the preferred compositions were found to be self-extinguishing when applied to nonflammable substrates and could meet the offgassing requirements specified by NASA for the intended application. Improvements are needed in abrasion resistance and hardness.

  5. Development of the Molecular Adsorber Coating for Spacecraft and Instrument Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin

    2011-01-01

    On-orbit Molecular Contamination occurs when materials outgas and deposit onto very sensitive interior surfaces of the spacecraft and instruments. The current solution, Molecular Adsorber Pucks, has disadvantages, which are reviewed. A new innovative solution, Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC), is currently being formulated, optimized, and tested. It is a sprayable alternative composed of Zeolite-based coating with adsorbing properties.

  6. Development of a special purpose spacecraft coating, phase 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillman, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Coating formulations based on a fluorocarbon resin were evaluated for use on spacecraft exteriors. Formulations modified with an acrylic resin were found to have excellent offgassing properties. A much less expensive process for increasing to solid content of the fluorocarbon latex was developed.

  7. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, A.; Adumitroaie, V.; Allison, M.; Anderson, J.; Atreya, S.; Bloxham, J.; Brown, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DeJong, E.; Folkner, W.; Gautier, D.; Grassi, D.; Gulkis, S.; Guillot, T.; Hansen, C.; Hubbard, W. B.; Iess, L.; Ingersoll, A.; Janssen, M.; Jorgensen, J.; Kaspi, Y.; Levin, S. M.; Li, C.; Lunine, J.; Miguel, Y.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Owen, T.; Ravine, M.; Smith, E.; Steffes, P.; Stone, E.; Stevenson, D.; Thorne, R.; Waite, J.; Durante, D.; Ebert, R. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Parisi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Wilson, R.

    2017-05-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

  8. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Bolton, S J; Adriani, A; Adumitroaie, V; Allison, M; Anderson, J; Atreya, S; Bloxham, J; Brown, S; Connerney, J E P; DeJong, E; Folkner, W; Gautier, D; Grassi, D; Gulkis, S; Guillot, T; Hansen, C; Hubbard, W B; Iess, L; Ingersoll, A; Janssen, M; Jorgensen, J; Kaspi, Y; Levin, S M; Li, C; Lunine, J; Miguel, Y; Mura, A; Orton, G; Owen, T; Ravine, M; Smith, E; Steffes, P; Stone, E; Stevenson, D; Thorne, R; Waite, J; Durante, D; Ebert, R W; Greathouse, T K; Hue, V; Parisi, M; Szalay, J R; Wilson, R

    2017-05-26

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. ISS Expedition 18 Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    ISS018-E-009227 (18 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Donald Pettit, STS-126 mission specialist, floats in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module attached to the Earth-facing port of the International Space Station's Harmony node while Space Shuttle Endeavour is docked with the station.

  10. ISS Expedition 18 Multi Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-19

    ISS018-E-009225 (18 Nov. 2008) --- Astronaut Shane Kimbrough, STS-126 mission specialist, floats in the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module attached to the Earth-facing port of the International Space Station's Harmony node while Space Shuttle Endeavour is docked with the station.

  11. Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feoktistov, K. P.

    1974-01-01

    The task of building a spacecraft is compared to the construction of an artificial cybernetic system able to acquire and process information. Typical features for future spacecraft are outlined and the assignment of duties in spacecraft control between automatic devices and the crew is analyzed.

  12. High-fidelity gravity modeling applied to spacecraft trajectories and lunar interior analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappaz, Loic P. R.

    As the complexity and boldness of emerging mission proposals increase, and with the rapid evolution of the available computational capabilities, high-accuracy and high-resolution gravity models and the tools to exploit such models are increasingly attractive within the context of spaceflight mechanics, mission design and analysis, and planetary science in general. First, in trajectory design applications, a gravity representation for the bodies of interest is, in general, assumed and exploited to determine the motion of a spacecraft in any given system. The focus is the exploration of trajectories in the vicinity of a system comprised of two small irregular bodies. Within this context, the primary bodies are initially modeled as massive ellipsoids and tools to construct third-body trajectories are developed. However, these dynamical models are idealized representations of the actual dynamical regime and do not account for any perturbing effects. Thus, a robust strategy to maintain a spacecraft near reference third-body trajectories is constructed. Further, it is important to assess the perturbing effect that dominates the dynamics of the spacecraft in such a region as a function of the baseline orbit. Alternatively, the motion of the spacecraft around a given body may be known to extreme precision enabling the derivation of a very high-accuracy gravity field for that body. Such knowledge can subsequently be exploited to gain insight into specific properties of the body. The success of the NASA's GRAIL mission ensures that the highest resolution and most accurate gravity data for the Moon is now available. In the GRAIL investigation, the focus is on the specific task of detecting the presence and extent of subsurface features, such as empty lava tubes beneath the mare surface. In addition to their importance for understanding the emplacement of the mare flood basalts, open lava tubes are of interest as possible habitation sites safe from cosmic radiation and

  13. Development of a special purpose spacecraft interior coating. Phase 2. [fire resistant fluoropolymer coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, E. J.; Christofas, A.; Nannelli, P.

    1977-01-01

    Numerous acrylic and epoxy modifiers for the fluorocarbon latex resin base were investigated. Optimum coatings were developed by modifying the fluorocarbon latex with an epoxy acrylic resin system. In addition, a number of other formulations, containing hard acrylics as modifiers, displayed attractive properties and potential for further improvements. The preferred formulations dried to touch in about one hour and were fully dried in about twenty four hours under normal room temperature and humidity conditions. In addition to physical and mechanical properties either comparable or superior to those of commercial solvent base polyurethane or polyester coatings, the preferred compositions meet the flammability and offgassing requirements specified by NASA.

  14. 41 CFR 102-73.200 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? 102-73.200 Section 102-73.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE...

  15. 41 CFR 102-73.200 - What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What types of special purpose space may the Department of the Interior lease? 102-73.200 Section 102-73.200 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE...

  16. Spacecraft architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zefeld, V. V.

    1986-01-01

    Three requirements for a spacecraft interior are considered. Adequate motor activity in the anatomical-physiological sense results from attention to the anthropometric characteristics of humans. Analysis of work requirements is a prerequisite for the planning of adequate performance space. The requirements for cognitive activity are also elucidated. The importance of a well-designed interior during a long space flight is discussed.

  17. Water vapor diffusion membrane development. [for water recovery purposes onboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The phase separator component used as a membrane in the vapor diffusion process (VRD) for the recovery of potable water from urine on manned space missions of extended duration was investigated, with particular emphasis on cation-selective membranes because of their noted mechanical strength, superior resistance to acids, oxidants, and germicides, and their potential resistance to organic foulants. Two of the membranes were tested for 700 hours continuously, and were selected on the basis of criteria deemed important to an effective water reclamation system onboard spacecraft. The samples of urine were successfully processed by removing 93 percent of their water content in 70 hours using the selected membranes. Pretreatment with an acid-oxidant formulation improved product quality. Cation exchange membranes were shown to possess superior mechanical strength and chemical resistance, as compared to cellulosic membranes.

  18. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  19. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. New materials for manned spacecraft, aircraft, and other applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    The application of fire resistant spacecraft materials to the interior design of commercial aircraft is discussed. The use of such materials for curtains, upholstery, carpets, decorative panels, cabinets, paper products, and oxygen lines is examined. It is concluded that the highest degree of nonflammability can be obtained with inorganic fibers such as asbestos and fiber glass. The application of various chemical compounds for specific purposes is presented.

  1. Interior of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Callisto. The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Callisto's radius is 2403 km, larger than our Moon's radius. Callisto's interior is shown as a relatively uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock. The surface layer of Callisto is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying ice/rock layer in a variety of ways including, for example, the percentage of rock it contains.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  2. Degradation of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce; Banks, Bruce; deGroh, Kim; Miller, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of specific space environmental threats to exterior spacecraft materials. The scope will be confined to effects on exterior spacecraft surfaces, and will not, therefore, address environmental effects on interior spacecraft systems, such as electronics. Space exposure studies and laboratory simulations of individual and combined space environemntal threats will be summarized. A significant emphasis is placed on effects of Earth orbit environments, because the majority of space missions have been flown in Earth orbits which have provided a significant amount of data on materials effects. Issues associated with interpreting materials degradation results will be discussed, and deficiencies of ground testing will be identified. Recommendations are provided on reducing or preventing space environmental degradation through appropriate materials selection.

  3. Foam core shield (FCS) systems : a new dual - purpose technology for shielding against meteoroid strike damage and for thermal control of spacecrafts/satellite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.; Hayes, Charles; Fabensky, Beth; Cornelison, Charles; Alexander, Lesley; Bishop, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A new technology is being developed that can protect spacecraft and satellite components against damage from meteoroid strikes and control the thermal environment of the protected components. This technology, called Foam Core Shield (FCS) systems, has the potential to replace the multi-layer insulation blankets (MLI) that have been used on spacecraft for decades. In order to be an attractive candidate for replacing MLI, FCS systems should not only provide superior protection against meteoroid strikes but also provide an equal or superior ability to control the temperature of the protected component. Properly designed FCS systems can provide these principal functions, meteoroid strike protection and thermal control, with lower system mass and a smaller system envelope than ML.

  4. Foam core shield (FCS) systems : a new dual - purpose technology for shielding against meteoroid strike damage and for thermal control of spacecrafts/satellite components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.; Hayes, Charles; Fabensky, Beth; Cornelison, Charles; Alexander, Lesley; Bishop, Karen

    2005-01-01

    A new technology is being developed that can protect spacecraft and satellite components against damage from meteoroid strikes and control the thermal environment of the protected components. This technology, called Foam Core Shield (FCS) systems, has the potential to replace the multi-layer insulation blankets (MLI) that have been used on spacecraft for decades. In order to be an attractive candidate for replacing MLI, FCS systems should not only provide superior protection against meteoroid strikes but also provide an equal or superior ability to control the temperature of the protected component. Properly designed FCS systems can provide these principal functions, meteoroid strike protection and thermal control, with lower system mass and a smaller system envelope than ML.

  5. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  6. Interior Renovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes notable interior renovations of educational facilities, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on architects, suppliers, and cost, as well as photographs. (EV)

  7. Spacecraft 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Workshop was to focus on the key technology area for 21st century spacecraft and the programs needed to facilitate technology development and validation. Topics addressed include: spacecraft systems; system development; structures and materials; thermal control; electrical power; telemetry, tracking, and control; data management; propulsion; and attitude control.

  8. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  9. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  10. Resistance of spacecraft isolates to outer space for planetary protection purposes -first results of the experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Moeller, Ralf

    Spore-forming microbes are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection, be-cause their endospores are highly resistant to a variety of environmental extremes, including certain sterilization procedures and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary sur-faces (Nicholson et al., 2000; Horneck et al. 2009). Furthermore, isolates from space craft and space craft assembly facilities have been identified that form spores of an elevated resistance to various physical and chemical conditions, such as ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress (La Duc et al., 2007). This observation led to the supposition that the spe-cial conditions of ultraclean spacecraft assembly facilities and the applied spacecraft cleaning and decontamination measures cause a selection of the most resistant organisms as survivors. To test this hypothesis, spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 isolated from these environments as well as spores of the laboratory strain B. subtilis 168 were subjected to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission (February 7, 2008 -September 12, 2009), attached to the EuTEF platform outside of the Columbus module of the International Space Station. The spores were mounted as dry layers onto spacecraft-qualified material (aluminum coupons) and exposed to the following parameters of space, applied sep-arately or in selected combinations: (i) space vacuum, (ii) solar extraterrestrial UV radiation including vacuum-UV, (iii) simulated Mars atmosphere and UV radiation climate, and (iv) galactic cosmic radiation. After recovery, visual inspection showed color changes of the sun-exposed spore samples from white to brownish demonstrating photochemical damage caused by solar extraterrestrial UV radiation. On-going analyses include studies of viability and capabil-ity of repair of damage, mutagenic spectrum, e.g. trp-revertants, rifampicin-resistant mutants, DNA lesion, global gene expression, and genomic and

  11. Interior of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Io The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Io's radius is 1821 km, similar to the 1738 km radius of our Moon; Io has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). Io's rock or silicate shell extends to the surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  12. Soyuz Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-12

    ISS038-E-000250 (12 Nov. 2013) --- The Russian Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft dominates this image exposed by one of the Expedition 38 crew members aboard the International Space Station over Earth on Nov. 12. Now docked to the Rassvet or Mini-Research Module 1 (MRM-1), the spacecraft had delivered three crew members to the orbital outpost five days earlier, temporarily bringing the total population to nine aboard the station.

  13. Solar Interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The interior of the Sun is hidden from our sight, because it is opaque to electromagnetic waves: the radiation we receive from it on Earth is emitted in the outermost layers. Our knowledge of the solar interior is based solely on theoretical models which are built with some assumptions about the physical conditions and processes that are likely to prevail there, and on helioseismology, a very pow...

  14. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  15. Last Flight for GRAIL's Twin Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the final flight path for NASA’s twin GravityRecovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission spacecraft, which willimpact the moon on Dec. 17, 2012, around 2:28 p.m. PST. ...

  16. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  17. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  18. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, D. H.; Hoffman, T. L.; Havens, G. G.

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and Extended Mission in December 2012. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission used twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such as an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  19. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  20. Understanding Jupiter's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Soubiran, François; Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William

    2016-09-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provided constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principles computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ˜10 Mbar and temperatures ˜10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility that helium rain, core erosion, and double diffusive convection have affected the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understanding of gas giant interiors better than ever before.

  1. Unmanned spacecraft for research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    The applications of unmanned spacecraft for research purposes are discussed. Specific applications of the Communication and Navigation satellites and the Earth Observations satellites are described. Diagrams of communications on world-wide basis using synchronous satellites are developed. Photographs of earth resources and geology obtained from space vehicles are included.

  2. Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Research Lab (JPL) workers use a borescope to verify the pressure relief device bellow's integrity on a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that has been installed on the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The activity is part of the mechanical and electrical verification testing of RTGs during prelaunch processing. RTGs use heat from the natural decay of plutonium to generate electrical power. The three RTGs on Cassini will enable the spacecraft to operate far from the Sun where solar power systems are not feasible. They will provide electrical power to Cassini on it seven year trip to the Saturnian system and during its four year mission at Saturn.

  3. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 3: General purpose spacecraft segment and module specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The specifications for the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) general purpose aircraft segment are presented. The satellite is designed to provide attitude stabilization, electrical power, and a communications data handling subsystem which can support various mission peculiar subsystems. The various specifications considered include the following: (1) structures subsystem, (2) thermal control subsystem, (3) communications and data handling subsystem module, (4) attitude control subsystem module, (5) power subsystem module, and (6) electrical integration subsystem.

  4. Precise radio Doppler and interferometric tracking of spacecraft in service of planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duev, Dmitry; PRIDE Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) project is designed as a multi-purpose, multidisciplinary enhancement of the space missions science return by means of Doppler and phase-referenced Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) tracking of spacecraft. These measurements can be used in a multitude of scientific applications, both fundamental and applied, where an accurate estimate of the spacecraft state vector is essential. In particular, the gravitational field of planetary moons can be sampled with close spacecraft flybys, allowing to probe the moons' interior.In this presentation, we will describe the principles of PRIDE data collection, processing, and analysis. We will present the results of demonstrational observations of a Phobos flyby conducted by ESA's Mars Express spacecraft.

  5. Astronaut John Glenn checks the Friendship 7 spacecraft after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. checks the Friendship 7 spacecraft after completing three orbits around the earth. The destroyer Noa picked up Glenn and the spacecraft 21 minutes after landing. A technician inside the spacecraft checks the interior for any damage.

  6. Astronaut John Glenn checks the Friendship 7 spacecraft after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. checks the Friendship 7 spacecraft after completing three orbits around the earth. The destroyer Noa picked up Glenn and the spacecraft 21 minutes after landing. A technician inside the spacecraft checks the interior for any damage.

  7. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  8. Interior of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Europa's radius is 1565 km, not too much smaller than our Moon's radius. Europa has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). The rock layer of Europa (drawn to correct relative scale) is in turn surrounded by a shell of water in ice or liquid form (shown in blue and white and drawn to the correct relative scale). The surface layer of Europa is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying layers. Galileo images of Europa suggest that a liquid water ocean might now underlie a surface ice layer several to ten kilometers thick. However, this evidence is also consistent with the existence of a liquid water ocean in the past. It is not certain if there is a liquid water ocean on Europa at present.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  9. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  10. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called 'Mission to Planet Earth'), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 am local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES, MISR, and MODIS are proved by the US; MOPITT by Canada; and ASTER by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale.

  11. Spacecraft design applications of QUICK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The interactive space mission trajectory design environment software QUICK, which is currently available on 14 different machine architectures, furnishes a programmable FORTRAN-like interface for a wide range of both built-in and user-defined functions. Since its inception at JPL in 1971, QUICK has evolved from a specialized calculator into a general-purpose engineering tool which also facilitates spacecraft conceptual design by treating spacecraft as collections of data records describing individual components of instruments.

  12. SOHO spacecraft observations interrupted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Efforts to re-establish nominal operations did not succeed and telemetry was lost. Subsequent attempts using the full NASA Deep Space Network capabilities have so far not been successful. ESA and NASA engineers are continuing with the task of re-establishing contact with the spacecraft. The SOHO mission is a joint undertaking of ESA and NASA. The spacecraft was launched aboard an Atlas II rocket from Florida on 2 December 1995 from the Cape Canaveral Air Station. Mission operations are directed from the control center at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, USA. In April 1998 SOHO successfully completed its nominal two-year mission to study the Sun's atmosphere, surface and interior. Major science highlights include the detection of rivers of plasma beneath the surface of the sun; the discovery of a magnetic "carpet" on the solar surface that seems to account for a substantial part of the energy that is needed to cause the very high temperatures of the corona, the Sun's outermost layer; the first detection of flare-induced solar quakes; the discovery of more than 50 sungrazing comets; the most detailed view to date of the solar atmosphere; and spectacular images and movies of Coronal Mass Ejections, which are being used to improve the ability to forecast space weather.

  13. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  14. TERRA Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland, is the centerpiece of the Earth Science Enterprise (formerly called "Mission to Planet Earth"), a long-term coordinated research effort to study the Earth as a global system. Terra was launched on December 18, 1999 aboard an ATLAS-IIAS launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Terra is a near-polar orbiting spacecraft that will cross the equator at 10:30 AM local time. Terra will collect data simultaneously from a complement of five instruments: CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) are provided by the United States; MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere) by Canada; and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer) by Japan. Researchers around the world will use data from these instruments to study how the atmosphere, land, ocean, and life interact with each other on a global scale. This interactive CD introduces Terra's overall objectives and its instruments, the new technologies developed for Terra, the launch of Terra, and its flight dynamics.

  15. Spacecraft Observes Another Spacecraft at the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-13

    This is the first footage of one orbiting robotic spacecraft taken by another orbiting robotic spacecraft at Earth moon. Flow, one of two satellites making up NASA GRAIL mission, captured this video of NASA LRO as it flew by.

  16. 43 CFR 17.501 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 17.501 Section 17.501 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.501 Purpose. The purpose of...

  17. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  18. GRAIL Twin Spacecraft -- Crust to Core Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-18

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory GRAIL mission utilizes the technique of twin spacecraft flying in formation with a known altitude above the lunar surface and known separation distance to investigate the gravity field of the moon.

  19. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  20. Interiors of Enceladus and Rhea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, N. J.; Iess, L.; Tortora, P.; Lunine, J. I.; Armstrong, J. W.; Asmar, S. W.; Somenzi, L.; Zingoni, F.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement method and data set: Gravity field parameters determined by means of range rate measurements over multiple arcs across flyby. Optical imaging not required when reliable a priori estimates of spacecraft state vector are available. Interior of Enceladus: Density of 1605 +/-14 kg/cu m, higher than pre-Cassini estimates, requires a substantial amount of rock to warmer interior to enhance likelihood of differentiation of water from rock-metal. Assume no porosity. Assuming Io s mean density for the rock-metal component, one finds its fractional mass to be 0.52+/-0.06. There is evidence that Enceladus may be differentiated: a) Areas devoid of craters must be geologically young. b) Systems of ridges, fractures, and groove indicate that the surface has been tectonically altered. c) Viscous relaxation of craters has occurred, and d) The plumes near the South pole indicate venting of subsurface volatiles.

  1. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  2. Intelligent spacecraft module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  3. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  4. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  5. 43 CFR 1.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1.1 Section 1.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PRACTICES BEFORE THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 1.1 Purpose. This part governs the participation of individuals in proceedings, both formal and informal,...

  6. CM2 Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Y.

    2012-05-01

    CM2 spacecraft magnetic test facility was constructed for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary field environment. The facility includes 3 axis coil system consisting of 12 squares loops, 4 loops on each of the three orthogonal axes. CM2 can provide uniform, stable zero magnetic fields and is equipped with instrumentation for the measurement and calibration of spacecraft and individual instruments. The length of maximum coil side is 16 m. The permitted largest dimension of spacecraft is 3.5 m (length)×3.5 m (width)×4.5 m (height). The permitted maximum mass of spacecraft is 3000 kg. The facility has been used for magnetic moment measurement of spacecraft. The facility has also been used for precise, high-resolution magnetometer calibration and magnetic cleanliness tests of spacecraft. Magnetic tests items include magnetic field measurement, magnetic moment measurement, magnetic compensation test, magnetization and demagnetization test.

  7. Development of lightweight reinforced plastic laminates for spacecraft interior applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, J.

    1975-01-01

    Lightweight, Kevlar - reinforced laminating systems that are non-burning, generate little smoke in the space shuttle environment, and are physically equivalent to the fiberglass/polyimide system used in the Apollo program for non-structural cabin panels, racks, etc. Resin systems representing five generic classes were screened as matrices for Kevlar 49 reinforced laminates. Of the systems evaluated, the polyimides were the most promising with the phenolics a close second. Skybond 703 was selected as the most promising resin candidate. With the exception of compression strength, all program goals of physical and mechanical properties were exceeded. Several prototype space shuttle mobility and translation handrail segments were manufactured using Kevlar/epoxy and Kevlar-graphite/epoxy. This application shows significant weight savings over the baseline aluminum configuration used previous. The hybrid Kevlar-graphite/epoxy is more suitable from a processing standpoint.

  8. Spacecraft propulsion: new methods.

    PubMed

    Alfvén, H

    1972-04-14

    Cosmic plasmas contain energy which may be tapped and used for spacecraft propulsion. The energy needed for launching a spacecraft could be supplied to it from the ground through a plasma channel in the atmosphere.

  9. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of the aerospace environment with spacecraft surfaces and onboard, high voltage spacecraft systems operating over a wide range of altitudes from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit is considered. Emphasis is placed on control of spacecraft electric potential. Electron and ion beams, plasma neutralizers material selection, and magnetic shielding are among the topics discussed.

  10. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  11. Interior Design Students Perceptions of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Johnnie; Park, Jin Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study assessed student perceptions of sustainable design issues in the context of an accredited interior design program. Although literature exists documenting the integration of sustainable strategies into interior design curriculum, more analysis is needed to determine the impact of program experiences on students'…

  12. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on...

  13. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on...

  14. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on...

  15. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on...

  16. 43 CFR 37.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 37.1 Section 37.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CAVE MANAGEMENT Cave Management-General § 37.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide the basis for identifying and managing significant caves on...

  17. 43 CFR 8340.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8340.0-1 Section 8340.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS OFF-ROAD VEHICLES General § 8340.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of...

  18. 43 CFR 11.11 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 11.11 Section 11.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.11 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide standardized and cost-effective procedures for...

  19. 43 CFR 28.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 28.1 Section 28.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior FIRE PROTECTION EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE § 28.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to provide criteria for agencies in the Department to render fire...

  20. 43 CFR 27.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 27.1 Section 27.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NONDISCRIMINATION IN ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED UNDER PERMITS... PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to effectuate section 403 of Public Law...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1180 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 4.1180 Section 4.1180 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES...) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1180 Purpose. The purpose of §§ 4.1180-4.1187 is to...

  2. 43 CFR 6.51 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 6.51 Section 6.51 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.51 Purpose. It is the purpose of the regulations in this subpart to secure for the people of the United States the full...

  3. Docking structure for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A docking structure for a pair of spacecraft is described comprising a conical receptacle on the docking end of a first spacecraft that receives a mating conical projection on the docking end of the second spacecraft. The conical receptacle of the first spacecraft constitutes an exterior portion of a sealed gas-tight compartment. Pressurization of the sealed compartment causes the conical receptacle to extend toward the incoming conical projection of the second spacecraft. When the mating conical portions are latched together, the docking energy is absorbed by the compressed gas in the sealed compartment. Rebound forces are countered by a plurality of actuator cylinders supporting the conical receptacle.

  4. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  5. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  6. Interior Studies with BepiColombo's MPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, Johannes; Zender, Joe

    2017-04-01

    NASA's MESSENGER mission has fundamentally changed our view of the innermost planet. Mercury is in many ways a very different planet from what we were expecting. Now BepiColombo has to follow up on answering the fundamental questions that MESSENGER raised and go beyond. BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in October 2018 and an arrival at Mercury in 2025. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; several of them dedicated to the study of the interior. Together, these instruments will perform measurements to enhance our knowledge of the planets figure and internal structure and composition. Expected results will provide further clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. In this presentation we will give an overview on the expected science return of BepiColombo with respect to the interior. In addition we give a brief update on the latest development status of the mission. All scientific instruments have been integrated into the spacecraft and both spacecraft are now under final acceptance testing.

  7. Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior Cornice Profile, Interior Pilaster Profile, Lions Head Roof Scupper, and Interior Panel Moulding - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Chapel, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  8. Dynamics and control of underactuated multibody spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sangbum

    In this dissertation, we develop equations of motion for a class of multibody spacecraft consisting of a rigid base body and multiple rigid appendages connected to the base body. There has been much prior research on this topic; however, much of this research is not appropriate for nonlinear control design purposes. The motion of a multibody spacecraft is described by the position and attitude of a base body in an inertial frame and by the relative position and attitude of the attached bodies with respect to the base body; these latter quantities define the shape of the multibody spacecraft. Our aim is to develop equations of motion that reveal important nonlinear coupling effects between the translation, rotation and shape dynamics, but are simple enough for control design purposes. A rotation matrix is used to represent the attitude of the spacecraft. This allows us to avoid complexity related to the use of parameter representations such as Euler angles. Hamilton's variational principle gives three sets of nonlinear equations of motion. The latter part of this dissertation presents results of control problems for several underactuated multibody spacecraft examples. These include spacecraft with an unactuated internal sliding mass, spacecraft with unactuated fuel slosh dynamics, tethered spacecraft with attachment point actuation and the triaxial attitude control testbed with two proof mass actuation devices. These examples illustrate important features related to the dynamics and control of various underactuated multibody spacecraft. Differences in geometries of the spacecraft and gravitational assumptions require adoption of different types of control schemes. We use the multibody equations in this dissertation to formulate control equations for the models and to construct feedback controllers that achieves asymptotic stability (or convergence) to the desired (relative) equilibrium manifolds. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers.

  9. Analyzing Dynamics of Cooperating Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen P.; Folta, David C.; Conway, Darrel J.

    2004-01-01

    A software library has been developed to enable high-fidelity computational simulation of the dynamics of multiple spacecraft distributed over a region of outer space and acting with a common purpose. All of the modeling capabilities afforded by this software are available independently in other, separate software systems, but have not previously been brought together in a single system. A user can choose among several dynamical models, many high-fidelity environment models, and several numerical-integration schemes. The user can select whether to use models that assume weak coupling between spacecraft, or strong coupling in the case of feedback control or tethering of spacecraft to each other. For weak coupling, spacecraft orbits are propagated independently, and are synchronized in time by controlling the step size of the integration. For strong coupling, the orbits are integrated simultaneously. Among the integration schemes that the user can choose are Runge-Kutta Verner, Prince-Dormand, Adams-Bashforth-Moulton, and Bulirsh- Stoer. Comparisons of performance are included for both the weak- and strongcoupling dynamical models for all of the numerical integrators.

  10. Spacecraft Coming out of Protective Storage

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-28

    Members of the InSight mission's assembly, test and launch operations (ATLO) team remove the "birdcage" from NASA's InSight spacecraft, in this photo taken June 19, 2017, in a Lockheed Martin clean room facility in Littleton, Colorado. The birdcage is the inner layer of protective housing that shielded the spacecraft while in storage following a postponement of launch. It is made of a film that dissipates electrostatic conditions to protect the spacecraft from contamination. The InSight mission (for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is scheduled to launch in May 2018 and land on Mars Nov. 26, 2018. It will investigate processes that formed and shaped Mars and will help scientists better understand the evolution of our inner solar system's rocky planets, including Earth. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21843

  11. Spacecraft camera image registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  12. 10 K Spacecraft Cryocooler Development Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    PL-TR-96-1115 PL-TR- 96-1115 10 K SPACECRAFT CRYOCOOLER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Larry D. Crawford Aerojet Electronic Systems Division P. 0. Box 296 Azusa...covered (from... to) July 1996 Final 09/92 to 11/94 4. Title & subtitle 5a. Contract or Grant # 10 K Spacecraft Cryocooler Development Program F29601...reports were not followed for this technical report. 14. Abstract The purpose of this project was to develop cryocooler technology capable of providing

  13. Discussion meeting on Gossamer spacecraft (ultralightweight spacecraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brereton, R. G. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Concepts, technology, and application of ultralightweight structures in space are examined. Gossamer spacecraft represented a generic class of space vehicles or structures characterized by a low mass per unit area (approximately 50g/m2). Gossamer concepts include the solar sail, the space tether, and various two and three dimensional large lightweight structures that were deployed or assembled in space. The Gossamer Spacecraft had a high potential for use as a transportation device (solar sail), as a science instrument (reflecting or occulting antenna), or as a large structural component for an enclosure, manned platform, or other human habitats. Inflatable structures were one possible building element for large ultralightweight structures in space.

  14. Preparing NASA InSight Spacecraft for Vibration Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-18

    Spacecraft specialists at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, prepare NASA's InSight spacecraft for vibration testing as part of assuring that it is ready for the rigors of launch from Earth and flight to Mars. The spacecraft is oriented with its heat shield facing up in this July 13, 2015, photograph. InSight, for Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is scheduled for launch in March 2016 and landing in September 2016. It will study the deep interior of Mars to advance understanding of the early history of all rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19815

  15. NASA InSight Lander in Spacecraft Back Shell

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-18

    In this photo, NASA's InSight Mars lander is stowed inside the inverted back shell of the spacecraft's protective aeroshell. It was taken on July 13, 2015, in a clean room of spacecraft assembly and test facilities at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during preparation for vibration testing of the spacecraft. InSight, for Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is scheduled for launch in March 2016 and landing in September 2016. It will study the deep interior of Mars to advance understanding of the early history of all rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19813

  16. Optically measuring interior cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  17. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  18. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  19. Miniature Robotic Spacecraft for Inspecting Other Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, Steven; Abbott, Larry; Duran, Steve; Goode, Robert; Howard, Nathan; Jochim, David; Rickman, Steve; Straube, Tim; Studak, Bill; Wagenknecht, Jennifer; hide

    2004-01-01

    A report discusses the Miniature Autonomous Extravehicular Robotic Camera (Mini AERCam)-- a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. The Mini AERCam is a successor to the AERCam Sprint -- a prior miniature robotic inspection spacecraft that was demonstrated in a space-shuttle flight experiment in 1997. The prototype of the Mini AERCam is a demonstration unit having approximately the form and function of a flight system. The Mini AERCam is approximately spherical with a diameter of about 7.5 in. (.19 cm) and a weight of about 10 lb (.4.5 kg), yet it has significant additional capabilities, relative to the 14-in. (36-cm), 35-lb (16-kg) AERCam Sprint. The Mini AERCam includes miniaturized avionics, instrumentation, communications, navigation, imaging, power, and propulsion subsystems, including two digital video cameras and a high-resolution still camera. The Mini AERCam is designed for either remote piloting or supervised autonomous operations, including station keeping and point-to-point maneuvering. The prototype has been tested on an air-bearing table and in a hardware-in-the-loop orbital simulation of the dynamics of maneuvering in proximity to the International Space Station.

  20. 43 CFR 1784.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 1784.0-1 Section 1784.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-1 Purpose. This subpart contains standards and...

  1. 43 CFR 426.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 426.1 Section 426.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.1 Purpose. These rules and regulations implement certain provisions of Federal reclamation law that...

  2. 43 CFR 1784.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1784.0-1 Section 1784.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.0-1 Purpose. This subpart contains standards and...

  3. 43 CFR 8200.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 8200.0-1 Section 8200.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES General § 8200.0-1 Purpose. This part 8200 provides procedures and practices for the management and...

  4. 43 CFR 1864.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1864.0-1 Section 1864.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in Land § 1864.0-1 Purpose. The Secretary of the Interior has been...

  5. 43 CFR 12.970 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 12.970 Section 12.970 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... § 12.970 Purpose. Sections 12.971 through 12.973 contain closeout procedures and other procedures...

  6. 43 CFR 8223.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8223.0-1 Section 8223.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The...

  7. 43 CFR 2300.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2300.0-1 Section 2300.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Purpose. (a) These regulations set forth procedures implementing the Secretary of the Interior's...

  8. 43 CFR 8351.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8351.0-1 Section 8351.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS MANAGEMENT AREAS Designated National Area § 8351.0-1 Purpose....

  9. 43 CFR 21.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 21.1 Section 21.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior OCCUPANCY OF CABIN SITES ON PUBLIC CONSERVATION AND RECREATION AREAS § 21.1 Purpose. This part establishes (a) when, and by what standards, use of...

  10. 43 CFR 12.910 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 12.910 Section 12.910 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... Purpose. Sections 12.011 through 12.917 prescribe forms and instructions and other pre-award matters to...

  11. 43 CFR 4.20 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 4.20 Section 4.20 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURES General Rules Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.20 Purpose. In the interest of establishing and...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8365.0-1 Section 8365.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.0-1 Purpose. The...

  13. 43 CFR 7.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 7.1 Section 7.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES Uniform Regulations § 7.1 Purpose. (a) The regulations in this part implement provisions of the Archaeological...

  14. 43 CFR 12.901 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 12.901 Section 12.901 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST... Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations General § 12.901 Purpose....

  15. 43 CFR 2911.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2911.0-1 Section 2911.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.0-1 Purpose. This subpart...

  16. 43 CFR 3420.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3420.0-1 Section 3420.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.0-1 Purpose...

  17. Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birur, Gajanana C.; Siebes, Georg; Swanson, Theodore D.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control of the spacecraft is typically achieved by removing heat from the spacecraft parts that tend to overheat and adding heat to the parts that tend get too cold. The equipment on the spacecraft can get very hot if it is exposed to the sun or have internal heat generation. The pans also can get very cold if they are exposed to the cold of deep space. The spacecraft and instruments must be designed to achieve proper thermal balance. The combination of the spacecraft's external thermal environment, its internal heat generation (i.e., waste heat from the operation of electrical equipment), and radiative heat rejection will determine this thermal balance. It should also be noted that this is seldom a static situation, external environmental influences and internal heat generation are normally dynamic variables which change with time. Topics discussed include thermal control system components, spacecraft mission categories, spacecraft thermal requirements, space thermal environments, thermal control hardware, launch and flight operations, advanced technologies for future spacecraft,

  18. The electrification of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akishin, A. I.; Novikov, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical and applied aspects of the electrification of space vehicles and natural celestial objects are discussed, the factors resulting in electrification of spacecraft are analyzed, and methods of investigating various phenomena associated with this electrification and ways of protecting spacecraft against the influence of static electricity are described. The booklet is intended for the general reader interested in present day questions of space technology.

  19. Docking system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A mechanism is disclosed for the docking of a spacecraft to a space station where a connection for transfer of personnel and equipment is desired. The invention comprises an active docking structure on a spacecraft and a passive docking structure on the station. The passive structure includes a docking ring mounted on a tunnel structure fixed to the space station. The active structure includes a docking ring carried by an actuator-attenuator devices, each attached at one end to the ring and at its other end in the spacecraft payload bay. The devices respond to command signals for moving the docking ring between a stowed position in the spacecraft to a deployed position suitable for engagement with the docking ring. The devices comprise means responsive to signals of sensed loadings to absorb impact energy and retraction means for drawing the coupled spacecraft and station into final docked configuration and moving the tunnel structure to a berthed position in the spacecraft. Latches couple the spacecraft and space station upon contact of the docking rings and latches establish a structural tie between the spacecraft when retracted.

  20. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A.; Stevens, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  1. Design guidelines for assessing and controlling spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Garrett, H. B.; Whittlesey, A. C.; Stevens, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    The need for uniform criteria, or guidelines, to be used in all phases of spacecraft design is discussed. Guidelines were developed for the control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces by the lower energy space charged particle environment. Interior charging due to higher energy particles is not considered. A guide to good design practices for assessing and controlling charging effects is presented. Uniform design practices for all space vehicles are outlined.

  2. Current LISA Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Castellucci, K. E.; Depalo, S. V.; Generie, J. A.; Maghami, P. G.; Peabody, H. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. a space based gravitational wave detector. uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. LISA is unique from a mission design perspective in that the three spacecraft and their associated operations form one distributed science instrument. unlike more conventional missions where an instrument is a component of an individual spacecraft. The design of the LISA spacecraft is also tightly coupled to the design and requirements of the scientific payload; for this reason it is often referred to as a "sciencecraft." Here we describe some of the unique features of the LISA spacecraft design that help create the quiet environment necessary for gravitational wave observations.

  3. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  4. Surviving Atmospheric Spacecraft Breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    In essence, to survival a spacecraft breakup an animal must not experience a lethal event. Much as with surviving aircraft breakup, dissipation of lethal forces via breakup of the craft around the organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. As spacecraft can travel higher and faster than aircraft, it is often assumed that spacecraft breakup is not a survivable event. Similarly, the belief that aircraft breakup or crashes are not survivable events is still prevalent in the general population. As those of us involved in search and rescue know, it is possible to survive both aircraft breakup and crashes. Here we make the first report of an animal, C. elegans, surviving atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications implied for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  5. Current LISA Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkowitz, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, a space based gravitational wave detector, uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. LISA is unique from a mission design perspective in that three spacecraft and their associated operations form one distributed science instrument, unlike more conventional missions where an instrument is a component of an individual spacecraft. The design of the LiSA spacecraft is also tightly coupled to the design and requirements of the scientific payload; for this reason it is often referred to as a "sciencecraft." A detailed discussion will be presented that describes the current spacecraft design and mission architecture needed to meet the LISA science requirements.

  6. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  7. 43 CFR 2740.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2740.0-1 Section 2740.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RECREATION AND PUBLIC PURPOSES ACT Recreation and Public Purposes Act: General § 2740.0-1 Purpose. These regulations provide guidelines and procedures...

  8. Protecting Against Faults in JPL Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Paula

    2007-01-01

    A paper discusses techniques for protecting against faults in spacecraft designed and operated by NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The paper addresses, more specifically, fault-protection requirements and techniques common to most JPL spacecraft (in contradistinction to unique, mission specific techniques), standard practices in the implementation of these techniques, and fault-protection software architectures. Common requirements include those to protect onboard command, data-processing, and control computers; protect against loss of Earth/spacecraft radio communication; maintain safe temperatures; and recover from power overloads. The paper describes fault-protection techniques as part of a fault-management strategy that also includes functional redundancy, redundant hardware, and autonomous monitoring of (1) the operational and health statuses of spacecraft components, (2) temperatures inside and outside the spacecraft, and (3) allocation of power. The strategy also provides for preprogrammed automated responses to anomalous conditions. In addition, the software running in almost every JPL spacecraft incorporates a general-purpose "Safe Mode" response algorithm that configures the spacecraft in a lower-power state that is safe and predictable, thereby facilitating diagnosis of more complex faults by a team of human experts on Earth.

  9. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh

    1991-01-01

    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  10. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  11. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  12. Spacecraft Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghofranian, Siamak (Inventor); Chuang, Li-Ping Christopher (Inventor); Motaghedi, Pejmun (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and apparatus for docking a spacecraft. The apparatus comprises elongate members, movement systems, and force management systems. The elongate members are associated with a docking structure for a spacecraft. The movement systems are configured to move the elongate members axially such that the docking structure for the spacecraft moves. Each of the elongate members is configured to move independently. The force management systems connect the movement systems to the elongate members and are configured to limit a force applied by the each of the elongate members to a desired threshold during movement of the elongate members.

  13. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  15. Unusual spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Jonathan V.

    1990-01-01

    For particularly innovative space exploration missions, unusual requirements are levied on the structural components of the spacecraft. In many cases, the preferred solution is the utilization of unusual materials. This trend is forecast to continue. Several hypothetic examples are discussed.

  16. Surviving atmospheric spacecraft breakup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; McLamb, William

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft travel higher and faster than aircraft, making breakup potentially less survivable. As with aircraft breakup, the dissipation of lethal forces via spacecraft breakup around an organism is likely to greatly increase the odds of survival. By employing a knowledge of space and aviation physiology, comparative physiology, and search-and-rescue techniques, we were able to correctly predict and execute the recovery of live animals following the breakup of the space shuttle Columbia. In this study, we make what is, to our knowledge, the first report of an animal, Caenorhabditis elegans, surviving the atmospheric breakup of the spacecraft that was supporting it and discuss both the lethal events these animals had to escape and the implications for search and rescue following spacecraft breakup.

  17. Using Drained Spacecraft Propellant Tanks for Habitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Andrew S. W.

    2009-01-01

    A document proposes that future spacecraft for planetary and space exploration be designed to enable reuse of drained propellant tanks for occupancy by humans. This proposal would enable utilization of volume and mass that would otherwise be unavailable and, in some cases, discarded. Such utilization could enable reductions in cost, initial launch mass, and number of launches needed to build up a habitable outpost in orbit about, or on the surface of, a planet or moon. According to the proposal, the large propellant tanks of a spacecraft would be configured to enable crews to gain access to their interiors. The spacecraft would incorporate hatchways, between a tank and the crew volume, that would remain sealed while the tank contained propellant and could be opened after the tank was purged by venting to outer space and then refilled with air. The interior of the tank would be pre-fitted with some habitation fixtures that were compatible with the propellant environment. Electrical feed-throughs, used originally for gauging propellants, could be reused to supply electric power to equipment installed in the newly occupied space. After a small amount of work, the tank would be ready for long-term use as a habitation module.

  18. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  19. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  20. GRAIL Twin Spacecraft fly in Tandem Around the Moon Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-18

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory GRAIL mission utilizes the technique of twin spacecraft flying in formation with a known altitude above the lunar surface and known separation distance to investigate the gravity field of the moon.

  1. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  2. Department of the Interior

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Indians Other Interior Offices Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Join Jobs ... Secretary Bureaus For Employees Our Priorities American Energy Climate Change Jobs Regulatory Reform Stewardship Tribal Nations Resources Cobell / ...

  3. Studies in Interior Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environ Planning Design, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Floor plans and photographs illustrate a description of the Samuel C. Williams Library at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. The unusual interior design allows students to take full advantage of the library's resources. (JW)

  4. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Spacecraft Charge as a Source of Electrical Power for Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics.47: Spacecraft Charging by3Maanetospheric Plasmas : 15-30, 1976. Nicholson, Dwight R...34 Spacecraft Charging Investigation: A Joint Research and Technology Program," Progress in Astronautics and Astronautics . 47: Spacecraft Charging by... Magnetospheric Plasmas : 3-14, 1976. l Massaro, N.J. and others. "A Charging Model for Three-Axis Stabilized Spacecraft ,"

  6. Spacecraft environments interactions: Protecting against the effects of spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, J. L.; Mccollum, M. B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the natural space environments on spacecraft design, development, and operation are the topic of a series of NASA Reference Publications currently being developed by the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory, Marshall Space Flight Center. This primer, second in the series, describes the interactions between a spacecraft and the natural space plasma. Under certain environmental/spacecraft conditions, these interactions result in the phenomenon known as spacecraft charging. It is the focus of this publication to describe the phenomenon of spacecraft charging and its possible adverse effects on spacecraft and to present the key elements of a Spacecraft Charging Effects Protection Plan.

  7. Interior structure of neptune: comparison with uranus.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, W B; Nellis, W J; Mitchell, A C; Holmes, N C; Limaye, S S; McCandless, P C

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-calied planetary ;;ice,'' have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  8. Interior structure of Neptune: Comparison with Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B. ); Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C. ); Limaye, S.S. )

    1991-08-09

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary ice, have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  9. Interior structure of Neptune - Comparison with Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Mitchell, A. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Mccandless, P. C.; Limaye, S. S.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of rotation rates and gravitational harmonics of Neptune made with the Voyager 2 spacecraft allow tighter constraints on models of the planet's interior. Shock measurements of material that may match the composition of Neptune, the so-called planetary 'ice', have been carried out to pressures exceeding 200 gigapascals (2 megabars). Comparison of shock data with inferred pressure-density profiles for both Uranus and Neptune shows substantial similarity through most of the mass of both planets. Analysis of the effect of Neptune's strong differential rotation on its gravitational harmonics indicates that differential rotation involves only the outermost few percent of Neptune's mass.

  10. The New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Glen H.; Kusnierkiewicz, David Y.; Hersman, Christopher B.; Herder, Timothy S.; Coughlin, Thomas B.; Gibson, William C.; Clancy, Deborah A.; Deboy, Christopher C.; Hill, T. Adrian; Kinnison, James D.; Mehoke, Douglas S.; Ottman, Geffrey K.; Rogers, Gabe D.; Stern, S. Alan; Stratton, James M.; Vernon, Steven R.; Williams, Stephen P.

    2008-10-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft was launched on 19 January 2006. The spacecraft was designed to provide a platform for seven instruments designated by the science team to collect and return data from Pluto in 2015. The design meets the requirements established by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Announcement of Opportunity AO-OSS-01. The design drew on heritage from previous missions developed at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and other missions such as Ulysses. The trajectory design imposed constraints on mass and structural strength to meet the high launch acceleration consistent with meeting the AO requirement of returning data prior to the year 2020. The spacecraft subsystems were designed to meet tight resource allocations (mass and power) yet provide the necessary control and data handling finesse to support data collection and return when the one-way light time during the Pluto fly-by is 4.5 hours. Missions to the outer regions of the solar system (where the solar irradiance is 1/1000 of the level near the Earth) require a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to supply electrical power. One RTG was available for use by New Horizons. To accommodate this constraint, the spacecraft electronics were designed to operate on approximately 200 W. The travel time to Pluto put additional demands on system reliability. Only after a flight time of approximately 10 years would the desired data be collected and returned to Earth. This represents the longest flight duration prior to the return of primary science data for any mission by NASA. The spacecraft system architecture provides sufficient redundancy to meet this requirement with a probability of mission success of greater than 0.85. The spacecraft is now on its way to Pluto, with an arrival date of 14 July 2015. Initial in-flight tests have verified that the spacecraft will meet the design requirements.

  11. Microbiological profiles of four Apollo spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Puleo, J R; Oxborrow, G S; Fields, N D; Herring, C M; Smith, L S

    1973-12-01

    Selected surfaces from the Command Module, Lunar Module (ascent and descent stages), Instrument Unit, Saturn S-4B engine, and Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter comprised the various components of four Apollo spacecraft which were assayed quantitatively and qualitatively for microorganisms. In addition, the first Lunar Roving Vehicle was assayed. Average levels of microbial contamination (10(4) per square foot of surface) on the Command Module, Instrument Unit, and Saturn S-4B engine were relatively consistent among spacecraft. The first postflight sampling of interior surfaces of the Command Module was possible due to elimination of the 21-day back-contamination quarantine period. Results of the pre- and postflight samples revealed increases in the postflight samples of 3 logs/inch(2). A total of 5,862 microbial isolates was identified; 183 and 327 were obtained from the Command Module at preflight and postflight sampling periods, respectively. Although the results showed that the majority of microorganisms isolated were those considered to be indigenous to humans, an increase in organisms associated with soil and dust was noted with each successive Apollo spacecraft.

  12. Simulation of Mariner Mars 1971 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausman, N. E., Jr.; Simon, N. K.; Rodriguez, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    Preparation for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission is reported, including an extensive training program for operations personnel during which the primary source of spacecraft data was a computer program simulating the spacecraft. The objectives of a simulation model for training purposes differed from objectives appropriate to a design or analysis model. Model subsystems were designed to provide realistic telemetry data reflecting changes due both to commands and environmental parameters affecting the spacecraft at various times during the mission. The spacecraft is modeled along two separate functional lines. Boolean operations are concentrated in the spacecraft logic model, which determines the spacecraft state or mode, while mathematical operations or algorithms are executed in computational subsystem models. Although logic parameters are interrogated as a part of each computational pass, actual logic model processing occurs only when a change-of-state input is generated by the operations organization. The program design, some of the special characteristics of each of the modeled subsystems, and how the model was used in support of mission operations training are presented.

  13. DMSP Spacecraft Charging in Auroral Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Andrew; Minow, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft are a series of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites whose mission is to observe the space environment using the precipitating energetic particle spectrometer (SSJ/4-5). DMSP satellites fly in a geosynchronous orbit at approx.840 km altitude which passes through Earth s ionosphere. The ionosphere is a region of partially ionized gas (plasma) formed by the photoionization of neutral atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere of Earth. For satellites in LEO, such as DMSP, the plasma density is usually high and the main contributors to the currents to the spacecraft are the precipitating auroral electrons and ions from the magnetosphere as well as the cold plasma that constitutes the ionosphere. It is important to understand how the ionosphere and auroral electrons can accumulate surface charges on satellites because spacecraft charging has been the cause of a number of significant anomalies for on-board instrumentation on high altitude spacecraft. These range from limiting the sensitivity of measurements to instrument malfunction depending on the magnitude of the potential difference over the spacecraft surface. Interactive Data Language (IDL) software was developed to process SSJ/4-5 electron and ion data and to create a spectrogram of the particles number and energy fluxes. The purpose of this study is to identify DMSP spacecraft charging events and to present a preliminary statistical analysis. Nomenclature

  14. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL): Mapping the Lunar Interior from Crust to Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Asmar, Sami W.; Watkins, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) is a spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking mission that was developed to map the structure of the lunar interior by producing a detailed map of the gravity field. The resulting model of the interior will be used to address outstanding questions regarding the Moon's thermal evolution, and will be applicable more generally to the evolution of all terrestrial planets. Each GRAIL orbiter contains a Lunar Gravity Ranging System instrument that conducts dual-one-way ranging measurements to measure precisely the relative motion between them, which in turn are used to develop the lunar gravity field map. Each orbiter also carries an Education/Public Outreach payload, Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle-School Students (MoonKAM), in which middle school students target images of the Moon for subsequent classroom analysis. Subsequent to a successful launch on September 10, 2011, the twin GRAIL orbiters embarked on independent trajectories on a 3.5-month-long cruise to the Moon via the EL-1 Lagrange point. The spacecraft were inserted into polar orbits on December 31, 2011 and January 1, 2012. After a succession of 19 maneuvers the two orbiters settled into precision formation to begin science operations in March 1, 2012 with an average altitude of 55 km. The Primary Mission, which consisted of three 27.3-day mapping cycles, was successfully completed in June 2012. The extended mission will permit a second three-month mapping phase at an average altitude of 23 km. This paper provides an overview of the mission: science objectives and measurements, spacecraft and instruments, mission development and design, and data flow and data products.

  15. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-03

    Multi-attribute Trade- Space Exploration The fractionated spacecraft concept is investigated using Multi-attribute Trade- Space Exploration . This method...Spacecraft Payload Bus Subsystems Payload Module Infrastructure Modules To the Fractionated Spacecraft Multi-Attribute Trade- Space Exploration 1...spacecraft (white blocks) and additional hardware (blue blocks). III. CONCEPT ASSESSMENT METHOD 1. Multi-attribute Trade- Space Exploration The

  16. 43 CFR 4100.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 4100.0-1 Section 4100.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Administration-Exclusive of Alaska; General § 4100.0-1 Purpose. The purpose is to provide uniform guidance...

  17. 43 CFR 2650.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2650.0-1 Section 2650.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: Generally § 2650.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is to provide procedures...

  18. 43 CFR 3150.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3150.0-1 Section 3150.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Gas Geophysical Exploration; General § 3150.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to...

  19. 43 CFR 3802.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3802.0-1 Section 3802.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to...

  20. 43 CFR 3190.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3190.0-1 Section 3190.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the part is to provide procedures...

  1. 43 CFR 2361.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2361.0-1 Section 2361.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Protection of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska § 2361.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations...

  2. 43 CFR 3431.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3431.0-1 Section 3431.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3431.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide procedures for the sale of coal that...

  3. 43 CFR 3436.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3436.0-1 Section 3436.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to establish criteria...

  4. 43 CFR 8224.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide procedures for the management and use of the public lands...

  5. 43 CFR 2563.0-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2563.0-2 Section 2563.0-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 2563.0-2 Purpose. (a) Act of March 3, 1927. The purpose of this statute is to enable...

  6. 43 CFR 1865.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1865.0-1 Section 1865.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Correction of Conveyancing Documents § 1865.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to...

  7. 43 CFR 22.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 22.1 Section 22.1 Public Lands... AND INDEMNIFICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EMPLOYEES Administrative Tort Claims § 22.1 Purpose. (a) The purpose of this part is to establish procedures for the filing and settlement of...

  8. 43 CFR 2091.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2091.0-1 Section 2091.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Lands § 2091.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to provide a general restatement of...

  9. 43 CFR 17.200 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 17.200 Section 17.200 Public... OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap § 17.200 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to implement section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and its...

  10. 43 CFR 2920.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2920.0-1 Section 2920.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Easements: General Provisions § 2920.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations in this part is...

  11. 43 CFR 2720.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) CONVEYANCE OF FEDERALLY-OWNED MINERAL INTERESTS Conveyance of Federally-Owned Mineral Interests § 2720.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of these regulations is to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2720.0-1 Section 2720.0-1 Public...

  12. 43 CFR 3140.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3140.0-1 Section 3140.0-1 Public...

  13. 43 CFR 3427.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3427.0-1 Section 3427.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Split Estate Leasing § 3427.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set out the protection that shall be afforded qualified surface...

  14. 43 CFR 1882.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1882.0-1 Section 1882.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Mineral Development Impact Relief Loans § 1882.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to establish procedures to be...

  15. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  16. 43 CFR 6.51 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 6.51 Section 6.51 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.51 Purpose. It is the purpose of the regulations in this subpart to secure for the people of the United States the full benefits of Government research and investigation...

  17. 43 CFR 6.51 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 6.51 Section 6.51 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.51 Purpose. It is the purpose of the regulations in this subpart to secure for the people of the United States the full benefits of Government research and investigation...

  18. Docking mechanism for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Gregory A. (Inventor); Mcmanamen, John P. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A system is presented for docking a space vehicle to a space station where a connecting tunnel for in-flight transfer of personnel is required. Cooperable coupling mechanisms include docking rings on the space vehicle and space station. The space station is provided with a tunnel structure, a retraction mechanism, and a docking ring. The vehicle coupling mechanism is designed to capture the station coupling mechanism, arrest relative spacecraft motions while limiting loads to acceptable levels, and then realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The docking ring of the space vehicle coupling mechanism is supported by linear attentuator actuator devices, each of which is controlled by a control system which receives loading information signals and attenuator stroke information signals from each device and supplies output signals for controlling its linear actuation to attenuate impact loading or to realign the spacecraft for final docking and tunnel interconnection. The retraction mechanism is used to draw the spacecraft together after initial contact and coupling. Tunnel trunnions, cooperative with the latches on the space vehicle constitute the primary structural tie between the spacecraft in final docked configuration.

  19. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  20. Interior of Spacewedge #3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-22

    This photo shows the instrumentation and equipment inside the Spacewedge #3, a remotely-piloted research vehicle flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to help develop technology for autonomous return systems for spacecraft as well as methods to deliver large Army cargo payloads to precise landings.

  1. Planetary deep interiors, geodesy, and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of planets is driven by the composition, structure, and thermal state of their internal core, mantle, lithosphere, crust, and by interactions with possible ocean and atmosphere. This presentation puts in perspective the fundamental understanding of the relationships and interactions between those different planetary reservoirs and their evolution through time. It emphasizes on the deep interior part of terrestrial planets and moons. The core of a planet, when composed of liquid iron alloy, may provide magnetic field and further interaction with the magnetosphere, ingredients believed to be important for the evolution of an atmosphere and of a planet in general. The deep interior is believed to be of high importance for its habitability. Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its variations. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars, and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for Mercury and for some of the Galilean satellites from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as the InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) NASA mission will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution

  2. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  3. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  4. ESA Spacecraft Propulsion Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccoccia, G.

    2004-10-01

    ESA is currently involved in several activities related to spacecraft chemical and electric propulsion, from the basic research and development of conventional and new concepts to the manufacturing, AIV and flight control of the propulsion subsystems of several European satellites. In the commercial application field, the strong competition among satellite manufacturers is a major driver for advancements in the area of propulsion, where increasing better performance together with low prices are required. Furthermore, new scientific and Earth observation missions dictate new challenging requirements for propulsion systems and components based on advanced technologies. For all these reasons, the technology area of spacecraft propulsion is in strong evolution and this paper presents an overview of the current European programmes and initiatives in this technology field. Specific attention is devoted in the paper to the performance and flight experience of spacecraft currently in orbit or ready to be launched.

  5. Shipping InSight Mars Spacecraft to California for Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    Personnel supporting NASA's InSight mission to Mars load the crated InSight spacecraft into a C-17 cargo aircraft at Buckley Air Force Base, Denver, for shipment to Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. The spacecraft, built in Colorado by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, was shipped Dec. 16, 2015, in preparation for launch from Vandenberg in March 2016. InSight, for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is the first mission dedicated to studying the deep interior of Mars. Its findings will advance understanding of the early history of all rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20278

  6. 43 CFR 8224.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...

  7. 43 CFR 8224.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...

  8. 43 CFR 8224.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 8224.0-1 Section 8224.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Fossil Forest Research Natural Area § 8224.0-1...

  9. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-1...

  10. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-1...

  11. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-1...

  12. 43 CFR 1601.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 1601.0-1 Section 1601.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Planning § 1601.0-1...

  13. 43 CFR 11.11 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 11.11 Section 11.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.11... natural resource damages. The results of an assessment performed by a Federal or State natural...

  14. 43 CFR 23.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 23.1 Section 23.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23... respect to the exploration for, and the surface mining of, such minerals, adequate measures be taken to...

  15. 43 CFR 11.11 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 11.11 Section 11.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Introduction § 11.11... natural resource damages. The results of an assessment performed by a Federal or State natural...

  16. Dawn Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-10

    In clean room C of Astrotech's Payload Processing Facility, a worker wearing a "bunny suit," or clean-room attire, looks over the Dawn spacecraft after removing the protective cover, at bottom right. In the clean room, the spacecraft will undergo further processing. Dawn's mission is to explore two of the asteroid belt's most intriguing and dissimilar occupants: asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

  17. Satellite/spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, Mack W.

    1991-01-01

    Propulsion system performance has high leverage for many future missions because of large propellant mass requirements. Relatively small performance improvements can translate into large increases in payload and science return. Contamination control becomes more important as science instruments become more sensitive. This places more emphasis on exhaust plume contamination control. The need for reliable operation and long life places increased importance on health monitoring and control of spacecraft propulsion systems. The need for accurate spacecraft pointing and control increases the need for small impulse-bit thrusters. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  18. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  19. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  20. Interior design for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Unthank, M; True, G

    1999-11-01

    In the increasingly complex, competitive and stressful field of dentistry, effectively designed dental offices can offer significant benefits. Esthetic, functional and life-cycle cost issues to be considered when developing your interior design scheme include color, finishes, lighting, furnishings, art and accessories. An appropriately designed dental office serves as a valuable marketing tool for your practice, as well as a safe and enjoyable work environment. Qualified interior design professionals can help you make design decisions that can yield optimum results within your budget.

  1. Deep Interior: Probing the Structure of Primitive Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik; Scheeres, Daniel; Safaeinili, Ali

    Deep Interior is a mature Discovery-class mission concept focused on probing the geophysical behavior of primitive bodies, from the mechanics of their exterior materials to the structures of their interiors. Its theme is to discover how small bodies work - to learn the natural origin and evolution of asteroids, comets and other primitive bodies through radar reflection tomography and through detailed observations of the local and global effects of cratering. Learning the structure and mechanical response of asteroids and comets is also a precursor to resource utilization and hazardous asteroid mitigation. Overall the mission is aligned with NASA strategic sub-goal 3C, to advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system ... and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space. Deep Interior deploys no complex landers or sub-spacecraft; the scientific instruments are a radar and a camera. A blast cratering experiments triggered by grenades leads to a low cost seismological investigation which complements the radar investigation. A desired addition is an imaging spectrometer. The science instruments are high heritage, as are the navigation techniques for orbiting and station-keeping. The mission conducts the following investigations at one or more asteroids: Radar Reflection Tomography (RRT). The first science phase is to operate a penetrating radar during each several-month rendezvous, deployed in reflection mode in the manner of ongoing radar investigations underway by Mars Express, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Kaguya. The RRT technique (Safaeinili et al., MAPS 2002) is analogous to performing a "CAT scan" from orbit: closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior dielectric properties. Deep Interior utilizes a polar orbit (or station keeping) while the asteroid spins underneath; the result is to "peel the apple" with thousands of unique

  2. Fire extinguishment and inhibition in spacecraft environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deris, John

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that it is essential that NASA develop a comprehensive approach to fire extinguishment and inerting in spacecraft environments. Electronic equipment might be easily protected through use of an onboard inert gas generating system. The use of Halon 1301 presents serious technological challenges for agent cleanup and removal of the toxic and corrosive products of combustion. Nitrogen pressurization, while effective, probably presents a serious weight penality. The use of liquid water sprays appears to be the most effective approach to general purpose spacecraft fire protection.

  3. Spacecraft attitude sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, A. C.; Grant, M. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for sensing the attitude of a spacecraft includes a pair of optical scanners having a relatively narrow field of view rotating about the spacecraft x-y plane. The spacecraft rotates about its z axis at a relatively high angular velocity while one scanner rotates at low velocity, whereby a panoramic sweep of the entire celestial sphere is derived from the scanner. In the alternative, the scanner rotates at a relatively high angular velocity about the x-y plane while the spacecraft rotates at an extremely low rate or at zero angular velocity relative to its z axis to provide a rotating horizon scan. The positions of the scanners about the x-y plane are read out to assist in a determination of attitude. While the satellite is spinning at a relatively high angular velocity, the angular positions of the bodies detected by the scanners are determined relative to the sun by providing a sun detector having a field of view different from the scanners.

  4. Microbial contamination of spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L

    2001-06-01

    Spacecraft and space habitats supporting human exploration contain a diverse population of microorganisms. Microorganisms may threaten human habitation in many ways that directly or indirectly impact the health, safety, or performance of astronauts. The ability to produce and maintain spacecraft and space stations with environments suitable for human habitation has been established over 40 years of human space flight. An extensive database of environmental microbiological parameters has been provided for short-term (< 20 days) space flight by more than 100 missions aboard the Space Shuttle. The NASA Mir Program provided similar data for long-duration missions. Interestingly, the major bacterial and fungal species found in the Space Shuttle are similar to those encountered in the nearly 15-year-old Mir. Lessons learned from both the US and Russian space programs have been incorporated into the habitability plan for the International Space Station. The focus is on preventive measures developed for spacecraft, cargo, and crews. On-orbit regular housekeeping practices complete with visual inspections are essential, along with microbiological monitoring. Risks associated with extended stays on the Moon or a Mars exploration mission will be much greater than previous experiences because of additional unknown variables. The current knowledge base is insufficient for exploration missions, and research is essential to understand the effects of space flight on biological functions and population dynamics of microorganisms in spacecraft. Equally important is a better understanding of the immune response and of human-microorganism-environment interactions during long-term space habitation.

  5. Multifunctional Tanks for Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, David H.; Lewis, Joseph C.; MacNeal, Paul D.

    2006-01-01

    A document discusses multifunctional tanks as means to integrate additional structural and functional efficiencies into designs of spacecraft. Whereas spacecraft tanks are traditionally designed primarily to store fluids and only secondarily to provide other benefits, multifunctional tanks are designed to simultaneously provide multiple primary benefits. In addition to one or more chamber(s) for storage of fluids, a multifunctional tank could provide any or all of the following: a) Passageways for transferring the fluids; b) Part or all of the primary structure of a spacecraft; c) All or part of an enclosure; d) Mechanical interfaces to components, subsystems, and/or systems; e) Paths and surfaces for transferring heat; f)Shielding against space radiation; j) Shielding against electromagnetic interference; h) Electrically conductive paths and surfaces; and i) Shades and baffles to protect against sunlight and/or other undesired light. Many different multifunctional-tank designs are conceivable. The design of a particular tank can be tailored to the requirements for the spacecraft in which the tank is to be installed. For example, the walls of the tank can be flat or curved or have more complicated shapes, and the tank can include an internal structure for strengthening the tank and/or other uses.

  6. Analysis of spacecraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Support was provided for the maintenance and modifications of software for the production and detailed analysis of data from the DE-A spacecraft and new software developed for this end. Software for the analysis of the data from the Spacelab Experimental Particle Accelerator (SEPAC) was also developed.

  7. Cassini Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    At Launch Complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Station, the Mobile Service Tower is being rolled away from the Titan IVB/Centaur launch vehicle carrying the Cassini spacecraft, completing a major countdown milestone. This is the second launch attempt for the Saturn-bound mission. A a first try was scrubbed primarily due to concerns about upper level wind conditions.

  8. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  9. Trends in Interior Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    Examines how an understanding of interior design trends can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)

  10. Interiors That Stand Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "It's what's on the inside that counts"--at least when it comes to "American School & University's" (AS&U's) annual Educational Interiors Showcase competition. Each May, "AS&U" assembles at its Overland Park, Kansas headquarters a jury made up of education and architectural professionals from across the country to pore over an array of exceptional…

  11. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  12. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  13. Preliminary design method for deployable spacecraft beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Cassapakis, Costas

    1995-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in low-cost, lightweight, compactly packageable deployable elements for various future missions involving small spacecraft. These elements must also have a simple and reliable deployment scheme and possess zero or very small free-play. Although most small spacecraft do not experience large disturbances, very low stiffness appendages or free-play can couple with even small disturbances and lead to unacceptably large attitude errors which may involve the introduction of a flexible-body control system. A class of structures referred to as 'rigidized structures' offers significant promise in providing deployable elements that will meet these needs for small spacecraft. The purpose of this paper is to introduce several rigidizable concepts and to develop a design methodology which permits a rational comparison of these elements to be made with alternate concepts.

  14. Building of Requirement: Liberating Academic Interior Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLane, Yelena; Dawkins, Jim

    The authors focus on the strategies employed in the recent renovation of the William Johnston Building at Florida State University, in which the historical exterior was preserved, while the interiors were adapted to new functions as classrooms, study centers, and common spaces with intentionally undefined purposes. The building's various use…

  15. Interior Slopes of Copernican Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Burns, K.; Stelling, R.; Speyerer, E.; Mahanti, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) routinely acquires high resolution (50 to 200 cm pixel scales) stereo pairs from adjacent orbits through spacecraft slews; parallax angles are typically >20°, and the local incidence angle between 40° and 65°. These observations are reduced to digital elevation models (DEM) using a combination of ISIS (USGS) and SOCET Set (BAE Systems). For this study DEMs originally sampled at 2 m scales were reduced (averaging technique) to 5 m scales to provide slopes calculated over 3x3 pixel boxes (15 m x 15 m). The upper 50% of interior walls of Copernican craters (2 to 20 km diameter) typically have average slopes of 36°, with slopes locally above 40° not uncommon (i.e. Fig 1: 2.3 km diam, 17.68°S, 144.41°E). Giordano Bruno (GB; 35.97N°, 102.86°E) is likely the youngest 20-km diameter class crater on the Moon. Its floor is dominated by impact forms (ponds and flows), and inner walls exhibit a series of coalesced flow lobes emanating from steep upper slopes. The lobes appear to be composed of dry granular material based on the observation of boulder trails superposed on many examples. The upper slopes average 36° or more, with some slopes above 40°. For much of GB, slopes exceed 30° all the way to the crater floor (especially in the SE). The high slopes imply angular grains, some level of cohesion, and/or higher angles of repose due to the Moon's relatively low gravity. Larmor Q (28.56°N, 176.33°E), another large Copernican crater, is elliptical in plan (23 x 18 km diameter), with an interior floor dominated by large slump blocks. Like GB its walls exhibit overlapping lobes (granular materials) emanating from interior wall slopes that range from 30° to 36°. Other Copernican craters exhibit similar steep slopes on interior walls: Moore F (23 km diam), Necho (30 km), and two unnamed craters (9 km,13.31°S, 257.55°E; 9 km, 15.72°, 177.39°E). Slopes of the central peaks of Tycho crater (0

  16. Interior structure of the sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, F. W.; Giacobbe, M. J.

    This paper describes a computational method of estimating physical and chemical properties within the solar interior without employing calculations involving opacities. Instead of using opacities to help determine how interior solar temperatures vary with the radial distance between the centre of the sun and its 'surface', an iterative technique employing empirical adiabatic 'cooling' and a fusion energy production rate expression were employed for this purpose. Other iterative calculations were also made (nearly simultaneously) to ensure that all known solar constraint conditions were precisely satisfied (except for the photospheric 'surface' temperature) during this computational process. In addition, all calculations could be performed using a conventional PC employing an Intel Pentium CPU and a computer program coded in ANSI C. Due to the simplifications that were possible using the techniques employed during this study, as well as the advantages associated with using a programming language that produces machine code when compiled, all solar structural details could be generated very rapidly using an ordinary computer. The results of this study were compared with more conventional results obtained by others. This comparison indicated that the methods employed within this paper produced interior intensive solar properties that were in reasonable agreement with similar properties obtained by employing more sophisticated computational approaches. Although it is not claimed that the results generated during this study are any better than more conventionally obtained findings, it is thought that these results, as well as our computational methods, are interesting and potentially useful to others. In particular, it is thought that the techniques outlined in this paper may provide a useful introduction to more complicated techniques of solar modelling.

  17. Spacecraft Images Comet Target's Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Deep Impact spacecraft's High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers (HRI and MRI) have captured multiple jets turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers (5 million miles) away fro...

  18. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  19. NASA Now: EPOXI Flyby Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Close Encounters of the Comet Kind: In this installment of NASA Now, you’ll meet spacecraft pilot and engineer Steven Wissler, who talks about the challenges of flying a spacecraft remotely from ...

  20. Spacecraft Images Comet Target Jets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-04

    NASA Deep Impact spacecraft High- and Medium-Resolution Imagers HRI and MRI captured multiple jets emanating from comet Hartley 2 turning on and off while the spacecraft is 8 million kilometers 5 million miles away from the comet.

  1. Statistical Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qiong; Wang, Ge; Sieren, Jered; Hoffman, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical interior tomography (SIT) approach making use of compressed sensing (CS) theory. With the projection data modeled by the Poisson distribution, an objective function with a total variation (TV) regularization term is formulated in the maximization of a posteriori (MAP) framework to solve the interior problem. An alternating minimization method is used to optimize the objective function with an initial image from the direct inversion of the truncated Hilbert transform. The proposed SIT approach is extensively evaluated with both numerical and real datasets. The results demonstrate that SIT is robust with respect to data noise and down-sampling, and has better resolution and less bias than its deterministic counterpart in the case of low count data. PMID:21233044

  2. Mars Interior Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-20

    Artist rendition of the formation of rocky bodies in the solar system -- how they form and differentiate and evolve into terrestrial planets. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA16078

  3. The lunar interior.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    For materials thought to be important in the lunar interior, compressional velocities are estimated and compared with lunar seismic data. The results obtained support the conclusion that the moon is an extremely well differentiated body. This is consistent with thermal history calculations which suggest that the moon was close to or in excess of melting (solidus) temperatures throughout most of its volume early in its history.

  4. Fine Pointing of Military Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    better spacecraft control . In the early 1990s, researchers introduced nonlinear adaptive control techniques to estimate on- orbit spacecraft inertia...general form, the resulting regression model used in the control signal requires several pages to express for three-dimensional spacecraft rotational...a reference trajectory that addresses system lead/lag when applying the assumed control to a spacecraft with modeling errors, disturbances and

  5. Habitability design for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Habitability is understood to mean those spacecraft design elements that involve a degree of comfort, quality or necessities to support man in space. These elements are environment, architecture, mobility, clothing, housekeeping, food and drink, personal hygiene, off-duty activities, each of which plays a substantial part in the success of a mission. Habitability design for past space flights is discussed relative to the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab spacecraft, with special emphasis on an examination of the Shuttle Orbiter cabin design from a habitability standpoint. Future projects must consider the duration and mission objectives to meet their habitability requirements. Larger ward rooms, improved sleeping quarters and more complete hygiene facilities must be provided for future prolonged space flights

  6. The Mars Micromission Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leschly, Kim; Bousquet, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    The concept of a small common Mars Micromission spacecraft design, using the Ariane-5 GTO piggyback launch opportunities has been studied over the past year by NASA/JPL and CNES. The study is based on the 200 kg ASAP twin configuration, due to its clear performance and cost advantages for planetary missions over the 100-kg ASAP configuration. The spacecraft design commonalty has been explored for the Mars 2003, 2005, and 2007 launch opportunities and for three main mission types: Probe Carrier missions, with one or more probes, measuring 40-80 cm in diameter. Science Orbiter missions, with additional fuel for orbit insertion. and Telecommunication Relay Orbiter missions, with optimal data return link.

  7. Spacecraft Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussy-Virat, Charles

    The rapid increase of the number of objects in orbit around the Earth poses a serious threat to operational spacecraft and astronauts. In order to effectively avoid collisions, mission operators need to assess the risk of collision between the satellite and any other object whose orbit is likely to approach its trajectory. Several algorithms predict the probability of collision but have limitations that impair the accuracy of the prediction. An important limitation is that uncertainties in the atmospheric density are usually not taken into account in the propagation of the covariance matrix from current epoch to closest approach time. The Spacecraft Orbital Characterization Kit (SpOCK) was developed to accurately predict the positions and velocities of spacecraft. The central capability of SpOCK is a high accuracy numerical propagator of spacecraft orbits and computations of ancillary parameters. The numerical integration uses a comprehensive modeling of the dynamics of spacecraft in orbit that includes all the perturbing forces that a spacecraft is subject to in orbit. In particular, the atmospheric density is modeled by thermospheric models to allow for an accurate representation of the atmospheric drag. SpOCK predicts the probability of collision between two orbiting objects taking into account the uncertainties in the atmospheric density. Monte Carlo procedures are used to perturb the initial position and velocity of the primary and secondary spacecraft from their covariance matrices. Developed in C, SpOCK supports parallelism to quickly assess the risk of collision so it can be used operationally in real time. The upper atmosphere of the Earth is strongly driven by the solar activity. In particular, abrupt transitions from slow to fast solar wind cause important disturbances of the atmospheric density, hence of the drag acceleration that spacecraft are subject to. The Probability Distribution Function (PDF) model was developed to predict the solar wind speed

  8. LEO Spacecraft Charging Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. B.; Ferguson, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) spacecraft have gradually required ever-increasing power levels. As a rule, this has been accomplished through the use of high voltage systems. Recent failures and anomalies on such spacecraft have been traced to various design practices and materials choices related to the high voltage solar arrays. NASA Glenn has studied these anomalies including plasma chamber testing on arrays similar to those that experienced difficulties on orbit. Many others in the community have been involved in a comprehensive effort to understand the problems and to develop practices to avoid them. The NASA Space Environments and Effects program, recognizing the timeliness of this effort, has commissioned and funded a design guidelines document intended to capture the current state of understanding. We present here an overview of this document, which is now nearing completion.

  9. Very Small Interstellar Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Mason A.

    2007-02-01

    This paper considers lower limits of length scale in spacecraft: interstellar vehicles consisting of little more material than found in a typical integrated-circuit chip. Some fundamental scaling principles are introduced to show how the dynamics of the very small can be used to realize interstellar travel with minimal advancements in technology. Our recent study for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts provides an example: the use of the Lorentz force that acts on electrically charged spacecraft traveling through planetary and stellar magnetospheres. Schaffer and Burns, among others, have used Cassini and Voyager imagery to show that this interaction is responsible for some of the resonances in the orbital dynamics of dust in Jupiter's and Saturn's rings. The Lorentz force turns out to vary in inverse proportion to the square of this characteristic length scale, making it a more effective means of propelling tiny spacecraft than solar sailing. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. We might envision a large number of such satellites with intermittent, bursty communications set up as a one-dimensional network to relay signals across great distances using only the power likely from such small spacecraft. Conveying imagery in this fashion may require a long time because of limited power, but the prospect of imaging another star system close-up ought to be worth the wait.

  10. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  11. Spacecraft transmitter reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A workshop on spacecraft transmitter reliability was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center on September 25 and 26, 1979, to discuss present knowledge and to plan future research areas. Since formal papers were not submitted, this synopsis was derived from audio tapes of the workshop. The following subjects were covered: users' experience with space transmitters; cathodes; power supplies and interfaces; and specifications and quality assurance. A panel discussion ended the workshop.

  12. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  13. Dawn Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-10

    In Astrotech's Payload Processing Facility, technicians help secure the Dawn spacecraft onto a moveable stand. Dawn will be moved into clean room C for unbagging and further processing. Dawn's mission is to explore two of the asteroid belt's most intriguing and dissimilar occupants: asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

  14. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  15. Autonomous spacecraft design methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Divita, E.L.; Turner, P.R.

    1984-08-01

    A methodology for autonomous spacecraft design blends autonomy requirements with traditional mission requirements and assesses the impact of autonomy upon the total system resources available to support faulttolerance and automation. A baseline functional design can be examined for autonomy implementation impacts, and the costs, risk, and benefits of various options can be assessed. The result of the process is a baseline design that includes autonomous control functions.

  16. Effects of arcing due to spacecraft charging on spacecraft survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, A.; Sanders, N. L.; Ellen, J. M., Jr.; Inouye, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the hazard associated with spacecraft charging and arcing on spacecraft systems is presented. A literature survey on arc discharge thresholds and characteristics was done and gaps in the data and requirements for additional experiments were identified. Calculations of coupling of arc discharges into typical spacecraft systems were made and the susceptibility of typical spacecraft to disruption by arc discharges was investigated. Design guidelines and recommended practices to reduce or eliminate the threat of malfunction and failures due to spacecraft charging/arcing were summarized.

  17. 43 CFR 8223.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....

  18. 43 CFR 8223.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....

  19. 43 CFR 8223.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.0-1 Purpose. The purpose... natural characteristics that are unusual or that are of scientific or other special interest....

  20. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  1. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  2. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  3. 43 CFR 2520.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries: General § 2520.0-1 Purpose. (a) It is the purpose of the statutes governing desert-land entries to encourage...

  4. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  5. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  6. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  7. 43 CFR 9212.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) FIRE MANAGEMENT Wildfire Prevention § 9212.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to set forth procedures to prevent wildfires on the public lands....

  8. Coordination challenges for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, B. J.; Barrett, A.

    2002-01-01

    While past flight projects involved a single spacecraft in isolation, over forty proposed future missions involve multiple coordinated spacecraft. This paper presents characteristics of such missions in terms of properties of the phenomena being measured as well as the rationale for using multiple spacecraft. We describe the coordination problems associated with operating these missions and identify needed technologies.

  9. SPASIM: A Spacecraft Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liceaga, Carlos A.

    1997-01-01

    The SPAcecraft SIMulator (SPASIM) simulates the functions and resources of a spacecraft to quickly perform conceptual design (Phase A) trade-off and sensitivity analyses and uncover any operational bottlenecks during any part of the mission. Failure modes and operational contingencies can be evaluated allowing operational planning (what-if scenarios) and optimization for a range of mission scenarios. The payloads and subsystems are simulated, using a hierarchy of graphical models, in terms of how their functions affect resources such as propellant, power, and data. Any of the inputs and outputs of the payloads and subsystems can be plotted during the simulation or stored in a file so they can be used by other programs. Most trade-off analyses, including those that compare current versus advanced technology, can be performed by changing values in the parameter menus. However, when a component is replaced by one with a different functional architecture, its graphical model can also be modified or replaced by drawing from a component library. SPASIM has been validated using several spacecraft designs that were at least at the Critical Design Review level. The user and programmer guide, including figures, is available on line as a hypertext document. This is an easy-to-use and expandable tool which is based on MATLAB(R) and SIMULINK(R). It runs on Silicon Graphics Inc. workstations and personal computers with Windows 95(TM) or NT(TM).

  10. The MESSENGER Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, James C.; Conde, Richard F.; Dakermanji, George; Engelbrecht, Carl S.; Ercol, Carl J.; Fielhauer, Karl B.; Grant, David G.; Hartka, Theodore J.; Hill, Tracy A.; Jaskulek, Stephen E.; Mirantes, Mary A.; Mosher, Larry E.; Paul, Michael V.; Persons, David F.; Rodberg, Elliot H.; Srinivasan, Dipak K.; Vaughan, Robin M.; Wiley, Samuel R.

    2007-08-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft was designed and constructed to withstand the harsh environments associated with achieving and operating in Mercury orbit. The system can be divided into eight subsystems: structures and mechanisms (e.g., the composite core structure, aluminum launch vehicle adapter, and deployables), propulsion (e.g., the state-of-the-art titanium fuel tanks, thruster modules, and associated plumbing), thermal (e.g., the ceramic-cloth sunshade, heaters, and radiators), power (e.g., solar arrays, battery, and controlling electronics), avionics (e.g., the processors, solid-state recorder, and data handling electronics), software (e.g., processor-supported code that performs commanding, data handling, and spacecraft control), guidance and control (e.g., attitude sensors including star cameras and Sun sensors integrated with controllers including reaction wheels), radio frequency telecommunications (e.g., the spacecraft antenna suites and supporting electronics), and payload (e.g., the science instruments and supporting processors). This system architecture went through an extensive (nearly four-year) development and testing effort that provided the team with confidence that all mission goals will be achieved.

  11. Gaia Spacecraft Mechanical Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebranchu, C.; Blender, F.; Touzeau, S.; Escolar, D.

    2012-07-01

    Gaia is the European Space Agency's cornerstone mission for global space astrometry. Its goal is to make the largest, most precise three-dimensional map of our Galaxy by surveying an unprecedented number of stars. This paper gives an overview of the mechanical system engineering and verification of the spacecraft. This development includes several technical challenges. First of all, the very high stability performance as required for the mission is a key driver for the design; which incurs a high degree of stability. This is achieved through decoupling between payload and service module, and the use of high-performance engineering tools and of Silicon Carbide (Boostec® SiC) for the Payload. Compliance of spacecraft mass and volume with launcher capability is another key challenge, as well as the development of the 10.3 meter diameter deployable sunshield. The spacecraft mechanical verification follows an innovative approach, with direct testing on the flight model, without dedicated structural model. Gaia mechanical development is the fruit of a successful international cooperation.

  12. Midinfrared optimized resolution spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Lilienthal, Gerald W.; Terebey, Susan; Kadogawa, Hiroshi; Hawarden, Timothy G.; Rourke, Kenneth

    1996-10-01

    A concept study was performed in 1994 to develop a mission design for a telescope to achieve the highest possible spatial resolution in the 10 - 30 micron range within a $DOL200 million mission cost cap. The selected approach for the resulting Mid-InfraRed Optimized Resolution Spacecraft (MIRORS) concept design utilizes a partially filled five meter aperture. A simple deployment scheme permits this spacecraft to be fit within the volume envelope and mass capabilities of a Med-Lite launch vehicle. Low bandwidth cryogenic actuators, which dissipate no heat once set, will align the optics after on-orbit thermal stability is achieved. Image stabilization, fine point and stray-light control are achieved through use of a novel actuated Offner relay. Image reconstruction techniques developed for IRAS will be used to deconvolve nearly diffraction-limited images at 10 microns (FWHM approximately 0.5 arcsec). A Lissajous orbit about the L(subscript 2) sun-earth libration point (sun-earth- L(subscript 2) on a straight line) is adopted because its extremely stable thermal environment results in correspondingly high telescope mechanical stability and optical performance. This orbit, combined with a spacecraft configuration which incorporates an inflatable sunshield and a deployable four- stage v-groove thermal shield, enables the optics to radiatively cool <25 K. The large format focal plane will be actively cooled to <8 K by a vibration-free, long-life sorption refrigerator.

  13. 43 CFR 3802.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINING CLAIMS UNDER THE GENERAL MINING LAWS Exploration and Mining, Wilderness Review Program § 3802.0-1 Purpose. The purpose of this subpart is to...

  14. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 401.1 Section 401.1 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose... the Interior to promote a national program of water-resources research. ...

  15. 30 CFR 401.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 401.1 Section 401.1 Mineral Resources GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR STATE WATER RESEARCH INSTITUTE PROGRAM General § 401.1 Purpose... the Interior to promote a national program of water-resources research. ...

  16. 43 CFR 6301.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 6301.1 Section 6301.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Introduction § 6301.1 Purpose. This part governs the management of BLM wilderness areas outside of Alaska....

  17. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3105.2-2 Purpose. When a lease or a portion thereof cannot be independently developed and operated...

  18. 43 CFR 2710.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2710.0-1 Section 2710.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...: General Provisions § 2710.0-1 Purpose. The regulations in this part implement the sale authority...

  19. 43 CFR 9260.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 9260.0-1 Section 9260.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT...-1 Purpose. This part establishes a single regulatory section in title 43 where the law...

  20. 43 CFR 3130.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3130.0-1 Section 3130.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Oil and Gas Leasing, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska: General § 3130.0-1 Purpose. These...

  1. 43 CFR 3105.5-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.5-2 Section 3105.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3105.5-2 Purpose. In order to avoid waste and to promote conservation of natural resources,...

  2. 43 CFR 3105.3-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.3-2 Section 3105.3-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3105.3-2 Purpose. Approval of operating, drilling or development contracts ordinarily shall be...

  3. 43 CFR 3142.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3142.0-1 Section 3142.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT.../Diligent Development for Combined Hydrocarbon Leases § 3142.0-1 Purpose. This subpart provides...

  4. 43 CFR 2640.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2640.0-1 Section 2640.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... of September 3, 1982 § 2640.0-1 Purpose. This subpart sets forth procedures for the issuance...

  5. 43 CFR 3823.0-3 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) AREAS SUBJECT TO SPECIAL MINING LAWS Prospecting, Mineral Locations, and Mineral Patents Within National Forest Wilderness § 3823.0-3 Purpose. This subpart sets forth... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3823.0-3 Section 3823.0-3 Public...

  6. 43 CFR 3425.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3425.0-1 Section 3425.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Leasing on Application § 3425.0-1 Purpose. ...

  7. 43 CFR 3410.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3410.0-1 Section 3410.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) EXPLORATION LICENSES Exploration Licenses § 3410.0-1 Purpose. This subpart provides for the issuance of licenses to explore for coal deposits subject to...

  8. 43 CFR 3465.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3465.0-1 Section 3465.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection § 3465.0-1 Purpose. This subpart establishes rules for the management and protection of the surface of leased Federal...

  9. 43 CFR 3430.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3430.0-1 Section 3430.0-1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) NONCOMPETITIVE LEASES Preference Right Leases § 3430.0-1 Purpose. These regulations set forth procedures for processing noncompetitive (preference right) coal...

  10. 43 CFR 3601.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3601.1 Section 3601.1 Public... OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Disposal; General Provisions Fundamental Provisions § 3601.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part establish...

  11. 43 CFR 431.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 431.1 Section 431.1 Public Lands... REGULATIONS FOR POWER GENERATION, OPERATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPLACEMENT AT THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.1 Purpose. (a) The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the...

  12. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands for...

  13. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands for...

  14. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  15. 43 CFR 8.2 - Additional lands for correlative purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional lands for correlative purposes. 8.2 Section 8.2 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior JOINT POLICIES OF THE DEPARTMENTS OF THE INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.2 Additional lands...

  16. INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF AIRLOCK FROM INTERIOR OF ALTITUDE CHAMBER R, FACING NORTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Credit BG. Interior view of Building 4318, displaying interior structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. Interior view of Building 4318, displaying interior structure and finish at northeast end of building - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Warehouse, Second & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  19. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  20. Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  1. 49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of the Gilley Room on the second floor of the powerhouse and ear barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Solar array/spacecraft biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Biasing techniques and their application to the control of spacecraft potential is discussed. Normally when a spacecraft is operated with ion thrusters, the spacecraft will be 10-20 volts negative of the surrounding plasma. This will affect scientific measurements and will allow ions from the charge-exchange plasma to bombard the spacecraft surfaces with a few tens of volts of energy. This condition may not be tolerable. A proper bias system is described that can bring the spacecraft to or near the potential of the surrounding plasma.

  3. Solar array/spacecraft biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Biasing techniques and their application to the control of spacecraft potential is discussed. Normally when a spacecraft is operated with ion thrusters, the spacecraft will be 10-20 volts negative of the surrounding plasma. This will affect scientific measurements and will allow ions from the charge-exchange plasma to bombard the spacecraft surfaces with a few tens of volts of energy. This condition may not be tolerable. A proper bias system is described that can bring the spacecraft to or near the potential of the surrounding plasma.

  4. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Ritter, Bob; Reed, Benjamin; Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-­-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-­- orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce lifecycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  5. Spacecraft Modularity for Serviceable Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Rossetti, Dino; Keer, Beth; Panek, John; Cepollina, Frank; Ritter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft modularity has been a topic of interest at NASA since the 1970s, when the Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Since then, modular concepts have been employed for a variety of spacecraft and, as in the case of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the International Space Station (ISS), have been critical to the success of on-orbit servicing. Modularity is even more important for future robotic servicing. Robotic satellite servicing technologies under development by NASA can extend mission life and reduce life-cycle cost and risk. These are optimized when the target spacecraft is designed for servicing, including advanced modularity. This paper will explore how spacecraft design, as demonstrated by the Reconfigurable Operational spacecraft for Science and Exploration (ROSE) spacecraft architecture, and servicing technologies can be developed in parallel to fully take advantage of the promise of both.

  6. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  7. Schematic of Mars Interior

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-10-14

    The interior of Mars is simply modeled as a core and mantle with a thin crust, similar to Earth. Mars' size and total mass have been determined by previous missions. Given four parameters, the core size and mass, and mantle size and mass can be determined. The combination of Pathfinder Doppler data with earlier data from the Viking landers has determined a third parameter, the moment of inertia, through measurement of Mars' precession rate. A fourth measurement is needed to complete the interior model. This may be achieved through future Doppler tracking of Pathfinder, since the presence of a fluid core may be detectable through its effect on Mars' nutation. The determination of the moment of inertia is a significant constraint on possible models for Mars' interior. If the core is as dense as possible (i.e. completely iron) and the mantle is similar to Earth's (or similar to the SNC meteorites thought to originate on Mars) then the minimum core radius is about 1300 km. If the core is made of less-dense material (i.e. a mixture of iron and sulfur) then the core radius is probably no more than 2000 km. Sojourner spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997. Although mission managers tried to restore full communications during the following five months, the successful mission was terminated on March 10, 1998. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00974

  8. Turboprop interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    The modal theory of acoustoelasticity is applied to the determination of the sound levels caused by a prescribed external sound excitation which is transmitted through a cylindrical shell. A circumferential traveling pressure wave excitation is studied as representative of a propeller sound field. It is shown how other excitations such as point mechanical loading, plane wave and reverberation random may be synthesized by superposition of circumferential waves. Representative numerical results illustrate the importance of structural and acoustic frequency matching in the determination of interior sound levels and clarify the role of the cylindrical shell ring frequency. An exploratory study of a double wall geometry is conducted.

  9. Interior of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1992-01-01

    General principles of Titan formation and evolution are addressed. Attention is focused on the volatile reservoir (defined as all constituents more volatile than water) of Titan's interior. Volatile poor models, in which Titan is like Granymede or Callisto with a thin (observed) volatile veneer are discussed and discarded. Volatile rich models in which the present Titan consists of a methane clathrate shell overlying a deep water ammonia ocean and solid ammonia hydrate are discussed. Titan has a central core of rock which is about one half of the total mass, and a superficial hydrocarbon 'ocean' stored in subsurface caverns and pore space.

  10. 11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway toward the front and east window. Note: This photograph shows that the building had been converted to a residence following its use as a school. In addition, the hazardous condition of the structure's interior is evident. Two ceilings which are visible in the photograph, (the upper, probably original plastered ceiling, and a secondary, adapted ceiling) as well as ceiling joists in the southernmost rooms have collapsed. Because of the dangerous condition of the interior of the building, additional interior photography was not attempted at this time. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  11. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, C. P. (Editor); Lovell, R. R. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Over 50 papers from the spacecraft charging conference are included on subjects such as: (1) geosynchronous plasma environment, (2) spacecraft modeling, (3) spacecraft materials characterization, (4) spacecraft materials development, and (5) satellite design and test.

  12. Spacecraft Charging Standard Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-30

    which attenuates external electromagnetic energy to specified levels in the interior. 30.1.8 Flash-Over Discharge. A discharge characterized by a current...disturbances in the dipole field and increased plasma energies and current densities. 30.1.10 Magnetospheric Plasma. The space plasma environment constituent...An effect whereby radiation of sufficiently short wavelength impinging on substances causes electrons to be emitted with an energy that varies with

  13. Evaluation program for secondary spacecraft cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The life cycle test of secondary spacecraft electric cells is discussed. The purpose of the tests is to insure that all cells put into the life cycle test meet the required specifications. The evaluation program gathers statistical information concerning cell performance characteristics and limitations. Weaknesses in cell design which are discovered during the tests are reported to research facilities in order to increase the service life of the cells.

  14. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  15. Furlable spacecraft antenna development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.; Wilson, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    The development of large furlable spacecraft antennas using conical main reflectors is described. Two basic antenna configurations which utilize conical main reflectors have been conceived and are under development. In the conical-Gregorian configuration each ray experiences two reflections in traveling from the feed center to the aperture plane. In the Quadreflex (four reflection) configuration, each ray experiences four reflections, one at each of two subreflector surfaces and two at the main conical reflector surface. The RF gain measurements obtained from 6-ft and 30-in. models of the conical-Gregorian and Quadreflex concepts respectively were sufficiently encouraging to warrant further development of the concepts.

  16. Xenia Spacecraft Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Randy

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed design for the Xenia mission spacecraft. The goal of this study is to perform a mission concept study for the mission. Included in this study are: the overall ground rules and assumptions (GR&A), a mission analysis, the configuration, the mass properties, the guidance, Navigation and control, the proposed avionics, the power system, the thermal protection system, the propulsion system, and the proposed structures. Conclusions from the study indicate that the observatory fits within the Falcon 9 mass and volume envelope for launching from Omelek, the pointing, slow slewing, and fast slewing requirements and the thermal requirements are met.

  17. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  18. Plasma Interactions with Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-16

    Ultraviolet Limb Imager on DMSP, IEEE Trans Plasma Science, 34, No. 5, p 2062, 2006. V.A. Davis , M.J. Mandell, D.L. Cooke, D.C. Ferguson , Nascap...AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2007-1062 Plasma Interactions with Spacecraft V.A. Davis M.J. Mandell S.L. Huston R.A. Kuharski B.M. Gardner...using MSM output generated using three different MSM input parameter sets. The results were included in the presentation prepared by Dr. Hilmer of

  19. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042668 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  20. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042674 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  1. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042675 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  2. Progress 54 Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-05

    ISS038-E-042680 (5 Feb. 2014) --- An unpiloted ISS Progress resupply vehicle approaches the International Space Station, carrying 2.8 tons of food, fuel and supplies for the Expedition 38 crew members. The Progress 54 spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 11:23 a.m. (10:23 p.m. Baikonur time) and completed its four-orbit trek at 5:22 p.m. (EST) when it docked automatically to the station's Pirs docking compartment.

  3. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  4. Spacecraft ceramic protective shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larriva, Rene F. (Inventor); Nelson, Anne (M.); Czechanski, James G. (Inventor); Poff, Ray E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A low areal density protective shield apparatus, and method for making same, for protecting spacecraft structures from impact with hypervelocity objects, including a bumper member comprising a bumper ceramic layer, a bumper shock attenuator layer, and a bumper confining layer. The bumper ceramic layer can be SiC or B.sub.4 C; the bumper shock attenuator layer can be zirconia felt; and the bumper confining layer can be aluminum. A base armor member can be spaced from the bumper member and a ceramic fiber-based curtain can be positioned between the bumper and base armor members.

  5. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  6. 43 CFR 34.1 - Statement of purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.1 Statement of purpose. The...

  7. Cluster Inter-Spacecraft Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document describes a radio communication system being developed for exchanging data and sharing data-processing capabilities among spacecraft flying in formation. The system would establish a high-speed, low-latency, deterministic loop communication path connecting all the spacecraft in a cluster. The system would be a wireless version of a ring bus that complies with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus enhancement to the IEEE standard developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Every spacecraft in the cluster would be equipped with a ring-bus radio transceiver. The identity of a spacecraft would be established upon connection into the ring bus, and the spacecraft could be at any location in the ring communication sequence. In the event of failure of a spacecraft, the ring bus would reconfigure itself, bypassing a failed spacecraft. Similarly, the ring bus would reconfigure itself to accommodate a spacecraft newly added to the cluster or newly enabled or re-enabled. Thus, the ring bus would be scalable and robust. Reliability could be increased by launching, into the cluster, spare spacecraft to be activated in the event of failure of other spacecraft.

  8. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT), were developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters were flown in space, though only PPT's were used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPT's is quite poor, providing only approximately 8 percent efficiency at approximately 1000 s specific impulse. However, laboratory PPT's yielding 34 percent efficiency at 2000 s specific impulse were extensively tested, and peak performance levels of 53 percent efficiency at 5170 s specific impulse were demonstrated. MPD thrusters were flown as experiments on the Japanese MS-T4 spacecraft and the Space Shuttle and were qualified for a flight in 1994. The flight MPD thrusters were pulsed, with a peak performance of 22 percent efficiency at 2500 s specific impulse using ammonia propellant. Laboratory MPD thrusters were demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 700 s specific impulse using lithium propellant. While the PIT thruster has never been flown, recent performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 to 8000 s. The fundamental operating principles, performance measurements, and system level design for the three types of electromagnetic thrusters are reviewed, and available data on flight tests are discussed for the PPT and MPD thrusters.

  9. NASA's spacecraft data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan; Flanegan, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), a space flight data system developed to support the Small Explorer (SMEX) project, is addressed. The system was flown on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) SMEX mission, and with reconfiguration for different requirements will fly on the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). SEDS is also foreseen for the Hubble repair mission. Its name was changed to Spacecraft Data System (SDS) in view of expansions. Objectives, SDS hardware, and software are described. Each SDS box contains two computers, data storage memory, uplink (command) reception circuitry, downlink (telemetry) encoding circuitry, Instrument Telemetry Controller (ITC), and spacecraft timing circuitry. The SDS communicates with other subsystems over the MIL-STD-1773 data bus. The SDS software uses a real time Operating System (OS) and the C language. The OS layer, communications and scheduling layer, application task layer, and diagnostic software, are described. Decisions on the use of advanced technologies, such as ASIC's (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) and fiber optics, led to technical improvements, such as lower power and weight, without increasing the risk associated with the data system. The result was a successful SAMPEX development, integration and test, and mission using SEDS, and the upgrading of that system to SDS for TRMM and XTE.

  10. Spacecraft Solar Sails Containing Electrodynamic Tethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; Matloff, Greg

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses a proposal to use large, lightweight solar sails embedded with electrodynamic tethers (essentially, networks of wires) to (1) propel robotic spacecraft to distant planets, then (2) exploit the planetary magnetic fields to capture the spacecraft into orbits around the planets. The purpose of the proposal is, of course, to make it possible to undertake long interplanetary missions without incurring the large cost and weight penalties of conventional rocket-type propulsion systems. Through transfer of momentum from reflected solar photons, a sail would generate thrust outward from the Sun. Upon arrival in the vicinity of a planet, the electrodynamic tethers would be put to use: Motion of the spacecraft across the planetary magnetic field would induce electric currents in the tether wires, giving rise to an electromagnetic drag force that would be exploited to brake the spacecraft for capture into orbit. The sail with embedded tethers would be made to spin to provide stability during capture. Depending upon the requirements of a particular application, it could be necessary to extend the tether to a diameter greater than that of the sail.

  11. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detwiler, R. C.; Smith, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The Galileo PMAD (power management and distribution system) is described, and the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware are discussed. The spacecraft is powered by two general-purpose heat-source-radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Power bus regulation is provided by a shunt regulator. Galileo PMAD distributes a 570-W beginning of mission (BOM) power source to a user complement of some 137 load elements. Extensive use of pyrotechnics requires two pyro switching subassemblies. They initiate 148 squibs which operate the 47 pyro devices on the spacecraft. Detection and correction of faults in the Galileo PMAD is an autonomous feature dictated by requirements for long life and reliability in the absence of ground-based support. Volatile computer memories in the spacecraft command and data system and attitude control system require a continuous source of backup power during all anticipated power bus fault scenarios. Power for the Jupiter Probe is conditioned, isolated, and controlled by a Probe interface subassembly. Flight performance of the spacecraft and the PMAD has been successful to date, with no major anomalies.

  12. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  13. Interior prospect and refuge.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Arthur E

    2006-12-01

    Prospect and refuge theory has usually been applied to landscapes but recent work suggests that it could also be applied to interiors. This article reports two experiments, covering 14 environments and 97 respondents, in which five hypotheses regarding prospect, refuge, and comfort were tested: H1: the transition from small, dark, and low to large, light, and high and vice-versa; H2: the transition from dark to light vs vice-versa; H3: the transition from low to high vs vice-versa; H4: the transition from small to big horizontally vs vice-versa; and H5: width. Results varied. The effect of width on comfort was substantial (r = .35); effects for the other hypotheses were either subtle or contrary to expectations.

  14. Designing a micro-spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft design could move toward less complex probes which would cost less then previous highly instrumented missions. The goal then becomes to fly more frequent missions and use commercial, proven hardware to ameliorate development costs. A commonality would be kept in place from spacecraft to spacecraft, with upgrades being introduced only to meet specific objectives or take advantage of advances in commercial hardware. Mission costs are in large part determined by spacecraft mass, so instrumentation must be miniaturized, i.e., the concept of a micro-satellite. A design study for the Cosimi project, which would feature placing a spacecraft on the far side of the solar corona to broadcast radio signals to earth, demonstrates the feasibility of a 20 cm diam rocket and integrated instruments for performing low-cost solar physics experiments. It is concluded, however, that current program start-ups will continue to maximize the mass and instrumentation of spacecraft.

  15. NEAR spacecraft flight system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft was built and launched in 29 months. After a 4-year cruise phase the spacecraft was in orbit about the asteroid Eros for 1 year, which enabled the science payload to return unprecedented scientific data. A summary of spacecraft in-flight-performance, including a discussion of the December 1998 aborted orbit insertion burn, is provided. Several minor hardware failures that occurred during the last few years of operations are described. Lessons learned during the cruise phase led to new features being incorporated into several in-flight software uploads. The added innovative features included the capability for the spacecraft to autonomously choose a spacecraft attitude that simultaneously kept the medium-gain antennas pointed at Earth while using solar pressure to control system momentum and a capability to combine a propulsive momentum dump with a trajectory correction maneuver. The spacecraft proved flexible, reliable, and resilient over the 5-year mission.

  16. Installing the InSight Spacecraft Parachute Cone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-27

    In this photo, spacecraft specialists at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, are reaching up to guide lowering of the parachute cone for installation onto NASA's InSight spacecraft. The photo was taken on April 29, 2015. InSight's parachute, stowed inside the cone, will provide deceleration in the Martian atmosphere. Its role will come after atmospheric friction with the spacecraft's heat shield provides initial deceleration and before thrusters on the lander provide final deceleration. InSight, for Interior Exploration Using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is scheduled for launch in March 2016 and landing in September 2016. It will study the deep interior of Mars to advance understanding of the early history of all rocky planets, including Earth. Note: After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. The decision follows unsuccessful attempts to repair a leak in a section of the prime instrument in the science payload. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19669

  17. 10. The surface and interior of venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masursky, H.; Kaula, W.M.; McGill, G.E.; Pettengill, G.H.; Phillips, R.J.; Russell, C.T.; Schubert, G.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1977-01-01

    Present ideas about the surface and interior of Venus are based on data obtained from (1) Earth-based radio and radar: temperature, rotation, shape, and topography; (2) fly-by and orbiting spacecraft: gravity and magnetic fields; and (3) landers: winds, local structure, gamma radiation. Surface features, including large basins, crater-like depressions, and a linear valley, have been recognized from recent ground-based radar images. Pictures of the surface acquired by the USSR's Venera 9 and 10 show abundant boulders and apparent wind erosion. On the Pioneer Venus 1978 Orbiter mission, the radar mapper experiment will determine surface heights, dielectric constant values and small-scale slope values along the sub-orbital track between 50??S and 75??N. This experiment will also estimate the global shape and provide coarse radar images (40-80 km identification resolution) of part of the surface. Gravity data will be obtained by radio tracking. Maps combining radar altimetry with spacecraft and ground-based images will be made. A fluxgate magnetometer will measure the magnetic fields around Venus. The radar and gravity data will provide clues to the level of crustal differentiation and tectonic activity. The magnetometer will determine the field variations accurately. Data from the combined experiments may constrain the dynamo mechanism; if so, a deeper understanding of both Venus and Earth will be gained. ?? 1977 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  18. The software TRASSA for the analysis of spacecraft thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, R. V.; Kislov, A. M.; Romanenko, V. G.; Fenchenko, V. N.

    The software package TRASSA for the computer simulation and calculation of the thermal mode of a spacecraft in orbital flight conditions is described. The purpose of the simulating programs is considered. The techniques for the construction of the spacecraft geometrical model, calculation of its orientation in the orbit and modelling of radiating heat exchange in it are covered. The thermal scheme of a spacecraft is represented by an oriented graph and the mathematical model of heat exchange is given concerning this graph as a hybrid one including models of the concentrated and distributive parameters. We present the computation of the thermal mode of a satellite oriented to the Sun.

  19. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  20. Spacecraft telecommunications system mass estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, J. H.; Sakamoto, L. L.

    1988-01-01

    Mass is the most important limiting parameter for present-day planetary spacecraft design, In fact, the entire design can be characterized by mass. The more efficient the design of the spacecraft, the less mass will be required. The communications system is an essential and integral part of planetary spacecraft. A study is presented of the mass attributable to the communications system for spacecraft designs used in recent missions in an attempt to help guide future design considerations and research and development efforts. The basic approach is to examine the spacecraft by subsystem and allocate a portion of each subsystem to telecommunications. Conceptually, this is to divide the spacecraft into two parts, telecommunications and nontelecommunications. In this way, it is clear what the mass attributable to the communications system is. The percentage of mass is calculated using the actual masses of the spacecraft parts, except in the case of CRAF. In that case, estimated masses are used since the spacecraft was not yet built. The results show that the portion of the spacecraft attributable to telecommunications is substantial. The mass fraction for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF (Mariner Mark 2) is 34, 19, and 18 percent, respectively. The large reduction of telecommunications mass from Voyager to Galileo is mainly due to the use of a deployable antenna instead of the solid antenna on Voyager.

  1. 43 CFR 423.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 423.1 Section 423.1 Public Lands... CONDUCT ON BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FACILITIES, LANDS, AND WATERBODIES Purpose, Definitions, and Applicability § 423.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to maintain law and order and protect persons and...

  2. Spacecraft stability and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1992-01-01

    The Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, slowly tumbled in orbit. The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, also tumbled out of control. Today, satellite stability and control has become a higher priority. For a satellite design that is to have a life expectancy of 14 years, appropriate spacecraft flight control systems will be reviewed, stability requirements investigated, and an appropriate flight control system recommended in order to see the design process. Disturbance torques, including aerodynamic, magnetic, gravity gradient, solar, micrometeorite, debris, collision, and internal torques, will be assessed to quantify the disturbance environment so that the required compensating torques can be determined. The control torques, including passive versus active, momentum control, bias momentum, spin stabilization, dual spin, gravity gradient, magnetic, reaction wheels, control moment gyros, inertia augmentation techniques, three-axis control, and reaction control systems (RCSs), will be considered. Conditions for stability will also be considered.

  3. Spacecraft Attitude Representations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    The direction cosine matrix or attitude matrix is the most fundamental representation of the attitude, but it is very inefficient: It has six redundant parameters, it is difficult to enforce the six (orthogonality) constraints. the four-component quaternion representation is very convenient: it has only one redundant parameter, it is easy to enforce the normalization constraint, the attitude matrix is a homogeneous quadratic function of q, quaternion kinematics are bilinear in q and m. Euler angles are extensively used: they often have a physical interpretation, they provide a natural description of some spacecraft motions (COBE, MAP), but kinematics and attitude matrix involve trigonometric functions, "gimbal lock" for certain values of the angles. Other minimum (three-parameter) representations: Gibbs vector is infinite for 180 deg rotations, but useful for analysis, Modified Rodrigues Parameters are nonsingular, no trig functions, Rotation vector phi is nonsingular, but requires trig functions.

  4. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  5. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    A technician prepares to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  6. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians prepare to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  7. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Most of the protective covering has been removed from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, inside Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  8. SMAP Spacecraft Offload

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive, or SMAP, spacecraft is delivered by truck from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, to the Astrotech payload processing facility on Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. SMAP will launch on a Delta II 7320 configuration vehicle featuring a United Launch Alliance first stage booster powered by an Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-27A main engine and three Alliant Techsystems, or ATK, strap-on solid rocket motors. Once on station in Earth orbit, SMAP will provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state. These measurements will be used to enhance understanding of processes that link the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to extend the capabilities of weather and climate prediction models. SMAP data also will be used to quantify net carbon flux in boreal landscapes and to develop improved flood prediction and drought monitoring capabilities. Launch from Space Launch Complex 2 is targeted for Jan. 29, 2015.

  9. Electromagnetic propulsion for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.

    1993-01-01

    Three electromagnetic propulsion technologies, solid propellant pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters, and pulsed inductive thrusters (PIT) have been developed for application to auxiliary and primary spacecraft propulsion. Both the PPT and MPD thrusters have been flown in space, though only PPTs have been used on operational satellites. The performance of operational PPTs is quite poor, providing only about 8 percent efficiency at about 1000 sec specific impulse. Laboratory PPTs yielding 34 percent efficiency at 5170 sec specific impulse have been demonstrated. Laboratory MPD thrusters have been demonstrated with up to 70 percent efficiency and 7000 sec specific impulse. Recent PIT performance measurements using ammonia and hydrazine propellants are extremely encouraging, reaching 50 percent efficiency for specific impulses between 4000 and 8000 sec.

  10. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Workers position two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1 for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, onto a payload dolly in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  11. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, glides toward a payload dolly during uncrating operations in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  12. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Workers prepare a payload dolly for the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, during uncrating operations in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  13. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians begin to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  14. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, begin the trip from the Building 2 south encapsulation bay to the Building 1 high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  15. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Workers attach a crane to the protective shipping container to prepare to uncover the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS. They were delivered to the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  16. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, roll into the Building 1 airlock at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  17. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    A crane is lowered toward the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, during uncrating operations in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  18. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory are suspended over a payload dolly during uncrating operations in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  19. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    A technician carefully removes the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  20. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    The protective shipping container is lifted from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  1. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Preparations are underway to tow two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, from the Building 2 south encapsulation bay to the Building 1 high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  2. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Preparations are underway to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  3. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians have removed most of the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  4. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  5. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Preparations are underway to remove the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, from their protective shipping container in the Building 2 south encapsulation bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  6. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, arrive in the Building 1 airlock at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  7. MMS Spacecraft Uncrated & Moved

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    Workers surround two of the observatories, the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, on their trip from the Building 2 south encapsulation bay to the Building 1 high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  8. Human Spacecraft Structures Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhakta, Kush

    2017-01-01

    DSG will be placed in halo orbit around themoon- Platform for international/commercialpartners to explore lunar surface- Testbed for technologies needed toexplore Mars• Habitat module used to house up to 4crew members aboard the DSG- Launched on EM-3- Placed inside SLS fairing Habitat Module - Task Habitat Finite Element Model Re-modeled entire structure in NX2) Used Beam and Shell elements torepresent the pressure vessel structure3) Created a point cloud of centers of massfor mass components- Can now inspect local moments andinertias for thrust ring application8/ Habitat Structure – Docking Analysis Problem: Artificial Gravity may be necessary forastronaut health in deep spaceGoal: develop concepts that show how artificialgravity might be incorporated into a spacecraft inthe near term Orion Window Radiant Heat Testing.

  9. Future spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, P. W.; Stocky, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Propulsion requirements for launch vehicles, upper stages, satellites and platforms, and planetary spacecraft are described from a functional perspective and compared on an energy basis. Mission velocity requirements for a range of missions are presented. A simple model relating optimum exhaust velocity and maximum system delta-V as a function of system-specific energy is developed, which provides insight into the relationship between system performance and various power and propulsion subsystem characteristics. Based on this model, various advanced propulsion options, e.g., the solid-core nuclear rocket and nuclear electric propulsion, are evaluated, and the implications of this analysis for propulsion and power system technology development programs are discussed. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of future propulsion requirements for the nonspecialist.

  10. Spacecraft applications of advanced global positioning system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, Gaylord; Dodds, James; Udalov, Sergei; Austin, Richard; Loomis, Peter; Duboraw, I. Newton, III

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) in spacecraft applications in the following areas: attitude control and tracking; structural control; traffic control; and time base definition (synchronization). Each of these functions are addressed. Also addressed are the hardware related issues concerning the application of GPS technology and comparisons are provided with alternative instrumentation methods for specific functions required for an advanced low earth orbit spacecraft.

  11. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for laboratory experiments, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  12. Description of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jeffrey P.; Rallo, Rosemary A.

    1987-01-01

    A laboratory facility for the study of control laws for large flexible spacecraft is described. The facility fulfills the requirements of the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) design challenge for a laboratory experiment, which will allow slew maneuvers and pointing operations. The structural apparatus is described in detail sufficient for modelling purposes. The sensor and actuator types and characteristics are described so that identification and control algorithms may be designed. The control implementation computer and real-time subroutines are also described.

  13. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  14. Microbiological Contamination of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Bruce, R. J.; Groves, T. O.; Novikova, N. D.; Viktorov, A. N.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Phase1 Program resulted in seven US astronauts residing aboard the Russian Space Station Mir between March 1995 and May 1998. Collaboration between U.S. and Russian scientists consisted of collection and analyses of samples from the crewmembers and the Mir and Shuttle environments before, during, and after missions that lasted from 75 to 209 days in duration. The effects of long-duration space flight on the microbial characteristics of closed life support systems and the interactions of microbes with the spacecraft environment and crewmembers were investigated. Air samples were collected using a Russian or U.S.-supplied sampler (SAS, RCS, or Burkard,) while surface samples were collected using contact slides (Hycon) or swabs. Mir recycled condensate and stored potable water sources were analyzed using the U.S.-supplied Water Experiment Kit. In-flight analysis consisted of enumeration of levels of bacteria and fungi. Amounts of microorganisms seen in the air and on surfaces were mostly within acceptability lin1its; observed temporal fluctuations in levels of microbes probably reflect changes in environmental conditions (e.g., humidity). All Mir galley hot water samples were within the standards set for Mir and the ISS. Microbial isolates were returned to Earth for identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. Crew samples (nose, throat, skin, urine, and feces) were analyzed using methods approved for the medical evaluations of Shuttle flight crews. No significant changes in crew microbiota were found during space flight or upon return relative to preflight results. Dissemination of microbes between the crew and environment was demonstrated by D A fingerprinting. Some biodegradation of spacecraft materials was observed. Accumulation of condensate allowed for the recovery of a wide range of bacteria and fungi as well as some protozoa and dust mites.

  15. Demonstration of Spacecraft Fire Safety Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.

    2012-01-01

    During the Constellation Program, the development of spacecraft fire safety technologies were focused on the immediate questions related to the atmosphere of the habitable volume and implementation of fire detection, suppression, and postfire clean-up systems into the vehicle architectures. One of the difficulties encountered during the trade studies for these systems was the frequent lack of data regarding the performance of a technology, such as a water mist fire suppression system or an optically-based combustion product monitor. Even though a spacecraft fire safety technology development project was being funded, there was insufficient time and funding to address all the issues as they were identified. At the conclusion of the Constellation Program, these knowledge gaps formed the basis for a project proposed to the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program. This project, subsequently funded by the AES Program and in operation since October 2011, has as its cornerstone the development of an experiment to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the European Space Agency (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Science s Cygnus vehicle after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. The technology development efforts being conducted in this project include continued quantification of low- and partial-gravity maximum oxygen concentrations of spacecraft-relevant materials, development and verification of sensors for fire detection and post-fire monitoring, development of standards for sizing and selecting spacecraft fire suppression systems, and demonstration of post-fire cleanup strategies. The major technology development efforts are identified in this paper but its primary purpose is to describe the spacecraft fire safety demonstration being planned for the reentry vehicle.

  16. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  17. Mercury's interior from MESSENGER geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2016-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft completed more than 4 years of operations in orbit about Mercury. One of the main mission goals was the determination of the interior structure of Mercury enabled by geodetic observations of the topography, gravity field, rotation, and tides by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and radio science system. MLA acquired over 25 million individual measurements of Mercury's shape that are mostly limited to the northern hemisphere because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit. However, the lack of laser altimetry in the southern hemisphere has been partly compensated by ˜400 occultations of spacecraft radio signals. X-band radio tracking data collected by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) allowed the determination of Mercury's gravity field to spherical harmonic degree and order 100, the planet's obliquity, and the Love number k2. The combination of altimetry and radio measurements provides a powerful tool for the investigation of Mercury's orientation and tides, which enable a better understanding of the interior structure of the planet. The MLA measurements have been assembled into a digital elevation model (DEM) of the northern hemisphere. We then used individual altimetric measurements from the spacecraft for orbit determination, together with the radio tracking, over a continuous span of time using a batch least-squares filter. All observations were combined to recover directly the gravity field coefficients, obliquity, librations, and tides by minimizing the discrepancies between the computed observables and actual measurements. We will present the estimated 100×100 gravity field model, the obliquity, the Love number k2, and, for the first time, the tidal phase lag φ and the amplitude of the longitudinal libration from radio and altimetry data. The k2 phase provides information on Mercury's dissipation and mantle viscosity and allows a determination of the Q factor. A refinement of

  18. Spacecraft Fire Detection and Extinguishment: A Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1988-01-01

    Pertinent fire detection and extinguishment references have been identified to further the knowledge of spacecraft fire safety. To broaden the scope of the bibliography, other unusual environments, e.g., aircraft, submarine, ship, have been included. In addition, for a more comprehensive view of the spacecraft fire safety problem, selected subjects are included, e.g., materials flammability, smoke, human behavior. The references will provide the researcher with access to state-of-the-art and historic works. Selected references from the 1960's have been included, but the emphasis is on references published from 1975 to 1987. The references are arranged by very broad categories. Often a paper will cover more than one topic, but for the purposes of this bibliography it will be cited only once.

  19. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study.

    The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg.

    The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn 'moons' seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device.

  20. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study.

    The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg.

    The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn 'moons' seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device.

  1. Cassini Spacecraft in a JPL Assembly Room

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-02

    On October of 1997, a two-story-tall robotic spacecraft will begin a journey of many years to reach and explore the exciting realm of Saturn, the most distant planet that can easily be seen by the unaided human eye. In addition to Saturn's interesting atmosphere and interior, its vast system contains the most spectacular of the four planetary ring systems, numerous icy satellites with a variety of unique surface features. A huge magnetosphere teeming with particles that interact with the rings and moons, and the intriguing moon Titan, which is slightly larger than the planet Mercury, and whose hazy atmosphere is denser than that of Earth, make Saturn a fascinating planet to study. The Cassini mission is an international venture involving NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and several separate European academic and industrial partners. The mission is managed for NASA by JPL. The spacecraft will carry a sophisticated complement of scientific sensors to support 27 different investigations to probe the mysteries of the Saturn system. The large spacecraft will consist of an orbiter and ESA's Huygens Titan probe. The orbiter mass at launch will be nearly 5300 kg, over half of which is propellant for trajectory control. The mass of the Titan probe (2.7 m diameter) is roughly 350 kg. The mission is named in honor of the seventeenth-century, French-Italian astronomer Jean Dominique Cassini, who discovered the prominent gap in Saturn's main rings, as well as the icy moons Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The ESA Titan probe is named in honor of the exceptional Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655, followed in 1659 by his announcement that the strange Saturn "moons" seen by Galileo in 1610 were actually a ring system surrounding the planet. Huygens was also famous for his invention of the pendulum clock, the first accurate timekeeping device. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04603

  2. Spacecraft detumbling through energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitz-Coy, Norman; Chatterjee, Anindya

    1993-01-01

    The attitude motion of a tumbling, rigid, axisymmetric spacecraft is considered. A methodology for detumbling the spacecraft through energy dissipation is presented. The differential equations governing this motion are stiff, and therefore an approximate solution, based on the variation of constants method, is developed and utilized in the analysis of the detumbling strategy. Stability of the detumbling process is also addressed.

  3. Relative Positions of Distant Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-29

    This graphic shows the relative positions of NASA most distant spacecraft in early 2011, looking at the solar system from the side. Voyager 1 is the most distant spacecraft, 10.9 billion miles away from the sun at a northward angle.

  4. Smart Executives for Autonomous Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, E.; Pell, B.

    1998-01-01

    In this article we explore the design of an executive for an autonomous spacecraft. The executive is responsible for translating high-level commands, whether they come from the ground or from an on-board planner, into the low-level commands understood directly by the spacecraft hardware.

  5. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  10. Fault tolerant control of spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard

    Autonomous multiple spacecraft formation flying space missions demand the development of reliable control systems to ensure rapid, accurate, and effective response to various attitude and formation reconfiguration commands. Keeping in mind the complexities involved in the technology development to enable spacecraft formation flying, this thesis presents the development and validation of a fault tolerant control algorithm that augments the AOCS on-board a spacecraft to ensure that these challenging formation flying missions will fly successfully. Taking inspiration from the existing theory of nonlinear control, a fault-tolerant control system for the RyePicoSat missions is designed to cope with actuator faults whilst maintaining the desirable degree of overall stability and performance. Autonomous fault tolerant adaptive control scheme for spacecraft equipped with redundant actuators and robust control of spacecraft in underactuated configuration, represent the two central themes of this thesis. The developed algorithms are validated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. A reaction wheel testbed is used to validate the proposed fault tolerant attitude control scheme. A spacecraft formation flying experimental testbed is used to verify the performance of the proposed robust control scheme for underactuated spacecraft configurations. The proposed underactuated formation flying concept leads to more than 60% savings in fuel consumption when compared to a fully actuated spacecraft formation configuration. We also developed a novel attitude control methodology that requires only a single thruster to stabilize three axis attitude and angular velocity components of a spacecraft. Numerical simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experimental results along with rigorous analytical stability analysis shows that the proposed methodology will greatly enhance the reliability of the spacecraft, while allowing for potentially significant overall mission cost reduction.

  11. 36 CFR 28.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 28.1 Section 28.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND... Fire Island National Seashore (the Seashore) mandated the Secretary of the Interior (the Secretary) to...

  12. 43 CFR 3435.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leased lands to currently unleased lands to preserve public resource or social values, and to carry out... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3435.0-1 Section 3435.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  13. 43 CFR 8200.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 8200.0-1 Section 8200.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... procedures and practices for the management and use of public lands that have ecological or other...

  14. 43 CFR 8200.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 8200.0-1 Section 8200.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... procedures and practices for the management and use of public lands that have ecological or other...

  15. 43 CFR 3435.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leased lands to currently unleased lands to preserve public resource or social values, and to carry out... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 3435.0-1 Section 3435.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  16. 43 CFR 3435.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leased lands to currently unleased lands to preserve public resource or social values, and to carry out... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 3435.0-1 Section 3435.0-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,...

  17. 36 CFR 73.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 73.1 Section 73.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE... Department of the Interior, through the National Park Service (NPS), uses to direct and coordinate...

  18. 36 CFR 73.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 73.1 Section 73.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE... Department of the Interior, through the National Park Service (NPS), uses to direct and coordinate...

  19. 36 CFR 73.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 73.1 Section 73.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WORLD HERITAGE... Department of the Interior, through the National Park Service (NPS), uses to direct and coordinate...

  20. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, Walter; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  2. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  3. Spectra and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, V. I.

    2001-02-01

    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  4. Spacecraft nonlinear control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheen, Jyh-Jong; Bishop, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is applied to the problem of spacecraft attitude control and momentum management with control moment gyros (CMGs). The feedback linearization consists of a coordinate transformation, which transforms the system to a companion form, and a nonlinear feedback control law to cancel the nonlinear dynamics resulting in a linear equivalent model. Pole placement techniques are then used to place the closed-loop poles. The coordinate transformation proposed here evolves from three output functions of relative degree four, three, and two, respectively. The nonlinear feedback control law is presented. Stability in a neighborhood of a controllable torque equilibrium attitude (TEA) is guaranteed and this fact is demonstrated by the simulation results. An investigation of the nonlinear control law shows that singularities exist in the state space outside the neighborhood of the controllable TEA. The nonlinear control law is simplified by a standard linearization technique and it is shown that the linearized nonlinear controller provides a natural way to select control gains for the multiple-input, multiple-output system. Simulation results using the linearized nonlinear controller show good performance relative to the nonlinear controller in the neighborhood of the TEA.

  5. Hydrazine monitoring in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. H.; Beck, S. W.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrazine (HZ) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are highly toxic compounds used as fuels in the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Engines and in its maneuvering and reaction control system. Satellite refueling during a mission may also result in release of hydrazines. During extravehicular activities, the potential exists for hydrazines to contaminate the suit and to be brought into the internal atmosphere inadvertantly. Because of the high toxicity of hydrazines, a very sensitive, reliable, interference-free, and real-time method of measurement is required. A portable ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has exhibited a low ppb detection limit for hydrazines suggesting a promising technology for the detection of hydrazines in spacecraft air. The Hydrazine Monitor is a modified airborne vapor monitor (AVM) with a custom-built datalogger. This off-the-shelf IMS was developed for the detection of chemical warfare agents on the battlefield. After early evaluations of the AVM for hydrazine measurements showed a serious interference from ammonia, the AVM was modified to measure HZ and MMH in the ppb concentration range without interference from ammonia in the low ppm range. A description of the Hydrazine Monitor and how it functions is presented.

  6. Spacecraft Escape Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Charles, Dingell W.; Bufkin, Ann L.; Rodriggs, Liana M.; Peterson, Wayne; Cuthbert, Peter; Lee, David E.; Westhelle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A report discusses the Gumdrop capsule a conceptual spacecraft that would enable the crew to escape safely in the event of a major equipment failure at any time from launch through atmospheric re-entry. The scaleable Gumdrop capsule would comprise a command module (CM), a service module (SM), and a crew escape system (CES). The CM would contain a pressurized crew environment that would include avionic, life-support, thermal control, propulsive attitude control, and recovery systems. The SM would provide the primary propulsion and would also supply electrical power, life-support resources, and active thermal control to the CM. The CES would include a solid rocket motor, embedded within the SM, for pushing the CM away from the SM in the event of a critical thermal-protection-system failure or loss of control. The CM and SM would normally remain integrated with each other from launch through recovery, but could be separated using the CES, if necessary, to enable the safe recovery of the crew in the CM. The crew escape motor could be used, alternatively, as a redundant means of de-orbit propulsion for the CM in the event of a major system failure in the SM.

  7. Orbital spacecraft consumables resupply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Sam M.; Eberhardt, Ralph N.; Tracey, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    The capability to replenish spacecraft, satellites, and laboratories on-orbit with consumable fluids provides significant increases in their cost and operational effectiveness. Tanker systems to perform on-orbit fluid resupply must be flexible enough to operate from the Space Transportation System (STS), Space Station, or the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV), and to accommodate launch from both the Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV's). Resupply systems for storable monopropellant hydrazine and bipropellants, and water have been developed. These studies have concluded that designing tankers capable of launch on both the Shuttle and ELV's was feasible and desirable. Design modifications and interfaces for an ELV launch of the tanker systems were identified. Additionally, it was determined that modularization of the tanker subsystems was necessary to provide the most versatile tanker and most efficient approach for use at the Space Station. The need to develop an automatic umbilical mating mechanism, capable of performing both docking and coupler mating functions was identified. Preliminary requirements for such a mechanism were defined. The study resulted in a modular tanker capable of resupplying monopropellants, bipropellants, and water with a single design.

  8. Docking system for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A mechanism for the docking of a space vehicle to a space station where a connection for transfer of personnel and equipment is desired. The invention comprises an active docking structure on a space vehicle 10 and a passive docking structure on a station 11. The passive structure includes a docking ring 50 mounted on a tunnel structure 35 fixed to the space station. The active structure including a docking ring 18 carried by actuator-attenuator devices 20, each attached at one end to the ring 18 and at its other end in the vehicle's payload bay 12. The devices 20 respond to command signals for moving the docking ring 18 between a stowed position in the space vehicle to a deployed position suitable for engagement with the docking ring 50. The devices 20 comprise means responsive to signals of sensed loadings to absorb impact energy and retraction means for drawing the coupled space vehicle and station into final docked configuration and moving the tunnel structure to a berthed position in the space vehicle 10. Latches 60 couple the space vehicle and space station upon contact of docking rings 18 and 50 and latches 41-48 establish a structural tie between the spacecraft when retracted.

  9. ARM Spacecraft Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-20

    This graphic depicts the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle conducting a flyby of its target asteroid. During these flybys, the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) would come within 0.6 miles (1 kilometer), generating imagery with resolution of up to 0.4 of an inch (1 centimeter) per pixel. The robotic segment of ARM will demonstrate advanced, high-power, high-throughput solar electric propulsion; advanced autonomous precision proximity operations at a low-gravity planetary body; and controlled touchdown and liftoff with a multi-ton mass. The crew segment of the mission will include spacewalk activities for sample selection, extraction, containment and return; and mission operations of integrated robotic and crewed vehicle stack -- all key components of future in-space operations for human missions to the Mars system. After collecting a multi-ton boulder from the asteroid, the robotic spacecraft will redirect the boulder to a crew-accessible orbit around the moon, where NASA plans to conduct a series of proving ground missions in the 2020s that will help validate capabilities needed for NASA's Journey to Mars. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21062

  10. GLAS Spacecraft Pointing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, George H.; Gold, Kenn; Ondrey, Michael; Kubitschek, Dan; Axelrad, Penina; Komjathy, Attila

    1998-01-01

    Science requirements for the GLAS mission demand that the laser altimeter be pointed to within 50 m of the location of the previous repeat ground track. The satellite will be flown in a repeat orbit of 182 days. Operationally, the required pointing information will be determined on the ground using the nominal ground track, to which pointing is desired, and the current propagated orbit of the satellite as inputs to the roll computation algorithm developed by CCAR. The roll profile will be used to generate a set of fit coefficients which can be uploaded on a daily basis and used by the on-board attitude control system. In addition, an algorithm has been developed for computation of the associated command quaternions which will be necessary when pointing at targets of opportunity. It may be desirable in the future to perform the roll calculation in an autonomous real-time mode on-board the spacecraft. GPS can provide near real-time tracking of the satellite, and the nominal ground track can be stored in the on-board computer. It will be necessary to choose the spacing of this nominal ground track to meet storage requirements in the on-board environment. Several methods for generating the roll profile from a sparse reference ground track are presented.

  11. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  12. Safety aspects of spacecraft commanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N.

    1994-01-01

    The commanding of spacecraft is a potentially hazardous activity for the safety of the spacecraft. Present day control systems contain safety features in their commanding subsystem and in addition, strict procedures are also followed by operations staff. However, problems have occurred on a number of missions as a result of erroneous commanding leading in some cases to spacecraft contingencies and even to near loss of the spacecraft. The problems of checking commands in advance are increased by the tendency in modern spacecraft to use blocked/time-tagged commands and the increased usage of on-board computers, for which commands changing on-board software tables can radically change spacecraft or subsystem behavior. This paper reports on an on-going study. The study aims to improve the approach to safety of spacecraft commanding. It will show how ensuring 'safe' commanding can be carried out more efficiently, and with greater reliability, with the help of knowledge based systems and/or fast simulators. The whole concept will be developed based on the Object-Oriented approach.

  13. Spacecraft power system architecture to mitigate spacecraft charging effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A power system architecture for a spacecraft and a method of a power supply for a spacecraft are presented which take advantage of the reduced plasma interaction associated with positive ground high voltage photovoltaic arrays and provide a negative ground power supply for electrical loads of the spacecraft. They efficiently convert and regulate power to the load bus and reduce power system mass and complexity. The system and method ground the positive terminal of the solar arrays to the spacecraft hull, and using a power converter to invert the electric sign, permit a negative ground for the electrical distribution bus and electrical components. A number of variations including a load management system and a battery management system having charging and recharging devices are presented.

  14. Transient vibration test criteria for spacecraft hardware. [galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, D. L.; Hayes, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Transient vibration test criteria, developed for spacecraft hardware, provide a test rationale to verify the capability of the hardware to withstand the low and mid frequency transient vibration environments induced by launch vehicle events. A test method, consisting of a series of discrete frequency, limited cycle, modulated sine wave pulses, was developed to avoid the slow swept sine drawbacks, yet provide a repeatable test that would excite all frequencies. The shape of the waveform is that of the classic response of the mass of a one degree of freedom system when it is base-excited by an exponentially decayed sine wave transient. Criteria were developed to define pulse amplitudes, shapes, and center frequencies from spacecraft loads analyses. Test tolerance criteria were also developed and specified. The transient vibration test criteria were implemented on spacecraft flight hardware and provided a more realistic test simulation (i.e., less conservative) for qualification of spacecraft hardware without risk of undertest.

  15. Transient vibration test criteria for spacecraft hardware. [galileo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, D. L.; Hayes, C. D.

    1984-01-01

    Transient vibration test criteria, developed for spacecraft hardware, provide a test rationale to verify the capability of the hardware to withstand the low and mid frequency transient vibration environments induced by launch vehicle events. A test method, consisting of a series of discrete frequency, limited cycle, modulated sine wave pulses, was developed to avoid the slow swept sine drawbacks, yet provide a repeatable test that would excite all frequencies. The shape of the waveform is that of the classic response of the mass of a one degree of freedom system when it is base-excited by an exponentially decayed sine wave transient. Criteria were developed to define pulse amplitudes, shapes, and center frequencies from spacecraft loads analyses. Test tolerance criteria were also developed and specified. The transient vibration test criteria were implemented on spacecraft flight hardware and provided a more realistic test simulation (i.e., less conservative) for qualification of spacecraft hardware without risk of undertest.

  16. 43 CFR 10010.29 - Purpose and need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose and need. 10010.29 Section 10010.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.29 Purpose and need. The purpose and need section may...

  17. 43 CFR 10010.29 - Purpose and need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose and need. 10010.29 Section 10010.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.29 Purpose and need. The purpose and need section may...

  18. 43 CFR 10010.29 - Purpose and need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose and need. 10010.29 Section 10010.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.29 Purpose and need. The purpose and need section may...

  19. 43 CFR 10010.29 - Purpose and need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose and need. 10010.29 Section 10010.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) UTAH RECLAMATION... POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.29 Purpose and need. The purpose and need section may...

  20. 43 CFR 3101.6 - Recreation and public purposes lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreation and public purposes lands. 3101... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.6 Recreation and public purposes lands. Under the Recreation and Public Purposes Act, as...

  1. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  2. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  3. 43 CFR 431.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.1 Purpose. (a) The Secretary of the Interior (Secretary), acting through the..., and Replacement at the Boulder Canyon Project, Arizona/Nevada” (General Regulations) which include...

  4. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  5. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  6. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  7. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  8. 43 CFR 17.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, or National Origin § 17.1 Purpose... to the end that no person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national...

  9. 43 CFR 2461.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) BUREAU INITIATED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple use...

  10. 43 CFR 2461.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) BUREAU INITIATED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple use...

  11. 43 CFR 2461.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) BUREAU INITIATED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple use...

  12. 43 CFR 2461.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) BUREAU INITIATED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Multiple-Use Classification Procedures § 2461.0-1 Purpose. Formal action to classify land for retention for multiple use...

  13. 43 CFR 9260.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement, General § 9260.0-1 Purpose. This part establishes a single regulatory section in title 43 where the law enforcement...

  14. 43 CFR 9260.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement, General § 9260.0-1 Purpose. This part establishes a single regulatory section in title 43 where the law enforcement...

  15. 43 CFR 9260.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Law Enforcement, General § 9260.0-1 Purpose. This part establishes a single regulatory section in title 43 where the law enforcement...

  16. 30 CFR 402.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water-resources research and technology development. ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM General § 402.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant...

  17. 30 CFR 402.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water-resources research and technology development. ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM General § 402.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant...

  18. 30 CFR 402.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water-resources research and technology development. ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM General § 402.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant...

  19. 30 CFR 402.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water-resources research and technology development. ... GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WATER-RESOURCES RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM General § 402.1 Purpose. The regulations in this part are issued pursuant...

  20. Simple Systems for Detecting Spacecraft Meteoroid Punctures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes proposed systems to be installed in spacecraft to detect punctures by impinging meteoroids or debris. Relative to other systems that have been used for this purpose, the proposed systems would be simpler and more adaptable, and would demand less of astronauts attention and of spacecraft power and computing resources. The proposed systems would include a thin, hollow, hermetically sealed panel containing an inert fluid at a pressure above the spacecraft cabin pressure. A transducer would monitor the pressure in the panel. It is assumed that an impinging object that punctures the cabin at the location of the panel would also puncture the panel. Because the volume of the panel would be much smaller than that of the cabin, the panel would lose its elevated pressure much faster than the cabin would lose its lower pressure. The transducer would convert the rapid pressure drop to an electrical signal that could trigger an alarm. Hence, the system would provide an immediate indication of the approximate location of a small impact leak, possibly in time to take corrective action before a large loss of cabin pressure could occur.

  1. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Service Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merri, Mario; Schmidt, Michael; Ercolani, Alessandro; Dankiewicz, Ivan; Cooper, Sam; Thompson, Roger; Symonds, Martin; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton; Shames, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This CCSDS paper presents a reference architecture and service framework for spacecraft monitoring and control. It has been prepared by the Spacecraft Monitoring and Control working group of the CCSDS Mission Operations and Information Management Systems (MOIMS) area. In this context, Spacecraft Monitoring and Control (SM&C) refers to end-to-end services between on- board or remote applications and ground-based functions responsible for mission operations. The scope of SM&C includes: 1) Operational Concept: definition of an operational concept that covers a set of standard operations activities related to the monitoring and control of both ground and space segments. 2) Core Set of Services: definition of an extensible set of services to support the operational concept together with its information model and behaviours. This includes (non exhaustively) ground systems such as Automatic Command and Control, Data Archiving and Retrieval, Flight Dynamics, Mission Planning and Performance Evaluation. 3) Application-layer information: definition of the standard information set to be exchanged for SM&C purposes.

  2. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  3. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    A presentation of the Saffire Experiment goals and scientific objectives for the Joint CSA/ESA/JAXA/NASA Increments 47 and 48 Science Symposium. The purpose of the presentation is to inform the ISS Cadre and the other investigators of the Saffire goals and objectives to enable them to best support a successful Saffire outcome.

  4. POWOW: A Modular, High Power Spacecraft Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    A robust space infrastructure encompasses a broad range of mission needs along with an imperative to reduce costs of satellites meeting those needs. A critical commodity for science, commercial and civil satellites is power at an affordable cost. The POWOW (POwer WithOut Wires) spacecraft concept was created to provide, at one end of the scale, multi-megawatts of power yet also be composed of modules that can meet spacecraft needs in the kilowatt range. With support from the NASA-sponsored Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology Program, the POWOW spacecraft concept was designed to meet Mars mission needs - while at the same time having elements applicable to a range of other missions. At Mars, the vehicle would reside in an aerosynchronous orbit and beam power to a variety of locations on the surface. It is the purpose of this paper to present the latest concept design results. The Space Power Institute along with four companies: Able Engineering, Inc., Entech, Inc., Primex Aerospace Co., and TECSTAR have produced a modular, power-rich electrically propelled spacecraft design that meets these requirements. In addition, it also meets a range of civil and commercial needs. The spacecraft design is based on multijunction Ill-V solar cells, the new Stretched Lens Aurora (SLA) module, a lightweight array design based on a multiplicity of 8 kW end-of-life subarrays and electric thrusters. The solar cells have excellent radiation resistance and efficiencies above 30%. The SLA has a concentration ratio up to 15x while maintaining an operating temperature of 80 C. The design of the 8 kW array building block will be presented and its applicability to commercial and government missions will be discussed. Electric propulsion options include Hall, MPD and ion thrusters of various power levels and trade studies have been conducted to define the most advantageous options. The present baseline spacecraft design providing 900 kW using technologies expected to be

  5. Planetary Interior Structure Revealed by Spin Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.; Peale, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Holin, I. V.

    2002-12-01

    The spin state of a planet depends on the distribution of mass within the interior, gradual and discrete changes in its moments of inertia, dissipation mechanisms at the surface and below, and external torques. Detailed measurements of the spin dynamics can therefore reveal much about planetary interior structure, interactions at the core-mantle and atmosphere-surface boundaries, and mass redistribution events. Studies of the spin precession, polar wobble, and length of day variations have been used to determine Earth's moments of inertia and rigidity and to study the effects of atmospheric angular momentum changes, post-glacial rebound, and large earthquakes. In planetary investigations the spin measurements are particularly important because other means of constraining interior properties require in-situ or orbiting sensors (e.g. seismometers, magnetometers, and Doppler tracking of spacecraft). Here we describe the successful implementation of a new Earth-based radar technique (Holin, 1992) that provides spin state measurements with unprecedented accuracy. Our first observations were designed to characterize Mercury's core. Peale (1976) showed that the measurement of four quantities (the obliquity of the planet, the amplitude of its longitude librations, and the second-degree gravitational harmonics) are sufficient to determine the size and state of Mercury's core. The existence of a molten core would place strong constraints on the thermal and rotational histories of the planet, with profound implications for the composition and rotation state of the planet at the time of formation. A solid core would have a fundamental impact on theories of planetary magnetic field generation. We observed Mercury with the Goldstone radar and the Green Bank Telescope in May-June 2002. We illuminated the planet with a monochromatic signal, recorded the scattered power at the two antennas, and cross-correlated the echoes in the time domain. We obtained strong correlations which

  6. 25 CFR 286.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 286.2 Section 286.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part 286 is to prescribe the regulations and procedures under which non-reimbursable grants may be made to eligible...

  7. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the regulations...

  8. 25 CFR 501.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 501.1 Section 501.1 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER § 501.1 Purpose. This chapter implements the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (Pub. L. 100-497, 102 Stat. 2467)....

  9. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  10. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  11. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  12. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  13. 25 CFR 175.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 175.2 Section 175.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES General Provisions § 175.2 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to regulate the electric power utilities administered...

  14. 30 CFR 252.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 252.1 Section 252.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to...

  15. 43 CFR 3105.4-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.4-2 Section 3105.4-2 Public... § 3105.4-2 Purpose. Upon obtaining approval of the authorized officer, lessees may combine their interests in leases for the purpose of constructing and carrying on the business of a refinery or...

  16. 30 CFR 570.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 570.1 Section 570.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 570.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 604...

  17. 30 CFR 229.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 229.1 Section 229.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES General Provisions § 229.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to promote the effective utilization of...

  18. 30 CFR 252.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 252.1 Section 252.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement...

  19. 30 CFR 1228.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 1228.1 Section 1228.1 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES General Provisions § 1228.1 Purpose. It is the purpose of...

  20. 43 CFR 3740.0-1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 585, Multiple Mineral Development: General § 3740.0-1 Purpose. The Act of August 13, 1954 (68 Stat... provide for multiple mineral development of the same tracts of public lands, and for other purposes.” The... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3740.0-1 Section 3740.0-1 Public...

  1. 30 CFR 252.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 252.1 Section 252.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 26 of...

  2. 30 CFR 252.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 252.1 Section 252.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement...

  3. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions...

  4. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions...

  5. 30 CFR 228.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 228.1 Section 228.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES WITH STATES AND INDIAN TRIBES General Provisions § 228.1 Purpose. It is the purpose of cooperative...

  6. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions of section 604 of the...

  7. 30 CFR 252.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 252.1 Section 252.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) OIL AND GAS INFORMATION PROGRAM § 252.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement...

  8. 30 CFR 270.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 270.1 Section 270.1 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.1 Purpose. The purpose of this part is to implement the provisions...

  9. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  10. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  11. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  12. 50 CFR 34.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 34.1 Section 34.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.1 Purpose. The purpose of the...

  13. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    extend the underwater endurance to 2-3 weeks. These propulsion engineering changes also reduce periodic ventilation of the submarine's interior and thus put a greater burden on the various maintenance systems. We note that the spaceflight community has similar issues; their energy production mechanisms are essentially air independent in that they rely almost entirely on photovoltaic arrays for electricity generation, with only emergency back-up power from alcohol fuel cells. In response to prolonged underwater submarine AIP operations, months-long spaceflight operations onboard the ISS and planning for future years-long missions to Mars, there has been an increasing awareness that bio-monitoring is an important factor for assessing the health and awareness states of the crewmembers. SAMAP researchers have been proposing various air and bio-monitoring instruments and methods in response to these needs. One of the most promising new methodologies is the non-invasive monitoring of exhaled breath. So, what do the IABR and SAMAP communities have in common? Inhalation toxicology. We are both concerned with contamination from the environment, either as a direct health threat or as a confounder for diagnostic assessments. For example, the exhaled breath from subjects in a contaminated and enclosed artificial environment (submarine or spacecraft) can serve as a model system and a source of contamination for their peers in a cleaner environment. In a similar way, exhaled anaesthetics can serve as a source of contamination in hospital/clinical settings, or exhalation of occupational exposures to tetrachloroethylene can impact family members at home. Instrumentation development. Both communities have similar needs for better, more specific and more sensitive instruments. Certainly, the analytical instruments to be used onboard submarines and spacecraft have severe restrictions on energy use, physical size and ease of operation. The medical and clinical communities have similar long

  14. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  16. Solar power arrays for spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Fellas, C.N.

    1984-02-21

    A laminar plastics material sheet including a transparent, electrically conductive layer used to cover the front and/or rear surfaces of a spacecraft solar array to alleviate electrostatic charge build-up thereon due to electron bombardment.

  17. NASA Spacecraft Images Texas Wildfire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-15

    The Livermore and Spring Ranch fires near the Davis Mountain Resort, Texas, burned 13,000 and 11,000 acres respectively. When NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on May 12, 2012, both fires had been contained.

  18. Autonomous spacecraft maintenance study group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, M. H.; Low, G. D.

    1981-01-01

    A plan to incorporate autonomous spacecraft maintenance (ASM) capabilities into Air Force spacecraft by 1989 is outlined. It includes the successful operation of the spacecraft without ground operator intervention for extended periods of time. Mechanisms, along with a fault tolerant data processing system (including a nonvolatile backup memory) and an autonomous navigation capability, are needed to replace the routine servicing that is presently performed by the ground system. The state of the art fault handling capabilities of various spacecraft and computers are described, and a set conceptual design requirements needed to achieve ASM is established. Implementations for near term technology development needed for an ASM proof of concept demonstration by 1985, and a research agenda addressing long range academic research for an advanced ASM system for 1990s are established.

  19. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  20. Thermoelectric Outer Planets Spacecraft (TOPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research and advanced development work is reported on a ballistic-mode, outer planet spacecraft using radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power. The Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS) project was established to provide the advanced systems technology that would allow the realistic estimates of performance, cost, reliability, and scheduling that are required for an actual flight mission. A system design of the complete RTG-powered outer planet spacecraft was made; major technical innovations of certain hardware elements were designed, developed, and tested; and reliability and quality assurance concepts were developed for long-life requirements. At the conclusion of its active phase, the TOPS Project reached its principal objectives: a development and experience base was established for project definition, and for estimating cost, performance, and reliability; an understanding of system and subsystem capabilities for successful outer planets missions was achieved. The system design answered long-life requirements with massive redundancy, controlled by on-board analysis of spacecraft performance data.

  1. NASA Spacecraft Spots Florida Wildfire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-06-16

    The Espanola wildfire had consumed more than 4,300 acres when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on June 16, 2011, over Flagler County, Fla.

  2. ISS Update: Dream Chaser Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Michael Curie talks with Cheryl McPhillips, Commercial Crew Program Partner Manager for the Sierra Nevada Corporation, the company developing the Dream Chaser spacecraft...

  3. Gemini 9 spacecraft recovery operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A spacecraft, with Astronauts Thomas Stafford and Eugene Cernan still inside, in water as the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, the recovery ship, comes alongside to recover the astronauts and their spaceship.

  4. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Norman R.; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles & Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data.

  5. Spacecraft attitude dynamics and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobotov, Vladimir A.

    This overview of spacecraft dynamics encompasses the fundamentals of kinematics, rigid-body dynamics, linear control theory, orbital environmental effects, and the stability of motion. The theoretical treatment of each issue is complemented by specific references to spacecraft control systems based on spin, dual-spin, three-axis-active, and reaction-wheel methodologies. Also examined are control-moment-gyro, gravity-gradient, and magnetic control systems with attention given to key issues such as nutation damping, separation dynamics of spinning bodies, and tethers. Environmental effects that impinge on the application of spacecraft-attitude dynamics are shown to be important, and consideration is given to gravitation, solar radiation, aerodynamics, and geomagnetics. The publication gives analytical methods for examining the practical implementation of the control techniques as they apply to spacecraft.

  6. 43 CFR 35.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basis and purpose. 35.1 Section 35.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT... Remedies Act of 1986, Public Law 99-509, sections 6101-6104, 100 Stat. 1874 (Oct. 21, 1986), to be...

  7. 43 CFR 35.1 - Basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Basis and purpose. 35.1 Section 35.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS... Remedies Act of 1986, Public Law 99-509, sections 6101-6104, 100 Stat. 1874 (Oct. 21, 1986), to be...

  8. Recent Advances in Spacecraft Charging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-08

    divergence. The with partial successes [Cohen, etal., 1981; Cohen and transverse energy gained by a diverging beam Lai, 1982; Olsen , 1985; Werner, 1988]. When...probes, J AppL Phys., Technology Conference, R.C. Olsen (ed), Naval 63, 5674-5677, 1988. Postgraduate School, Mornterey, 1989. Neubert, T., MJ...Dec., 1993. Olsen , R.C., Modification of spacecraft potentials by Wang, J. and D.E_ Hastings, Ionospheric plasma flow plasma emission, J. Spacecraft

  9. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21 September 2015 – 13 October 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion 5a...Research Laboratory 68th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference LASER DIAGNOSTICS FOR SPACECRAFT PROPULSION GEC15-2015-000599 Tuesday, October 13, 2015...Natalia MacDonald-Tenenbaum In-Space Propulsion Branch Air Force Research Laboratory Edwards AFB, CA natalia.macdonald@us.af.mil DISTRIBUTION A

  10. Spacecraft Thermal Control Coatings References

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauder, Lonny

    2005-01-01

    The successful thermal design of spacecraft depends in part on a knowledge of the solar absorption and hemispherical emittance of the thermal control coatings used in and on the spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center has had since its beginning a group whose mission has been to provide thermal/optical properties data of thermal control coatings to thermal engineers. This handbook represents a summary of the data and knowledge accumulated over many years at GSFC.

  11. Spacecraft external molecular contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1990-01-01

    Control of contamination on and around spacecraft is required to avoid adverse effects on the performance of instruments and spacecraft systems. Recent work in this area is reviewed and discussed. Specific issues and limitations to be considered as part of the effort to predict contamination effects using modeling techniques are addressed. Significant results of Space Shuttle missions in the field of molecule/surface interactions as well as their implications for space station design and operation are reviewed.

  12. Plasma Interactions With Spacecraft (I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    various plasma engineering concerns including surface discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma...discharges due to meteoroid impact and spacecraft contamination due to electric propulsion plasma plume effects. The goal of this effort is to...Enhanced Radiation Belts in Lake Arrowhead, California on March 3-6, 2008. Dr. Mandell also attended the DSX System CDR, Breckenridge, Colorado, May 6-8

  13. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  14. Software for Autonomous Spacecraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Folta, Dave; Hawkins, Al; Dell, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The AutoCon computer programs facilitate and accelerate the planning and execution of orbital control maneuvers of spacecraft while analyzing and resolving mission constraints. AutoCon-F is executed aboard spacecraft, enabling the spacecraft to plan and execute maneuvers autonomously; AutoCon-G is designed for use on the ground. The AutoCon programs utilize advanced techniques of artificial intelligence, including those of fuzzy logic and natural-language scripting, to resolve multiple conflicting constraints and automatically plan maneuvers. These programs can be used to satisfy requirements for missions that involve orbits around the Earth, the Moon, or any planet, and are especially useful for missions in which there are requirements for frequent maneuvers and for resolution of complex conflicting constraints. During operations, the software targets new trajectories, places and sizes maneuvers, and controls spacecraft burns. AutoCon-G provides a userfriendly graphical interface, and can be used effectively by an analyst with minimal training. AutoCon-F reduces latency and supports multiple-spacecraft and formation-flying missions. The AutoCon architecture supports distributive processing, which can be critical for formation- control missions. AutoCon is completely object-oriented and can easily be enhanced by adding new objects and events. AutoCon-F was flight demonstrated onboard GSFC's EO-1 spacecraft flying in formation with Landsat-7.

  15. How Technology Influences Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavitt, Tish

    1999-01-01

    Examines telecommunication technology's influences on interior school design and effective learning, and discusses how to implement this technology into the school. Building the infrastructure to support telecommunications in an educational setting and the importance of effective lighting are discussed. (GR)

  16. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  17. Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit WCT. Photographic copy of photograph, interior view of Dd test cell with VO (Viking Orbiter)-75 spacecraft engine mounted for testing. (Viking was a Mars orbiter and lander mission.) The end of the engine nozzle is inserted into a diffuser in order to conduct exhaust gases out of the chamber. All piping and tubing is stainless steel. Note ports in background through which instrumentation wiring passes. Nozzles at top of view are part of an internal fire suppression (or "Firex") system. (JPL negative no. 384-9428, 24 April 1972) - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Saturn's gravitational field, internal rotation, and interior structure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John D; Schubert, Gerald

    2007-09-07

    Saturn's internal rotation period is unknown, though it must be less than 10 hours, 39 minutes, and 22 seconds, as derived from magnetic field plus kilometric radiation data. By using the Cassini spacecraft's gravitational data, along with Pioneer and Voyager radio occultation and wind data, we obtain a rotation period of 10 hours, 32 minutes, and 35 +/- 13 seconds. This more rapid spin implies slower equatorial wind speeds on Saturn than previously assumed, and the winds at higher latitudes flow both east and west, as on Jupiter. Our related Saturn interior model has a molecular-to-metallic hydrogen transition about halfway to the planet's center.

  19. Adaptive System Modeling for Spacecraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This invention introduces a methodology and associated software tools for automatically learning spacecraft system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques were used to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). Evaluation on historical ISS telemetry data shows that adaptive system modeling reduces simulation error anywhere from 50 to 90 percent over existing approaches. The purpose of the methodology is to outline how someone can create accurate system models from sensor (telemetry) data. The purpose of the software is to support the methodology. The software provides analysis tools to design the adaptive models. The software also provides the algorithms to initially build system models and continuously update them from the latest streaming sensor data. The main strengths are as follows: Creates accurate spacecraft system models without in-depth system knowledge or any assumptions about system behavior. Automatically updates/calibrates system models using the latest streaming sensor data. Creates device specific models that capture the exact behavior of devices of the same type. Adapts to evolving systems. Can reduce computational complexity (faster simulations).

  20. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  1. Planetary Gravity Fields and Their Impact on a Spacecraft Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.

    2005-01-01

    The present work touches an interdisciplinary aspect of space exploration: the improvement of spacecraft navigation by means of enhanced planetary interior model derivation. The better the bodies in our solar system are known and modelled, the more accurately (and safely) a spacecraft can be navigated. In addition, the information about the internal structure of a planet, moon or any other planetary body can be used in arguments for different theories of solar system evolution. The focus of the work lies in a new approach for modelling the gravity field of small planetary bodies: the implementation of complex ellipsoidal coordinates (figure 1, [4]) for irregularly shaped bodies that cannot be represented well by a straightforward spheroidal approach. In order to carry out the required calculations the computer programme GRASP (Gravity Field of a Planetary Body and its Influence on a Spacecraft Trajectory) has been developed [5]. The programme furthermore allows deriving the impact of the body s gravity field on a spacecraft trajectory and thus permits predictions for future space mission flybys.

  2. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  3. A global spacecraft control network for spacecraft autonomy research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, Christopher A.

    1996-01-01

    The development and implementation of the Automated Space System Experimental Testbed (ASSET) space operations and control network, is reported on. This network will serve as a command and control architecture for spacecraft operations and will offer a real testbed for the application and validation of advanced autonomous spacecraft operations strategies. The proposed network will initially consist of globally distributed amateur radio ground stations at locations throughout North America and Europe. These stations will be linked via Internet to various control centers. The Stanford (CA) control center will be capable of human and computer based decision making for the coordination of user experiments, resource scheduling and fault management. The project's system architecture is described together with its proposed use as a command and control system, its value as a testbed for spacecraft autonomy research, and its current implementation.

  4. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  5. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    Near-Earth asteroids are important exploration targets since they provide clues to the evolution of the solar system. They are also of interest since they present a clear danger to Earth. Our mission objective is to image the internal structure of two NEOs using radio reflection tomography (RRT) in order to explore the record of asteroid origin and impact evolution, and to test the fundamental hypothesis that some NEOs are rubble piles rather than consolidated bodies. Our mission s RRT technique is analogous to doing a CAT scan of the asteroid from orbit. Closely sampled radar echoes are processed to yield volumetric maps of mechanical and compositional boundaries, and to measure interior material dielectric properties. The RRT instrument is a radar that operates at 5 and 15 MHz with two 30-m (tip-to-tip) dipole antennas that are used in a cross-dipole configuration. The radar transmitter and receiver electronics have heritage from JPL's MARSIS contribution to Mars Express, and the antenna is similar to systems used in IMAGE and LACE missions. The 5-MHz channel is designed to penetrate greater than 1 km of basaltic rock, and 15-MHz penetrates a few hundred meters or more. In addition to RRT volumetric imaging, we use redundant color cameras to explore the surface expressions of unit boundaries, in order to relate interior radar imaging to what is observable from spacecraft imaging and from Earth. The camera also yields stereo color imaging for geology and RRT-related compositional analysis. Gravity and high fidelity geodesy are used to explore how interior structure is expressed in shape, density, mass distribution and spin. Ion thruster propulsion is utilized by Deep Interior to enable tomographic radar mapping of multiple asteroids. Within the Discovery AO scheduling parameters we identify two targets, S-type 1999 ND43 (approximately 500 m diameter) and V-type 3908 Nyx (approximately 1 km), asteroids whose compositions bracket the diversity of solar system

  6. The use of molecular adsorbers for spacecraft contamination control

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.; Chen, P.; Triolo, J.; Carosso, N.

    1996-03-01

    In recent years, the technologies associated with contamination control in space environments have grown increasingly more sophisticated, due to the ever expanding need for improving and enhancing optical and thermal control systems for spacecraft. The presence of contaminants in optical and thermal control systems can cause serious degradation of performance and/or impact the lifetime of a spacecraft. It has been a goal of the global contamination community to develop new and more effective means for controlling contamination for spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative method for controlling molecular contaminants in space environments, via the utilization of Molecular Adsorbers. It has been found that the incorporation of appropriate molecular adsorbing materials within spacecraft volumes will decrease the overall contamination level within the cavity, thereby decreasing the potential for contaminants to migrate to more critical areas. In addition, it has been found that the placement of a Molecular Adsorber at a vent location actually serves as a molecular {open_quote}{open_quote}trap{close_quote}{close_quote} for the contaminants that would have otherwise been vented into the external spacecraft environment. This paper summarizes the theory, basic design, planned applications and significant results already obtained during the investigation of using Molecular Adsorbers for spacecraft contamination control purposes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Cruise Stage of NASA's InSight Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-28

    Lockheed Martin spacecraft specialists check the cruise stage of NASA's InSight spacecraft in this photo taken June 22, 2017, in a Lockheed Martin clean room facility in Littleton, Colorado. The cruise stage will provide vital functions during the flight from Earth to Mars, and then will be jettisoned before the InSight lander, enclosed in its aeroshell, enters Mars' atmosphere. The InSight mission (for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is scheduled to launch in May 2018 and land on Mars Nov. 26, 2018. It will investigate processes that formed and shaped Mars and will help scientists better understand the evolution of our inner solar system's rocky planets, including Earth. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21845

  8. Radiating dipole model of interference induced in spacecraft circuitry by surface discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Spacecraft in geosynchronous orbit can be charged electrically to high voltages by interaction with the space plasma. Differential charging of spacecraft surfaces leads to arc and blowoff discharging. The discharges are thought to upset interior, computer-level circuitry. In addition to capacitive or electrostatic effects, significant inductive and less significant radiative effects of these discharges exist and can be modeled in a dipole approximation. Flight measurements suggest source frequencies of 5 to 50 MHz. Laboratory tests indicate source current strengths of several amperes. Electrical and magnetic fields at distances of many centimeters from such sources can be as large as tens of volts per meter and meter squared, respectively. Estimates of field attenuation by spacecraft walls and structures suggest that interior fields may be appreciable if electromagnetic shielding is much thinner than about 0.025 mm (1 mil). Pickup of such fields by wires and cables interconnecting circuit components could be a source of interference signals of several volts amplitude.

  9. KEPLER Mission Spacecraft Concept Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deininger, W. D.; Miller, D. D.; Harvey, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    The Kepler Discovery Mission has been developed to monitor a large star field for four years and directly detect Earth-like planets through differential photometry. The mission is launched on a Delta II and flies in a heliocentric orbit. The 903-Kg flight segment consists of a CCD-based photometer instrument and a spacecraft bus. The spacecraft bus is at the base of the flight segment and provides structural support to the photometer. The spacecraft is 3-axis-stablized and uses fine guidance sensors to provide accurate pointing throughout the mission to better than 18.4 arcsec. Reaction wheels are used for attitude adjustments with a cold-gas reaction control system for wheel desaturations. Spacecraft thermal control is largely passive with some active heaters. The spacecraft avionics is based on redundant RAD 750 computers with a throughput of 119 MIPS. The power system produces 812 W EOL using a fixed solar array with a direct energy transfer architecture. Primary data downlink is via a Ka-band HGA to the DSN 34-m antennas.

  10. Lean spacecraft avionics trade study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft design is generally an exercise in design trade-offs: fuel vs. weight, power vs. solar cell area, radiation exposure vs. shield weight, etc. Proper analysis of these trades is critical in the development of lightweight, efficient, 'lean' satellites. The modification of the launch plans for the Magnetosphere Imager (MI) to a Taurus launcher from the much more powerful Delta has forced a reduction in spacecraft weight availability into the mission orbit from 1300 kg to less than 500 kg. With weight now a driving factor it is imperative that the satellite design be extremely efficient and lean. The accuracy of engineering trades now takes on an added importance. An understanding of spacecraft subsystem interactions is critical in the development of a good spacecraft design, yet it is a challenge to define these interactions while the design is immature. This is currently an issue in the development of the preliminary design of the MI. The interaction and interfaces between this spacecraft and the instruments it carries are currently unclear since the mission instruments are still under development. It is imperative, however, to define these interfaces so that avionics requirements ideally suited to the mission's needs can be determined.

  11. Galileo Spacecraft Scan Platform Celestial Pointing Cone Control Gain Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    In, C-H. C.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    During September and October 1991, pictures of the Gaspra asteroid and neighboring stars were taken by the Galileo Optical Navigation (OPNAV) Team for the purpose of navigation the spacecraft for a successful Gaspra encounter. The star tracks in these pictures showed that the scan platform celestial pointing cone controller performed poorly in compensating for wobble-induced cone offsets.

  12. Space environmental interactions with spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental interactions are defined as the response of spacecraft surfaces to the charged-particle environment. These interactions are divided into two broad categories: spacecraft passive, in which the environment acts on the surfaces and spacecraft active, in which the spacecraft or a system on the spacecraft causes the interaction. The principal spacecraft passive interaction of concern is the spacecraft charging phenomenon. The spacecraft active category introduces the concept of interactions with the thermal plasma environment and Earth's magnetic fields, which are important at all altitudes and must be considered the designs of proposed large space structures and space power systems. The status of the spacecraft charging investigations is reviewed along with the spacecraft active interactions.

  13. Interior Structure and Tidal Response of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, S. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft, now in a low-periapse orbit around Jupiter, promises to map the giant planet's gravitational field to an unprecedented precision. Meanwhile, the planned `Grand Finale' of the Cassini mission will provide similar measurements for Saturn. Interpretation of these high precision measurements requires comparison to interior structure models with accurate equations of state. We have developed the concentric Maclaurin spheroid (CMS) numerical method for efficient, non-perturbative, self-consistent calculations of shape and gravitational field. In tandem with ab initio equation of state calculations for hydrogen-helium mixtures, this allows for the construction of realistic interior models. We find evidence for a helium rain layer playing an important role in the large-scale density structure of the giant planets. In Saturn, this helium rain layer is expected to extend through much of the planet's deep interior. We estimate static tidal responses for both planets, and find they are (1) significantly enhanced by rapid rotation of the planets and (2) exhibit a dependence on orbital distance of the satellite. Accurate models of the gravitational field with tides will be essential when searching for gravitational signals of deep interior dynamics.

  14. Simulating Flexible-Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Versatile program applies to many types of spacecraft and dynamical problems. Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control program (FSD) developed to aid in simulation of large class of flexible and rigid spacecraft. Extremely versatile and used in attitude dynamics and control analysis as well as in-orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. Applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth-oriented, or gravity-gradient-stabilized spacecraft. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. Spacecraft Crew Cabin Condensation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrillo, Laurie Y.; Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2013-01-01

    A report discusses a new technique to prevent condensation on the cabin walls of manned spacecraft exposed to the cold environment of space, as such condensation could lead to free water in the cabin. This could facilitate the growth of mold and bacteria, and could lead to oxidation and weakening of the cabin wall. This condensation control technique employs a passive method that uses spacecraft waste heat as the primary wallheating mechanism. A network of heat pipes is bonded to the crew cabin pressure vessel, as well as the pipes to each other, in order to provide for efficient heat transfer to the cabin walls and from one heat pipe to another. When properly sized, the heat-pipe network can maintain the crew cabin walls at a nearly uniform temperature. It can also accept and distribute spacecraft waste heat to maintain the pressure vessel above dew point.

  16. Conductive spacecraft materials development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehn, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to provide design criteria, techniques, materials, and test methods to ensure control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft surfaces. The control of absolute and differential charging of spacecraft cannot be effected without the development of new and improved or modified materials or techniques that will provide electrical continuity over the surface of the spacecraft. The materials' photoemission, secondary emission, thermooptical, physical, and electrical properties in the space vacuum environment both in the presence and absence of electrical stress and ultraviolet, electron, and particulate radiation, are important to the achievement of charge control. The materials must be stable or have predictable response to exposure to the space environment for long periods of time. The materials of interest include conductive polymers, paints, transparent films and coatings as well as fabric coating interweaves.

  17. TDRS-M Spacecraft Arrival

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-23

    NASA's TDRS-M satellite arrives inside its shipping container at Space Coast Regional Airport in Titusville, Florida, aboard a U.S. Air Force transport aircraft. The spacecraft is transported to the nearby Astrotech facility, also in Titusville, for preflight processing. The TDRS-M is the latest spacecraft destined for the agency's constellation of communications satellites that allows nearly continuous contact with orbiting spacecraft ranging from the International Space Station and Hubble Space Telescope to the array of scientific observatories. Liftoff atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket is scheduled to take place from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 9:02 a.m. EDT Aug. 3, 2017.

  18. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the functions of the thermal control subsystem engineers in the design of spacecraft. The goal of the thermal control subsystem that will be used in a spacecraft is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and all the flight systems within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to the end of the mission. For most thermal control subsystems the mass, power and control and sensing systems must be kept below 10% of the total flight system resources. This means that the thermal control engineer is involved in all other flight systems designs. The two concepts of thermal control, passive and active are reviewed and the use of thermal modeling tools are explained. The testing of the thermal control is also reviewed.

  19. How to feed a spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, William

    1987-01-01

    The uplink process between ground computers and the spacecraft computer is examined. Data is uplinked to a spacecraft by a load (a sequence of preplanned commands) or by real-time commands; the differences between these two types of uplinks are discussed. The sequencing of a load involves: (1) request generation, (2) request integration, (3) reference generation, and (4) transmitting the load. The functions of each of the sequencing steps are described. The development of new sequencing methods using expert systems and AI is being studied. A symbolic processing software which has the ability to transmit data typed into a computer in English was developed. Consideration is given to the composition, capabilities of the parser, and application of the symbolic processing software to the Comet Renedezvous Asteroid Flyby spacecraft.

  20. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.