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Sample records for putative sister group

  1. Speciation processes in putative island endemic sister bat species: false impressions from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hao-Chih; Chen, Shiang-Fan; Fang, Yin-Ping; Cotton, James A; Parker, Joe D; Csorba, Gábor; Lim, Burton K; Eger, Judith L; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chou, Cheng-Han; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2015-12-01

    Cases of geographically restricted co-occurring sister taxa are rare and may point to potential divergence with gene flow. The two bat species Murina gracilis and Murina recondita are both endemic to Taiwan and are putative sister species. To test for nonallopatric divergence and gene flow in these taxa, we generated sequences using Sanger and next-generation sequencing, and combined these with microsatellite data for coalescent-based analyses. MtDNA phylogenies supported the reciprocally monophyletic sister relationship between M. gracilis and M. recondita; however, clustering of microsatellite genotypes revealed several cases of species admixture suggesting possible introgression. Sequencing of microsatellite flanking regions revealed that admixture signatures stemmed from microsatellite allele homoplasy rather than recent introgressive hybridization, and also uncovered an unexpected sister relationship between M. recondita and the continental species Murina eleryi, to the exclusion of M. gracilis. To dissect the basis of these conflicts between ncDNA and mtDNA, we analysed sequences from 10 anonymous ncDNA loci with *beast and isolation-with-migration and found two distinct clades of M. eleryi, one of which was sister to M. recondita. We conclude that Taiwan was colonized by the ancestor of M. gracilis first, followed by the ancestor of M. recondita after a period of allopatric divergence. After colonization, the mitochondrial genome of M. recondita was replaced by that of the resident M. gracilis. This study illustrates how apparent signatures of sympatric divergence can arise from complex histories of allopatric divergence, colonization and hybridization, thus highlighting the need for rigorous analyses to distinguish between such scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Support Groups for Sisters and Brothers of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scelles, Regine; Bouteyre, Evelyne; Dayan, Clemence; Picon, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed at shedding some light on the functioning of French support groups for brothers and sisters of children with disabilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the sisters, brothers and parents of children with disabilities along with care professionals. Focus groups were carried out with healthcare…

  3. Ecologically distinct dinosaurian sister group shows early diversification of Ornithodira.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Sidor, Christian A; Irmis, Randall B; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

    2010-03-04

    The early evolutionary history of Ornithodira (avian-line archosaurs) has hitherto been documented by incomplete (Lagerpeton) or unusually specialized forms (pterosaurs and Silesaurus). Recently, a variety of Silesaurus-like taxa have been reported from the Triassic period of both Gondwana and Laurasia, but their relationships to each other and to dinosaurs remain a subject of debate. Here we report on a new avian-line archosaur from the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) of Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis places Asilisaurus kongwe gen. et sp. nov. as an avian-line archosaur and a member of the Silesauridae, which is here considered the sister taxon to Dinosauria. Silesaurids were diverse and had a wide distribution by the Late Triassic, with a novel ornithodiran bauplan including leaf-shaped teeth, a beak-like lower jaw, long, gracile limbs, and a quadrupedal stance. Our analysis suggests that the dentition and diet of silesaurids, ornithischians and sauropodomorphs evolved independently from a plesiomorphic carnivorous form. As the oldest avian-line archosaur, Asilisaurus demonstrates the antiquity of both Ornithodira and the dinosaurian lineage. The initial diversification of Archosauria, previously documented by crocodilian-line archosaurs in the Anisian, can now be shown to include a contemporaneous avian-line radiation. The unparalleled taxonomic diversity of the Manda archosaur assemblage indicates that archosaur diversification was well underway by the Middle Triassic or earlier.

  4. A Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Philippe, Hervé; Baurain, Denis; Jager, Muriel; Richter, Daniel J; Di Franco, Arnaud; Roure, Béatrice; Satoh, Nori; Quéinnec, Éric; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lapébie, Pascal; Corre, Erwan; Delsuc, Frédéric; King, Nicole; Wörheide, Gert; Manuel, Michaël

    2017-04-03

    Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the sister-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-sister. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of choanoflagellates, the sister group to Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Carr, M; Leadbeater, B S C; Hassan, R; Nelson, M; Baldauf, S L

    2008-10-28

    Choanoflagellates are single-celled aquatic flagellates with a unique morphology consisting of a cell with a single flagellum surrounded by a "collar" of microvilli. They have long interested evolutionary biologists because of their striking resemblance to the collared cells (choanocytes) of sponges. Molecular phylogeny has confirmed a close relationship between choanoflagellates and Metazoa, and the first choanoflagellate genome sequence has recently been published. However, molecular phylogenetic studies within choanoflagellates are still extremely limited. Thus, little is known about choanoflagellate evolution or the exact nature of the relationship between choanoflagellates and Metazoa. We have sequenced four genes from a broad sampling of the morphological diversity of choanoflagellates including most species currently available in culture. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences, alone and in combination, reject much of the traditional taxonomy of the group. The molecular data also strongly support choanoflagellate monophyly rejecting proposals that Metazoa were derived from a true choanoflagellate ancestor. Mapping of a complementary matrix of morphological and ecological traits onto the phylogeny allows a reinterpretation of choanoflagellate character evolution and predicts the nature of their last common ancestor.

  6. A sister group metabolomic contrast delineates the biochemical regulation underlying desiccation tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding how plant cells tolerate dehydration is a vital prerequisite for developing strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation tolerant grass Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation sensitive S. pyramidalis were used to form a sister-group contrast to reveal adaptive metabo...

  7. The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Karl A; Fagerlund, Annette; Elbourne, Liam D H; Vörös, Aniko; Kroeger, Jasmin K; Simm, Roger; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Finke, Sarah; Henderson, Peter J F; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis using our Transporter Automated Annotation Pipeline. More than 90 putative drug efflux systems were found within each of these strains, accounting for up to 2.7% of their protein coding potential. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the efflux systems are highly conserved between these species; 70-80% of the putative efflux pumps were shared between all three strains studied. Furthermore, 82% of the putative efflux system proteins encoded by the prototypical B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 (type strain) were found to be conserved in at least 80% of 169 B. cereus group strains that have high quality genome sequences available. However, only a handful of these efflux pumps have been functionally characterized. Deletion of individual efflux pump genes from B. cereus typically had little impact to drug resistance phenotypes or the general fitness of the strains, possibly because of the large numbers of alternative efflux systems that may have overlapping substrate specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the possible transport functions of efflux systems in B. cereus, we undertook large-scale qRT-PCR analyses of efflux pump gene expression following drug shocks and other stress treatments. Clustering of gene expression changes identified several groups of similarly regulated systems that may have overlapping drug resistance functions. In this article we review current

  8. The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus group

    PubMed Central

    Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Vörös, Aniko; Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Simm, Roger; Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Finke, Sarah; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis using our Transporter Automated Annotation Pipeline. More than 90 putative drug efflux systems were found within each of these strains, accounting for up to 2.7% of their protein coding potential. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the efflux systems are highly conserved between these species; 70–80% of the putative efflux pumps were shared between all three strains studied. Furthermore, 82% of the putative efflux system proteins encoded by the prototypical B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 (type strain) were found to be conserved in at least 80% of 169 B. cereus group strains that have high quality genome sequences available. However, only a handful of these efflux pumps have been functionally characterized. Deletion of individual efflux pump genes from B. cereus typically had little impact to drug resistance phenotypes or the general fitness of the strains, possibly because of the large numbers of alternative efflux systems that may have overlapping substrate specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the possible transport functions of efflux systems in B. cereus, we undertook large-scale qRT-PCR analyses of efflux pump gene expression following drug shocks and other stress treatments. Clustering of gene expression changes identified several groups of similarly regulated systems that may have overlapping drug resistance functions. In this article we review current

  9. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria).

    PubMed

    Chiari, Ylenia; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2012-07-27

    The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. These results provide a phylogenetic framework

  10. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  11. Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Victor C.; Li, Gang; Minx, Patrick; Schmitz, Jürgen; Churakov, Gennady; Doronina, Liliya; Melin, Amanda D.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Lim, Norman T-L.; Springer, Mark S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Warren, Wesley C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Colugos are among the most poorly studied mammals despite their centrality to resolving supraordinal primate relationships. Two described species of these gliding mammals are the sole living members of the order Dermoptera, distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We generated a draft genome sequence for a Sunda colugo and a Philippine colugo reference alignment, and used these to identify colugo-specific genetic changes that were enriched in sensory and musculoskeletal-related genes that likely underlie their nocturnal and gliding adaptations. Phylogenomic analysis and catalogs of rare genomic changes overwhelmingly support the contested hypothesis that colugos are the sister group to primates (Primatomorpha), to the exclusion of treeshrews. We captured ~140 kb of orthologous sequence data from colugo museum specimens sampled across their range and identified large genetic differences between many geographically isolated populations that may result in a >300% increase in the number of recognized colugo species. Our results identify conservation units to mitigate future losses of this enigmatic mammalian order. PMID:27532052

  12. Phylogenomic Analyses of Echinodermata Support the Sister Groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general. PMID:25794146

  13. Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general.

  14. Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the sister group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost sisters, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches. PMID:27498754

  15. Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the sister group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost sisters, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches.

  16. Ancestors of trans-splicing mitochondrial introns support serial sister group relationships of hornworts and mosses with vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Groth-Malonek, Milena; Pruchner, Dagmar; Grewe, Felix; Knoop, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Some group II introns in the organelle genomes of plants and algae are disrupted and require trans-splicing of the affected exons from independent transcripts. A peculiar mitochondrial nad5 gene structure is universally conserved in flowering plants where two trans-splicing introns frame a tiny exon of only 22 nucleotides, and two additional conventional group II introns interrupt the nad5 reading frame at other sites. These four introns are absent in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, which carries a group I intron at an unrelated site in nad5. To determine how intron gains and losses have sculptured mitochondrial gene structures in early land-plant evolution, we have investigated the full nad5 gene structures in the three bryophyte classes and the fern Asplenium nidus. We find the single Marchantia group I intron nad5i753 present as the only intervening sequence in both closely (Corsinia and Monoclea) and distantly related (Noteroclada, Bazzania, and Haplomitrium) liverwort genera. In a taxonomically wide spectrum of mosses (Sphagnum, Encalypta, Timmia, Ulota, and Rhacocarpus); however, we additionally identify the angiosperm-type group II introns nad5i230 and nad5i1455. The latter is a cis-arranged homolog to one of the two angiosperm trans-splicing introns, notably the first of its kind in mosses. In the hornwort Anthoceros, the "moss and liverwort-type" group I intron nad5i753 is absent, and, besides nad5i230 and nad5i1455, intron nad5i1477 is present as the second ancestral group II intron which has evolved into a trans-splicing arrangement in angiosperms. The influence of highly frequent RNA editing, most notably in the genera Haplomitrium, Anthoceros, and Asplenium, on phylogenetic tree construction is investigated and discussed. Taken together, the data (1) support a sister group relationship of liverworts as a whole to all other embryophytes, (2) indicate loss of a group I and serial entries of group II introns in the nad5 gene during early evolution of

  17. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution.

    PubMed

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Mead, Jerry V; Goyder, David J; Brannin, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Climate change that increases mortality of plants and pollinators can create mate-finding Allee effects and thus act as a strong selective force on floral morphology. Milkweeds (Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae; Apocynaceae) are typically small plants of seasonally dry habitats, with pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency. Their sister group (tribe Baisseeae and Dewevrella) is mostly comprised of giant lianas of African rainforests, with pollen in monads. Comparison of the two groups motivated a new hypothesis: milkweeds evolved in the context of African aridification and the shifting of rainforest to dry forest. Pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency may have been adaptations that alleviated mate-finding Allee effects generated by high mortality during droughts. We formally tested whether milkweeds have a drier climate niche by comparing milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae) and the milkweed sister group in continental Africa. We georeferenced specimens of the milkweed sister group and Secamonoideae in continental Africa, extracted 19 climatic variables from the Worldclim model, conducted factor analysis to identify correlated suites of variables, and compared the frequency distributions of the two lineages relative to each factor. The distributions of Secamonoideae and the milkweed sister group differed significantly relative to four factors, each correlated with a distinct suite of climate parameters: (1) air temperature (Secamonoideae: cooler), (2) total and (3) summer precipitation (Secamonoideae: drier), and (4) temperature seasonality and isothermality (Secamonoideae: more seasonal and less isothermal). Secamonoideae in continental Africa inhabit drier, cooler sites than do the milkweed sister group, consistent with a shift from rainforests to dry forests in a cooling climate.

  18. One Sister's Story

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues One Sister's Story Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... NIH/NIEHS By Tina Hall Sister Study participant One day in April, after my sister returned from ...

  19. A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, ‘Psocoptera’, Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group

    PubMed Central

    Aldrete, Alfonso N. García; Nieto, Julián A. Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura. PMID:22423192

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    PubMed Central

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  1. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide

    2011-09-20

    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.

  2. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lahcen I.; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pisani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations—comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning—we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods. PMID:21896763

  3. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  4. The desert tortoise trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, new sister-species of tortoise in the Gopherus morafkai–G. agassizii group

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Taylor; Karl, Alice E.; Vaughn, Mercy; Rosen, Philip C.; Torres, Cristina Meléndez; Murphy, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of Gopherus morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern ‘desert’ tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it as Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of Gopherus morafkai to desertscrub habitat only. By contrast, Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats. PMID:27006625

  5. The desert tortoise trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, new sister-species of tortoise in the Gopherus morafkai-G. agassizii group.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Taylor; Karl, Alice E; Vaughn, Mercy; Rosen, Philip C; Torres, Cristina Meléndez; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka's desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of Gopherus morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern 'desert' tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it as Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of Gopherus morafkai to desertscrub habitat only. By contrast, Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats.

  6. A Sister Group Contrast Using Untargeted Global Metabolomic Analysis Delineates the Biochemical Regulation Underlying Desiccation Tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melvin J.; Guo, Lining; Alexander, Danny C.; Ryals, John A.; Wone, Bernard W.M.; Cushman, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how plants tolerate dehydration is a prerequisite for developing novel strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation-tolerant (DT) Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation-sensitive (DS) Sporobolus pyramidalis formed a sister group contrast to reveal adaptive metabolic responses to dehydration using untargeted global metabolomic analysis. Young leaves from both grasses at full hydration or at 60% relative water content (RWC) and from S. stapfianus at lower RWCs were analyzed using liquid and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the two species in the fully hydrated state revealed intrinsic differences between the two metabolomes. S. stapfianus had higher concentrations of osmolytes, lower concentrations of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, and higher concentrations of nitrogen metabolites, suggesting that it is primed metabolically for dehydration stress. Further reduction of the leaf RWC to 60% instigated a metabolic shift in S. stapfianus toward the production of protective compounds, whereas S. pyramidalis responded differently. The metabolomes of S. stapfianus leaves below 40% RWC were strongly directed toward antioxidant production, nitrogen remobilization, ammonia detoxification, and soluble sugar production. Collectively, the metabolic profiles obtained uncovered a cascade of biochemical regulation strategies critical to the survival of S. stapfianus under desiccation. PMID:21467579

  7. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  8. THREE SISTERS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Norman S.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon indicated little promise for the occcurrence of metallic mineral resources. Block pumice suitable for commercial uses occurs at an undeveloped claim at Rock Mesa in the wilderness, but numerous other sources occur outside the wilderness closer to markets. A broad area centered around South Sister volcano is among the most favorable targets for geothermal resources in the Oregon Cascade Range, based on the very young age and large volume of silicic volcanic rocks that occur in this area. Deep exploration holes could be drilled in areas outside the wilderness south of South Sister to provide data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes in the southern part of the area most likely to contain geothermal resources.

  9. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps inmore » our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this

  10. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a raremore » but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains

  11. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Remipedia (Crustacea): support for a sister group relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda?

    PubMed

    Stemme, Torben; Iliffe, Thomas M; von Reumont, Björn M; Koenemann, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Bicker, Gerd

    2013-06-10

    Remipedia were initially seen as a primitive taxon within Pancrustacea based on characters considered ancestral, such as the homonomously segmented trunk. Meanwhile, several morphological and molecular studies proposed a more derived position of Remipedia within Pancrustacea, including a sister group relationship to Hexapoda. Because of these conflicting hypotheses, fresh data are crucial to contribute new insights into euarthropod phylogeny. The architecture of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons has successfully been used for phylogenetic considerations in Euarthropoda. Here, we identified neurons in three species of Remipedia with an antiserum against serotonin and compared our findings to reconstructed ground patterns in other euarthropod taxa. Additionally, we traced neurite connectivity and neuropil outlines using antisera against acetylated α-tubulin and synapsin. The ventral nerve cord of Remipedia displays a typical rope-ladder-like arrangement of separate metameric ganglia linked by paired longitudinally projecting connectives. The peripheral projections comprise an intersegmental nerve, consisting of two branches that fuse shortly after exiting the connectives, and the segmental anterior and posterior nerve. The distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive interneurons in the trunk segments is highly conserved within the remipede species we analyzed, which allows for the reconstruction of a ground pattern: two posterior and one anterior pair of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons that possess a single contralateral projection. Additionally, three pairs of immunoreactive neurons are found in the medial part of each hemiganglion. In one species (Cryptocorynetes haptodiscus), the anterior pair of immunoreactive neurons is missing. The anatomy of the remipede ventral nerve cord with its separate metameric ganglia mirrors the external morphology of the animal's trunk. The rope-ladder-like structure and principal architecture of

  12. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Remipedia (Crustacea): support for a sister group relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Remipedia were initially seen as a primitive taxon within Pancrustacea based on characters considered ancestral, such as the homonomously segmented trunk. Meanwhile, several morphological and molecular studies proposed a more derived position of Remipedia within Pancrustacea, including a sister group relationship to Hexapoda. Because of these conflicting hypotheses, fresh data are crucial to contribute new insights into euarthropod phylogeny. The architecture of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons has successfully been used for phylogenetic considerations in Euarthropoda. Here, we identified neurons in three species of Remipedia with an antiserum against serotonin and compared our findings to reconstructed ground patterns in other euarthropod taxa. Additionally, we traced neurite connectivity and neuropil outlines using antisera against acetylated α-tubulin and synapsin. Results The ventral nerve cord of Remipedia displays a typical rope-ladder-like arrangement of separate metameric ganglia linked by paired longitudinally projecting connectives. The peripheral projections comprise an intersegmental nerve, consisting of two branches that fuse shortly after exiting the connectives, and the segmental anterior and posterior nerve. The distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive interneurons in the trunk segments is highly conserved within the remipede species we analyzed, which allows for the reconstruction of a ground pattern: two posterior and one anterior pair of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons that possess a single contralateral projection. Additionally, three pairs of immunoreactive neurons are found in the medial part of each hemiganglion. In one species (Cryptocorynetes haptodiscus), the anterior pair of immunoreactive neurons is missing. Conclusions The anatomy of the remipede ventral nerve cord with its separate metameric ganglia mirrors the external morphology of the animal’s trunk. The rope

  13. Grouping and characterization of putative glycosyltransferase genes from Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-15

    Glycosyltransferases are members of the multigene family of plants that can transfer single or multiple activated sugars to a range of plant molecules, resulting in the glycosylation of plant compounds. Although the activities of many glycosyltransferases and their products have been recognized for a long time, only in recent years were some glycosyltransferase genes identified and few have been functionally characterized in detail. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), belonging to Araliaceae, has been well known as a popular mysterious medicinal herb in East Asia for over 2,000 years. A total of 704 glycosyltransferase unique sequences have been found from a ginseng expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and these sequences encode enzymes responsible for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Finally, twelve UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in triterpenoid synthesis. In this study, we classified the candidate P. ginseng UGTs (PgUGTs) into proper families and groups, which resulted in eight UGT families and six UGT groups. We also investigated those gene candidates encoding for glycosyltransferases by analysis of gene expression in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated ginseng adventitious roots and different tissues from four-year-old ginseng using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For organ-specific expression, most of PgUGT transcription levels were higher in leaves and roots compared with flower buds and stems. The transcription of PgUGTs in adventitious roots treated with MeJA increased as compared with the control. PgUGT1 and PgUGT2, which belong to the UGT71 family genes expressed in MeJA-treated adventitious roots, were especially sensitive, showing 33.32 and 38.88-fold expression increases upon 24h post-treatments, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel group I introns encoding a putative homing endonuclease in the mitochondrial cox1 gene of Scleractinian corals.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Hironobu; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Chiou, Chi-Yung; Knowlton, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    Analyses of mitochondrial sequences revealed the existence of a group I intron in the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene in 13 of 41 genera (20 out of 73 species) of corals conventionally assigned to the suborder Faviina. With one exception, phylogenies of the coral cox1 gene and its intron were concordant, suggesting at most two insertions and many subsequent losses. The coral introns were inferred to encode a putative homing endonuclease with a LAGLI-DADG motif as reported for the cox1 group I intron in the sea anemone Metridium senile. However, the coral and sea anemone cox1 group I introns differed in several aspects, such as the intron insertion site and sequence length. The coral cox1 introns most closely resemble the mitochondrial cox1 group I introns of a sponge species, which also has the same insertion site. The coral introns are also more similar to the introns of several fungal species than to that of the sea anemone (although the insertion site differs in the fungi). This suggests either a horizontal transfer between a sponge and a coral or independent transfers from a similar fungal donor (perhaps one with an identical insertion site that has not yet been discovered). The common occurrence of this intron in corals strengthens the evidence for an elevated abundance of group I introns in the mitochondria of anthozoans.

  15. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  16. The Genomes, Proteomes, and Structures of Three Novel Phages That Infect the Bacillus cereus Group and Carry Putative Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Belnap, David M.; Jensen, Jordan D.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. IMPORTANCE The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding

  17. Multilocus analysis of extracellular putative virulence proteins made by group A Streptococcus: population genetics, human serologic response, and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Reid, S D; Green, N M; Buss, J K; Lei, B; Musser, J M

    2001-06-19

    Species of pathogenic microbes are composed of an array of evolutionarily distinct chromosomal genotypes characterized by diversity in gene content and sequence (allelic variation). The occurrence of substantial genetic diversity has hindered progress in developing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of virulence and new therapeutics such as vaccines. To provide new information that bears on these issues, 11 genes encoding extracellular proteins in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus identified by analysis of four genomes were studied. Eight of the 11 genes encode proteins with a LPXTG(L) motif that covalently links Gram-positive virulence factors to the bacterial cell surface. Sequence analysis of the 11 genes in 37 geographically and phylogenetically diverse group A Streptococcus strains cultured from patients with different infection types found that recent horizontal gene transfer has contributed substantially to chromosomal diversity. Regions of the inferred proteins likely to interact with the host were identified by molecular population genetic analysis, and Western immunoblot analysis with sera from infected patients confirmed that they were antigenic. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (TaqMan) assays found that transcription of six of the 11 genes was substantially up-regulated in the stationary phase. In addition, transcription of many genes was influenced by the covR and mga trans-acting gene regulatory loci. Multilocus investigation of putative virulence genes by the integrated approach described herein provides an important strategy to aid microbial pathogenesis research and rapidly identify new targets for therapeutics research.

  18. Analysis of the floral transcriptome of Tarenaya hassleriana (Cleomaceae), a member of the sister group to the Brassicaceae: towards understanding the base of morphological diversity in Brassicales.

    PubMed

    Bhide, Amey; Schliesky, Simon; Reich, Marlis; Weber, Andreas P M; Becker, Annette

    2014-02-19

    Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the Brassicaceae family is the dominant genetic model plant. However, while the flowers within the Brassicaceae members are rather uniform, mainly radially symmetrical, mostly white with fixed organ numbers, species within the Cleomaceae, the sister family to the Brassicaceae show a more variable floral morphology. We were interested in understanding the molecular basis for these morphological differences. To this end, the floral transcriptome of a hybrid Tarenaya hassleriana, a Cleomaceae with monosymmetric, bright purple flowers was sequenced, annotated and analyzed in respect to floral regulators. We obtained a comprehensive floral transcriptome with high depth and coverage close to saturation analyzed using rarefaction analysis a method well known in biodiversity studies. Gene expression was analyzed by calculating reads per kilobase gene model per million reads (RPKM) and for selected genes in silico expression data was corroborated by qRT-PCR analysis. Candidate transcription factors were identified based on differences in expression pattern between A. thaliana and T. hassleriana, which are likely key regulators of the T. hassleriana specific floral characters such as coloration and male sterility in the hybrid plant used. Analysis of lineage specific genes was carried out with members of the fabids and malvids. The floral transcriptome of T. hassleriana provides insights into key pathways involved in the regulation of late anthocyanin biosynthesis, male fertility, flowering time and organ growth regulation which are unique traits compared the model organism A. thaliana. Analysis of lineage specific genes carried out with members of the fabids and malvids suggests an extensive gene birth rate in the lineage leading to core Brassicales while only few genes were potentially lost during core Brassicales evolution, which possibly reflects the result of the At-β whole genome duplication. Our analysis should facilitate further

  19. Analysis of the floral transcriptome of Tarenaya hassleriana (Cleomaceae), a member of the sister group to the Brassicaceae: towards understanding the base of morphological diversity in Brassicales

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of the Brassicaceae family is the dominant genetic model plant. However, while the flowers within the Brassicaceae members are rather uniform, mainly radially symmetrical, mostly white with fixed organ numbers, species within the Cleomaceae, the sister family to the Brassicaceae show a more variable floral morphology. We were interested in understanding the molecular basis for these morphological differences. To this end, the floral transcriptome of a hybrid Tarenaya hassleriana, a Cleomaceae with monosymmetric, bright purple flowers was sequenced, annotated and analyzed in respect to floral regulators. Results We obtained a comprehensive floral transcriptome with high depth and coverage close to saturation analyzed using rarefaction analysis a method well known in biodiversity studies. Gene expression was analyzed by calculating reads per kilobase gene model per million reads (RPKM) and for selected genes in silico expression data was corroborated by qRT-PCR analysis. Candidate transcription factors were identified based on differences in expression pattern between A. thaliana and T. hassleriana, which are likely key regulators of the T. hassleriana specific floral characters such as coloration and male sterility in the hybrid plant used. Analysis of lineage specific genes was carried out with members of the fabids and malvids. Conclusions The floral transcriptome of T. hassleriana provides insights into key pathways involved in the regulation of late anthocyanin biosynthesis, male fertility, flowering time and organ growth regulation which are unique traits compared the model organism A. thaliana. Analysis of lineage specific genes carried out with members of the fabids and malvids suggests an extensive gene birth rate in the lineage leading to core Brassicales while only few genes were potentially lost during core Brassicales evolution, which possibly reflects the result of the At-β whole genome duplication. Our

  20. Where are Sedna's Sisters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2005-05-01

    Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q < a, q > 50 AU, and a < 5000-10000 AU. Brown (2005) calls this void the ``Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 π / lambdao and the 'wavelength' λ o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

  1. Generativity in Elderly Oblate Sisters of Providence

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Hannum, Susan M.; Rubinstein, Robert L.; de Medeiros, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explored how generativity and well-being merged in a group of childless older women: African and Hispanic Roman Catholic Religious Sisters, linking two minority identity characteristics. Design and Methods: We qualitatively interviewed 8 Oblate Sisters of Providence (OSP), by providing a framework for examining the range of the women’s generativity—cultural spheres in which generativity is rooted and outlets for generativity. Results: Early negative experiences, such as fleeing despotism in Haiti and Cuba and racism within the Catholic Church, occurred alongside positive experiences—families who stressed education, and Caucasian Religious who taught children of color. This became a foundation for the Sister’s generative commitment. Implications: Findings highlight that research gains from a phenomenological understanding of how religious faith promotes generative cognitions and emotions. Findings also reveal that the experiences of a subculture in society—African-American elderly women religious—add to theories and definitions of generativity. PMID:25352535

  2. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the

  3. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations

  4. Generativity in Elderly Oblate Sisters of Providence.

    PubMed

    Black, Helen K; Hannum, Susan M; Rubinstein, Robert L; de Medeiros, Kate

    2016-06-01

    We explored how generativity and well-being merged in a group of childless older women: African and Hispanic Roman Catholic Religious Sisters, linking two minority identity characteristics. We qualitatively interviewed 8 Oblate Sisters of Providence (OSP), by providing a framework for examining the range of the women's generativity-cultural spheres in which generativity is rooted and outlets for generativity. Early negative experiences, such as fleeing despotism in Haiti and Cuba and racism within the Catholic Church, occurred alongside positive experiences-families who stressed education, and Caucasian Religious who taught children of color. This became a foundation for the Sister's generative commitment. Findings highlight that research gains from a phenomenological understanding of how religious faith promotes generative cognitions and emotions. Findings also reveal that the experiences of a subculture in society-African-American elderly women religious-add to theories and definitions of generativity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Tale of Two Sisters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    How many children benefit in many diverse ways through art and/or design? Their personalities may draw different benefits and attributes, but that attests to its wide scope. This article relates a brief story of two sisters. The author describes how the siblings' different personalities played a role in their success.

  6. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  7. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor"…

  8. Fulfilling the sisters' promise. The heritage of healthcare's early days.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1997-01-01

    Members of religious orders--the sisters--built not just Catholic healthcare, but healthcare in America. A good 50 years before Henry and Edgar Kaiser got the idea, prepaid capitated health insurance was being offered by sisters who looked at what was needed and realized this was simply the best way to get it done. The sisters also created the integrated healthcare system at a time when the emerging medical elite wanted nothing to do with any patient who was not socially acceptable and potentially curable. They arranged a continuum of care for the aging sisters within their own communities. And they understood the concept of social medicine, of population-based healthcare, of healthy communities, long before these ideas became commonplace. But the sisters are gone, most of them. The question today is, How do we preserve the sisters' heritage and transfer it to a new millennium, a new healthcare system, and a new set of rules? First, it is important to understand that much of what we remember the sisters for--courage, compassion, vision-was not unique. They created many of the structures that today are the new models; but they were not alone. However, three aspects of how they expressed their vision and their faith were unique to the sisters and must be understood by those who wish to treat the path the sisters blazed. The purity of their commitment and its underlying philosophy--that the helpless and the sick must always be the point of the exercise--should pervade Catholic healthcare to its soul. These women, living in poverty, represented, and still represent, a singular group: a group of women who, having told the world that their only wish is to serve others, humble became CEOs of vast systems and trustees of huge enterprises, without ever abandoning that simple, original pledge. Although they bowed to the rule of obedience, and they were humble, the were fighters. They spoke out against poverty, bigotry, the shunning of those with certain diseases, lack of

  9. Complete genome sequence analysis and identification of putative metallo-beta-lactamase and SpoIIIE homologs in Bacillus cereus group phage BCP8-2, a new member of the proposed Bastille-like group.

    PubMed

    Asare, Paul Tetteh; Bandara, Nadeeka; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Klumpp, Jochen; Kim, Kwang-Pyo

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus group-specific bacteriophage BCP8-2 exhibits a broad lysis spectrum among food and human isolates (330/364) of B. cereus while not infecting B. subtilis (50) or B. licheniformis (12) strains. Its genome is 159,071 bp long with 220 open reading frames, including genes for putative methyltransferases, metallo-beta-lactamase, and a sporulation-related SpoIIIE homolog, as wells as 18 tRNAs. Comparative genome analysis showed that BCP8-2 is related to the recently proposed Bastille-like phages, but not with either SPO1-like or Twort-like phages of the subfamily Spounavirinae.

  10. Putative new genera and species of avian schistosomes potentially involved in human cercarial dermatitis in the Americas, Europe and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson A; Pulido-Murillo, Eduardo A; de Melo, Alan L; Brant, Sara V

    2017-12-01

    New larval avian schistosomes found in planorbid snails from Brazil and USA were used for morphological and molecular studies. Eggs with a distinctive long polar filament were found in ducks infected experimentally with Brazilian cercariae. Similar eggs were reported previously in wild or experimentally infected anatids from Brazil, South Africa, and the Czech Republic. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the North American and European schistosomes are sister taxa, which are both sister to the Brazilian species. However, these clades do not group with any named genus. Molecular data plus egg morphology suggest that these are new putative genera and species of avian schistosomes that can cause human cercarial dermatitis in the Americas, Africa and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Two sisters with lung emphysema].

    PubMed

    Piscaer, I; Franssen, F M E; Ten Hacken, N H T; Wouters, E F M; Janssen, R

    2016-01-01

    α1-antitrypsin is an antiprotease that is mainly produced in the liver; it plays a crucial role in the protection of lung parenchyma against the destructive effects of proteases. Mutations in the α1-antitrypsin gene can cause α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Individuals homozygous for the Z-genotype have drastically lowered serum α1-antitrypsine concentrations and often develop lung emphysema at an early age. A 38-year-old woman and her 43-year-old sister both developed lung emphysema at an early age; this could be attributed to severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency. The only treatment for this condition is α1-antitrypsin supplement therapy, but this therapy is not reimbursed by health insurance companies in the Netherlands. α1-antitrypsin deficiency is a relatively rare cause of lung emphysema and can be seen as an orphan phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We appeal for reconsideration of coverage of α1-antitrypsine supplement therapy by basic health insurance in the Netherlands, on the basis of a recent randomised placebo-controlled study in which the protective effect of this therapy on progressive emphysema was demonstrated by CT lung densitometry.

  12. Social environment and reproduction in female European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): benefits of the presence of litter sisters.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett; Bruchner, Barbara; von Holst, Dietrich

    2008-02-01

    The authors investigated in an observational study the consequences of the presence of litter sisters on the social interactions and on reproductive performance of young female European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a population living under seminatural conditions. In early winter, when all young females were settled in a social group, they were characterized by the presence or absence of litter sisters in their groups. Females with litter sisters in their groups displayed significantly more positive social interaction with females of their social group compared to females without sisters, whereas this difference was mainly due to the high frequency of positive social interactions among the respective sisters. Such differences between the females of both categories were already apparent during the animals' juvenile phase, before the females integrated into a particular group: females which later had litter sisters in their group showed more positive social behavior than females which later no longer had litter sisters. During their first breeding season, females with litter sisters present generally started to breed earlier by an average of 14 days. A more favorable social environment might have possibly facilitated the earlier onset of breeding in females with present litter sisters by attenuating the negative consequences of stress. (c) 2008 APA.

  13. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller

  14. Analyzing sister chromatid cohesion in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Katherine M; McFarlane-Majeed, Laura; Parish, Joanna L

    2014-01-01

    The metaphase chromosome spread technique and subsequent analysis of sister chromatid cohesion is used for (clinical) diagnosis of genetic abnormalities that can cause aberrant sister chromatid cohesion. In addition, the technique can be used to assess the contribution of novel genes to the cohesion establishment and maintenance pathways. Cells are swelled in a hypotonic solution and fixed in Carnoy's solution. Samples are then dropped onto glass slides, and the spread chromosomes are stained and visualized by microscopy. Defects in sister chromatid cohesion can be easily assessed using this method, examples of which are given.

  15. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Triassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Corwin; Liu, Jun; Butler, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs) following the Permo–Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower–Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’, and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no apomorphies or unique

  16. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Triassic of China.

    PubMed

    Sookias, Roland B; Sullivan, Corwin; Liu, Jun; Butler, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs) following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower-Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis', and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no apomorphies or unique character combination

  17. Improved Modeling of Compositional Heterogeneity Supports Sponges as Sister to All Other Animals.

    PubMed

    Feuda, Roberto; Dohrmann, Martin; Pett, Walker; Philippe, Hervé; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert; Pisani, Davide

    2017-12-18

    The relationships at the root of the animal tree have proven difficult to resolve, with the current debate focusing on whether sponges (phylum Porifera) or comb jellies (phylum Ctenophora) are the sister group of all other animals [1-5]. The choice of evolutionary models seems to be at the core of the problem because Porifera tends to emerge as the sister group of all other animals ("Porifera-sister") when site-specific amino acid differences are modeled (e.g., [6, 7]), whereas Ctenophora emerges as the sister group of all other animals ("Ctenophora-sister") when they are ignored (e.g., [8-11]). We show that two key phylogenomic datasets that previously supported Ctenophora-sister [10, 12] display strong heterogeneity in amino acid composition across sites and taxa and that no routinely used evolutionary model can adequately describe both forms of heterogeneity. We show that data-recoding methods [13-15] reduce compositional heterogeneity in these datasets and that models accommodating site-specific amino acid preferences can better describe the recoded datasets. Increased model adequacy is associated with significant topological changes in support of Porifera-sister. Because adequate modeling of the evolutionary process that generated the data is fundamental to recovering an accurate phylogeny [16-20], our results strongly support sponges as the sister group of all other animals and provide further evidence that Ctenophora-sister represents a tree reconstruction artifact. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2014-03-07

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities.

  19. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  20. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  1. Co-segregation of yeast plasmid sisters under monopolin-directed mitosis suggests association of plasmid sisters with sister chromatids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Ting; Ma, Chien-Hui; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2013-01-01

    The 2-micron plasmid, a high copy extrachromosomal element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, propagates itself with nearly the same stability as the chromosomes of its host. Plasmid stability is conferred by a partitioning system consisting of the plasmid-coded proteins Rep1 and Rep2 and a cis-acting locus STB. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the partitioning system couples plasmid segregation to chromosome segregation during mitosis. However, the coupling mechanism has not been elucidated. In order to probe into this question more incisively, we have characterized the segregation of a single-copy STB reporter plasmid by manipulating mitosis to force sister chromatids to co-segregate either without mother–daughter bias or with a finite daughter bias. We find that the STB plasmid sisters are tightly correlated to sister chromatids in the extents of co-segregation as well as the bias in co-segregation under these conditions. Furthermore, this correlation is abolished by delaying spindle organization or preventing cohesin assembly during a cell cycle. Normal segregation of the 2-micron plasmid has been shown to require spindle integrity and the cohesin complex. Our results are accommodated by a model in which spindle- and cohesin-dependent association of plasmid sisters with sister chromatids promotes their segregation by a hitchhiking mechanism. PMID:23423352

  2. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under ‘budding’ speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister–non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities

  3. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given birth. Youth are studied at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. In both studies, girls provide more hours of care than boys, and in Study 1, girls' hours of care significantly increase with age whereas boys' hours of caretaking decrease. Girls provide more care when their sisters are older and when their mothers provide many hours of care, whereas boys provide less care when their mothers provide more care and when they have many siblings. Results of both studies reveal age, gender, and across-time differences in the extent of care, type of caretaking activities, and experiences in providing care. PMID:24353362

  4. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    PubMed Central

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  5. Incomplete sister chromatid separation of long chromosome arms.

    PubMed

    Rens, W; Torosantucci, L; Degrassi, F; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome segregation ensures the equal partitioning of chromosomes at mitosis. However, long chromosome arms may pose a problem for complete sister chromatid separation. In this paper we report on the analysis of cell division in primary cells from field vole Microtus agrestis, a species with 52 chromosomes including two giant sex chromosomes. Dual chromosome painting with probes specific for the X and the Y chromosomes showed that these long chromosomes are prone to mis-segregate, producing DNA bridges between daughter nuclei and micronuclei. Analysis of mitotic cells with incomplete chromatid separation showed that reassembly of the nuclear membrane, deposition of INner CENtromere Protein (INCENP)/Aurora B to the spindle midzone and furrow formation occur while the two groups of daughter chromosomes are still connected by sex chromosome arms. Late cytokinetic processes are not efficiently inhibited by the incomplete segregation as in a significant number of cell divisions cytoplasmic abscission proceeds while Aurora B is at the midbody. Live-cell imaging during late mitotic stages also revealed abnormal cell division with persistent sister chromatid connections. We conclude that late mitotic regulatory events do not monitor incomplete sister chromatid separation of the large X and Y chromosomes of Microtus agrestis, leading to defective segregation of these chromosomes. These findings suggest a limit in chromosome arm length for efficient chromosome transmission through mitosis.

  6. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... have or have had breast cancer, the Sister Study is helping uncover clues that may ultimately eliminate this dreaded disease. We all know that breast cancer does not discriminate. Whether a woman is in her 30s or over 65, Asian American or African American, executive or laborer, this disease is a ...

  7. Sisters at Work: Career and Community Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briody, Elizabeth K.; Sullivan, Teresa A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examine occupational differentiation of U.S. Catholic nuns before and since the Second Vatican Council. Data were collected from interviews with 30 sisters representing 11 congregations. The analysis relates the diversification of their careers to changes in ideology and life-style and to the changing demographic and financial status…

  8. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Help when a brother or sister has cancer. Learn how families cope and find support when a sibling has cancer. Tips to help you talk with your friends, deal with stress, and take care of your mind and body are also shared.

  9. Reduction of the nitro group to amine by hydroiodic acid to synthesize o-aminophenol derivatives as putative degradative markers of neuromelanin.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Tanaka, Hitomi; Tabuchi, Keisuke; Ojika, Makoto; Zucca, Fabio A; Zecca, Luigi; Ito, Shosuke

    2014-06-16

    Neuromelanin (NM) is produced in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and in noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC). The synthesis of NM in those neurons is a component of brain aging and there is the evidence that this pigment can be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. NM is believed to derive from the oxidative polymerization of dopamine (DA) or norepinephrine (NE) with the participation of cysteine, dolichols and proteins. However, there are still unknown aspects in the chemical structure of NM from SN (SN-NM) and LC (LC-NM). In this study, we designed a new method to synthesize o-aminophenol compounds as putative degradation products of catecholamines and their metabolites which may be incorporated into NM. Those compounds are aminohydroxyphenylethylamine (AHPEA) isomers, aminohydroxyphenylacetic acid (AHPAA) isomers and aminohydroxyethylbenzene (AHEB) isomers, which are expected to arise from DA or NE, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylmandelic acid (DOMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (DOPE) or 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DOPEG), respectively. These o-aminophenol compounds were synthesized by the nitration of phenol derivatives followed by reduction with hydroiodic acid (HI), and they could be identified by HPLC in HI hydrolysates of SN-NM and LC-NM. This degradative approach by HI hydrolysis allows the identification of catecholic precursors unique to SN-NM and LC-NM, which are present in catecholaminergic neurons.

  10. Unbiased whole-genome deep sequencing of human and porcine stool samples reveals circulation of multiple groups of rotaviruses and a putative zoonotic infection

    PubMed Central

    Phan, My V. T.; Anh, Pham Hong; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Munnink, Bas B. Oude; van der Hoek, Lia; My, Phuc Tran; Tri, Tue Ngo; Bryant, Juliet E.; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Woolhouse, Mark; Kellam, Paul; Rabaa, Maia A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coordinated and synchronous surveillance for zoonotic viruses in both human clinical cases and animal reservoirs provides an opportunity to identify interspecies virus movement. Rotavirus (RV) is an important cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals. In this study, we document the RV diversity within co-located humans and animals sampled from the Mekong delta region of Vietnam using a primer-independent, agnostic, deep sequencing approach. A total of 296 stool samples (146 from diarrhoeal human patients and 150 from pigs living in the same geographical region) were directly sequenced, generating the genomic sequences of sixty human rotaviruses (all group A) and thirty-one porcine rotaviruses (thirteen group A, seven group B, six group C, and five group H). Phylogenetic analyses showed the co-circulation of multiple distinct RV group A (RVA) genotypes/strains, many of which were divergent from the strain components of licensed RVA vaccines, as well as considerable virus diversity in pigs including full genomes of rotaviruses in groups B, C, and H, none of which have been previously reported in Vietnam. Furthermore, the detection of an atypical RVA genotype constellation (G4-P[6]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1) in a human patient and a pig from the same region provides some evidence for a zoonotic event. PMID:28748110

  11. Vitamin B₁₂ biosynthesis gene diversity in the Ross Sea: the identification of a new group of putative polar B₁₂ biosynthesizers.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Erin M; Saito, Mak A; Jeon, Young Jae; Neilan, Brett A

    2011-05-01

    Vitamin B₁₂, a cobalt-containing micronutrient, has been shown to limit phytoplankton growth in the Ross Sea of the Southern Ocean. However, B₁₂ biosynthesis potential in this environment remains uncharacterized. Select bacteria and archaea synthesize B₁₂ while many phytoplankton require it for growth. Low ratios of bacterial biomass production to primary productivity and high concentrations of labile cobalt in Antarctic surface water suggest that factors controlling bacterial growth rather than cobalt availability may determine vitamin production rates here. In order to assess B₁₂ biosynthesis potential, degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers were designed to target the genetic locus cbiA/cobB, encoding cobyrinic acid a,c-diamide synthase, a B₁₂ biosynthesis protein. Sequencing the DNA compliment of Ross Sea 16S rRNA (see Supporting information) allowed targeting of cbiA/cobB probes to dominant bacterial groups. CbiA/cobB DNA sequences were successfully identified in clone libraries from the Ross Sea. To our knowledge, this study represents the first targeted molecular characterization of environmental B₁₂ biosynthesis potential. A newly identified group of cbiA/cobB sequences dominated the diversity of the sequences retrieved; their expression was confirmed via mass spectrometry-based peptide detection. These sequences seem to have originated from a previously undescribed group of bacteria that could dominate the B₁₂ biosynthesizing community in polar systems. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, M.M.M.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affectedmore » by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.« less

  13. Putative new groups of invertebrate water channels based on the snail Helix pomatia L. (Helicidae) MIP protein identification and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kosicka, Ewa; Grobys, Daria; Kmita, Hanna; Lesicki, Andrzej; Pieńkowska, Joanna R

    2016-12-01

    Water channel proteins, classified as a family of Membrane Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) superfamily, enable rapid movement of water and small uncharged molecules through biological membranes. Although water channel proteins are required in several important processes characteristic for the animals, such as osmoregulation, mucus secretion, or defense against desiccation, molluscs, until now, have been very poorly explored in this aspect. Therefore, we decided to study MIPs in Helix pomatia L. applied as a model in studies on terrestrial snail physiology. Our studies consisted in: the snail organ transcriptome sequencing and consecutive bioinformatic analysis of the predicted protein, estimation of the encoding transcript expression (qPCR), investigation of the predicted protein function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the phylogenetic analysis. We identified six water channel proteins, named HpAQP1 to HpAQP6. All of them were proven to transport water, two of them (HpAQP3 and HpAQP4) were also shown to be able to transport glycerol, and other two (HpAQP5 and HpAQP6) to transport H 2 O 2 . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the proteins either fell into aquaporins (HpAQP1, HpAQP2 and HpAQP5) or formed new groups of invertebrate water channel proteins, not described until now, that we suggest to term malacoglyceroporins (HpAQP3 and HpAQP4) and malacoaquaporins (HpAQP6). Thus, the classification of animal water channels based on the vertebrate proteins and including aquaporin, aquaglyceroporin, S-aquaporin and AQP8-type grades does not reflect diversity of these proteins in invertebrates. The obtained results provide important data concerning diversity of water channel protein repertoire in aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and should also contribute to the improvement of animal water channel classification system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Sister Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M.: Founder of the Sister Formation Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisky, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M., (1916-2001) used her talents and charisma to shape the first national organization of American women religious, the Sister Formation Conference (SFC; 1954-1964), facilitating the integrated intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and professional development of vowed women religious. In the decade preceding Vatican II, her…

  15. Persistent mechanical linkage between sister chromatids throughout anaphase.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin D; Hoang, Margaret L; Bloom, Kerry

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, we have found that sister rDNA arrays marked with fluorescent probes can be visualized as two distinguishable strands during metaphase. Upon anaphase, these arm loci are drawn into the spindle, where they adopt a cruciform-like structure and stretch 2.5-fold as they migrate to the poles. Therefore, while sister rDNA arrays appear separated in metaphase, mechanical linkages between sister arm loci persist throughout anaphase in yeast, as shown in grasshopper spermatocytes (Paliulis and Nicklas 2004). These linkages are partially dependent on the protector of cohesin, SGO1. In anaphase, the spatially regulated dissolution of these mechanical linkages serves to prevent premature sister separation and restrain the rate of spindle elongation. Thus, sister separation is temporally controlled and linkages between sister chromatids contribute to the regulation of anaphase spindle elongation.

  16. Breaking the Cycle of Teenage Pregnancy: Prevention Opportunities Focusing on the Younger Sisters of Teen Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an under-recognized target population for adolescent pregnancy prevention: the younger sisters of childbearing teens. Data from several studies highlight several potential prepregnancy-risk characteristics that are particularly present in this group. These young women have disproportionately higher rates of early pregnancy and…

  17. 40 CFR 79.65 - In vivo sister chromatid exchange assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) assay detects the ability of a chemical to enhance the exchange of DNA between two sister chromatids of... ligation of at least two DNA helices. (c) Test method—(1) Principle of the test method. (i) Groups of... is considered not to induce rearrangements of DNA segments in this system. (iii) Both biological and...

  18. Exploring Undergraduate Black Womyn's Motivations for Engaging in "Sister Circle" Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Natasha N.; Beatty, Cameron C.; Acker, Lorraine D.; Butler, Malika

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this critical qualitative inquiry was to explore what motivated undergraduate Black womyn (UBW) to engage in "Sister Circle"-type student organizations--or groups that center race and gender. Using a critical race feminist theoretical lens, data were collected through a combination of one-on-one interviews and focus…

  19. EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the

  20. The Sisters of Mercy in the Crimean War: Lessons for Catholic health care

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Mary Raphael; Hart, Edith Mary; O’Brien, Mary Judith

    2017-01-01

    In 1856, an appeal went out to nurses in both England and Ireland, and especially to religious nurses, to care for the troops fighting in the Crimean War. The Sisters of Mercy, founded in 1831 by Venerable Catherine McAuley, answered that call. This article describes the enormous challenges the Sisters faced in that mission, which was a test of their nursing skills, flexibility, organizational ability, and their spirit of mercy. The challenges they faced professionally and as religious Sisters, the manner in which they faced those challenges, and their spiritual lives as religious women shaped their ability to give comprehensive care. Some applications are made to the challenges which religious communities and organizations working in health care face in our country at this time. Summary: This article describes the challenges faced by a group of Sisters of Mercy from England and Ireland who volunteered to serve as nurses in the Crimean War from 1856 to 1858. Applications are made to challenges which are faced by religious communities and organizations in the current secular healthcare environment. PMID:28392597

  1. Brother-sister marriage in Roman Egypt.

    PubMed

    Scheidel, W

    1997-07-01

    According to official census returns from Roman Egypt (first to third centuries CE) preserved on papyrus, 23.5% of all documented marriages in the Arsinoites district in the Fayum (n = 102) were between brothers and sisters. In the second century CE, the rates were 37% in the city of Arsinoe and 18.9% in the surrounding villages. Documented pedigrees suggest a minimum mean level of inbreeding equivalent to a coefficient of inbreeding of 0.0975 in second century CE Arsinoe. Undocumented sources of inbreeding and an estimate based on the frequency of close-kin unions (corrected downwards to 30% for Arsinoe) indicate a mean coefficient of inbreeding of F = 0.15-0.20 in Arsinoe and of F = 0.10-0.15 in the villages at the end of the second century CE. These values are several times as high as any other documented levels of inbreeding. A schematic estimate of inbreeding depression in the offspring of full sibling couples indicates that fertility in these families had to be 20-50% above average to attain reproduction at replacement level. In the absence of information on the amount of genetic load in this population, this estimate may be too high.

  2. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  3. Group Psychotherapy with Long-Term Inpatients: Application of a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Shelley, Eric; Wendel, Sandra

    1988-01-01

    Describes group psychotherapy at an inpatient, psychiatric hospital serving priests, nuns, and religious brothers. Discusses formation of and differences among four groups: a low-level group for sisters; an interactional group for sisters; a high-level, Gestalt-oriented group for sisters; and an interactional group for priests and brothers. (ABL)

  4. The Putative Cerean Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorghofer, Norbert; Byrne, Shane; Landis, Margaret E.; Mazarico, Erwan; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Schmidt, Britney E.; Villarreal, Michaela N.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2017-11-01

    The ice-rich crust of dwarf planet 1 Ceres is the source of a tenuous water exosphere, and the behavior of this putative exosphere is investigated with model calculations. Outgassing water molecules seasonally condense around the winter pole in an optically thin layer. This seasonal cap reaches an estimated mass of at least 2× {10}3 {kg}, and the aphelion summer pole may even retain water throughout summer. If this reservoir is suddenly released by a solar energetic particle event, it would form a denser transient water exosphere. Our model calculations also explore species other than H2O. Light exospheric species escape rapidly from Ceres due to its low gravity, and hence their exospheres dissipate soon after their respective source has faded. For example, the theoretical turn-over time in a water exosphere is only 7 hr. A significant fraction of CO2 and SO2 molecules can get trapped and stored in perennially shadowed regions at the current spin axis orientation, but not at the higher spin axis tilt, leaving H2O as the only common volatile expected to accumulate in polar cold traps over long timescales. The D/H fractionation during migration to the cold traps is only about 10%.

  5. Sister trajectories and locality in multiloop string scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.

    1995-04-15

    The multiloop corrections to the high energy behavior of four-tachyon scattering are studied in string theory. In the limit of high center-of-mass energy, [ital s][r arrow][infinity], for fixed transfer momentum squared, [ital t], we obtain the Regge behavior of the first sister'' trajectory in two-loop scattering. The multiloop-generated sisters are found to be independent of propagator twists, which are necessary for exposing tree-level sisters. The presence of these trajectories in higher order loop diagrams may be sufficient for string theory to be consistent nonperturbatively with locality.

  6. Breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease in two sisters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Canellos, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two sisters had breast cancer at four years and 11 years after diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The affected breast tissues had received several hundred rads of scatter radiation during treatment of the lymphoma. Family history revealed breast cancer in a third sister and five other women in the paternal line. Cytogenetic and HLA studies showed no markers of susceptibility to neoplasia. Development of second primary neoplasms of the breast in the two sisters may have resulted from interactions between genetic factors and carcinogenic effects of radiation exposure.

  7. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines procedures for demonstrating and preparing a permanent slide of sister chromatid exchanges and recombination events between the two chromatids of a single chromosome. Provides the name of an additional resource for making preparations of exchanges. (RT)

  8. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Krishna K; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L; Asbury, Charles L

    2014-10-10

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Chloroplast Phylogenomics Indicates that Ginkgo biloba Is Sister to Cycads

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo–cycad sister-group hypothesis. PMID:23315384

  10. Volcano hazards in the Three Sisters region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Iverson, R.M.; Schilling, S.P.; Fisher, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three potentially active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. Two types of volcanoes exist in the Three Sisters region and each poses distinct hazards to people and property. South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top, major composite volcanoes clustered near the center of the region, have erupted repeatedly over tens of thousands of years and may erupt explosively in the future. In contrast, mafic volcanoes, which range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater, are typically short-lived (weeks to centuries) and erupt less explosively than do composite volcanoes. Hundreds of mafic volcanoes scattered through the Three Sisters region are part of a much longer zone along the High Cascades of Oregon in which birth of new mafic volcanoes is possible. This report describes the types of hazardous events that can occur in the Three Sisters region and the accompanying volcano-hazard-zonation map outlines areas that could be at risk from such events. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the

  11. Genetic toxicology of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.A.; Stack, H.F.; Waters, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The report examines a group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been cited in the published literature. Using short-term test data from the US Environmental Protection Agency/International Agency for Research on Cancer genetic activity profile (EPA/IARC GAP) database, these agents are classified on the basis of their mutagenicity emphasizing three genetic endpoints: gene mutation, chromosomal aberration and aneuploidy. On the basis of results of short-term tests for these effects, criteria was defined for evidence of mutagenicity (and nonmutagenicity) these criteria were applied in classifying the group of putative nongenotoxic carcinogens. The results from this evaluation based on the EPA/IARC GAPmore » database are presented along with a summary of the short-term test data for each chemical and the relevant carcinogenicity results from the NTP, Gene-Tox and IARC databases. The data clearly demonstrate that many of the putative nongenotoxic carcinogens that have been adequately tested in short-term bioassays induce gene or chromosomal mutations or aneuploidy.« less

  12. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    PubMed

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  13. Improving patient flow: role of the orthopaedic discharge sister.

    PubMed

    Tytler, Beverley

    2016-03-01

    Timely and well-planned discharge improves the patient's experience, contributes to patient safety and reduces the length of hospital stays. The role of orthopaedic discharge sister was developed at James Cook University Hospital in 2007 to provide safe, timely and efficient discharge for patients from the trauma and theatre centre, and to improve patient experience and flow. This article gives an overview of the role and describes how the sister works with colleagues to plan patient discharges from pre-assessment and emergency department admission through their hospital stay until their departure.

  14. Bloom's syndrome. IV. Sister-chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    German, J; Schonberg, S; Louie, E; Chaganti, R S

    1977-01-01

    An abnormally great amount of exhange between both sister and nonsister-but-homologous chromatids is a highly characteristic feature of cultured blood lymphocytes from individuals with Bloom's syndrome. However, a population of lymphocytes which exhibit a normal amount of exchange can be detected in the blood of some individuals with this syndrome. This coexistence of cells with a greatly increased number of sister-chromatid exchanges and others with a normal number results in a phenotypic dimorphism, in apparent contradiction to the autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of the syndrome. PMID:868871

  15. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  16. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Blattner, Ariane C.; McKee, Bruce D.; Lehner, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase. PMID:27120695

  17. Brothers and Sisters of the Handicapped: A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Martha G.

    1980-01-01

    A 3- day workshop was held for the 7- to 17-year-old brothers and sisters of handicapped children to help them deal with their feelings and show them what their handicapped siblings do at school. Among activities were games simulating handicapping conditions and using adapted materials (i.e., bingo with Bliss symbols). (PHR)

  18. Some Effects of Having a Brother or Sister.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Gerald S.

    The data indicate that the influence of a brother or sister is considerably greater upon the second born than upon the first born. The magnitude of the sex of sibling effect is probably dependent upon whether a sibling is present during the first few years of life, a period during which many enduring response patterns are being acquired. The…

  19. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  20. Sister M. Madeleva Wolff, C.S.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, M. Loretta

    2006-01-01

    Sister M. Madeleva Wolff, C.S.C., teacher, essayist, poet, and college administrator, through her creative ability and innovative practices made possible major contributions to Catholic education in her lifetime. Without her strong personality and boundless energy, many of her dreams for an ideal college curriculum would not have come to fruition.…

  1. Mainstreaming: "I Simply Wanted My Sister to Be a Bridesmaid"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Maxwell J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presented is a case history centering around a family controversy over the inclusion of a cerebral palsied sister in a wedding ceremony, which illustrates some of the difficulties of adjusting to and accepting a physically handicapped child in the family. (DLS)

  2. Reconstitution of Nucleosomes with Differentially Isotope-labeled Sister Histones.

    PubMed

    Liokatis, Stamatios

    2017-03-26

    Asymmetrically modified nucleosomes contain the two copies of a histone (sister histones) decorated with distinct sets of Post-translational Modifications (PTMs). They are newly identified species with unknown means of establishment and functional implications. Current analytical methods are inadequate to detect the copy-specific occurrence of PTMs on the nucleosomal sister histones. This protocol presents a biochemical method for the in vitro reconstitution of nucleosomes containing differentially isotope-labeled sister histones. The generated complex can be also asymmetrically modified, after including a premodified histone pool during refolding of histone subcomplexes. These asymmetric nucleosome preparations can be readily reacted with histone-modifying enzymes to study modification cross-talk mechanisms imposed by the asymmetrically pre-incorporated PTM using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Particularly, the modification reactions in real-time can be mapped independently on the two sister histones by performing different types of NMR correlation experiments, tailored for the respective isotope type. This methodology provides the means to study crosstalk mechanisms that contribute to the formation and propagation of asymmetric PTM patterns on nucleosomal complexes.

  3. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  4. Language and Cognitive Development of Deaf and Hearing Twin Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmer, Barbara R.

    In this case study, the language and cognitive development of a 4-year 5-month old profoundly deaf girl and her normally hearing identical twin sister were investigated by videotaping the twins in their home interacting with each other, the investigator, and family members. Materials used with the children were designed to elicit spontaneous,…

  5. Precocious Sister Chromatid Separation (PSCS) in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Maninder; DeScipio, Cheryl; McCallum, Jennifer; Yaeger, Dinah; Devoto, Marcella; Jackson, Laird G.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Krantz, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) (OMIM# 122470) is a dominantly inherited multisystem developmental disorder. The phenotype consists of characteristic facial features, hirsutism, abnormalities of the upper extremities ranging from subtle changes in the phalanges and metacarpal bones to oligodactyly and phocomelia, gastroesophageal dysfunction, growth retardation, and neurodevelopmental delay. Prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 10,000. Recently, mutations in NIPBL were identified in sporadic and familial CdLS cases. To date, mutations in this gene have been identified in over 45% of individuals with CdLS. NIPBL is the human homolog of the Drosophila Nipped-B gene. Although its function in mammalian systems has not yet been elucidated, sequence homologs of Nipped-B in yeast (Scc2 and Mis4) are required for sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis, and a similar role was recently demonstrated for Nipped-B in Drosophila. In order to evaluate NIPBL role in sister chromatid cohesion in humans, metaphase spreads on 90 probands (40 NIPBL mutation positive and 50 NIPBL mutation negative) with CdLS were evaluated for evidence of precocious sister chromatid separation (PSCS). We screened 50 metaphases from each proband and found evidence of PSCS in 41% (compared to 9% in control samples). These studies indicate that NIPBL may play a role in sister chromatid cohesion in humans as has been reported for its homologs in Drosophila and yeast. PMID:16100726

  6. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist

  7. Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a Sister Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a sister species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group. PMID:26787157

  8. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

    PubMed

    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  9. Testing of the "Healthy 'Little' Lives Project": A Training Program for Big Sister Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Big Brothers/Big Sisters is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big Sister mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little Sisters about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication…

  10. Living with a brother or sister with epilepsy: siblings' experiences.

    PubMed

    Hames, Annette; Appleton, Richard

    2009-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the impact of disability upon siblings, and very little research on the siblings of children with epilepsy. There is some evidence that siblings who have less accurate information exhibit more distress. The aim of this study was to assess siblings' response to having a brother or sister with epilepsy and to begin to develop information for them. Parents of children attending paediatric neurology outpatient departments were invited to participate in a pilot study. Parents who consented to take part were asked if they had previously received information for siblings. Parents and siblings participated in a semi-structured interview and siblings were also invited to submit a personal account of living with a brother or sister who had epilepsy. Twenty-five families with a child with epilepsy aged 2.5-15 years initially agreed to take part. None of the families stated that they had ever seen or received any information specifically for siblings. Fourteen siblings from the 25 families, aged 8-25 years, provided a personal account of what it was like living with a brother or sister with epilepsy. Siblings' accounts included both negative and positive feelings, and specifically feelings of care and love for their sibling. This initial study suggests that siblings of children with epilepsy have many positive but also early negative feelings. The results are limited by the size of the study, the fact that most siblings were older sisters, and the mean time since diagnosis was 6 years. Finally, it is hoped that the personal accounts collected in this study will be published for the benefit of other siblings of children with epilepsy.

  11. Genomic sister-disorders of neurodevelopment: an evolutionary approach

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle; Dorus, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Genomic sister-disorders are defined here as diseases mediated by duplications versus deletions of the same region. Such disorders can provide unique information concerning the genomic underpinnings of human neurodevelopment because effects of diametric variation in gene copy number on cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can be inferred. We describe evidence from the literature on deletions versus duplications for the regions underlying the best-known human neurogenetic sister-disorders, including Williams syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Smith–Magenis syndrome, as well as the X-chromosomal conditions Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. These data suggest that diametric copy-number alterations can, like diametric alterations to imprinted genes, generate contrasting phenotypes associated with autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions. Genomically based perturbations to the development of the human social brain are thus apparently mediated to a notable degree by effects of variation in gene copy number. We also conducted the first analyses of positive selection for genes in the regions affected by these disorders. We found evidence consistent with adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes, or selective sweeps, for three of the four sets of sister-syndromes analyzed. These studies of selection facilitate identification of candidate genes for the phenotypes observed and lend a novel evolutionary dimension to the analysis of human cognitive architecture and neurogenetic disorders. PMID:25567849

  12. Divergence of the Venom Exogene Repertoire in Two Sister Species of Turriconus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Barghi, Neda; Lu, Aiping; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Lluisma, Arturo O.; Concepcion, Gisela P.; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Conus comprises approximately 700 species of venomous marine cone snails that are highly efficient predators of worms, snails, and fish. In evolutionary terms, cone snails are relatively young with the earliest fossil records occurring in the Lower Eocene, 55 Ma. The rapid radiation of cone snail species has been accompanied by remarkably high rates of toxin diversification. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that accompany speciation, we investigated the toxin repertoire of two sister species, Conus andremenezi and Conus praecellens, that were until recently considered a single variable species. A total of 196 and 250 toxin sequences were identified in the venom gland transcriptomes of C. andremenezi and C. praecellens belonging to 25 and 29 putative toxin gene superfamilies, respectively. Comparative analysis with closely (Conus tribblei and Conus lenavati) and more distantly related species (Conus geographus) suggests that speciation is associated with significant diversification of individual toxin genes (exogenes) whereas the expression pattern of toxin gene superfamilies within lineages remains largely conserved. Thus, changes within individual toxin sequences can serve as a sensitive indicator for recent speciation whereas changes in the expression pattern of gene superfamilies are likely to reflect more dramatic differences in a species’ interaction with its prey, predators, and competitors. PMID:28922871

  13. Compound heterozygous mutations in UBA5 causing early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Arnadottir, Gudny A; Jensson, Brynjar O; Marelsson, Sigurdur E; Sulem, Gerald; Oddsson, Asmundur; Kristjansson, Ragnar P; Benonisdottir, Stefania; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Masson, Gisli; Thorisson, Gudmundur A; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Magnusson, Olafur Th; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Arngrimsson, Reynir; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-10-02

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a group of childhood epilepsies that display high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The recent, extensive use of next-generation sequencing has identified a large number of genes in epileptic encephalopathies, including UBA5 in which biallelic mutations were first described as pathogenic in 2016 (Colin E et al., Am J Hum Genet 99(3):695-703, 2016. Muona M et al., Am J Hum Genet 99(3):683-694, 2016). UBA5 encodes an activating enzyme for a post-translational modification mechanism known as ufmylation, and is the first gene from the ufmylation pathway that is linked to disease. We sequenced the genomes of two sisters with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy along with their unaffected parents in an attempt to find a genetic cause for their condition. The sisters, born in 2004 and 2006, presented with infantile spasms at six months of age, which later progressed to recurrent, treatment-resistant seizures. We detected a compound heterozygous genotype in UBA5 in the sisters, a genotype not seen elsewhere in an Icelandic reference set of 30,067 individuals nor in public databases. One of the mutations, c.684G > A, is a paternally inherited exonic splicing mutation, occuring at the last nucleotide of exon 7 of UBA5. The mutation is predicted to disrupt the splice site, resulting in loss-of-function of one allele of UBA5. The second mutation is a maternally inherited missense mutation, p.Ala371Thr, previously reported as pathogenic when in compound heterozygosity with a loss-of-function mutation in UBA5 and is believed to produce a hypomorphic allele. Supportive of this, we have identified three adult Icelanders homozygous for the p.Ala371Thr mutation who show no signs of neurological disease. We describe compound heterozygous mutations in the UBA5 gene in two sisters with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of mutations in UBA5 since the initial discovery that pathogenic biallelic

  14. Mentoring in schools: an impact study of big brothers big sisters school-based mentoring.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school year, relative to the control group, mentored youth performed better academically, had more positive perceptions of their own academic abilities, and were more likely to report having a "special adult" in their lives. However, they did not show improvements in classroom effort, global self-worth, relationships with parents, teachers or peers, or rates of problem behavior. Academic improvements were also not sustained into the second school year. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Fuel industry: holding hands with the seven sisters

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, S.

    1976-10-01

    The oil industry is the core of the modern fuel business, making it possible for it to have its own privately administered energy policy, according to Mr. Novick; at times it is in conflict with the policies of the Federal government and other parts of the industrial economy. The policy has been to rely on cheap imported oil and gas and to restrict development of domestic fuel supplies, he states. The creation of the oil empire since the incorporation of Standard Oil in New Jersey in 1899 is reviewed. In 1911, the U.S. Supreme Court declared that such extensive controlmore » of a commodity was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. Standard Oil was controlling about 90 percent of the country's petroleum supply when it was broken up in 1911. From the 1911 action, the Standard Oil split-up ultimately resulted in six of the ''seven sisters.'' The largest of the Standard Oil units--Exxon, Mobil, Standard of Indiana, and Standard of California--are now four of the ''seven sisters'' which dominate international oil sales and control almost all marketing of oil from the Middle East. Texaco is the only non-Standard company from the U.S. in these ranks; the other two sisters are Royal/Dutch Shell, which also occupies a large place in the U.S. market, and British Petroleum, an international giant which has acquired a dominant share in Standard Oil of Ohio and its U.S. retail markets through British Petroleum's share of Alaskan oil production. The same large companies that dominate the international flow of oil also are the largest firms in U.S. retail markets. Competition, policies of OPEC, future fuel technology, and the neglect of alternatives are discussed. (MCW)« less

  16. Sisters who developed piloerection after administration of milnacipran.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobuko; Hori, Satoko; Suehira, Mayu; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported the first case of piloerection in a patient receiving milnacipran hydrochloride (MLP). Here, we now present a second case of MLP-induced piloerection. We discuss this effect in terms of α1-adrenoceptor occupancy. After the first case of MLP-induced piloerection, we monitored occurrence of piloerection in our patients taking MLP. In response to our interview, a 43-year-old woman who had been prescribed MLP by a psychiatrist for depression mentioned that piloerection occurred frequently all over her body, starting soon after initiation of MLP administration (50 mg/day). Although she was concerned at the time, she assumed it might be related to her depression or to coldness in winter. She also mentioned that the incidence of piloerection increased with MLP dose escalation. The piloerection disappeared after several months. Interestingly, the previous patient and the current patient are biological sisters. Changes in α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine (as an index of the risk of piloerection) in the presence of MLP were estimated. The occupancy values increased with MLP dose escalation, in accordance with the patient's report of the phenomenon. other concomitant drugs, such as nortriptyline, had little effect. Since the two patients were sisters, genetic factors might influence the risk of piloerection. The incidence of piloerection appeared to increase with MLP dose escalation in this patient, who was the biological sister of the previously reported patient. Clinicians should recognize the possibility of MLP-induced piloerection in view of its potential impact on patients' quality of life and on drug compliance.

  17. Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940–1972

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters’ work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South. PMID:19218843

  18. [Wolfram syndrome: clinical and genetic analysis in two sisters].

    PubMed

    Conart, J-B; Maalouf, T; Jonveaux, P; Guerci, B; Angioi, K

    2011-10-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a severe genetic disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and diabetes insipidus. Two sisters complained of progressive visual loss. Fundus examination evidenced optic atrophy. Their past medical history revealed diabetes mellitus and deafness since childhood. The association of these symptoms made the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome possible. It was confirmed by molecular analysis, which evidenced composite WFS1 heterozygous mutations inherited from both their mother and father. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility of Wolfram syndrome when diagnosing optic atrophy in diabetic children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Clade extinction appears to balance species diversification in sister lineages of Afro-Oriental passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; Jønsson, Knud A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses suggest that the number of species in a clade often increases rapidly at first, but that diversification subsequently slows, apparently as species fill ecological space. Support for diversity dependence comes largely from the failure of species richness to increase with clade age in some analyses of contemporary diversity. However, clades chosen for analysis generally are named taxa and thus are not selected at random. To avoid this potential bias, we analyzed the numbers of species and estimated ages of 150 pairs of sister clades established by dispersal of ancestral species between the Oriental and African biogeographic regions. The observed positive exponential relationship between clade size and age suggests that species diversify within clades without apparent limit. If this were true, the pattern of accumulation of sister-clade pairs with increasing age would be consistent with the random decline and extinction of entire clades, maintaining an overall balance in species richness. This “pulse” model of diversification is consistent with the fossil record of most groups and reconciles conflicting evidence concerning diversity dependence of clade growth. PMID:25071202

  1. Clade extinction appears to balance species diversification in sister lineages of Afro-Oriental passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; Jønsson, Knud A

    2014-08-12

    Recent analyses suggest that the number of species in a clade often increases rapidly at first, but that diversification subsequently slows, apparently as species fill ecological space. Support for diversity dependence comes largely from the failure of species richness to increase with clade age in some analyses of contemporary diversity. However, clades chosen for analysis generally are named taxa and thus are not selected at random. To avoid this potential bias, we analyzed the numbers of species and estimated ages of 150 pairs of sister clades established by dispersal of ancestral species between the Oriental and African biogeographic regions. The observed positive exponential relationship between clade size and age suggests that species diversify within clades without apparent limit. If this were true, the pattern of accumulation of sister-clade pairs with increasing age would be consistent with the random decline and extinction of entire clades, maintaining an overall balance in species richness. This "pulse" model of diversification is consistent with the fossil record of most groups and reconciles conflicting evidence concerning diversity dependence of clade growth.

  2. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    PubMed

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  3. Symmetrical localization of extrachromosomally replicating viral genomes on sister chromatids.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Teru; Kamiya, Masato; Maruo, Seiji; Iwakiri, Dai; Takada, Kenzo

    2007-05-01

    In eukaryotes, many latent viruses replicate as extrachromosomal molecules, called episomes, and efficiently segregate to daughter cells by noncovalently attaching to mitotic chromosomes. To understand the mechanism governing the processes, we analyzed the detailed subcellular localization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes and a viral protein EBNA1, a bridging molecule between viral genomes and cellular chromatin. In the cells that were infected with a recombinant EBV expressing epitope-tagged EBNA1, EBNA1 localized to intranuclear punctate dots, which coincided with the localization of EBV genomes as revealed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A significant number of EBNA1 dots were found to localize symmetrically on sister chromatids of mitotic chromosomes. Such symmetrical localization of EBNA1 dots was observed in prematurely condensed G2 chromosomes as well, correlating with the presence of closely spaced double dots of EBNA1 in G2-phase-enriched cells. The EBNA1 double dots were occasionally interconnected by the FISH signals of EBV episomes, exhibiting a dumbbell-like appearance. Thus, we propose that the partitioning of EBNA1 molecules onto sister chromatids during cellular DNA replication underlies the non-stochastic segregation of extrachromosomally replicating viral genomes.

  4. Regulation of sister chromatid cohesion between chromosome arms.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Abián, Juan F; Sumara, Izabela; Hirota, Toru; Hauf, Silke; Gerlich, Daniel; de la Torre, Consuelo; Ellenberg, Jan; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2004-07-13

    Sister chromatid separation in anaphase depends on the removal of cohesin complexes from chromosomes. In vertebrates, the bulk of cohesin is already removed from chromosome arms during prophase and prometaphase, whereas cohesin remains at centromeres until metaphase, when cohesin is cleaved by the protease separase. In unperturbed mitoses, arm cohesion nevertheless persists throughout metaphase and is principally sufficient to maintain sister chromatid cohesion. How arm cohesion is maintained until metaphase is unknown. Here we show that small amounts of cohesin can be detected in the interchromatid region of metaphase chromosome arms. If prometaphase is prolonged by treatment of cells with microtubule poisons, these cohesin complexes dissociate from chromosome arms, and arm cohesion is dissolved. If cohesin dissociation in prometaphase-arrested cells is prevented by depletion of Plk1 or inhibition of Aurora B, arm cohesion is maintained. These observations imply that, in unperturbed mitoses, small amounts of cohesin maintain arm cohesion until metaphase. When cells lacking Plk1 and Aurora B activity enter anaphase, chromatids lose cohesin. This loss is prevented by proteasome inhibitors, implying that it depends on separase activation. Separase may therefore be able to cleave cohesin at centromeres and on chromosome arms.

  5. Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Mimicry: The Strange Case of Two Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyo-graphic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases. Citation: Pizza F; Vandi S; Poli F; Moghadam KK; Fran-ceschini C; Bellucci C; Cipolli C; Ingravallo F; Natalini G; Mignot E; Plazzi G. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):611-612. PMID:23772196

  6. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  7. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-15

    We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyographic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases.

  8. Brothers and Sisters of Children with Disabilities: An Annotated Bibliography. Families as Allies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Linda L.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography provides a comprehensive review of literature focusing on brothers and sisters of children with emotional disorders. Some material addressing brothers and sisters of children who have physical, mental, or developmental disabilities is also included. The bibliography lists approximately 80 references covering a 10-year…

  9. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the 1...

  10. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in which...

  11. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner was...

  12. Addressing the Apparent Paradox of the Catholic Sister Principal: 1940-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A body of scholarship on the history of the lives of Catholic teaching sisters has thrown up various challenges to educational historians. One challenge can be posed by asking how teaching sisters were able to go on to take up leadership positions. This is prompted by the observation that a particular body of literature for the period 1940-1965…

  13. Adolescents' Sex-Typed Friendship Experiences: Does Having a Sister versus a Brother Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined connections between having a sister versus a brother and coming from a same-sex versus an opposite-sex sibling dyad, and sex-typing in adolescents' friendships. Findings suggested that sisters may learn control tactics from brothers that they apply in friendships. Boys were less likely to model emotional intimacy. Coming from opposite-sex…

  14. Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling’s lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching. PMID:21910244

  15. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages

  16. Asymmetricity Between Sister Cells of Pluripotent Stem Cells at the Onset of Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shogo; Maruyama, Atsushi; Kondo, Yuki; Kano, Ayumu; De Sousa, Olga M; Iwahashi, Masahiro; Hexig, Bayar; Akaike, Toshihiro; Li, Jingyue; Hayashi, Yohei; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Various somatic stem cells divide asymmetrically; however, it is not known whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, not only while maintaining an undifferentiated state but also at the onset of differentiation. In this study, we observed single ESCs using time-lapse imaging and compared sister cell pairs derived from the same mother cell in either the maintenance or differentiation medium. Mouse ESCs were cultured on E-cadherin-coated glass-based dishes, which allowed us to trace single cells. The undifferentiated cell state was detected by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Nanog promoter, which is active only in undifferentiated cells. Cell population analysis using flow cytometry showed that the peak width indicating distribution of GFP expression broadened when cells were transferred to the differentiation medium compared to when they were in the maintenance medium. This finding suggested that the population of ESCs became more heterogeneous at the onset of differentiation. Using single-cell analysis by time-lapse imaging, we found that although the total survival ratio decreased by changing to differentiation medium, the one-live-one-dead ratio of sister cell pairs was smaller compared with randomly chosen non-sister cell pairs, defined as an unsynchronized cell pair control, in both media. This result suggested that sister cell pairs were more positively synchronized with each other compared to non-sister cell pairs. The differences in interdivision time (the time interval between mother cell division and the subsequent cell division) between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cell pairs in both media, suggesting that sister cells divided synchronously. Although the difference in Nanog-GFP intensity between sister cells was smaller than that between non-sister cells in the maintenance medium, it was the same in differentiation medium, suggesting asymmetrical Nanog-GFP intensity. These

  17. Replication-Dependent Sister Chromatid Recombination in Rad1 Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kadyk, L. C.; Hartwell, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    Homolog recombination and unequal sister chromatid recombination were monitored in rad1-1/rad1-1 diploid yeast cells deficient for excision repair, and in control cells, RAD1/rad1-1, after exposure to UV irradiation. In a rad1-1/rad1-1 diploid, UV irradiation stimulated much more sister chromatid recombination relative to homolog recombination when cells were irradiated in the G(1) or the G(2) phases of the cell cycle than was observed in RAD1/rad1-1 cells. Since sister chromatids are not present during G(1), this result suggested that unexcised lesions can stimulate sister chromatid recombination events during or subsequent to DNA replication. The results of mating rescue experiments suggest that unexcised UV dimers do not stimulate sister chromatid recombination during the G(2) phase, but only when they are present during DNA replication. We propose that there are two types of sister chromatid recombination in yeast. In the first type, unexcised UV dimers and other bulky lesions induce sister chromatid recombination during DNA replication as a mechanism to bypass lesions obstructing the passage of DNA polymerase, and this type is analogous to the type of sister chromatid exchange commonly observed cytologically in mammalian cells. In the second type, strand scissions created by X-irradiation or the excision of damaged bases create recombinogenic sites that result in sister chromatid recombination directly in G(2). Further support for the existence of two types of sister chromatid recombination is the fact that events induced in rad1-1/rad1-1 were due almost entirely to gene conversion, whereas those in RAD1/rad1-1 cells were due to a mixture of gene conversion and reciprocal recombination. PMID:8454200

  18. Sisters Helping Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Madeleine E.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…

  19. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between the mean of the experimental group (11.05) and the mean of a matched control group (8.18). The experimental group also has an exceptionally high proportion of HFCs (cells with high SCE frequencies) above the 95th percentile compared to the controls (11.0 and 0.07%, respectively). We conclude that the New Zealand Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Green, R

    2000-07-01

    As previous studies with homosexual males have revealed a later birth order, more older brothers and more brothers than sisters, this research was extended to a large series of transsexual males and females, some of whom are homosexual. The male sample comprised 442 male-to-female transsexuals, subdivided by sexual partner preference: 106 homosexual, 135 heterosexual, 155 bisexual and 46 asexual. One hundred female-to-male transsexuals were also studied: 75 homosexual, 16 bisexual, seven heterosexual and five asexual. Birth order was computed by both Slater's Index and Berglin's Index. Homosexual male-to-female transsexuals have a later than expected birth order and more older brothers than other subgroups of male-to-female transsexuals. Each older brother increases the odds that a male transsexual is homosexual by 40 %. Hypotheses explaining the extension of prior findings to this large sample of transsexual males include a progressive maternal immunization to the male foetus either through the H-Y antigen or protein-bound testosterone or alterations in foetal androgen levels in successive pregnancies, all modifying male psychosexual development. Data on the sexual orientation of younger brothers of homosexual male transsexuals in this study are not consistent with the progressive immunization hypothesis.

  1. Sister chromatid resolution is an intrinsic part of chromosome organization in prophase.

    PubMed

    Nagasaka, Kota; Hossain, M Julius; Roberti, M Julia; Ellenberg, Jan; Hirota, Toru

    2016-06-01

    The formation of mitotic chromosomes requires both compaction of chromatin and the resolution of replicated sister chromatids. Compaction occurs during mitotic prophase and prometaphase, and in prophase relies on the activity of condensin II complexes. Exactly when and how sister chromatid resolution occurs has been largely unknown, as has its molecular requirements. Here, we established a method to visualize sister resolution by sequential replication labelling with two distinct nucleotide derivatives. Quantitative three-dimensional imaging then allowed us to measure the resolution of sister chromatids throughout mitosis by calculating their non-overlapping volume within the whole chromosome. Unexpectedly, we found that sister chromatid resolution starts already at the beginning of prophase, proceeds concomitantly with chromatin compaction and is largely completed by the end of prophase. Sister chromatid resolution was abolished by inhibition of topoisomerase IIα and by depleting or preventing mitotic activation of condensin II, whereas blocking cohesin dissociation from chromosomes had little effect. Mitotic sister chromatid resolution is thus an intrinsic part of mitotic chromosome formation in prophase that relies largely on DNA decatenation and shares the molecular requirement for condensin II with prophase compaction.

  2. The SUMO deconjugating peptidase Smt4 contributes to the mechanism required for transition from sister chromatid arm cohesion to sister chromatid pericentromere separation

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Andrew D; Snider, Chloe E; Bloom, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The pericentromere chromatin protrudes orthogonally from the sister-sister chromosome arm axis. Pericentric protrusions are organized in a series of loops with the centromere at the apex, maximizing its ability to interact with stochastically growing and shortening kinetochore microtubules. Each pericentromere loop is ∼50 kb in size and is organized further into secondary loops that are displaced from the primary spindle axis. Cohesin and condensin are integral to mechanisms of loop formation and generating resistance to outward forces from kinesin motors and anti-parallel spindle microtubules. A major unanswered question is how the boundary between chromosome arms and the pericentromere is established and maintained. We used sister chromatid separation and dynamics of LacO arrays distal to the pericentromere to address this issue. Perturbation of chromatin spring components results in 2 distinct phenotypes. In cohesin and condensin mutants sister pericentric LacO arrays separate a defined distance independent of spindle length. In the absence of Smt4, a peptidase that removes SUMO modifications from proteins, pericentric LacO arrays separate in proportion to spindle length increase. Deletion of Smt4, unlike depletion of cohesin and condensin, causes stretching of both proximal and distal pericentromere LacO arrays. The data suggest that the sumoylation state of chromatin topology adjusters, including cohesin, condensin, and topoisomerase II in the pericentromere, contribute to chromatin spring properties as well as the sister cohesion boundary. PMID:25946564

  3. Intellectual disability, coarse face, relative macrocephaly, and cerebellar hypotrophy in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Ramos, Fabiana; Garcia, Paula; Pais, Rui P; Paiva, Catarina; Beales, Philip L; Moore, Gudrun E; Saraiva, Jorge M; Hennekam, Raoul C M

    2014-01-01

    We report on two Portuguese sisters with a very similar phenotype characterized by severe intellectual disability, absent speech, relative macrocephaly, coarse face, cerebellar hypotrophy, and severe ataxia. Additional common features include increased thickness of the cranial vault, delayed dental eruption, talipes equino-varus, clinodactyly, and camptodactyly of the fifth finger. The older sister has retinal dystrophy and the younger sister has short stature. Their parents are consanguineous. We suggest this condition constitutes a previously unreported autosomal recessive entity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Siblings' experiences of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation: a case study of 14 siblings from five families.

    PubMed

    Benderix, Ylva; Sivberg, Bengt

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the present and past experiences of 14 siblings from five families in terms of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation. Personal interviews were conducted with the siblings before their brothers or sisters were moved to a newly opened group home. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the transcribed texts. The analysis resulted in seven content categories: precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, exposed to frightening behavior, empathetic feelings, hoping that a group home will be a relief, physical violence made siblings feel unsafe and anxious, and relations with friends were affected negatively. The conclusion is that these siblings' experiences revealed stressful life conditions. Counseling for the family and for siblings is recommended to help them deal with their feelings and problems. For the siblings in these five families, a group home was a relevant alternative as a temporary or permanent placement for the child with autism and mental retardation.

  5. International partnerships and the development of a Sister Hospital Programme.

    PubMed

    Brown, D; Rickard, G; Mustriwati, K A; Seiler, J

    2013-03-01

    Despite some progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, there are still major discrepancies in health service provision between developed and developing countries. Nurses are key players to improving the quality of health services. Increasingly, partnerships are being initiated between nurses of different countries to enable those working in developing countries to improve standards of clinical care. This paper describes a partnership between two major teaching hospitals: one in Indonesia and one in Australia, designed to assist in improving standards of clinical care within the Indonesian hospital. The nature of the partnership, conceptualized as a Sister Hospital Program, is described. The processes and outcomes of the pilot programme conducted in 2011 are outlined. A brief description of the methods used to gain financial support from the Northern Territory Government is provided. The programme offered a skills development programme for selected staff from Sanglah General Hospital in Bali at Royal Darwin Hospital in northern Australia. The paper uses Green's PROCEED-PRECEDE framework both to describe and evaluate the pilot programme. The skills development programme was enthusiastically evaluated by staff from both hospitals and has led to major changes in the management of patients within the Emergency Department of Sanglah General Hospital. The success of the pilot has resulted in longer-term funding by the Australian government. WIDER POLICY OUTCOMES: The partnership model described in the paper is submitted as a possible framework for others wishing to build long-term and collaborative relationships between nurses of different nations. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  7. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... domiciled (see § 410.392) at the time of his death would find, under the law they would apply in determining..., brother, or sister. Where, under such law, the individual does not bear the relationship to the miner of...

  8. Introducing intron locus cox1i624 for phylogenetic analyses in Bryophytes: on the issue of Takakia as sister genus to all other extant mosses.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, Ute; Knoop, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Liverworts are well supported as the sister group to all other land plants (embryophytes) by molecular data. Observations strongly supporting this earliest dichotomy in embryophyte evolution are the strikingly different introns occurring in the mitochondrial DNAs of liverworts versus non-liverwort embryophytes (NLE), including the mosses. A final conclusion on the most basal lineages of mosses, for which genera such as Sphagnum and Takakia are the most likely candidates, is lacking. We have now investigated cox1i624, a mitochondrial group I intron conserved between the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Focusing on a sampling of liverwort and moss genera, which had previously been identified as early branching taxa in their respective clades, we find that group I intron cox1i624 is universally conserved in all 33 mosses and 11 liverworts investigated. The group I intron core secondary structure is well conserved between the two ancient land plant clades. However, whereas dramatic size reductions are seen in the moss phylogeny, exactly the opposite is observed for liverworts. The cox1i624g1 locus was used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction also in combination with data sets of nad5i753g1 as well as chloroplast loci rbcL and rps4. The phylogenetic analyses revealed (i) very good support for the Treubiopsida as sister clade to all other liverworts, (ii) a sister group relationship of the nematodontous Tetraphidopsida and Polytrichopsida and (iii) two rivalling hypotheses about the basal-most moss genus with mitochondrial loci suggesting an isolated Takakia as sister to all other mosses and chloroplast loci indicating a Takakia-Sphagnum clade.

  9. Isolation of Genes Required for the Regulated Separation of Sister Chromatids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-97-1-7059 TITLE: Isolation of Genes Required for the Regulated Separation of Sister Chromatids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...31 May 99) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Isolation of Genes Required for the Regulated Separation of Sister Chromatids 6. AUTHOR(S) Duncan J. Clarke...15 14 15 Duncan J. Clarke 6.20.99 Statement Of Work (Revised for the period 6/1/1998-5/31/2000) Isolation of genes required for the regulated

  10. Fear and loathing in Mississippi: the attack on cAMP sister spirit.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kate

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1993, the small rural community of Ovett, Miss., and a group of self-described radical lesbian feminists clashed over the establishment by the women of a feminist educational retreat known as Camp Sister Spirit. This dispute took the form of physical and psychological harassment of the women, wide-open public debate in the community, in the press, and on television, federal mediation efforts, and two lawsuits. This article analyzes this dispute using Mary Daly's seven patterns of the sado-ritual syndrome (Daly, 1978). The analysis examines the ideological and moral standpoints of the participants, the issues of "blaming the victim" and scapegoating, the development of the conflict from a dispute between neighbors to the involvement of international media, national activists and the Clinton Administration, the transformation of the conflict from a political to legal dispute, the representations of the groups within the community and the media, the effect of public opinion on the dispute, and the politics of the media in the dispute.

  11. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  12. Ecological divergence and speciation between lemur (Eulemur) sister species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Blair, M E; Sterling, E J; Dusch, M; Raxworthy, C J; Pearson, R G

    2013-08-01

    Understanding ecological niche evolution over evolutionary timescales is crucial to elucidating the biogeographic history of organisms. Here, we used, for the first time, climate-based ecological niche models (ENMs) to test hypotheses about ecological divergence and speciation processes between sister species pairs of lemurs (genus Eulemur) in Madagascar. We produced ENMs for eight species, all of which had significant validation support. Among the four sister species pairs, we found nonequivalent niches between sisters, varying degrees of niche overlap in ecological and geographic space, and support for multiple divergence processes. Specifically, three sister-pair comparisons supported the null model that niches are no more divergent than the available background region. These findings are consistent with an allopatric speciation model, and for two sister pairs (E. collaris-E. cinereiceps and E. rufus-E. rufifrons), a riverine barrier has been previously proposed for driving allopatric speciation. However, for the fourth sister pair E. flavifrons-E. macaco, we found support for significant niche divergence, and consistent with their parapatric distribution on an ecotone and the lack of obvious geographic barriers, these findings most strongly support a parapatric model of speciation. These analyses thus suggest that various speciation processes have led to diversification among closely related Eulemur species. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Aurora controls sister kinetochore mono-orientation and homolog bi-orientation in meiosis-I.

    PubMed

    Hauf, Silke; Biswas, Ashapurno; Langegger, Maria; Kawashima, Shigehiro A; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yoshinori

    2007-10-31

    Aurora-B kinases are important regulators of mitotic chromosome segregation, where they are required for the faithful bi-orientation of sister chromatids. In contrast to mitosis, sister chromatids have to be oriented toward the same spindle pole in meiosis-I, while homologous chromosomes are bi-oriented. We find that the fission yeast Aurora kinase Ark1 is required for the faithful bi-orientation of sister chromatids in mitosis and of homologous chromosomes in meiosis-I. Unexpectedly, Ark1 is also necessary for the faithful mono-orientation of sister chromatids in meiosis-I, even though the canonical mono-orientation pathway, which depends on Moa1 and Rec8, seems intact. Our data suggest that Ark1 prevents unified sister kinetochores during metaphase-I from merotelic attachment to both spindle poles and thus from being torn apart during anaphase-I, revealing a novel mechanism promoting monopolar attachment. Furthermore, our results provide an explanation for the previously enigmatic observation that fission yeast Shugoshin Sgo2, which assists in loading Aurora to centromeres, and its regulator Bub1 are required for the mono-orientation of sister chromatids in meiosis-I.

  14. Structural identification of putative USPs in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Bahieldin, Ahmed; Atef, Ahmed; Shokry, Ahmed M; Al-Karim, Saleh; Al Attas, Sanaa G; Gadallah, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Omer, Abdulkader M Shaikh; Sabir, Jamal S M; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Al-Hajar, Abdulrahman S M; Makki, Rania M; Hassan, Sabah M; El-Domyati, Fotouh M

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide sequences of the C. roseus SRA database were assembled and translated in order to detect putative universal stress proteins (USPs). Based on the known conserved USPA domain, 24 Pfam putative USPA proteins in C. roseus were detected and arranged in six architectures. The USPA-like domain was detected in all architectures, while the protein kinase-like (or PK-like), (tyr)PK-like and/or U-box domains are shown downstream it. Three other domains were also shown to coexist with the USPA domain in C. roseus putative USPA sequences. These domains are tetratricopeptide repeat (or TPR), apolipophorin III (or apoLp-III) and Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37. Subsequent analysis divided USPA-like domains based on the ability to bind ATP. The multiple sequence alignment indicated the occurrence of eight C. roseus residues of known features of the bacterial 1MJH secondary structure. The data of the phylogenetic tree indicated several distinct groups of USPA-like domains confirming the presence of high level of sequence conservation between the plant and bacterial USPA-like sequences. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenomic data analyses provide evidence that Xenarthra and Afrotheria are sister groups.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Björn M; Kullberg, Morgan; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2007-09-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the 4 clades, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra, have been major issues in the recent discussion of basal relationships among placental mammals. However, despite considerable efforts these relationships, crucial to the understanding of eutherian evolution and biogeography, have remained essentially unresolved. Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria are generally joined into a common clade (Boreoeutheria), whereas the position of Afrotheria and Xenarthra relative to Boreoeutheria has been equivocal in spite of the use of comprehensive amounts of nuclear encoded sequences or the application of genome-level characters such as retroposons. The probable reason for this uncertainty is that the divergences took place long time ago and within a narrow temporal window, leaving only short common branches. With the aim of further examining basal eutherian relationships, we have collected conserved protein-coding sequences from 11 placental mammals, a marsupial and a bird, whose nuclear genomes have been largely sequenced. The length of the alignment of homologous sequences representing each individual species is 2,168,859 nt. This number of sites, representing 2840 protein-coding genes, exceeds by a considerable margin that of any previous study. The phylogenetic analysis joined Xenarthra and Afrotheria on a common branch, Atlantogenata. This topology was found to fit the data significantly better than the alternative trees.

  16. Possible sister groups and phylogenetic relationships among selected North Pacific and North Atlantic Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.

    1987-09-01

    Although the cool temperate (boreal) waters of the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic share many similar if not identical species, there have been few studies to test the identity of these species pairs. Whereas such tests are important from a taxonomic perspective, they tell us little if anything about biogeographic relationships. A more useful approach is one employing phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). The interpretation of phylogenetic diagrams (cladograms) in terms of biogeographic area relationships is explained. It is argued that cladistic analyses of taxa occurring in the cool temperate waters of the northern oceans can provide biogeographic tracks, which in turn can suggest the origins and migrations of species and possibly even floras. A number of cool temperate taxa that appear particularly amenable to this approach are discussed, including genera in the Palmariaceae, Corallinaceae, Dumontiaceae, Solieriaceae, Petrocelidaceae, Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae.

  17. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  18. p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent sister species of pine voles

    PubMed Central

    Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M

    2015-01-01

    Genes with relevant roles in the differentiation of closely-related species are likely to have diverged simultaneously with the species and more accurately reproduce the species tree. The Lusitanian (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated sister species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M. duodecimcostatus to the underground habitat. Here we asked whether the differentiation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus involved genetic variations within the tumour suppressor p53 gene, given its role in stress-associated responses. We performed a population-genetic analysis through sequencing of exons and introns of p53 in individuals from sympatric and allopatric populations of both the species in the Iberian Peninsula in which a unidirectional introgression of mitochondrial DNA was previously observed. We were able to discriminate the two species to a large extent. We show that M. duodecimcostatus is composed of one genetically unstructured group of populations sharing a P53 protein that carries a mutation in the DNA-binding region not observed in M. lusitanicus, raising the possibility that this mutation may have been central in the evolutionary history of M. duodecimcostatus. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of a master transcription factor in the separation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus during Microtus radiation in the Quaternary presumably via a differential adaptive role of the novel p53 in M. duodecimcostatus. PMID:25990877

  19. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  20. Reducing HIV risk among transgender women in Thailand: a quasi-experimental evaluation of the sisters program.

    PubMed

    Pawa, Duangta; Firestone, Rebecca; Ratchasi, Sindh; Dowling, Olivia; Jittakoat, Yaowalak; Duke, Alex; Mundy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238), participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64-6.31). Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47-4.52). Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies.

  1. Reducing HIV Risk among Transgender Women in Thailand: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Sisters Program

    PubMed Central

    Pawa, Duangta; Firestone, Rebecca; Ratchasi, Sindh; Dowling, Olivia; Jittakoat, Yaowalak; Duke, Alex; Mundy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238), participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64–6.31). Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47–4.52). Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies. PMID:24204750

  2. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the

  3. Links between sisters' sexual and dating victimization: the roles of neighborhood crime and parental controls.

    PubMed

    East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Adams, Joyce A; Hokoda, Audrey; Maier, Ashley

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the extent to which a sister's prior sexual and dating victimization is a risk factor for young women being similarly victimized and the possible factors underlying a co-occurrence. The sample involved 122 young adult Latina or African American sister pairs (244 women; ages 16-25) who resided in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Results indicated that women whose sisters had been victimized had increased risk of victimization even after controlling for neighborhood crime, parental controls, age and race-ethnicity (odds ratios were 4.0 for unwanted touching, 6.2 for a forced sex act, and 16.7 for dating violence). In high-crime neighborhoods, the presence of two adult parent figures in the home was associated with women's reduced likelihood of unwanted touching, and mothers' high monitoring during adolescence was associated with women's lower risk of dating aggression. Survival analysis results showed that the risk period of a second sister being victimized lasts between 7 and 10 years after a first sister's victimization. The prevention implications of study findings are discussed.

  4. Two sisters reveal autosomal recessive inheritance of epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Rui; Kato, Toshihiko; Kawase, Masahiko; Honda, Mariko; Mitsuishi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-07-21

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous human papillomaviruses infection. Most patients show autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance. We report a case of two sisters with clinically epidermodysplasia verruciformis specific lesions on the face, neck, trunk, and extremities. PCR analysis indicated the presence of human papillomavirus type 5 in the lesions. Electron microscopic examination showed viral-like particles in keratinocyte nuclei and the stratum corneum of the epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions. In addition, we examined the EVER1 and EVER2 genes using eight different primer pairs without finding any nonsense or frameshift mutations in the gDNA from lymphocytes of the elder sister. In this report, the patient's parents did not have epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions or a consanguineous marriage. EV did not develop in the elder sister until five years of age, so the parents did not perceive EV as an inherited disease. The probability that EV developed in both sisters was only 6.25%. Thus, it is rare for both sisters to develop epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions considering that the parents were presumed to be carriers and the disease reveal an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

  5. Two sisters reveal autosomal recessive inheritance of epidermodysplasia verruciformis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a unique susceptibility to cutaneous human papillomaviruses infection. Most patients show autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance. Case presentation We report a case of two sisters with clinically epidermodysplasia verruciformis specific lesions on the face, neck, trunk, and extremities. PCR analysis indicated the presence of human papillomavirus type 5 in the lesions. Electron microscopic examination showed viral-like particles in keratinocyte nuclei and the stratum corneum of the epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions. In addition, we examined the EVER1 and EVER2 genes using eight different primer pairs without finding any nonsense or frameshift mutations in the gDNA from lymphocytes of the elder sister. Conclusions In this report, the patient’s parents did not have epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions or a consanguineous marriage. EV did not develop in the elder sister until five years of age, so the parents did not perceive EV as an inherited disease. The probability that EV developed in both sisters was only 6.25%. Thus, it is rare for both sisters to develop epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions considering that the parents were presumed to be carriers and the disease reveal an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. PMID:25048734

  6. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model English</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Isbaner, Sebastian; Heermann, Dieter</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26663055"><span>[Analysis of genomic copy number variations in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yanliang; Xu, Qiuyue; Cai, Xuemei; Li, Yixun; Song, Guibo; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Rongchen; Dai, Yong; Duan, Yong</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To analyze genomic copy number variations (CNVs) in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism. G-banding was performed for karyotype analysis. The whole genome of the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were scanned and analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The results were confirmed with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). No abnormality was found by conventional G-banded chromosome analysis. Array-CGH has identified 11 identical CNVs from the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> which, however, overlapped with CNVs reported by the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation/). Therefore, they are likely to be benign. In addition, a -8.44 Mb 9p11.1-p13.1 duplication (38,561,587-47,002,387 bp, hg18) and a -80.9 kb 4q13.2 deletion (70,183,990-70,264,889 bp, hg18) were also detected in the elder and younger <span class="hlt">sister</span>, respectively. The relationship between such CNVs and primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism was however uncertain. RT-qPCR results were in accordance with array-CGH. Two CNVs were detected in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> by array-CGH, for which further studies are needed to clarify their correlation with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199077"><span>Investigating the etiology of multiple tooth agenesis in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with severe oligodontia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swinnen, S; Bailleul-Forestier, I; Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Devriendt, K; Carels, C</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>To describe the dentofacial phenotypes of three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with severe non-syndromic oligodontia, to report on the mutation analysis in three genes, previously shown to cause various phenotypes of non-syndromic oligodontia and in two other suspected genes. Based on the phenotypes in the pedigree of this family, the different possible patterns of transmission are discussed. Anamnestic data and a panoramic radiograph were taken to study the phenotype of the three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and their first-degree relatives. Blood samples were also taken to obtain their karyotypes and DNA samples. Mutational screening was performed for the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 and DLX2 genes. The probands' pedigree showed evidence for a recessive or multifactorial inheritance pattern. Normal chromosomal karyotypes were found and - despite the severe oligodontia present in all three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> - no mutation appeared to be present in the five genes studied so far in these patients. In the three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> reported, their common oligodontia phenotype is not caused by mutations in the coding regions of MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 or DLX2 genes, but genetic factors most probably play a role as all three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were affected. Environmental and epigenetic factors as well as genes regulating odontogenesis need further in vivo and in vitro investigation to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity and to increase our understanding of the odontogenic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2063475','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2063475"><span>Organization of <span class="hlt">sister</span> origins and replisomes during multifork DNA replication in Escherichia coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fossum, Solveig; Crooke, Elliott; Skarstad, Kirsten</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The replication period of Escherichia coli cells grown in rich medium lasts longer than one generation. Initiation thus occurs in the ‘mother-' or ‘grandmother generation'. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> origins in such cells were found to be colocalized for an entire generation or more, whereas <span class="hlt">sister</span> origins in slow-growing cells were colocalized for about 0.1–0.2 generations. The role of origin inactivation (sequestration) by the SeqA protein in origin colocalization was studied by comparing sequestration-deficient mutants with wild-type cells. Cells with mutant, non-sequesterable origins showed wild-type colocalization of <span class="hlt">sister</span> origins. In contrast, cells unable to sequester new origins due to loss of SeqA, showed aberrant localization of origins indicating a lack of organization of new origins. In these cells, aberrant replisome organization was also found. These results suggest that correct organization of <span class="hlt">sister</span> origins and <span class="hlt">sister</span> replisomes is dependent on the binding of SeqA protein to newly formed DNA at the replication forks, but independent of origin sequestration. In agreement, in vitro experiments indicate that SeqA is capable of pairing newly replicated DNA molecules. PMID:17914458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Unbound Is Required for Meiotic Centromeric Cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E.; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B.; McKee, Bruce D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. PMID:25194162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11063630"><span>The role of brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the gender development of preschool children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older <span class="hlt">sister</span>, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were less masculine but not more feminine. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317825','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3317825"><span>Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described <span class="hlt">sister</span> species Staphylococcus simiae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content <span class="hlt">group</span> of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span>, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus <span class="hlt">group</span> has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5549887','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5549887"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> Sri Lankan white-eyes (genus Zosterops) are a result of independent colonizations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wickramasinghe, Nelum; Robin, V. V.; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Reddy, Sushma</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Co-occurrence of closely related taxa on islands could be attributed to sympatric speciation or multiple colonization. Sympatric speciation is considered to be rare in small islands, however multiple colonizations are known to be common in both oceanic and continental islands. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relatedness and means of origin of the two sympatrically co-occurring Zosterops white-eyes, the endemic Zosterops ceylonensis and its widespread regional congener Z. palpebrosus, in the island of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is a continental island in the Indian continental shelf of the Northern Indian Ocean. Our multivariate morphometric analyses confirmed the phenotypic distinctness of the two species. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses with ~2000bp from two mitochondrial (ND2 and ND3) and one nuclear (TGF) gene indicated that they are phylogenetically distinct, and not <span class="hlt">sister</span> to each other. The two subspecies of the peninsula India; Z. p. egregius of Sri Lanka and India and Z. p. nilgiriensis of Western Ghats (India) clustered within the Z. palpebrosus clade having a common ancestor. In contrast, the divergence of the endemic Z. ceylonensis appears to be much deeper and is basal to the other Zosterops white-eyes. Therefore we conclude that the two Zosterops species originated in the island through independent colonizations from different ancestral lineages, and not through island speciation or multiple colonization from the same continental ancestral population. Despite high endemism, Sri Lankan biodiversity is long considered to be a subset of southern India. This study on a speciose <span class="hlt">group</span> with high dispersal ability and rapid diversification rate provide evidence for the contribution of multiple colonizations in shaping Sri Lanka’s biodiversity. It also highlights the complex biogeographic patterns of the South Asian region, reflected even in highly vagile <span class="hlt">groups</span> such as birds. PMID:28792950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835"><span>Associations among personal care product use patterns and exogenous hormone use in the NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Kyla W; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Troester, Melissa A</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify <span class="hlt">groups</span> of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions. Personal care products were categorized into three product types (beauty, hair, and skincare products) and separate latent classes were constructed for each type. Adjusted prevalence differences (PD) were calculated to estimate the association between exogenous hormone use, as measured by ever/never OC or HT use, and patterns of personal care product use. LCA reduced data dimensionality by <span class="hlt">grouping</span> of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use into mutually exclusive latent classes (three latent classes for beauty product use, three for hair, and four for skin care. There were strong differences in personal care usage by race, particularly for haircare products. For both blacks and whites, exogenous hormone exposures were associated with higher levels of product use, especially beauty and skincare products. Relative to individual product use questions, latent class variables capture complex patterns of personal care product usage. These patterns differed by race and were associated with ever OC and HT use. Future studies should consider personal care product exposures with other exogenous exposures when modeling health risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685"><span>The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Nhu, Dang Duc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tawara, Kenji; Horikawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Dung, Phung Tri; Thom, Le Hong; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD <span class="hlt">groups</span> from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area <span class="hlt">group</span> were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency. PMID:24786289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20719771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20719771"><span>Brothers delay menarche and the onset of sexual activity in their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milne, Fritha H; Judge, Debra S</p> <p>2011-02-07</p> <p>The higher costs of sons compared with daughters extends to a negative effect of brothers on the lifetime reproductive success of their siblings in subsistence and preindustrial societies. In societies with fewer resource constraints, one might expect that these effects would be limited or non-existent. This study investigates the costs of brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in a contemporary western society of adult Australians. Girls with elder brothers had a delayed age at menarche. Younger brothers were associated with delayed onset of sexual activity in <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, but not in brothers. Neither younger nor elder brothers influenced fitness parameters (number of pregnancies, number of children, age at first pregnancy or age at first birth) in siblings of either sex. This study provides evidence that brothers negatively affect their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' onset of reproductive maturity and sexual activity; however, this delay is not associated with a fitness cost in contemporary Australia. We suggest this is due to the long period of independence prior to child bearing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L"><span>RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> during DNA break repair</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one <span class="hlt">sister</span> can be repaired efficiently using distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut <span class="hlt">sister</span>. After <span class="hlt">sister</span> locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680"><span>DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control <span class="hlt">group</span> were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432641"><span>Do ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and charge nurses have the authority to do their job?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sprinks, Jennifer</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>It has been increasingly recognised that ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and charge nurses have a crucial role to play in the care of patients. Many of them believe, however, that they are not granted the appropriate authority to fulfil their roles adequately; some of them also claim that they are not paid enough. This article reports on the Nursing Standard Power to Care campaign to improve the status of ward managers. It also presents case studies of the two recipients of last year's Nurse Awards in the ward <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and charge nurse role category.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201422','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201422"><span>Wider sampling reveals a non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique <span class="hlt">grouped</span> together, indicating a non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491"><span>Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange evaluations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/<span class="hlt">group</span> for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24750456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24750456"><span>Complex phylogeography and historical hybridization between <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa of freshwater sculpin (Cottus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumsteiger, Jason; Kinziger, Andrew P; Reid, Stewart B; Aguilar, Andres</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Species ranges that span different geographic landscapes frequently contain cryptic species- or population-level structure. Identifying these possible diversification factors can often be accomplished under a comparative phylogeographic framework. However, comparisons suffer if previous studies are limited to a particular <span class="hlt">group</span> or habitat type. In California, a complex landscape has led to several phylogeographic breaks, primarily in terrestrial species. However, two <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa of freshwater fish, riffle sculpin (Cottus gulosus) and Pit sculpin (Cottus pitensis), display ranges based on morphological identifications that do not coincide with these breaks. Using a comprehensive sampling and nuclear, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we hypothesized that proposed species ranges are erroneous based on potential hybridization/gene flow between species. Results identified a phylogeographic signature consistent with this hypothesis, with breaks at the Coast Range Mountains and Sacramento/San Joaquin River confluence. Coastal locations of C. gulosus represent a unique lineage, and 'true' C. gulosus were limited to the San Joaquin basin, both regions under strong anthropogenic influence and potential conservation targets. C. pitensis limits extended historically throughout the Sacramento/Pit River basin but currently are restricted to the Pit River. Interestingly, locations in the Sacramento River contained low levels of ancestral hybridization and gene flow from C. gulosus but now appear to be a distinct population. The remaining population structure was strongly correlated with Sierra Nevada presence (high) or absence (low). This study stresses the importance of testing phylogeographic breaks across multiple taxa/habitats before conservation decisions are made, but also the potential impact of different geographic landscapes on evolutionary diversification. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29503474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29503474"><span>gen. nov., a new <span class="hlt">sister</span> genus ofPhytophthorafrom natural and semi-natural ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jung, T; Scanu, B; Bakonyi, J; Seress, D; Kovács, G M; Durán, A; von Stowasser, E Sanfuentes; Schena, L; Mosca, S; Thu, P Q; Nguyen, C M; Fajardo, S; González, M; Pérez-Sierra, A; Rees, H; Cravador, A; Maia, C; Horta Jung, M</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>During various surveys of Phytophthora diversity in Europe, Chile and Vietnam slow growing oomycete isolates were obtained from rhizosphere soil samples and small streams in natural and planted forest stands. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences from the nuclear ITS, LSU, β-tubulin and HSP90 loci and the mitochondrial cox1 and NADH1 genes revealed they belong to six new species of a new genus, officially described here as Nothophytophthora gen. nov., which clustered as <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> to Phytophthora . Nothophytophthora species share numerous morphological characters with Phytophthora : persistent (all Nothophytophthora spp.) and caducous ( N. caduca , N. chlamydospora , N. valdiviana , N. vietnamensis ) sporangia with variable shapes, internal differentiation of zoospores and internal, nested and extended ( N. caduca , N. chlamydospora ) and external (all Nothophytophthora spp.) sporangial proliferation; smooth-walled oogonia with amphigynous ( N. amphigynosa ) and paragynous ( N. amphigynosa , N. intricata , N. vietnamensis ) attachment of the antheridia; chlamydospores ( N. chlamydospora ) and hyphal swellings. Main differing features of the new genus are the presence of a conspicuous, opaque plug inside the sporangiophore close to the base of most mature sporangia in all known Nothophytophthora species and intraspecific co-occurrence of caducity and non-papillate sporangia with internal nested and extended proliferation in several Nothophytophthora species. Comparisons of morphological structures of both genera allow hypotheses about the morphology and ecology of their common ancestor which are discussed. Production of caducous sporangia by N. caduca , N. chlamydospora and N. valdiviana from Valdivian rainforests and N. vietnamensis from a mountain forest in Vietnam suggests a partially aerial lifestyle as adaptation to these humid habitats. Presence of tree dieback in all forests from which Nothophytophthora spp. were recovered and partial sporangial caducity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776007','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776007"><span>Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pongsavee, Malinee</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human. PMID:19878537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878537"><span>Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pongsavee, Malinee</p> <p>2009-10-30</p> <p>Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=best+AND+treatments+AND+drugs+AND+alcohol&pg=2&id=ED390973','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=best+AND+treatments+AND+drugs+AND+alcohol&pg=2&id=ED390973"><span>Making a Difference. An Impact Study of Big Brothers/Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tierney, Joseph P.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This report provides reliable evidence that mentoring programs can positively affect young people. The evidence is derived from research conducted at local affiliates of Big Brothers/Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of America (BB/BSA), the oldest, best-known, and arguably most sophisticated of the country's mentoring programs. Public/Private Ventures, Inc. conducted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=brothers+AND+disability&id=EJ1088123','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=brothers+AND+disability&id=EJ1088123"><span>Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A <span class="hlt">Sister</span>'s Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068322.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068322.pdf"><span>Project Exploration's <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>4Science: Involving Urban Girls of Color in Science Out of School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lyon, Gabrielle; Jafri, Jameela</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Project Exploration's <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>4Science (S4S) is an afterschool program for middle and high school urban girls of color. Designed to "get" girls interested in science, "keep" girls interested in science, and "equip" girls with skills and experiences that enable them to pursue science, S4S creates a science-rich learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=urban+AND+rivers&pg=5&id=EJ587581','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=urban+AND+rivers&pg=5&id=EJ587581"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science: An Intergenerational Science Program for Elementary School Girls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Once a week, several classrooms of Philadelphia 4th-grade girls participate in <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science, an afterschool, intergenerational program sponsored by Temple University that provides hand-on activities exploring urban environmental issues. A two-week summer camp program helps these students explore the rivers of Philadelphia. Participants…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Why+AND+book+AND+important&pg=6&id=ED530841','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Why+AND+book+AND+important&pg=6&id=ED530841"><span>When the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Said Farewell: The Transition of Leadership in Catholic Elementary Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caruso, Michael P., S.J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>"When the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Said Farewell" tells an important story of the contributions of Catholic elementary schools to the United States by chronicling the experiences and insights of religious women (nuns) who were the last members of their communities to serve in parish elementary schools, and of those lay men and women who were the first to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575"><span>Super-resolution kinetochore tracking reveals the mechanisms of human <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore directional switching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burroughs, Nigel J; Harry, Edward F; McAinsh, Andrew D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator involves the directed motility of bi-orientated <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochores bind bundles of dynamic microtubules and are physically connected through centromeric chromatin. A crucial question is to understand how <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores are coordinated to generate motility and directional switches. Here, we combine super-resolution tracking of kinetochores with automated switching-point detection to analyse <span class="hlt">sister</span> switching dynamics over thousands of events. We discover that switching is initiated by both the leading (microtubules depolymerising) or trailing (microtubules polymerising) kinetochore. Surprisingly, trail-driven switching generates an overstretch of the chromatin that relaxes over the following half-period. This rules out the involvement of a tension sensor, the central premise of the long-standing tension-model. Instead, our data support a model in which clocks set the intrinsic-switching time of the two kinetochore-attached microtubule fibres, with the centromeric spring tension operating as a feedback to slow or accelerate the clocks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09500.001 PMID:26460545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075"><span>Catholic Nursing <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wall, Barbra Mann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Ireland&pg=6&id=EJ1048143','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+Ireland&pg=6&id=EJ1048143"><span>They Came with a Purpose: Educational Journeys of Nineteenth-Century Irish Dominican <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, Jenny</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Irish Catholic teaching <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were major actors in the development of education systems in New World countries such as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants themselves, they faced a number of key challenges as they sought to adapt Old World cultural and educational ideas to the education of the immigrant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31714','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31714"><span>Linking Shorebird Conservation and Education Along Flyways: An Overview of the Shorebird <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Hillary Chapman; Heather Johnson</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Shorebird <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program (SSSP) is an internet-based environmental education program that provides a forum for students, biologists, and shorebird enthusiasts to track shorebird migration and share observations along flyways. The program?s vision is to engage public participation in the conservation of shorebirds and their wetland, grassland, and shoreline...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18831910"><span>Polymorphisms in genes encoding the serotonin and dopamine pathways in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with metachromatic leukodystrophy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumperscak, H G; Dolzan, V; Videtic, A; Plesnicar, B K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a metabolic disease that has recently been investigated as a model for the study of psychosis. We report on two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with adult-type MLD who developed psychiatric symptomatology, but differed in their expression of psychotic and depressive symptoms. Association studies have indicated that polymorphisms in genes encoding the serotonin and dopamine transporters and receptors are related to the symptomatology of schizophrenia and/or depression; hence both <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were genotyped for some of these candidate genes. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span> shared dopamine receptor D(2) (DRD(2)) c.1047GG (p.311Ser/Ser) and c.-141Cins/ins polymorphisms, which are significantly associated with schizophrenia, but differed in the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT(1A)) c.-1019C to G polymorphisms, which may have increased the elder <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s susceptibility to depressive symptoms. Much bigger samples would be needed to gain enough statistical power to develop any hypotheses. This is the first report on genotyping MLD patients for candidate genes for psychiatric disorders, although MLD has been proposed as a model for schizophrenia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Travel+AND+Agent&pg=2&id=EJ1078896','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Travel+AND+Agent&pg=2&id=EJ1078896"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raftery, Deirdre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=corn+AND+nitrogen&id=EJ797780','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=corn+AND+nitrogen&id=EJ797780"><span>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Lessons of Traditional Story Honored in Assessment and Accreditation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chenault, Venida S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> story is shared across many tribes. It explains the practice of planting corn, beans, and squash together. The corn stalks provide support for the bean vines; the beans provide nitrogen for the corn; and the squash prevents weed growth between the mounds. Such stories explain not only the science of agricultural methods in tribal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+injury+AND+victims+AND+child+AND+sexual+AND+abuse&id=EJ1011495','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+injury+AND+victims+AND+child+AND+sexual+AND+abuse&id=EJ1011495"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=3&id=EJ579567','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=3&id=EJ579567"><span>Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24688888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24688888"><span>Spotlights on our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals: ChemistryOpen 1/2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>On these pages, we feature a selection of the excellent work that has recently been published in our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals. If you are reading these pages on a computer, click on any of the items to read the full article. Otherwise please see the DOIs for easy online access through Wiley Online Library.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=winter+AND+method&pg=5&id=EJ1003992','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=winter+AND+method&pg=5&id=EJ1003992"><span>Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Konecni, Vladimir J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "<span class="hlt">sister</span>" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6704889-do-sister-forks-bidirectionally-growing-replicons-proceed-unequal-rates','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6704889-do-sister-forks-bidirectionally-growing-replicons-proceed-unequal-rates"><span>Do <span class="hlt">sister</span> forks of bidirectionally growing replicons proceed at unequal rates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dubey, D.D.; Raman, R.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>DNA fibre autoradiography in different tissues of the rodents Bandicota bengalensis and Nesokia indica reveals a high frequency of such bidirectionally replicating replicons whose <span class="hlt">sister</span> hot tracks are of unequal size. These results suggest intrarepliconic difference in the rates of fork migration in the two directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531"><span>Meanings of Sisterhood and Developmental Disability: Narratives from White Nondisabled <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGraw, Lori A.; Walker, Alexis J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Integrating thought from critical feminist and disability theorists via a strategic social constructionist perspective, the authors analyzed 10 in-depth qualitative interviews to begin to understand the dialogue between (a) how nondisabled <span class="hlt">sisters</span> understand themselves and their siblings with developmental disabilities and (b) wider systems of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....1310013Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GGG....1310013Z"><span>Constraining volcanic inflation at Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749930"><span>Regulation of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromosome Cohesion by the Replication Fork Tracking Protein SeqA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joshi, Mohan C.; Magnan, David; Montminy, Timothy P.; Lies, Mark; Stepankiw, Nicholas; Bates, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Analogously to chromosome cohesion in eukaryotes, newly replicated DNA in E. coli is held together by inter-<span class="hlt">sister</span> linkages before partitioning into daughter nucleoids. In both cases, initial joining is apparently mediated by DNA catenation, in which replication-induced positive supercoils diffuse behind the fork, causing newly replicated duplexes to twist around each other. Type-II topoisomerase-catalyzed <span class="hlt">sister</span> separation is delayed by the well-characterized cohesin complex in eukaryotes, but cohesion control in E. coli is not currently understood. We report that the abundant fork tracking protein SeqA is a strong positive regulator of cohesion, and is responsible for markedly prolonged cohesion observed at “snap” loci. Epistasis analysis suggests that SeqA stabilizes cohesion by antagonizing Topo IV-mediated <span class="hlt">sister</span> resolution, and possibly also by a direct bridging mechanism. We show that variable cohesion observed along the E. coli chromosome is caused by differential SeqA binding, with oriC and snap loci binding disproportionally more SeqA. We propose that SeqA binding results in loose inter-duplex junctions that are resistant to Topo IV cleavage. Lastly, reducing cohesion by genetic manipulation of Topo IV or SeqA resulted in dramatically slowed <span class="hlt">sister</span> locus separation and poor nucleoid partitioning, indicating that cohesion has a prominent role in chromosome segregation. PMID:23990792</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-215.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.215 Section 410.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for Entitlement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.214 Section 410.214 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for Entitlement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+siblings&pg=4&id=EJ965819','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+siblings&pg=4&id=EJ965819"><span>Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Children: Its Costs and Benefits for Youths' Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Reyes, Barbara T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how time spent caring for a teenage <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s child and experiences in providing care related to youths' young adult outcomes. Latino and African American youths (N = 108) were studied during middle and late adolescence. Results indicated that youths who provided many hours of child care were more stressed and had lower school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12235775','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12235775"><span>[The participation of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mathilde de Nina in the historical construction of the Brazilian Nurses Association].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bezerra, M R</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The present work is a study of social-historical nature. It has as its objective understanding the participation of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mathilde Nina, as a representative of the Companhia das Filhas da Caridade (Daughters of Charity Company), in the history of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn). It discusses the association of this <span class="hlt">sister</span> to ABEn as a way of spreading the catholic ideology. The study covers a period of time between 1939 and 1950. The primary data was collected through written documents and reports of people who were close to Mathilde Nina. The dialectic method was adopted and the discussion of the findings is based on Pierre Bourdieu's thoughts. As a consequence of the edict 20.109/31, the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity made their insertion in the formal education in Brazil. As the first representative of the Company to graduate, <span class="hlt">sister</span> Nina could perform in different instances of the nursing profession. Her participation in ABEn was a way of spreading the catholic ideology in nursing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED434287.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED434287.pdf"><span>The Effectiveness of Mentoring for Adolescent Mothers and Their Infants: A Comparative Study between <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Friend and Cal Learn.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tebb, Kathleen P.</p> <p></p> <p>This study evaluated <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Friend, a mentoring program in Yolo County, California, serving low-income adolescent mothers and their infants. The primary objective was to determine if participating in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Friend program improved the adolescent mother's parenting class attendance, the home environment, parenting behavior, and child…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335985&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=05/09/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=05/09/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335985&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=05/09/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=05/09/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&"><span>Derivation and evaluation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is of concern in fish because COX inhibitors (e.g., ibuprofen) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems/fish tissues, and can disrupt synthesis of prostaglandins that modulate a variety of essential biological functions including reproduction. High content (transcriptomic) empirical data and publicly available high throughput toxicity data (actor.epa.gov) were utilized to develop <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for molecular initiating event (MIE) of COX inhibition. Effects of a waterborne, 96h exposure to indomethacin (IN; 100 µg/L), ibuprofen (IB; 200 µg/L) and celecoxib (CX; 20 µg/L) on liver metabolome and ovarian gene expression (using oligonucleotide microarrays) in sexually mature fathead minnows (n=8) were examined. Metabolomic profiles of IN, IB and CX were not significantly different from control or one another. Exposure to IB and CX resulted in differential expression of comparable numbers of genes (IB = 433, CX= 545). In contrast, 2558 genes were differentially expressed in IN-treated fish. Functional analyses (canonical pathway and gene set enrichment) indicated extensive effects of IN on prostaglandin synthesis pathway, oocyte meiosis and several other processes consistent with physiological roles of prostaglandins. Transcriptomic data was congruent with apical endpoint data - IN reduced plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha concentrations, and ovarian COX activity, whereas IB and CX did not. <span class="hlt">Putative</span> AOPs pathways for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2932668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2932668"><span>Ten <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative <span class="hlt">putative</span> contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such <span class="hlt">putative</span> etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433139"><span>Intrafamilial sexual abuse: brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest does not differ from father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">groups</span> of girls who were sexually abused (by either brothers, fathers, or stepfathers) were compared. The purpose was to identify the differing characteristics of the abuse, the family environments, and the psychosocial distress of these children. Seventy-two girls aged between 5 and 16 were assigned to one of the three <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Subjects were matched between <span class="hlt">groups</span> on the basis of their actual age. Children completed measures of traumatic stress; their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report Form (CBCL) and other self-report questionnaires on family characteristics. Workers in child protective services completed information regarding the nature and severity of the abuse. Results suggested few differences in the characteristics of sexual abuse between the three <span class="hlt">groups</span>. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest <span class="hlt">group</span> (70.8%) than in the stepfather incest (27.3%) or father incest (34.8%) <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Ninety percent of the victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically-significant distress on at least one measure, whereas 63.6% of stepfather victims did. Compared with father and stepfather perpetrators, brothers were raised in families with more children and more alcohol abuse. The authors conclude that the characteristics of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest and its associated psychosocial distress did not differ from the characteristics of father-daughter incest These findings suggest that theoretical models and clinical practices should be adjusted accordingly and that sibling incest should not necessarily be construed as less severe or harmful than father-daughter incest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001"><span>Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B <span class="hlt">sister</span> (ABS) protein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1325454-experimental-test-plan-pwr-sister-rods-high-burnup-spent-fuel-data-project','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1325454-experimental-test-plan-pwr-sister-rods-high-burnup-spent-fuel-data-project"><span>Experimental Test Plan for PWR <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Rods in the High Burnup Spent Fuel Data Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Rose; Scaglione, John M; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The High Burnup Spent Fuel Data project pulled 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods (9 from the project assemblies and 16 from similar HBU assemblies) for characterization. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods are all high burnup and cover the range of modern domestic cladding alloys. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in early 2016 for detailed non-destructive and destructive examination. Examinations are intended to provide baseline data on the initial physical state of the cladding and fuel prior to the loading, drying, and long-term dry storage process. Further examinations are focused on determining the effects of temperatures encounteredmore » during and following drying. Similar tests will be performed on rods taken from the project assemblies at the end of their long-term storage in a TN-32 dry storage cask (the cask rods ) to identify any significant changes in the fuel rods that may have occurred during the dry storage period. Additionally, some of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods will be used for separate effects testing to expand the applicability of the project data to the fleet, and to address some of the data-related gaps associated with extended storage and subsequent transportation of high burnup fuel. A draft test plan is being developed that describes the experimental work to be conducted on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods. This paper summarizes the draft test plan and necessary coordination activities for the multi-year experimental program to supply data relevant to the assessment of the safety of long-term storage followed by transportation of high burnup spent fuel.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> unbound is required for meiotic centromeric cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B; McKee, Bruce D</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Womens+AND+work&pg=2&id=EJ1025056','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Womens+AND+work&pg=2&id=EJ1025056"><span>From the inside Out: <span class="hlt">Group</span> Work with Women of Color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article will present two models for conducting <span class="hlt">group</span> work with Women of Color (WOC): the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Circle Approach and the <span class="hlt">Group</span> Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of <span class="hlt">group</span> work that can assist <span class="hlt">group</span> workers to conduct individual and <span class="hlt">group</span>-level…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310490','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310490"><span>Purification and characterization pecan (Carya Illinoinensis) vicilin, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> food allergen (abstract)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The pecan seed storage protein vicilin, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> food allergen, was recombinantly expressed for and purified by a combination of metal affinity and gel filtration chromatography. The protein was crystallized and studied by crystallography. The obtained crystals belonged to space <span class="hlt">group</span> P212121 with...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16309949','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16309949"><span>Evaluation of genotoxic effects of Apitol (cymiazole hydrochloride) in vitro by measurement of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stanimirovic, Zoran; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Jovanovic, Slobodan; Andjelkovic, Marko</p> <p>2005-12-30</p> <p>Apitol, with cymiazole hydrochloride as the active ingredient, is used in bee-keeping against the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. The preparation was evaluated for genotoxicity in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange, the mitotic index and the cell proliferation index were determined for three experimental concentrations of Apitol (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mg/ml). All concentrations significantly (p < 0.001) increased the mitotic index (MI = 7.35+/-0.18%, 8.31+/-0.20% and 12.33+/-0.25%, respectively), the proliferative index (PI = 1.83+/-0.01, 1.84+/-0.01 and 1.88+/-0.02, respectively) and the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE = 8.19+/-1.81, 8.78+/-1.80 and 13.46+/-1.88, respectively), suggesting that cymiazole hydrochloride has genotoxic potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913347"><span>[Egon Erwin Kisch and the Blazek <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. A contribution to the history of teratology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schierhorn, H</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A century ago, on April 29th 1885, the "Raving Reporter" Egon Erwin Kisch was born in Prague. On this occasion his news-reporting about the conjoined Bohemian twins Rosa and Josefa Blazek (born 1878) is appreciated and compared respectively contrasted with the observations and papers of contemporary physicians, among them the famous neuropathologist Richard Henneberg from Berlin and the important gynaecologists Breisky and Pitha from Prague and Schauta from Vienna. Kisch's report "The conjoined <span class="hlt">sisters</span>" was published in his book "Sensation fair" during his antifascistic exile firstly 1941 in New York in English, a year later in Mexico-City in the German language. In spite of his stunt-making style Kisch's declining opposite the capitalistic marketing and opposite the disgracing people's exhibition (in this case of the Bohemian pygopage <span class="hlt">sisters</span>) is articulated. Kisch, the founder of the socialistic literary report, died in 1948 in Prague, Czechoslovakia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444255','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA444255"><span>Linking <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion to Apoptosis and Aneuploidy in the Development of Breast Cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>P E E LEP E +R+L+V + + T+R D++D+V P +KL Fig.6 Homology of C-terminal human Rad2l (amino acids 257-360) with apoptosis-inducing proteins ( AIP ) that...MCB.22.23.8267-8277.2002 Copyright © 2002, American Society for Microbiology . All Rights Reserved. Linking <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion and Apoptosis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24709435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24709435"><span>Non-syndromic multiple hyperdontia in monozygotic twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: a report of two cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ratson, Tal; Peretz, Benjamin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Supernumerary teeth are common in the general population, with a prevalence that varies between 0.1 percent to 3.8 percent. Multiple supernumerary teeth are associated with Gardner's syndrome, Fabry-Anderson syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, labial palatal cleft, and cleidocranial dysplasia. Multiple hyperdontia not associated with syndromes is rare and ranges between 0.04 percent to 0.1 percent. The purpose of this report was to describe the occurrence of nonsyndromic multiple hyperdontia in monozygotic twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange in Marine Polychaetes to Black Rock Harbor Sediment. Laboratory Documentation Phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>collection was returned to the laboratory, press sieved (wet) through a 2-mm mesh stainless steel screen, homogenized, and stored in polypropylene...Monitors were Drs. John Hall and William L . Klesch. This report should be cited as follows: Pesch, G. G., et al. 1985. "Application of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid...environmental samples can be performed, but provide no information on the bioavailability of sediment-sorbed com- pounds. Futhermore, many classes of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590349"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3022207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3022207"><span>Molecular Characterization of <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Chordoma Cell Lines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brüderlein, Silke; Sommer, Joshua B.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Li, Sufeng; Osada, Takuya; Ng, David; Möller, Peter; Alcorta, David A.; Kelley, Michael J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five <span class="hlt">putative</span> chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319). We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies. PMID:21253487</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24804259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24804259"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these <span class="hlt">putative</span> protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3996290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3996290"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Çelik, Pınar; Özbilgin, Ahmet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these <span class="hlt">putative</span> protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells. PMID:24804259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/13/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/13/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/13/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/13/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span><span class="hlt">PUTATIVE</span> ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY FOR INHIBITON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a framework for organizing knowledge to define links between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and an adverse outcome (AO) occurring at a higher level of biological organization, such as the individual or population. The AOP framework proceeds from a general (e.g., not chemical specific) molecular mode of action, designated as a MIE, through stepwise changes in biological status, defined as key events (KEs), to a final AO that can be used in risk assessment. Because aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals are widely used to treat breast cancer patients, we explored the unintended consequences that might occur in fish exposed to these chemicals through wastewater discharge into the aquatic environment. Unlike mammals, fish have two isoforms of aromatase, one that predominates in the ovary (cyp19a1a) and a second (cyp19a1b) that prevails in the brain. Aromatase activity in fish brain can be 100 to 1000 times that in mammals and is associated with reproduction. We have developed a <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOP for inhibition of brain aromatase in fish leading to reproductive dysfunction based on review of relevant literature and reproductive experiments with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) exposed to aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals in the laboratory. The first KE in this AOP is a decrease in brain aromatase activity due to exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. KEs then progress through subsequent steps including decreas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045210','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3045210"><span>Toddlers’ Duration of Attention towards <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Threat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk for developing anxious behavior, toddlers’ attention towards a novel, <span class="hlt">putatively</span> threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined how attention towards an angry-looking gorilla mask in a room with alternative opportunities for play in 24-month-old toddlers predicted social inhibition when children entered kindergarten. Analyses examined attention to threat above and beyond and in interaction with both proximity to the mask and fear of novelty observed in other situations. Attention to threat interacted with proximity to the mask to predict social inhibition, such that attention to threat most strongly predicted social inhibition when toddlers stayed furthest from the mask. This relation occurred above and beyond the predictive relation between fear of novelty and social inhibition. Results are discussed within the broader literature of anxiety development and attentional processes in young children. PMID:21373365</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446266"><span>Getting SaaS-y. Why the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of Mercy Health System opted for on-demand portfolio management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter, Jay</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Mercy Health System chose the SaaS model as a simpler way to plan, execute, and monitor strategic business initiatives. It also provided something that was easy to use and offered quick time to value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550175','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550175"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cadar, Daniel; Bosch, Stefan; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Becker, Norbert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We characterized the complete genome of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> novel Usutu virus (USUV) strain (Usutu-BONN) detected in a dead blackbird from Germany. Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Usutu-BONN constitutes a <span class="hlt">putative</span> novel African USUV lineage, which was probably recently introduced to central Europe. PMID:26291923</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041144','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3041144"><span>Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosome separation includes an abrupt global transition with concomitant release of late-splitting intersister snaps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joshi, Mohan C.; Bourniquel, Aude; Fisher, Jay; Ho, Brian T.; Magnan, David; Kleckner, Nancy; Bates, David</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The basis for segregation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes in bacteria is not established. We show here that two discrete ~150-kb regions, both located early in the right replichore, exhibit prolonged juxtaposition of <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci, for 20 and 30 min, respectively, after replication. Flanking regions, meanwhile, separate. Thus, the two identified regions comprise specialized late-splitting intersister connections or snaps. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> snap loci separate simultaneously in both snap regions, concomitant with a major global nucleoid reorganization that results in emergence of a bilobed nucleoid morphology. Split snap loci move rapidly apart to a separation distance comparable with one-half the length of the nucleoid. Concomitantly, at already split positions, <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci undergo further separation to a comparable distance. The overall consequence of these and other effects is that thus far replicated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes become spatially separated (individualized) into the two nucleoid lobes, while the terminus region (and likely, all unreplicated portions of the chromosome) moves to midcell. These and other findings imply that segregation of Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes is not a smooth continuous process but involves at least one and likely, two major global transition(s). The presented patterns further suggest that accumulation of internal intranucleoid forces and constraining of these forces by snaps play central roles in global chromosome dynamics. They are consistent with and supportive of our previous proposals that individualization of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in E. coli is driven primarily by internally generated pushing forces and is directly analogous to <span class="hlt">sister</span> individualization at the prophase to prometaphase transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:21282646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461518"><span>Chromosomal aberrations, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in lymphocytes of oncology department personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahmoodi, Majid; Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Zendehdel, Kazem; Mozdarani, Hossein; Azimi, Cyrus; Farzanfar, Farideh; Safari, Zahra; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghian, Malihea; Divsalar, Kouros; Asgari, Esfandiar; Rezaei, Nima</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Concern exists regarding the possible hazards to the personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity induced by anti-neoplastic agents in oncology department personnel. To do this, the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed at G 0 phase of the cell cycle using metaphase analysis, cytokinesis block-micronucleus (MN) assay and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. These cytogenetic end points were measured among 71 nurses in oncology department and 10 drugstore personnel handling and preparing anti-neoplastic drugs. The results were compared to those of 74 matched nurses for age and sex not exposed to any anti-neoplastic agents. There was no significant difference between the age of study subjects and control <span class="hlt">group</span> (p > 0.05). The results showed that the mean frequency of cytogenetic damages in terms of CAs [chromatid breaks (p = 0.01), chromosome breaks (p = 0.005), total CAs (p = 0.001)], MN formation (p = 0.001), and SCE (p = 0.004) in lymphocytes of personnel handling anti-neoplastic drugs were significantly higher than those in control unexposed <span class="hlt">group</span>. Results of the present study demonstrate the cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of oncology department personnel. Suitable training and proper knowledge when handling anti-neoplastic drugs are emphasized to avoid potential health hazards caused by cytostatic agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29642908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29642908"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> human sperm Interactome: a networks study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ordinelli, Alessandra; Bernabò, Nicola; Orsini, Massimiliano; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara</p> <p>2018-04-11</p> <p>For over sixty years, it has been known that mammalian spermatozoa immediately after ejaculation are virtually infertile. They became able to fertilize only after they reside for long time (hours to days) within female genital tract where they complete their functional maturation, the capacitation. This process is finely regulated by the interaction with the female environment and involves, in spermatozoa, a myriad of molecules as messengers and target of signals. Since, to date, a model able to represent the molecular interaction that characterize sperm physiology does not exist, we realized the Human Sperm Interactme Network3.0 (HSIN3.0) and its main component (HSNI3.0_MC), starting from the pathway active in male germ cells. HSIN3.0 and HSIN3.0_MC are scale free networks, adherent to the Barabasi-Albert model, and are characterised by an ultra-small world topology. We found that they are resistant to random attacks and that are designed to respond quickly and specifically to external inputs. In addition, it has been possible to identify the most connected nodes (the hubs) and the bottlenecks nodes. This result allowed us to explore the control mechanisms active in driving sperm biochemical machinery and to verify the different levels of controls: party vs. date hubs and hubs vs. bottlenecks, thanks the availability of data from KO mice. Finally, we found that several key nodes represent molecules specifically involved in function that are thought to be not present or not active in sperm cells, such as control of cell cycle, proteins synthesis, nuclear trafficking, and immune response, thus potentially open new perspectives on the study of sperm biology. For the first time we present a network representing <span class="hlt">putative</span> human sperm interactome. This result gives very intriguing biological information and could contribute to the knowledge of spermatozoa, either in physiological or pathological conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23869212"><span>Immune gene expression in Bombus terrestris: signatures of infection despite strong variation among populations, colonies, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunner, Franziska S; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Barribeau, Seth M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Ecological immunology relies on variation in resistance to parasites. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris vary in their susceptibility to the trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi, which reduces colony fitness. To understand the possible origin of this variation in resistance we assayed the expression of 28 immunologically important genes in foraging workers. We deliberately included natural variation of the host "environment" by using bees from colonies collected in two locations and sampling active foraging workers that were not age controlled. Immune gene expression patterns in response to C. bombi showed remarkable variability even among genetically similar <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Nevertheless, expression varied with parasite exposure, among colonies and, perhaps surprisingly, strongly among populations (collection sites). While only the antimicrobial peptide abaecin is universally up regulated upon exposure, linear discriminant analysis suggests that the overall exposure effect is driven by a combination of several immune pathways and further immune functions such as ROS regulation. Also, the differences among colonies in their immune gene expression profiles provide clues to the mechanistic basis of well-known inter-colony variation in susceptibility to this parasite. Our results show that transcriptional responses to parasite exposure can be detected in ecologically heterogeneous <span class="hlt">groups</span> despite strong background noise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359333"><span>Divergence in pollen performance between Clarkia <span class="hlt">sister</span> species with contrasting mating systems supports predictions of sexual selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazer, Susan J; Hendrickson, Brandon T; Chellew, Joseph P; Kim, Lynn J; Liu, Jasen W; Shu, Jasper; Sharma, Manju V</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Animal taxa that differ in the intensity of sperm competition often differ in sperm production or swimming speed, arguably due to sexual selection on postcopulatory male traits affecting siring success. In plants, closely related self- and cross-pollinated taxa similarly differ in the opportunity for sexual selection among male gametophytes after pollination, so traits such as the proportion of pollen on the stigma that rapidly enters the style and mean pollen tube growth rate (PTGR) are predicted to diverge between them. To date, no studies have tested this prediction in multiple plant populations under uniform conditions. We tested for differences in pollen performance in greenhouse-raised populations of two Clarkia <span class="hlt">sister</span> species: the predominantly outcrossing C. unguiculata and the facultatively self-pollinating C. exilis. Within populations of each taxon, <span class="hlt">groups</span> of individuals were reciprocally pollinated (n = 1153 pollinations) and their styles examined four hours later. We tested for the effects of species, population, pollen type (self vs. outcross), the number of competing pollen grains, and temperature on pollen performance. Clarkia unguiculata exhibited higher mean PTGR than C. exilis; pollen type had no effect on performance in either taxon. The difference between these species in PTGR is consistent with predictions of sexual selection theory. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657871"><span>Dietary behaviors and portion sizes of Black women who enrolled in <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk and variation by demographic characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective To describe the dietary behaviors of Black women who enrolled in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk weight control study. Design Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting Boston, MA and surrounding areas. Participants A total of 461 Black women completed the baseline. Variables Measured Measured height and weight; self reported demographics, risk factors, and dietary variables including fat-related eating behaviors, food portion size, fruit, vegetable, and beverage intake. Analysis Descriptive analyses for demographic, risk factors and dietary variables; ANOVA models with Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ) scores as the dependent variable and demographic categories as the independent variables; ANOVA models with individual FHQ item scores as the dependent variable, and ethnic identification as the independent variable. Results The data indicate a low prevalence of many fat lowering behaviors. More than 60% reported eating less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Self-reported portion sizes were large for most foods. Older age, being born outside the US, living without children and being retired were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of fat-lowering behaviors. The frequency of specific fat-lowering behaviors and portion size also differed by ethnic identification. Conclusions and Implications The findings support the need for culturally appropriate interventions to improve the dietary intake of Black Americans. Further studies should examine the dietary habits, food preparation methods and portion sizes of diverse <span class="hlt">groups</span> of Black women and how such habits may differ by demographics. PMID:19161918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263614','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4263614"><span>Wing Base Structural Data Support the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Relationship of Megaloptera and Neuroptera (Insecta: Neuropterida)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Chenjing; Liu, Xingyue; Yang, Ding</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The phylogenetic status and the monophyly of the holometabolous insect order Megaloptera has been an often disputed and long unresolved problem. The present study attempts to infer phylogenetic relationships among three orders, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, and Raphidioptera, within the superorder Neuropterida, based on wing base structure. Cladistic analyses were carried out based on morphological data from both the fore- and hindwing base. A <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship between Megaloptera and Neuroptera was recovered, and the monophyly of Megaloptera was corroborated. The division of the order Megaloptera, the traditional higher classification, into Corydalidae (Corydalinae + Chauliodinae) and Sialidae, was also supported by our wing base data analyses. PMID:25502404</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24598400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24598400"><span>Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: possible role of ketogenesis?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Di Lorenzo, Cherubino; Currà, Antonio; Sirianni, Giulio; Coppola, Gianluca; Bracaglia, Martina; Cardillo, Alessandra; De Nardis, Lorenzo; Pierelli, Francesco</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet long used to treat refractory epilepsy; ketogenesis (ketone body formation) is a physiological phenomenon also observed in patients following lowcarbohydrate, low-calorie diets prescribed for rapid weight loss. We report the case of a pair of twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, whose high-frequency migraine improved during a ketogenic diet they followed in order to lose weight. The observed time-lock between ketogenesis and migraine improvement provides some insight into how ketones act to improve migraine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23951397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23951397"><span>Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting umbilical hernia and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsuruya, Kota; Matsushima, Masashi; Nakajima, Takayuki; Fujisawa, Mia; Shirakura, Katsuya; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Mine, Tetsuya</p> <p>2013-08-16</p> <p>Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare aggressive tumor of the peritoneum. An increasing number of malignant mesothelioma cases have been reported in recent years. We report here a very rare case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with both umbilical hernia and umbilical metastasis which is also called <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule. We performed laparoscopy which showed specific laparoscopic findings, and the pathological findings of the biopsy specimen led to the diagnosis. This case was associated with umbilical hernia which could be induced by massive ascites. A newly developed abdominal hernia should be noted as a primary symptom of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, as shown in the present case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742707','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742707"><span>Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma presenting umbilical hernia and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph’s nodule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsuruya, Kota; Matsushima, Masashi; Nakajima, Takayuki; Fujisawa, Mia; Shirakura, Katsuya; Igarashi, Muneki; Koike, Jun; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Mine, Tetsuya</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare aggressive tumor of the peritoneum. An increasing number of malignant mesothelioma cases have been reported in recent years. We report here a very rare case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with both umbilical hernia and umbilical metastasis which is also called <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph’s nodule. We performed laparoscopy which showed specific laparoscopic findings, and the pathological findings of the biopsy specimen led to the diagnosis. This case was associated with umbilical hernia which could be induced by massive ascites. A newly developed abdominal hernia should be noted as a primary symptom of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, as shown in the present case. PMID:23951397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29112136','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29112136"><span>Gut Microbiome and <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J</p> <p>2017-11-07</p> <p>Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and <span class="hlt">putative</span> resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both <span class="hlt">groups</span> showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. <span class="hlt">Putative</span> antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of <span class="hlt">putative</span> antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved <span class="hlt">putative</span> human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5704223','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5704223"><span>Gut Microbiome and <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A.; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and <span class="hlt">putative</span> resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both <span class="hlt">groups</span> showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. <span class="hlt">Putative</span> antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of <span class="hlt">putative</span> antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved <span class="hlt">putative</span> human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era. PMID:29112136</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/254378-two-sisters-clinical-diagnosis-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-condition-family-autosomal-recessive','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/254378-two-sisters-clinical-diagnosis-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-condition-family-autosomal-recessive"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with clinical diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: Is the condition in the family autosomal recessive?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondoh, T.; Hayashi, K.; Matsumoto, T.</p> <p>1995-10-09</p> <p>We report two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in a family representing manifestations of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency disorder. An elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> had suffered from recurrent infections, small thrombocytopenic petechiae, purpura, and eczema for 7 years. The younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> had the same manifestations as the elder <span class="hlt">sister`s</span> for a 2-year period, and died of intracranial bleeding at age 2 years. All the laboratory data of the two patients were compatible with WAS, although they were females. Sialophorin analysis with the selective radioactive labeling method of this protein revealed that in the elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> a 115-KD band that should be specific for sialophorinmore » was reduced in quantity, and instead an additional 135-KD fragment was present as a main band. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the sialophorin gene and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that there were no detectable size-change nor electrophoretic mobility change in the DNA from both patients. The results indicated that their sialophorin gene structure might be normal. Studies on the mother-daughter transmission of X chromosome using a pERT84-MaeIII polymorphic marker mapped at Xp21 and HPRT gene polymorphism at Xq26 suggested that each <span class="hlt">sister</span> had inherited a different X chromosome from the mother. Two explanations are plausible for the occurrence of the WAS in our patients: the WAS in the patients is attributable to an autosomal gene mutation which may regulate the sialophorin gene expression through the WAS gene, or, alternatively, the condition in this family is an autosomal recessive disorder separated etiologically from the X-linked WAS. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043799','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043799"><span>[Distribution of <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli IMT5155 in E. coli strains isolated from human and animal].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shaohui; Dai, Jianjun; Lu, Chengping</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>We investigated the distribution of autotransporter adhesin gene B11 and other <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes of APEC IMT5155, which contributed to study the pathogenic mechanism of Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). PCR and Dot blot were used to detect the distribution of <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes in E. coli strains isolated from different country (101 Chinese strains and 121 German strains), which were from different sources (human, avian and pig). The association of E. coli phylogenetic <span class="hlt">group</span> and distribution of <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes was also analyzed. The <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes were most prevalent among APEC isolates, 36.4% (32/88) of APEC isolates harboring A1, 53.4% (47/88) for A8, 63.6% (56/88) for A10, 37.5% (33/88) for B11, 59.1% (52/88) for F3. The isolates positive for <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes were linked to E. coli phylogenetic <span class="hlt">group</span> B2. Among Neonatal meningitis E. coli isolates, 60%, 80% and 80% were positive for <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes D1, E9 and F11, respectively. However, all the Neonatal meningitis E. coli strains were negative for B11. Autotransporter adhesin gene B11 and other <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes were associated to APEC. However, <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes D1, E9 and F11 were associated to Neonatal meningitis E. coli, which indicated that APEC might be a virulence gene reservoir for Neonatal meningitis E. coli.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5693790-petrochemical-evolution-high-cascade-volcanic-rocks-three-sisters-region-oregon','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5693790-petrochemical-evolution-high-cascade-volcanic-rocks-three-sisters-region-oregon"><span>Petrochemical evolution of high cascade volcanic rocks in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> region, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, S.S.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Multi-element abundances and petrographic data are compiled for a suite of 50 volcanic rocks and selected mineral separates located within the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> area. Major element oxides, obtained by x-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and trace element concentrations, obtained by sequential instrumental neutron activation analyses, enable classifications of normal basalts, divergent basalts, Mount Washington (MW) and North <span class="hlt">Sister</span> (NS) type basaltic andesites, dacites and rhyodacites. Petrochemical types and geochemical models are evaluated in light of field studies, regional geologic environment and comparisons with similar systems. High-alumina olivine tholeiites exhibit low Fe' values and fractionated abundances of K, Ba, Sr,more » REE and Sc which produce nonchondritic monotonic patterns relative to ionic radii. Primary basalts are modeled as 14% melts, with minor olivine crystallization, from a LIL element-enriched spinel Iherzolite source. A comprehensive model of High Cascades volcanic evolution is presented which incorporates a series of events in a subduction zone-mantle-crust system: Hydrous fluids, expelled from a dehydrating subducted slab, become enriched in incompatible elements through processes of liquid extraction and small amounts of partial melting. These fluids ascend through the overlying mantle wedge contaminating and catalyzing mafic melts which accumulate and fractionate in upper mantle and lower crust regions. Mafic magmas erupt as near-primary liquids or are intruded into upper crust regions where extensive fractionation produces siliceous dacites and rhyodacites.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125979','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3125979"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: communal coping, social integration, and psychological well-being†</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Koehly, Laura M.; Peters, June A.; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Objective We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sample and methods Sixty-five <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants’ social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> within families. Results Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that <span class="hlt">sisters</span> shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, <span class="hlt">sisters</span> demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants’ emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Conclusion Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:18688790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5454377','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5454377"><span>Maternal age-dependent APC/C-mediated decrease in securin causes premature <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation in meiosis II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nabti, Ibtissem; Grimes, Rosanna; Sarna, Hema; Marangos, Petros; Carroll, John</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid attachment during meiosis II (MII) is maintained by securin-mediated inhibition of separase. In maternal ageing, oocytes show increased inter-<span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore distance and premature <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation (PSCS), suggesting aberrant separase activity. Here, we find that MII oocytes from aged mice have less securin than oocytes from young mice and that this reduction is mediated by increased destruction by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) during meiosis I (MI) exit. Inhibition of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) kinase, Mps1, during MI exit in young oocytes replicates this phenotype. Further, over-expression of securin or Mps1 protects against the age-related increase in inter-<span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore distance and PSCS. These findings show that maternal ageing compromises the oocyte SAC–APC/C axis leading to a decrease in securin that ultimately causes <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion loss. Manipulating this axis and/or increasing securin may provide novel therapeutic approaches to alleviating the risk of oocyte aneuploidy in maternal ageing. PMID:28516917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18688790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18688790"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: communal coping, social integration, and psychological well-being.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koehly, Laura M; Peters, June A; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sixty-five <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants' social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> within families. Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that <span class="hlt">sisters</span> shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, <span class="hlt">sisters</span> demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants' emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260031"><span>Siblings' experiences of their brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s cancer death: a nationwide follow-up 2-9 years later.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lövgren, Malin; Jalmsell, Li; Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Kreicbergs, Ulrika</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine siblings' experiences of their brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s cancer death and if these experiences influenced levels of anxiety 2-9 years later. This nationwide survey was conducted in Sweden in 2009. All siblings who had a brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> who was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 17 years and who died before the age of 25 years during 2000-2007 were invited. Of those, 174 siblings participated (participation rate: 73%). Mixed data from the survey about the siblings' experiences of death were included as well as data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To examine the experiences, descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to investigate if the experiences influenced anxiety 2-9 years later. The siblings reported poor knowledge and experienced a lack of communication about their brother's/<span class="hlt">sister</span>'s death, for example, about the time frame, bodily changes near death, and about their own experiences. Siblings who reported that no one talked with them about what to expect when their brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> was going to die reported higher levels of anxiety 2-9 years after the loss. Seventy percent reported that they witnessed their brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> suffering in the last hours in life. Many of those who were not present during the illness period and at the time of death expressed regret. It is important to prepare siblings for their brother's/<span class="hlt">sister</span>'s illness and death as it may decrease anxiety and regrets later on. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15355977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15355977"><span>The spindle pole body assembly component mps3p/nep98p functions in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Antoniacci, Lisa M; Kenna, Margaret A; Uetz, Peter; Fields, Stanley; Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2004-11-19</p> <p>For successful chromosome segregation during mitosis, several processes must occur early in the cell cycle, including spindle pole duplication, DNA replication, and the establishment of cohesion between nascent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Spindle pole body duplication begins in G1 and continues during early S-phase as spindle pole bodies mature and start to separate. Key steps in spindle pole body duplication are the sequential recruitment of Cdc31p and Spc42p by the nuclear envelope transmembrane protein Msp3p/Nep98p (herein termed Mps3p). Concurrent with DNA replication, Ctf7p/Eco1p (herein termed Ctf7p) ensures that nascent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are paired together, identifying the products of replication as <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Here, we provide the first evidence that the nuclear envelope spindle pole body assembly component Mps3p performs a function critical to <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. Mps3p was identified as interacting with Ctf7p from a genome-wide two-hybrid screen, and the physical interaction was confirmed by both in vivo (co-immunoprecipitation) and in vitro (GST pull-down) assays. An in vivo cohesion assay on new mps3/nep98 alleles revealed that loss of Mps3p results in precocious <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and that Mps3p functions after G1, coincident with Ctf7p. Mps3p is not required for cohesion during mitosis, revealing that Mps3p functions in cohesion establishment and not maintenance. Mutated Mps3p that results in cohesion defects no longer binds to Ctf7p in vitro, demonstrating that the interaction between Mps3p and Ctf7p is physiologically relevant. In support of this model, mps3 ctf7 double mutant cells exhibit conditional synthetic lethality. These findings document a new role for Mps3p in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and provide novel insights into the mechanism by which a spindle pole body component, when mutated, contributes to aneuploidy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027126','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027126"><span>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both <span class="hlt">putative</span> parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrids. The restricted distribution of <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of <span class="hlt">putative</span>-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9776566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9776566"><span>Elevated frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes of victims of the Tokyo sarin disaster and in experiments exposing lymphocytes to by-products of sarin synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Q; Minami, M; Clement, J G; Boulet, C A</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>More than 5000 passengers of Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas sarin. Most of the victims examined had marked miosis and decreased serum cholinesterase activity. To monitor the genetic aftereffects of sarin exposure, we measured <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) of the victims using peripheral blood lymphocytes. The frequency of SCEs was significantly higher in the victims than in the control <span class="hlt">group</span>. Analyzing results using samples of urine from the victims suggested that the victims were exposed to not only sarin per se, but by-products of sarin synthesis, i.e. diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and ethyl isopropyl methylphosphonate (EIMP). Thus, the in vitro SCE-inducing effect of DIMP, DEMP and EIMP was examined using human lymphocytes and we obtained positive results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16637544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16637544"><span>St. Louis system has Corporate Ethics Committee. <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Mercy Health System has developed an approach for assisting in the integration of ethics and operations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Toole, Brian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Despite the relatively recent advent of organizational ethics committees--created to address operational concerns that are not always appropriate for a clinical ethics committee to take on--there remain impediments (such as time constraints, limited ethical expertise, lack of senior leaders at the table, and waning interest of members) to the impact such a <span class="hlt">group</span> might have. Committed to addressing operational concerns in a meaningful and "value-added" way, and mindful of the challenges that can limit the effectiveness of organizational ethics committees, the St. Louis-based <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Mercy Health System developed an approach that has proven successful. Without changing the committee's goals-education, policy, and consultation-Mercy's renewed Corporate Ethics Committee was restructured to include ethical experts, people knowledgeable about particular issues, and people with authority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24170193','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24170193"><span>Clinical, tomographic aspects and relevance of torus palatinus: case report of two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nogueira, Alexandre Simões; Gonçales, Eduardo Sanches; Santos, Paulo Sergio da Silva; Damante, José Humberto; Alencar, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa; Sampaio, Fernanda Araújo; Garcia, Alexandre Simões</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Despite the nomenclature suggested to be a tumor, torus palatinus (TP) is an overgrowth of the bone in the palatal region and represents an anatomic variation. Its prevalence varies among the population studied and its etiology is still unclear; however, it seems to be a multifactorial disorder with genetics and environmental involvement. Surgical removal of the TP is indicated in the following circumstances: (1) deglutition and speech impairment, (2) cancer phobia, (3) traumatized mucosa over the torus, and (4) prosthetic reasons. The aim of this case report is describe cases that occurred in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, emphasizing the genetic etiology of this anatomic variation. In addition, intra-oral exam and computed tomography scan (axial, coronal and sagittal view) provided a detailed assessment of the TP and elimination of other possible diagnoses, furthermore allowed a better analyzes of the anatomic relation with adjacentes structures. No surgical removal was indicated for both cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391285"><span>Creating a tenuous balance: siblings' experience of a brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s childhood cancer diagnosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Long, Kristin A; Marsland, Anna L; Wright, Amanda; Hinds, Pamela</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>More than 14,000 children are diagnosed with cancer in the United States each year. Prolonged, intensive treatment protocols disrupt the entire family, including siblings. Here, we employed grounded theory methodology to examine the experiences of 30 nonbereaved adolescent siblings of children receiving cancer treatment. The central organizing theme of the emergent data is "creating a tenuous balance." Contributing themes include (a) knowing something is seriously wrong, (b) figuring out the meaning of cancer, (c) adapting to changes in personal and family life, and (d) handling emotional reactions to cancer. Overall, findings suggest an ongoing, active process by which siblings notice and adapt to the many unexpected and taxing aspects of their brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s cancer diagnosis and treatment, including shifts in how the family system operates. Findings highlight the important role of siblings in family-centered cancer care. Future, larger scale research should develop targeted interventions for these siblings. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897329"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with macular dystrophy caused by the 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Gutiérrez, V; García-Montesinos, J; Pardo-Muñoz, A</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of 54 and 60years old, with a history of diabetes and deafness, consulted for decreased visual acuity (VA). Funduscopic examination revealed patchy areas of chorioretinal atrophy with annular arrangement around the fovea. Genetic study identified the heteroplasmic mutation 3243A>G in mitochondrial DNA, which supports syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) or Ballinger-Wallace disease. The finding of such macular disorders, especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus and deafness, should suggest the performing of a mitochondrial genome screening to identify this unusual syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28820736','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28820736"><span>Long QT syndrome diagnosed in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with propionic acidemia: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duras, Ensar; İrdem, Ahmet; Özkaya, Ozan</p> <p>2017-10-26</p> <p>Propionic acidemia (PA) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). This disorder mostly progresses with episodes of metabolic acidosis. Cardiomyopathy is among the cardiac complications known to occur during metabolic decompensation episodes. However, several recent papers emphasized the association of PA and long QT syndrome (LQTS) which may lead to extremely serious and fatal consequences. In this report, we describe two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with PA who have prolonged QT duration that were incidentally detected in an outpatient setting. LQTS was verified by electrocardiogram, stress test and 24 h rhythm holter monitoring. By this report, we want to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis of LQTS in asymptomatic patients with PA to prevent fatal complications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024793','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024793"><span>Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177"><span>Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but <span class="hlt">sister</span> species in the genus Escherichia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship. Copyright © 2013. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1122W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.1122W"><span>Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven; Thatcher, Wayne; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21812101"><span>Distinct de novo deletions in a brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> pair with RTT: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mittal, Kirti; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Juyal, Ramesh; Thelma, B K</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein2 (MeCP2), is a leading cause of mental retardation in females. Majority of cases are sporadic (99%) but some familial cases have also been observed. We describe a familial study with a brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> pair with symptoms of RTT and exhibiting distinct deletions in the MECP2. The non-shared de novo deletion in the two sibs provides important insights into the disease etiology, especially for male sibs showing varied phenotypes as compared to the classical ones seen in the females. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26588894','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26588894"><span>Evolutionary comparison of prenylation pathway in kinetoplastid Leishmania and its <span class="hlt">sister</span> Leptomonas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chauhan, Indira Singh; Kaur, Jaspreet; Krishna, Shagun; Ghosh, Arpita; Singh, Prashant; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Singh, Neeloo</p> <p>2015-11-21</p> <p>Leptomonas is monogenetic kinetoplastid parasite of insects and is primitive in comparison to Leishmania. Comparative studies of these two kinetoplastid may share light on the evolutionary transition to dixenous parasitism in Leishmania. In order to adapt and survive within two hosts, Leishmania species must have acquired virulence factors in addition to mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection in the pathology associated with disease. Rab proteins are key mediators of vesicle transport and contribute greatly to the evolution of complexity of membrane transport system. In this study we used our whole genome sequence data of these two divergent kinetoplastids to analyze the orthologues/paralogues of Rab proteins. During change of lifestyle from monogenetic (Leptomonas) to digenetic (Leishmania), we found that the prenyl machinery remained unchanged. Geranylgeranyl transferase-I (GGTase-I) was absent in both Leishmania and its <span class="hlt">sister</span> Leptomonas. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyl transferase-II (GGTase-II) were identified for protein prenylation. We predict that activity of the missing alpha-subunit (α-subunit) of GGTase-II in Leptomonas was probably contributed by the α-subunit of FTase, while beta-subunit (β-subunit) of GGTase-II was conserved and indicated functional conservation in the evolution of these two kinetoplastids. Therefore the β-subunit emerges as an excellent target for compounds inhibiting parasite activity in clinical cases of co-infections. We also confirmed that during the evolution to digenetic life style in Leishmania, the parasite acquired capabilities to evade drug action and maintain parasite virulence in the host with the incorporation of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR/MDR) superfamily in Rab genes. Our study based on whole genome sequences is the first to build comparative evolutionary analysis and identification of prenylation proteins in Leishmania and its <span class="hlt">sister</span> Leptomonas. The information</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7993309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7993309"><span>Educational and occupational achievements of brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in adoptive and biologically related families.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scarr, S; Weinberg, R A</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>The study of brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from adoptive and biologically related families permits unique analyses of the determinants of young adults' educational and occupational achievements. Brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> come from the same homes, neighborhoods, and usually schools. Many differences among families are controlled by the study of siblings. In addition, adoptive families influence their children only through the environment they provide, whereas biologically related parents transmit their intellectual and personal characteristics to their offspring genetically as well. Thus, the comparison of models of adult achievements for children from adoptive and biologically related families can inform us about the true effects of family environments, apart from genetic transmission (Scarr and Weinberg, 1978, 1980). In this follow-up study of 450 biologically related and adopted young adults (ages 22 to 30 years), we report on the family resemblances in educational and occupational achievements. Parents' reports were obtained on 97% of the original sample (N = 443), and 77% of the young adults participated in the follow-up study themselves; complete educational and occupational data were available on 303 young adults. Results show that biological sons are more influenced by their family backgrounds than daughters, regardless of genetic relatedness. A second finding is that young women's achievements are not as predictable from their own earlier achievements as are those of their brothers. A third finding is that parents invest in their sons' educational futures, regardless of sons' abilities and achievements, in ways they do not invest in their daughters' postsecondary educations. Sibling correlations and natural mother-adopted child correlations suggest that test scores, high school performance, postsecondary education, and even later occupational status can be influenced by genetic variability in personal characteristics that affect such achievements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372773"><span>EPRI/DOE High Burnup Fuel <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Pin Test Plan Simplification and Visualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B.; Hanson, Brady</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The EPRI/DOE High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project (herein called the "Demo") is a multi-year, multi-entity confirmation demonstration test with the purpose of providing quantitative and qualitative data to show how high-burnup fuel ages in dry storage over a ten-year period. The Demo involves obtaining 32 assemblies of high-burnup PWR fuel of four common cladding alloys from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant, drying them according to standard plant procedures, and then storing them in an NRC-licensed TN-3 2B cask on the North Anna dry storage pad for ten years. After the ten-year storage time, the cask will be opened andmore » the rods will be examined for signs of aging. Twenty-five rods from assemblies of similar claddings, in-reactor placement, and burnup histories (herein called "<span class="hlt">sister</span> rods") have been shipped from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant and are currently being nondestructively tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After the non-destructive testing has been completed for each of the twenty-five rods, destructive analysis will be performed at ORNL, PNNL, and ANL to obtain mechanical data. Opinions gathered from the expert interviews, ORNL and PNNL <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Rod Test Plans, and numerous meetings has resulted in the Simplified Test Plan described in this document. Some of the opinions and discussions leading to the simplified test plan are included here. Detailed descriptions and background are in the ORNL and PNNL plans in the appendices . After the testing described in this simplified test plan h as been completed , the community will review all the collected data and determine if additional testing is needed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373253"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M</p> <p>2013-12-27</p> <p>Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five <span class="hlt">group</span> design included a comparison <span class="hlt">group</span> and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison <span class="hlt">group</span>. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention <span class="hlt">group</span>, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300990"><span>Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29467107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29467107"><span>Associations between Personal Care Product Use Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk among White and Black Women in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Kyla W; Troester, Melissa A; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Baird, Donna D</p> <p>2018-02-21</p> <p>Many personal care products include chemicals that might act as endocrine disruptors and thus increase the risk of breast cancer. We examined the association between usage patterns of beauty, hair, and skin-related personal care products and breast cancer incidence in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study, a national prospective cohort study (enrollment 2003-2009). Non-Hispanic black (4,452) and white women (n=42,453) were examined separately using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify <span class="hlt">groups</span> of individuals with similar patterns of self-reported product use in three categories (beauty, skin, hair). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between product use and breast cancer incidence. A total of 2,326 women developed breast cancer during follow-up (average follow-up=5.4y). Among black women, none of the latent class hazard ratios was elevated, but there were <100 cases in any category, limiting power. Among white women, those classified as "moderate" and "frequent" users of beauty products had increased risk of breast cancer relative to "infrequent" users [HR=1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.27) and HR=1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), respectively]. Frequent users of skincare products also had increased risk of breast cancer relative to infrequent users [HR=1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29)]. None of the hair product classes was associated with increased breast cancer risk. The associations with beauty and skin products were stronger in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women, but not significantly so. This work generates novel hypotheses about personal care product use and breast cancer risk. Whether these results are due to specific chemicals or to other correlated behaviors needs to be evaluated. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1480.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3424243"><span>LAB-1 Targets PP1 and Restricts Aurora B Kinase upon Entrance into Meiosis to Promote <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tzur, Yonatan B.; Egydio de Carvalho, Carlos; Nadarajan, Saravanapriah; Van Bostelen, Ivo; Gu, Yanjie; Chu, Diana S.; Cheeseman, Iain M.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Successful execution of the meiotic program depends on the timely establishment and removal of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. LAB-1 has been proposed to act in the latter by preventing the premature removal of the meiosis-specific cohesin REC-8 at metaphase I in C. elegans, yet the mechanism and scope of LAB-1 function remained unknown. Here we identify an unexpected earlier role for LAB-1 in promoting the establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in prophase I. LAB-1 and REC-8 are both required for the chromosomal association of the cohesin complex subunit SMC-3. Depletion of lab-1 results in partial loss of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in rec-8 and coh-4 coh-3 mutants and further enhanced chromatid dissociation in worms where all three kleisins are mutated. Moreover, lab-1 depletion results in increased Aurora B kinase (AIR-2) signals in early prophase I nuclei, coupled with a parallel decrease in signals for the PP1 homolog, GSP-2. Finally, LAB-1 directly interacts with GSP-1 and GSP-2. We propose that LAB-1 targets the PP1 homologs to the chromatin at the onset of meiosis I, thereby antagonizing AIR-2 and cooperating with the cohesin complex to promote <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid association and normal progression of the meiotic program. PMID:22927794</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927794"><span>LAB-1 targets PP1 and restricts Aurora B kinase upon entrance into meiosis to promote <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tzur, Yonatan B; Egydio de Carvalho, Carlos; Nadarajan, Saravanapriah; Van Bostelen, Ivo; Gu, Yanjie; Chu, Diana S; Cheeseman, Iain M; Colaiácovo, Monica P</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Successful execution of the meiotic program depends on the timely establishment and removal of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. LAB-1 has been proposed to act in the latter by preventing the premature removal of the meiosis-specific cohesin REC-8 at metaphase I in C. elegans, yet the mechanism and scope of LAB-1 function remained unknown. Here we identify an unexpected earlier role for LAB-1 in promoting the establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in prophase I. LAB-1 and REC-8 are both required for the chromosomal association of the cohesin complex subunit SMC-3. Depletion of lab-1 results in partial loss of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in rec-8 and coh-4 coh-3 mutants and further enhanced chromatid dissociation in worms where all three kleisins are mutated. Moreover, lab-1 depletion results in increased Aurora B kinase (AIR-2) signals in early prophase I nuclei, coupled with a parallel decrease in signals for the PP1 homolog, GSP-2. Finally, LAB-1 directly interacts with GSP-1 and GSP-2. We propose that LAB-1 targets the PP1 homologs to the chromatin at the onset of meiosis I, thereby antagonizing AIR-2 and cooperating with the cohesin complex to promote <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid association and normal progression of the meiotic program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12030983','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12030983"><span>Comparative phylogeography of sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this <span class="hlt">sister</span>-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+heritage+AND+sponsorship&id=ED523978','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cultural+AND+heritage+AND+sponsorship&id=ED523978"><span>The Discernment Process of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Dominic regarding the Continued Sponsorship of Its Secondary Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tavis, Patricia</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the factors that a congregation of women religious, the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Saint Dominic of Caldwell, New Jersey, must consider in order to continue its sponsored relationship and the extent of this sponsored relationship with its secondary educational ministries for the future. This descriptive and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/43742','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/43742"><span>Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-07/pdf/2012-27237.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-11-07/pdf/2012-27237.pdf"><span>77 FR 66851 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-11-07</p> <p>... currently valid OMB control number. This information is required to be stated in the 30-day Federal Register... cancers to accrue in a cohort of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> as would accrue in a cohort identified through random sampling or... reporting burden is as follows: Estimated Number of Respondents: 50,884 study participants or next-of-kin...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-15/pdf/2012-20067.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-15/pdf/2012-20067.pdf"><span>77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>... accrue in a cohort of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> as would accrue in a cohort identified through random sampling or other... reporting burden is as follows: Estimated Number of Respondents: 50,884 study participants or next-of-kin/proxies. Estimated Number of Responses per Respondent: See annualized table below: Estimated Estimated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=conformity&pg=6&id=EJ1172752','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=conformity&pg=6&id=EJ1172752"><span>'For Good, God, and the Empire': French Franciscan <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Ethiopia 1896-1937</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guidi, Pierre</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>In 1897, four French Franciscan <span class="hlt">sisters</span> arrived in Ethiopia, having been summoned there by the Capuchin missionaries. In 1925, they ran an orphanage, a dispensary, a leper colony and 10 schools with 350 girl students. The students were freed slaves, orphans and upper-class Ethiopian and European girls. After providing a brief background to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244149','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4244149"><span>Using Ecological Niche Models and Niche Analyses to Understand Speciation Patterns: The Case of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Neotropical Orchid Bees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Silva, Daniel P.; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between <span class="hlt">sister</span> orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species. PMID:25422941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25422941"><span>Using ecological niche models and niche analyses to understand speciation patterns: the case of <span class="hlt">sister</span> neotropical orchid bees.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Silva, Daniel P; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between <span class="hlt">sister</span> orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241184','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=241184"><span>Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the coconut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationships. We used primers d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+frequency+AND+questionnaire&pg=4&id=EJ825688','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+frequency+AND+questionnaire&pg=4&id=EJ825688"><span>Dietary Behaviors and Portion Sizes of Black Women Who Enrolled in "<span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk" and Variation by Demographic Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To describe the dietary behaviors of black women who enrolled in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk weight control study. Design: Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts and surrounding areas. Participants: 461 black women completed the baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measures: Measured height…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281633&keyword=biology+AND+molecular&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=281633&keyword=biology+AND+molecular&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Developing <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs from high content dataDeveloping <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs from high content dataDeveloping <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs from high content dataDeveloping <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs from high content data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Developing <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs from high content data Shannon M. Bell1,2, Stephen W. Edwards2 1 Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education 2 Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100038462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100038462"><span>Spectral Evidence of Aqueous Activity in Two <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Martian Paleolakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roush, Ted L.; Marzo, Giuseppe A.; Fonti, Sergio; Orofino, Vincenzo; Blanco, Armando</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>CRISM observations of <span class="hlt">putative</span> paleolakes in Cankuzo and Luqa craters exhibit spectral features consistent with the activity of water. The spatial distributions suggest different formation scenarios for each site. In Cankuzo the distribution suggests postimpact alteration whereas in Luqa there are hints of possible formation of a layer of phyllosilicate materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336159','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336159"><span>Alkenenitrile Transmissive Olefination: Synthesis of the <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Lignan "Morinol I"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fleming, Fraser F.; Liu, Wang; Yao, Lihua; Pitta, Bhaskar; Purzycki, Matthew; Ravikumar, P. C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Grignard reagents trigger an addition-elimination with α'-hydroxy acrylonitriles to selectively generate Z-alkenenitriles. The modular assembly of Z-alkenenitriles from a Grignard reagent, acrylonitrile, and an aldehyde is ideal for stereoselectively synthesizing alkenes as illustrated in the synthesis of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> lignan "morinol I." PMID:22545004</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24661555','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24661555"><span>Multilocus coalescent analyses reveal the demographic history and speciation patterns of mouse lemur <span class="hlt">sister</span> species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blair, Christopher; Heckman, Kellie L; Russell, Amy L; Yoder, Anne D</p> <p>2014-03-24</p> <p>Debate continues as to whether allopatric speciation or peripatric speciation through a founder effect is the predominant force driving evolution in vertebrates. The mouse lemurs of Madagascar are a system in which evolution has generated a large number of species over a relatively recent time frame. Here, we examine speciation patterns in a pair of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus and M. griseorufus. These two species have ranges that are disparately proportioned in size, with M. murinus showing a much more extensive range that marginally overlaps that of M. griseorufus. Given that these two species are <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa, the asymmetric but overlapping geographic ranges are consistent with a model of peripatric speciation. To test this hypothesis, we analyze DNA sequence data from four molecular markers using coalescent methods. If the peripatric speciation model is supported, we predict substantially greater genetic diversity in M. murinus, relative to M. griseorufus. Further, we expect a larger effective population size in M. murinus and in the common ancestor of the two species than in M. griseorufus, with a concomitant decrease in gene tree/species tree incongruence in the latter and weak signs of demographic expansion in M. murinus. Our results reject a model of peripatric divergence. Coalescent effective population size estimates were similar for both extant species and larger than that estimated for their most recent common ancestor. Gene tree results show similar levels of incomplete lineage sorting within species with respect to the species tree, and locus-specific estimates of genetic diversity are concordant for both species. Multilocus demographic analyses suggest range expansions for M. murinus, with this species also experiencing more recent population declines over the past 160 thousand years. Results suggest that speciation occurred in allopatry from a common ancestor narrowly distributed throughout southwest Madagascar, with subsequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3987692"><span>Multilocus coalescent analyses reveal the demographic history and speciation patterns of mouse lemur <span class="hlt">sister</span> species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Debate continues as to whether allopatric speciation or peripatric speciation through a founder effect is the predominant force driving evolution in vertebrates. The mouse lemurs of Madagascar are a system in which evolution has generated a large number of species over a relatively recent time frame. Here, we examine speciation patterns in a pair of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus and M. griseorufus. These two species have ranges that are disparately proportioned in size, with M. murinus showing a much more extensive range that marginally overlaps that of M. griseorufus. Given that these two species are <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa, the asymmetric but overlapping geographic ranges are consistent with a model of peripatric speciation. To test this hypothesis, we analyze DNA sequence data from four molecular markers using coalescent methods. If the peripatric speciation model is supported, we predict substantially greater genetic diversity in M. murinus, relative to M. griseorufus. Further, we expect a larger effective population size in M. murinus and in the common ancestor of the two species than in M. griseorufus, with a concomitant decrease in gene tree/species tree incongruence in the latter and weak signs of demographic expansion in M. murinus. Results Our results reject a model of peripatric divergence. Coalescent effective population size estimates were similar for both extant species and larger than that estimated for their most recent common ancestor. Gene tree results show similar levels of incomplete lineage sorting within species with respect to the species tree, and locus-specific estimates of genetic diversity are concordant for both species. Multilocus demographic analyses suggest range expansions for M. murinus, with this species also experiencing more recent population declines over the past 160 thousand years. Conclusions Results suggest that speciation occurred in allopatry from a common ancestor narrowly distributed throughout</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183981','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183981"><span>Detection of <span class="hlt">putatively</span> thermophilic anaerobic methanotrophs in diffuse hydrothermal vent fluids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Merkel, Alexander Y; Huber, Julie A; Chernyh, Nikolay A; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Lebedinsky, Alexander V</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is carried out by a globally distributed <span class="hlt">group</span> of uncultivated Euryarchaeota, the anaerobic methanotrophic arachaea (ANME). In this work, we used G+C analysis of 16S rRNA genes to identify a <span class="hlt">putatively</span> thermophilic ANME <span class="hlt">group</span> and applied newly designed primers to study its distribution in low-temperature diffuse vent fluids from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We found that the G+C content of the 16S rRNA genes (P(GC)) is significantly higher in the ANME-1GBa <span class="hlt">group</span> than in other ANME <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Based on the positive correlation between the P(GC) and optimal growth temperatures (T(opt)) of archaea, we hypothesize that the ANME-1GBa <span class="hlt">group</span> is adapted to thrive at high temperatures. We designed specific 16S rRNA gene-targeted primers for the ANME-1 cluster to detect all phylogenetic <span class="hlt">groups</span> within this cluster, including the deeply branching ANME-1GBa <span class="hlt">group</span>. The primers were successfully tested both in silico and in experiments with sediment samples where ANME-1 phylotypes had previously been detected. The primers were further used to screen for the ANME-1 microorganisms in diffuse vent fluid samples from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean, and sequences belonging to the ANME-1 cluster were detected in four individual vents. Phylotypes belonging to the ANME-1GBa <span class="hlt">group</span> dominated in clone libraries from three of these vents. Our findings provide evidence of existence of a <span class="hlt">putatively</span> extremely thermophilic <span class="hlt">group</span> of methanotrophic archaea that occur in geographically and geologically distinct marine hydrothermal habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12761820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12761820"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> isotocin distributions in sonic fish: relation to vasotocin and vocal-acoustic circuitry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goodson, James L; Evans, Andrew K; Bass, Andrew H</p> <p>2003-07-14</p> <p>Recent neurophysiological evidence in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) demonstrated that isotocin (IT) and arginine vasotocin (AVT) modulate fictive vocalizations divergently between three reproductive morphs. To provide an anatomical framework for the modulation of vocalization by IT and to foster comparisons with the distributions of the IT homologues mesotocin (MT) and oxytocin (OT) in other vertebrate <span class="hlt">groups</span>, we describe <span class="hlt">putative</span> IT distributions in the midshipman and the closely related gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. Double-label fluorescent histochemistry was used for IT and AVT (by using antibodies for MT, OT, and the mammalian AVT homologue, arginine vasopressin [AVP]). MT/OT-like immunoreactive (MT/OT-lir) cell <span class="hlt">groups</span> were found in the anterior parvocellular, posterior parvocellular, and magnocellular preoptic nuclei. MT/OT-lir fibers and <span class="hlt">putative</span> terminals densely innervated the ventral telencephalon and numerous areas in the hypothalamus and brainstem. These distributions included all sites of vocal-acoustic integration recently identified for the forebrain and midbrain and diencephalic components of the ascending auditory pathway. Results were qualitatively comparable across morphs, species, and seasons. In contrast to the widespread distribution of MT/OT-lir, AVP-lir somata, fibers, and <span class="hlt">putative</span> terminals were almost completely restricted to vocal-acoustic regions. These data parallel previous descriptions of AVT immunoreactivity in these species, although the present methods showed a previously undescribed, seasonally variable AVP-lir cell <span class="hlt">group</span> in the anterior tuberal hypothalamus, a vocally active site and a component of the ascending auditory pathway. These findings provided anatomic support for the role of IT and AVT in the modulation of vocal behavior at multiple levels of the central vocal-acoustic circuitry. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5738888-enhanced-response-induction-sister-chromatid-exchange-gamma-radiation-neurofibromatosis','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5738888-enhanced-response-induction-sister-chromatid-exchange-gamma-radiation-neurofibromatosis"><span>Enhanced response to the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange by gamma radiation in neurofibromatosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hafez, M.; Abd el-Nabi, S.M.; el-Wehedi, G.</p> <p>1986-05-15</p> <p>The study included 8 unrelated patients with neurofibromatosis, and 10 unrelated normal and healthy persons as controls. Whole blood samples were divided into plastic T flasks and exposed at room temperature to gamma rays. The radiation dose was 36 rad/minute, and the doses delivered were 0, 75, 150 and 300 rad. The lymphocytes were cultured in (RPMI) 1640 tissue culture medium and autologous serum (20%). Phytohemagglutinin and bromodeoxyuridine (Brdu) (10 microM) were added at initiation of culture and harvesting was done 64 to 68 hours after culture initiation. Slides were coded, differential staining was done, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs)more » and aberrations (gaps, breaks, dicentrics, fragments and minutes) were counted. In the controls no significant increase in frequency of SCE has been found (P greater than 0.5). In the patients, the frequencies significantly increased with the increase of dose of irradiation (P less than 0.001). Furthermore, after irradiation, the incidence of gaps, breaks, and dicentrics were significantly increased in patients compared with controls. Moreover, the incidence increased with the increase in the dose of radiation. The results are discussed with a conclusion that the results add to the indication of a genetic predisposition to develop cancer in neurofibromatosis patients.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6415339-induction-sister-chromatid-exchanges-coal-dust-tobacco-snuff-extracts-human-peripheral-lymphocytes','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6415339-induction-sister-chromatid-exchanges-coal-dust-tobacco-snuff-extracts-human-peripheral-lymphocytes"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coalmore » dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20624976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20624976"><span>Origin of a function by tandem gene duplication limits the evolutionary capability of its <span class="hlt">sister</span> copy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hasselmann, Martin; Lechner, Sarah; Schulte, Christina; Beye, Martin</p> <p>2010-07-27</p> <p>The most remarkable outcome of a gene duplication event is the evolution of a novel function. Little information exists on how the rise of a novel function affects the evolution of its paralogous <span class="hlt">sister</span> gene copy, however. We studied the evolution of the feminizer (fem) gene from which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) recently derived by tandem duplication within the honey bee (Apis) lineage. Previous studies showed that fem retained its sex determination function, whereas the rise of csd established a new primary signal of sex determination. We observed a specific reduction of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios in Apis to non-Apis fem. We found a contrasting pattern at two other genetically linked genes, suggesting that hitchhiking effects to csd, the locus under balancing selection, is not the cause of this evolutionary pattern. We also excluded higher synonymous substitution rates by relative rate testing. These results imply that stronger purifying selection is operating at the fem gene in the presence of csd. We propose that csd's new function interferes with the function of Fem protein, resulting in molecular constraints and limited evolvability of fem in the Apis lineage. Elevated silent nucleotide polymorphism in fem relative to the genome-wide average suggests that genetic linkage to the csd gene maintained more nucleotide variation in today's population. Our findings provide evidence that csd functionally and genetically interferes with fem, suggesting that a newly evolved gene and its functions can limit the evolutionary capability of other genes in the genome.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27026021"><span>Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among <span class="hlt">sister</span> species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456618','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25456618"><span>Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oró-Piqueras, Maricel</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The TV series, Brothers & <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28811525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28811525"><span>Totipotency segregates between the <span class="hlt">sister</span> blastomeres of two-cell stage mouse embryos.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casser, E; Israel, S; Witten, A; Schulte, K; Schlatt, S; Nordhoff, V; Boiani, M</p> <p>2017-08-15</p> <p>Following fertilization in mammals, it is generally accepted that totipotent cells are exclusive to the zygote and to each of the two blastomeres originating from the first mitotic division. This model of totipotency was inferred from a minority of cases in which blastomeres produced monozygotic twins in mice. Was this due to experimental limitation or biological constraint? Here we removed experimental obstacles and achieved reliable quantification of the prevalence of dual totipotency among mouse two-cell stage blastomeres. We separated the blastomeres of 1,252 two-cell embryos, preserving 1,210 of the pairs. Two classes of monozygotic twins became apparent at the blastocyst stage: 27% formed a functional epiblast in both members (concordant), and 73% did so in only one member of the pair (discordant) - a partition that proved insensitive to oocyte quality, sperm-entry point, culture environment and pattern of cleavage. In intact two-cell embryos, the ability of <span class="hlt">sister</span> blastomeres to generate epiblast was also skewed. Class discovery clustering of the individual blastomeres' and blastocysts' transcriptomes points to an innate origin of concordance and discordance rather than developmental acquisition. Our data place constraints on the commonly accepted idea that totipotency is allocated equally between the two-cell stage blastomeres in mice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2091924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2091924"><span>Chromosome aberration and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange test results with 42 chemicals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, B E; Zeiger, E; Shelby, M D; Resnick, M A; Gulati, D K; Ivett, J L; Loveday, K S</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Forty-two chemicals were tested for their ability to induce cytogenetic change in Chinese hamster ovary cells using assays for chromosome aberrations (ABS) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE). These chemicals were included in the National Toxicology Program's evaluation of the ability of four in vitro short-term genetic toxicity assays to distinguish between rodent carcinogens and noncarcinogens. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in Zeiger et al. [Zeiger E, Haseman JK, Shelby MD, Margolin BH, Tennant RW (1990): [Environ Molec Mutagen 16(Suppl 18): 1-14]. The in vitro cytogenetic testing was conducted at four laboratories, each using a standard protocol to evaluate coded chemicals with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Most chemicals were tested in a single laboratory; however, two chemicals, tribromomethane and p-chloroaniline, were tested at two laboratories as part of an interlaboratory comparison. Four chemicals (C.I. basic red 9 HCl, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, oxytetracycline HCl, and rotenone) were tested for SCE in one laboratory and in a different laboratory for ABS. Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate was tested at one laboratory and the chloride form was tested at a different laboratory. Twenty-five of the 42 chemicals tested induced SCE. Sixteen of these also induced ABS; all chemicals that induced ABS also induced SCE. There was approximately 79% reproducibility of results in repeat tests, thus, we conclude that this protocol is effective and reproducible in detecting ABS and SCE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2730017','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2730017"><span>Human Condensin Function Is Essential for Centromeric Chromatin Assembly and Proper <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Kinetochore Orientation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ouspenski, Ilia; Dye, Louis; Karpova, Tatiana; McNally, James; Dasso, Mary; Cleveland, Don W.; Strunnikov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Condensins I and II in vertebrates are essential ATP-dependent complexes necessary for chromosome condensation in mitosis. Condensins depletion is known to perturb structure and function of centromeres, however the mechanism of this functional link remains elusive. Depletion of condensin activity is now shown to result in a significant loss of loading of CENP-A, the histone H3 variant found at active centromeres and the proposed epigenetic mark of centromere identity. Absence of condensins and/or CENP-A insufficiency produced a specific kinetochore defect, such that a functional mitotic checkpoint cannot prevent chromosome missegregation resulting from improper attachment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Spindle microtubule-dependent deformation of both inner kinetochores and the HEC1/Ndc80 microtubule-capturing module, then results in kinetochore separation from the Aurora B pool and ensuing reduced kinase activity at centromeres. Moreover, recovery from mitosis-inhibition by monastrol revealed a high incidence of merotelic attachment that was nearly identical with condensin depletion, Aurora B inactivation, or both, indicating that the Aurora B dysfunction is the key defect leading to chromosome missegregation in condensin-depleted cells. Thus, beyond a requirement for global chromosome condensation, condensins play a pivotal role in centromere assembly, proper spatial positioning of microtubule-capturing modules and positioning complexes of the inner centromere versus kinetochore plates. PMID:19714251</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19714251','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19714251"><span>Human condensin function is essential for centromeric chromatin assembly and proper <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore orientation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samoshkin, Alexander; Arnaoutov, Alexei; Jansen, Lars E T; Ouspenski, Ilia; Dye, Louis; Karpova, Tatiana; McNally, James; Dasso, Mary; Cleveland, Don W; Strunnikov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-08-28</p> <p>Condensins I and II in vertebrates are essential ATP-dependent complexes necessary for chromosome condensation in mitosis. Condensins depletion is known to perturb structure and function of centromeres, however the mechanism of this functional link remains elusive. Depletion of condensin activity is now shown to result in a significant loss of loading of CENP-A, the histone H3 variant found at active centromeres and the proposed epigenetic mark of centromere identity. Absence of condensins and/or CENP-A insufficiency produced a specific kinetochore defect, such that a functional mitotic checkpoint cannot prevent chromosome missegregation resulting from improper attachment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores to spindle microtubules. Spindle microtubule-dependent deformation of both inner kinetochores and the HEC1/Ndc80 microtubule-capturing module, then results in kinetochore separation from the Aurora B pool and ensuing reduced kinase activity at centromeres. Moreover, recovery from mitosis-inhibition by monastrol revealed a high incidence of merotelic attachment that was nearly identical with condensin depletion, Aurora B inactivation, or both, indicating that the Aurora B dysfunction is the key defect leading to chromosome missegregation in condensin-depleted cells. Thus, beyond a requirement for global chromosome condensation, condensins play a pivotal role in centromere assembly, proper spatial positioning of microtubule-capturing modules and positioning complexes of the inner centromere versus kinetochore plates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2915484','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2915484"><span>Association of Intrauterine and Early-Life Exposures With Age at Menopause in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Steiner, Anne Z.; D'Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Baird, Donna D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Oocytes are formed in utero; menopause occurs when the oocyte pool is depleted. The authors hypothesized that early-life events could affect the number of a woman's oocytes and determine age at menopause. To test their hypothesis, the authors conducted a secondary analysis of baseline data from 22,165 participants in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study (2003–2007) who were aged 35–59 years at enrollment. To estimate the association between early-life events and age at natural menopause, the authors used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for current age, race/ethnicity, education, childhood family income, and smoking history. Earlier menopause was associated with in-utero diethylstilbestrol exposure (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 1.65). Suggestive associations included maternal prepregnancy diabetes (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.98) and low birth weight (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.20). Having a mother aged 35 years or older at birth appeared to be associated with a later age at menopause (HR = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01). Birth order, in-utero smoke exposure, and having been breastfed were not related to age at menopause. In-utero and perinatal events may subsequently influence age at menopause. PMID:20534821</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+siblings&pg=6&id=ED179312','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=benefits+AND+siblings&pg=6&id=ED179312"><span>Hansels and Gretels: A Study of Extremely Loyal Sibling <span class="hlt">Groups</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bank, Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>Intense sibling loyalty was examined in three sibling <span class="hlt">groups</span>: (1) four brothers in mid-life, aged 36-45, three of whom were married; (2) two brothers, aged 20 and 22, attending the same university; and (3) a brother age 6 and his <span class="hlt">sister</span> age 9 living together in a foster home. Anecdotal excerpts from extensive videotaped interviews are used to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6192663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6192663"><span>Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in <span class="hlt">putative</span> glutamatergic brain structures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolf, G; Schmidt, W</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and <span class="hlt">putative</span> glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and <span class="hlt">putatively</span> glutamatergic system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335775','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335775"><span>A catalog of <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) that ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A number of <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOPs for several distinct MIEs of thyroid disruption have been formulated for amphibian metamorphosis and fish swim bladder inflation. These have been entered into the AOP knowledgebase on the OECD WIKI. The EDSP has been actively advancing high-throughput screening for chemical activity toward estrogen, androgen and thyroid targets. However, it has been recently identified that coverage for thyroid-related targets is lagging behind estrogen and androgen assay coverage. As thyroid-related medium-high throughput assays are actively being developed for inclusion in the ToxCast chemical screening program, a parallel effort is underway to characterize <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) specific to these thyroid-related targets. This effort is intended to provide biological and ecological context that will enhance the utility of ToxCast high throughput screening data for hazard identification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6605892-putative-melatonin-receptors-human-biological-clock','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6605892-putative-melatonin-receptors-human-biological-clock"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> melatonin receptors in a human biological clock</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reppert, S.M.; Weaver, D.R.; Rivkees, S.A.</p> <p>1988-10-07</p> <p>In vitro autoradiography with /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin was used to examine melatonin binding sites in human hypothalamus. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was localized to the suprachiasmatic nuclei, the site of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> biological clock, and was not apparent in other hypothalamic regions. Specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding was consistently found in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalami from adults and fetuses. Densitometric analysis of competition experiments with varying concentrations of melatonin showed monophasic competition curves, with comparable half-maximal inhibition values for the suprachiasmatic nuclei of adults (150 picomolar) and fetuses (110 picomolar). Micromolar concentrations of the melatonin agonist 6-chloromelatonin completelymore » inhibited specific /sup 125/I-labeled melatonin binding, whereas the same concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine caused only a partial reduction in specific binding. The results suggest that <span class="hlt">putative</span> melatonin receptors are located in a human biological clock.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/391300-induction-sister-chromatid-exchange-presence-gadolinium-dtpa-its-reduction-dimethyl-sulfoxide','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/391300-induction-sister-chromatid-exchange-presence-gadolinium-dtpa-its-reduction-dimethyl-sulfoxide"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The authors investigate the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA wasmore » decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23832640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23832640"><span>The tapeworm Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea)--a <span class="hlt">sister</span> species or ancestor of an invasive A. huronensis?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Štefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Bokorová, Silvia; Oros, Mikuláš</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p> phylogenetic analyses using cox1, ITS2 and combined cox1 + ITS2 sequences revealed close genetic interrelationship between A. tenuicollis and A. huronensis. Independently of a type of analysis and DNA region used, the topology of obtained trees was always identical; A. tenuicollis formed separate clade with A. huronensis forming a closely related <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1606/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1606/report.pdf"><span>Debris flows from failures Neoglacial-age moraine dams in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Mount Jefferson wilderness areas, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Connor, J. E.; Hardison, J.H.; Costa, J.E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The highest concentration of lakes dammed by Neoglacial moraines in the conterminous United States is in the Mount Jefferson and Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness Areas in central Oregon. Between 1930 and 1980, breakouts of these lakes have resulted in 11 debris flows. The settings and sequences of events leading to breaching and the downstream flow behavior of the resulting debris flows provide guidance on the likelihood and magnitude of future lake breakouts and debris flows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=207601','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=207601"><span>Caenorhabditis elegans EVL-14/PDS-5 and SCC-3 Are Essential for <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion in Meiosis and Mitosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Fang; Yoder, John; Antoshechkin, Igor; Han, Min</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion is fundamental for the faithful transmission of chromosomes during both meiosis and mitosis. Proteins involved in this process are highly conserved from yeasts to humans. In screenings for sterile animals with abnormal vulval morphology, mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans evl-14 and scc-3 genes were isolated. Defects in cell divisions were observed in germ line as well as in vulval and somatic gonad lineages. Through positional cloning of these genes, we have shown that EVL-14 and SCC-3 are likely the only C. elegans homologs of the yeast <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion proteins Pds5 and Scc3, respectively. Both evl-14 and scc-3 mutants displayed defects in the meiotic germ line. In evl-14 mutants, synaptonemal complexes (SCs) were detectable but more than the usual six DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole)-positive structures were seen at diakinesis, suggesting that EVL-14/PDS-5 is important for the maintenance of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in late prophase. In scc-3 mutant animals, normal SCs were not visible and ∼24 DAPI-positive structures were seen at diakinesis, indicating that SCC-3 is necessary for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. Immunostaining revealed that localization of REC-8, a homolog of the yeast meiotic cohesin subunit Rec8, to the chromosomes depends on the presence of SCC-3 but not that of EVL-14/PDS-5. scc-3 RNA interference (RNAi)-treated embryos were 100% lethal and displayed defects in cell divisions. evl-14 RNAi caused a range of phenotypes. These results indicate that EVL-14/PDS-5 and SCC-3 have functions in both mitosis and meiosis. PMID:14560015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21807899"><span>RSC facilitates Rad59-dependent homologous recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by promoting cohesin loading at DNA double-strand breaks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oum, Ji-Hyun; Seong, Changhyun; Kwon, Youngho; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Sid, Amy; Ramakrishnan, Sreejith; Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Sung, Patrick; Lee, Sang Eun; Shim, Eun Yong</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks by searching for, invading, and copying information from a homologous template, typically the homologous chromosome or <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid. Tight wrapping of DNA around histone octamers, however, impedes access of repair proteins to DNA damage. To facilitate DNA repair, modifications of histones and energy-dependent remodeling of chromatin are required, but the precise mechanisms by which chromatin modification and remodeling enzymes contribute to homologous DNA repair are unknown. Here we have systematically assessed the role of budding yeast RSC (remodel structure of chromatin), an abundant, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, in the cellular response to spontaneous and induced DNA damage. RSC physically interacts with the recombination protein Rad59 and functions in homologous recombination. Multiple recombination assays revealed that RSC is uniquely required for recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by virtue of its ability to recruit cohesin at DNA breaks and thereby promoting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. This study provides molecular insights into how chromatin remodeling contributes to DNA repair and maintenance of chromatin fidelity in the face of DNA damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18028149"><span>'Angels in nursing': images of nursing <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in a Lutheran context in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malchau, Susanne</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>This article examines Catholic nursing orders in Denmark. In 1849, 300 years after the Reformation, freedom of worship was introduced in Lutheran Denmark. In 1856 the first Catholic nursing order in modern times settled in the country. Others followed, and in 1940 the nursing orders owned 17 general hospitals and had a share of 10% of the hospital beds in Denmark. The purpose of this article is to identify images in the public media text of these Catholic nursing orders in Denmark from 1856 to the present, and to deconstruct the existing angel image the nuns and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in nursing have obtained. The assumption is that the public image is an important indicator of how a profession is valued in society. Six images - three positive and three negative - are identified, and it is demonstrated that these images were closely connected to the nursing <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' professional activities and confessional affiliation. Until the 1950s the image of nursing <span class="hlt">sisters</span> as representing a counterculture in Lutheran Denmark persisted. This image was succeeded by one of professional nurses of high standards. The shift was caused by increased secularisation and the renewal of religious life, as a result of the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16957443','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16957443"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule as a presenting sign of internal malignancy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dodiuk-Gad, Roni; Ziv, Michael; Loven, David; Schafer, Jan; Shani-Adir, Ayelet; Dyachenko, Pavel; Rozenman, Dganit</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>CASE 1: A 64-year-old, otherwise healthy woman was referred to the surgery clinic for a presumed umbilical hernia. On physical examination, a cutaneous nodule was noted on the umbilical region and the patient was referred to the dermatology clinic. The patient was reexamined and an erythematous nodule was observed in the umbilicus measuring 2.5 cm in diameter. The patient denied pain, change in bowel habits, or weight loss. There were no other abdominal masses, no sign of ascites, and no regional lymphadenopathy. A skin biopsy from the nodule showed mucinous adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for carcinoembryonic antigen, and negative for cytokeratin (CK)7 and CK20. These results were consistent with a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule and led to the diagnosis of an occult colon carcinoma. The patient had no risk factors for colorectal carcinoma. The patient underwent surgery in another hospital, and died 3 months after the initial diagnosis of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule. CASE 2: A 73-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of a painful, ulcerated, 3-cm lesion in the umbilicus (Figure 1). She was otherwise asymptomatic. A skin biopsy showed neoplastic glandular cells infiltrating among collagen bundles (Figure 2). Stainings for mucin and for CK7 were positive, while staining for CK20 was negative. An abdominopelvic CT scan demonstrated a 3.5-cm space-occupying lesion in the liver. Results of gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest computed tomographic (CT) scan, and mammography were normal. Serum levels of the tumor-associated protein CA125 were elevated to 164 units, while those of CA 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen were within normal range. A gynecologic examination and a transvaginal ultrasound were normal. The patient had no personal or family history of any malignancy or any risk factors for developing a carcinoma. The patient was scheduled for a palliative resection of the umbilical nodule, combined with a laparoscopic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617033C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1617033C"><span>The Face of the Earth and those of her <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: why are they so different?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Celal Sengor, A. M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The terrestrial planets, Mercury (uncompressed density: 5.3 g/cm3) Venus (4.4), the earth (4.4), and Mars 3.8) and the Moon, the rocky satellite of the earth (3.3), have formed some 4500 to 4600 million years ago through gravitational accretion about individual centres of attraction around the Sun. Yet all five have very different "faces" to use Eduard Suess' happy expression (adopted by Alfred Wegener for the Moon also). The earth looks blue when viewed from space because of Rayleigh scattering in its atmosphere. Venus looks yellowish due to its clouds of sulfuric acid and Mars is buff because of its dusty atmosphere. The earth's hypsometric curve is double-peaked; Mars' approaches the earth's. The others have single-peaked curves. Mercury and the Moon are very similar-looking, but this is deceptive: we now recognise that Mercury has extensive thrust faulting resulting from planetary contraction; the Moon probably has contractional structures, but on an incomparably smaller scale. Venus has an active interior albeit incapable of dividing its surface into horizontally-moving plates. Mars has a less active interior, but it seems nevertheless active with volcanism as recently as 2 Ma ago. Venus and Mars have plume-dominated tectonics. The earth gets its heat out by plate tectonics (but also by plumes) creating its most distinctive facial features: the orogenic belts and the oceans. The differences among the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> seem to be due to distance from the sun, accretion history and final size. So far, the most thrilling results concerning their geology have been gained as soon as we obtained the capability of looking at their faces and knock on their rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265310"><span>Dominance of a Rhizopogon <span class="hlt">sister</span> species corresponds to forest age structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Dorp, Carrie H; Beiler, Kevin J; Durall, Daniel M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Rhizopogon vesiculosus and Rhizopogon vinicolor are <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate exclusively with Douglas-fir (DF). They form tuberculate mycorrhizas and they can be easily distinguished using molecular tools. We are not aware of studies relating their relative abundance in forests with different age classes. Our objective was to determine whether a change in the number or relative abundance of R. vesiculosus and R. vinicolor tubercules and genotypes was related to a change in the percent of DF in a regenerating phase (<50 years old). R. vesiculosus and R. vinicolor were located by excavating tuberculate mycorrhizas from the forest floor. A DNA Alu1 digest was used to distinguish between the two species. Microsatellite markers were used to identify genotypes. The number of R. vesiculosus tubercules correlated positively with an increasing proportion of DF in a regenerating phase, while the number of R. vinicolor tubercules was similar across all forest age structures. The number of R. vesiculosus genotypes did not correlate with forest age structure, whereas the number of R. vinicolor genotypes showed a negative relationship with an increasing proportion of DF in a regenerating phase. When the numbers of R. vesiculosus tubercules and genotypes were expressed as a relative abundance of the two species, there was a positive correlation with an increasing proportion of DF in a regenerating phase for both genotypes and tubercules. Our results suggest that the degree of DF regeneration or ecosystem factors related to DF regeneration affect the population dynamics of R. vesiculosus and R. vinicolor differently.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914611','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914611"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion Pathway Suppresses Multiple Chromosome Gain and Chromosome Amplification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Covo, Shay; Puccia, Christopher M.; Argueso, Juan Lucas; Gordenin, Dmitry A.; Resnick, Michael A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Gain or loss of chromosomes resulting in aneuploidy can be important factors in cancer and adaptive evolution. Although chromosome gain is a frequent event in eukaryotes, there is limited information on its genetic control. Here we measured the rates of chromosome gain in wild-type yeast and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion (SCC) compromised strains. SCC tethers the newly replicated chromatids until anaphase via the cohesin complex. Chromosome gain was measured by selecting and characterizing copper-resistant colonies that emerged due to increased copies of the metallothionein gene CUP1. Although all defective SCC diploid strains exhibited increased rates of chromosome gain, there were 15-fold differences between them. Of all mutants examined, a hypomorphic mutation at the cohesin complex caused the highest rate of chromosome gain while disruption of WPL1, an important regulator of SCC and chromosome condensation, resulted in the smallest increase in chromosome gain. In addition to defects in SCC, yeast cell type contributed significantly to chromosome gain, with the greatest rates observed for homozygous mating-type diploids, followed by heterozygous mating type, and smallest in haploids. In fact, wpl1-deficient haploids did not show any difference in chromosome gain rates compared to wild-type haploids. Genomic analysis of copper-resistant colonies revealed that the “driver” chromosome for which selection was applied could be amplified to over five copies per diploid cell. In addition, an increase in the expected driver chromosome was often accompanied by a gain of a small number of other chromosomes. We suggest that while chromosome gain due to SCC malfunction can have negative effects through gene imbalance, it could also facilitate opportunities for adaptive changes. In multicellular organisms, both factors could lead to somatic diseases including cancer. PMID:24298060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29410075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29410075"><span>The small molecule CS1 inhibits mitosis and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid resolution in HeLa cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Xingkang; Li, Zhenyu; Shen, Yuemao</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>Mitosis, the most dramatic event in the cell cycle, involves the reorganization of virtually all cellular components. Antimitotic agents are useful for dissecting the mechanism of this reorganization. Previously, we found that the small molecule CS1 accumulates cells in G2/M phase [1], but the mechanism of its action remains unknown. Cell cycle analysis, live cell imaging and nuclear staining were used. Chromosomal morphology was detected by chromosome spreading. The effects of CS1 on microtubules were confirmed by tubulin polymerization, colchicine tubulin-binding, cellular tubulin polymerization and immunofluorescence assays and by analysis of microtubule dynamics and molecular modeling. Histone phosphoproteomics was performed using mass spectrometry. Cell signaling cascades were analyzed using immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, siRNA knockdown and chemical inhibition of specific proteins. The small molecule CS1 was shown to be an antimitotic agent. CS1 potently inhibited microtubule polymerization via interaction with the colchicine-binding pocket of tubulin in vitro and inhibited the formation of the spindle apparatus by reducing the bulk of growing microtubules in HeLa cells, which led to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and mitotic arrest of HeLa cells. Compared with colchicine, CS1 impaired the progression of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid resolution independent of cohesin dissociation, and this was reversed by the removal of CS1. Additionally, CS1 induced unique histone phosphorylation patterns distinct from those induced by colchicine. CS1 is a unique antimitotic small molecule and a powerful tool with unprecedented value over colchicine that makes it possible to specifically and conditionally perturb mitotic progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234227','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27234227"><span>Chromosome number reduction in the <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade of Carica papaya with concomitant genome size doubling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rockinger, Alexander; Sousa, Aretuza; Carvalho, Fernanda A; Renner, Susanne S</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Caricaceae include six genera and 34 species, among them papaya, a model species in plant sex chromosome research. The family was held to have a conserved karyotype with 2n = 18 chromosomes, an assumption based on few counts. We examined the karyotypes and genome size of species from all genera to test for possible cytogenetic variation. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization using standard telomere, 5S, and 45S rDNA probes. New and published data were combined with a phylogeny, molecular clock dating, and C values (available for ∼50% of the species) to reconstruct genome evolution. The African genus Cylicomorpha, which is <span class="hlt">sister</span> to the remaining Caricaceae (all neotropical), has 2n = 18, as do the species in two other genera. A Mexican clade of five species that includes papaya, however, has 2n = 18 (papaya), 2n = 16 (Horovitzia cnidoscoloides), and 2n = 14 (Jarilla caudata and J. heterophylla; third Jarilla not counted), with the phylogeny indicating that the dysploidy events occurred ∼16.6 and ∼5.5 million years ago and that Jarilla underwent genome size doubling (∼450 to 830-920 Mbp/haploid genome). Pericentromeric interstitial telomere repeats occur in both Jarilla adjacent to 5S rDNA sites, and the variability of 5S rDNA sites across all genera is high. On the basis of outgroup comparison, 2n = 18 is the ancestral number, and repeated chromosomal fusions with simultaneous genome size increase as a result of repetitive elements accumulating near centromeres characterize the papaya clade. These results have implications for ongoing genome assemblies in Caricaceae. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26805190"><span>[Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Associated with a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's Nodule--A Case Report].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yabe, Nobushige; Murai, Shinji; Yokose, Takahiro; Oto, Ippei; Yoshikawa, Takahisa; Kitasato, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Hirotomo; Kojima, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>A 72-year old woman visited our hospital complaining of an umbilical mass and a foul smell from the umbilical region. During the evaluation, a massive immobile tumor was palpated in the center of the lower abdomen in addition to an umbilical mass with necrosis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a massive ovarian tumor accompanied by an umbilical tumor and cyst with peritoneal dissemination, metastases in the liver and spleen and a urachal tumor. There were no symptoms or imaging findings of gastrointestinal obstruction. While searching for the primary focus, it was determined that the ovarian tumor was not of ovarian origin. Under these circumstances, colonoscopy was the only remaining diagnostic modality. However, evaluation of the large intestine was impossible due to compression by the tumor, and diverticulosis of the sigmoid colon did not allow smooth insertion of the colonoscope. Therefore, an excisional biopsy of the umbilical tumor was performed. The most likely diagnoses based on the histopathological findings were colorectal cancer and urachal cancer. Therefore , mFOLFOX6 was selected for chemotherapy because it has been reported to be effective against both urachal and colorectal cancer. At the time of writing, good tumor control had been achieved in the lesions evaluated. Cases of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule have sporadically been reported. The most common primary foci for peritoneal metastases are the stomach, pancreas and ovary. However, in the present case, these sites were ruled out and the primary focus remained unidentified, making it difficult to select appropriate treatment. We present this case with a discussion of the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6791580-incorporation-deoxyuridine-monophosphate-dna-increases-sister-chromatid-exchange-yield','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6791580-incorporation-deoxyuridine-monophosphate-dna-increases-sister-chromatid-exchange-yield"><span>Incorporation of deoxyuridine monophosphate into DNA increases the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchange yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pardo, E.G.; Hernandez, P.; Gutierrez, C.</p> <p>1987-02-01</p> <p>The effect of a treatment with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) in combination with 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd) on cell proliferation, incorporation of DNA precursors into DNA and <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been analyzed in Allium cepa meristem cells. FdUrd in the range 10/sup -9/-5 x 10/sup -7/ M produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the amount of cells in mitosis. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by 70-80% in short-term (6 h) experiments, by exogenously supplied dUrd at a concentration of 10/sup -1/ M. However, at the highest FdUrd dose tested (10/sup -7/ M), 10/sup -4/ M dUrd could not reverse the FdUrdmore » effect in long-term experiments as shown by analyzing the kinetics of synchronous cell populations. DNA extracted from cells pulsed with (6-/sup 3/H)dUrd in the presence of FdUrd and 6-amino-uracil (6-AU), an inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase, contained a small amount of label in the form of (6-/sup 3/H)dUMP. Thus the authors conclude that under the experimental conditions, exogenously supplied dUrd may be metabolized intracellularly to 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and that this deoxynucleotide may eventually be mis-incorporated into DNA. By analyzing SCE levels in third division chromosomes of cells treated with FdUrd and dUrd during their second cycle, they has scored a 6-fold increase in the reciprocal SCE level which demonstrates that the replication of a dUMP-containing DNA template leads to a higher SCE yield.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139827"><span>FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Suhyun; Jung, Hye Seung; Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hoon</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT (TSF). During the vegetative phase, TSF shows high levels of expression in the hypocotyl before FT induction, but the tsf mutation does not have an apparent flowering-time phenotype on its own under long-day conditions. This study compared the protein mobility of FT and TSF. With TSF-overexpressing plants as the rootstock, the flowering time of ft tsf scion plants was only slightly accelerated. Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants. This study used plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins to map a region responsible for FT movement. A chimeric TSF with region II of FT (L28 to G98) expressed in the rootstock caused early flowering in ft tsf scion plants; movement of the chimeric protein from the rootstocks into the shoot apical region of the ft tsf scion plants was also detected. Misexpression of TSF in the leaf under the control of the FT promoter or grafting of 35S::TSF cotyledons accelerated flowering of ft-10 plants. FT was more stable than TSF. Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4588878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4588878"><span>FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jin, Suhyun; Jung, Hye Seung; Chung, Kyung Sook; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Ahn, Ji Hoon</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In plants, successful reproduction requires the proper timing of flowering under changing environmental conditions. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN <span class="hlt">SISTER</span> OF FT (TSF). During the vegetative phase, TSF shows high levels of expression in the hypocotyl before FT induction, but the tsf mutation does not have an apparent flowering-time phenotype on its own under long-day conditions. This study compared the protein mobility of FT and TSF. With TSF-overexpressing plants as the rootstock, the flowering time of ft tsf scion plants was only slightly accelerated. Previous work has shown that FT is graft-transmissible; by contrast, this study did not detect movement of TSF from the roots into the shoot of the scion plants. This study used plants overexpressing FT/TSF chimeric proteins to map a region responsible for FT movement. A chimeric TSF with region II of FT (L28 to G98) expressed in the rootstock caused early flowering in ft tsf scion plants; movement of the chimeric protein from the rootstocks into the shoot apical region of the ft tsf scion plants was also detected. Misexpression of TSF in the leaf under the control of the FT promoter or grafting of 35S::TSF cotyledons accelerated flowering of ft-10 plants. FT was more stable than TSF. Taking these results together, we propose that protein mobility of FT is higher than that of TSF, possibly due to a protein domain that confers mobility and/or protein stability. PMID:26139827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..663P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..663P"><span>Genesis Hypotheses Concerning <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Rootless Cone <span class="hlt">Groups</span> in Isidis Planitia, Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pithawala, T. M.; Ghent, R. R.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Introduction Isidis Planitia is one of the many areas on Mars containing thumbprint terrain (TPT), a term coined to reflect the resemblance in Viking images to fingerprints. Other instances occur in Argyre, Hellas, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. The terrain is found where Greeley and Guest (1987) have defined the Hesperian Ridged Plains (Hvr) unit. However, landforms comprising the TPT in Isidis are markedly different in morphology from those in the northern plains. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic examination of the TPT in Isidis Planitia using high-resolution imagery, and to propose a hypothesis for its genesis. Northern Plains TPT Morphology: TPT landforms include branching troughs and medial ridges forming whorled lobes and mounds, most with basal scarps or terraces. TPT has been described as consisting of parallel, en echelon, or nested sets of regularly spaced curvilinear ridges or aligned hills [1]. The ridges were estimated to be 0.5-2.5 km wide and 1-40 km long, with a characteristic spacing of 2-6 km. Whorled lobes of TPT are 75-150 km wide, with heights ranging from 10-200 m. Previous work identified 22 areas of TPT, covering 3000- 420,000 km2 in the Northern Plains at elevations between 0 and -2 km. In Utopia, TPT includes branching troughs and medial ridges [5], and TPT is closely associated with troughs in at least 9 other Northern Plains areas [1]. Northern Plains TPT Origin: MOLA topography supports the hypothesis that TPT and associated trough systems in Utopia and Arcadia Planitae are glacial features [1,2,3]. Possible mechanisms include formation of ridges as moraines and troughs as eskers formed by wet-based continental glaciers. The absence of drumlin fields suggests that the glaciers responsible for forming the topography may have been cold-based and thus did not deform the substrate so as to form drumlins [4]. A puzzling characteristic of Mars alleged glacial landscapes is that they are morphologically pristine, though they must be at least hundreds of millions of years old [1]. Isidis TPT The physical appearance of the Isidis features differs from that of the Northern Plains TPT. Isisdis TPT includes wrinkle ridges and curvilinear ridges. Wrinkle ridges are oriented radially and concentric to the basin structure, form cells of 180 km in diameter, and occur throughout the basin over a range of elevations. They are on the order of 75-150 m high and less than 70 km wide [6]. In this study, we focus on the curvilinear ridges and associated features, using THEMIS daytime IR data. Curvilinear ridges are ˜10-50 m high, and <5 km wide, with a large number 1km wide. Ridges consist of connected cones with central depressions (30-50 % of basal diameter). Cones are often connected to each other midway through their height but sometimes share portions of their rims as well. Basal diameters of the cones vary from 600-1000 m (nearly twice the size of cones seen in northern plains TPT) [6]. Spatial Patterns Closely spaced ridges are sub-parallel to parallel. Mapping of TPT features in Isidis Planitia shows four domains of distinct morphology (Figure 1). Domain 1 consists of chain-like ridges of cones concentrated to the southern and western regions of the basin. Domain 2 consists of isolated cones localized in the basin center. Domain 3 is the Syrtis Major Isidis Planitia transition zone and consists of clusters of knobs, mesas, and large single scarps [7]. Domain 4 (west of the transition zone and along the outer regions of the basin) consists of smooth terrain lacking a significant number of cones, or knobs and mesas. The most detailed mapping in this study has been completed for Domains 1 and 2. In Domain 1, an apparent pattern emerges along a boundary trending E-W at 12 N. Cone-chains located north of this boundary show a preferential N-S alignment, convex toward the east. Cone-chains located south of the boundary show a preferential E-W alignment, convex toward the south. Cone-chains occupy the region previously mapped as Hvr [8]. Origin of the Isidis TPT features Glacial formation mechanisms are generally accepted for formation of TPT in Argyre, Hellas, Arcadia, and Utopia. The TPT of Isidis Planitia is markedly different in morphology, and so deserves a fresh examination. We look to terrestrial analogues of rootless cones. The underlying mechanism is the interaction between magma (or lava) with a volatile (possibly water) rich substrate. Top-heating A top-heating model would involve lava flows and Vastitas Borealis Formation (VBF) materials known to cover the floor of Isidis [7]. In this model, Syrtis Major eruptions would produce tube-fed lava flows overlying volatile-rich materials derived from the Northern Plains, heating the wet substrate from above; interaction between the hot lava tubes and the substrate would produce chains of rootless cones. This model is expected to play a role in the formation of the TPT features, though it is doubtful if it can act solely to form the features, because the model is topography dependent and cannot readily account for both large- and smallscale patterns. Bottom-Heating The spatial patterns seen in planview of TPT in Isidis Planitia show a strong similarity to surface and seismic expressions of sills the Karoo basin in South Africa and the North Rockall Trough in the NE Atlantic on Earth. This leads to the idea that a sill or cone sheet complex beneath the Isidis basin, possibly linked to Syrtis Major, could drive bottom heating of a volatile rich substrate, leading to the formation of aligned rootless cones comprising the thumbprint terrain of Isidis Planitia. Though similar to the top-heating model, a system of intrusive structures heating from below would be independent of the current local topography of the basin, and is thus favorable. Such a mechanism could further explain the small-scale deviations in spatial alignment from the regional trend. The branch-like evolution of a sill complex can result in the non-uniform development of sills [11], such that daughter bodies of a parent sill can vary in size and vertical and horizontal distribution, and thus result in different abutment relationships, causing varying surface manifestations of the hybrid sill tips. A combination of both models is also a likely candidate for the genesis of TPT in Isidis. We are continuing to investigate the details of the two models by analyzing additional datasets and terrestrial analogues. References [1] Kargel et al. (1995) JGR-E, 100, 5351-5368. [2] Pomerantz, W.J and Head III, J.W (2003) LPSC XXXXIII, Abstract 1277. [3] Chapman M. (1994) Icarus, 109(2), 393-406. [4] Head III, J.W and Marchant (2003) LPSC XXXXIII, Abstract 1247. [5] Scott and Underwood (1991) Proceedings of Lunar Planet. Sci, 21, 627-634. [6] Hiesinger, H. and Head III, J.W (2003) 6th Intl Conf. on Mars, Abstract 3061. [7] Ivanov, M.A and Head III, J.W (2003) JGR-E, 108, E6. [8] Greeley, R. and Guest, J.E (1987), US Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser., Map I-1802-B. [9] Cartwright, J. and Hansen, D.M (2006) Geology 34(11), 929-932. [10] Hansen, D.M and Cartwright, J. (2006) Journal Geol. Soc. London 163 (3), 509-523. [11] Thomson, K., and Hutton, D. (2004) Bull Volcanology, 66, 364-375.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.zenscientist.com/index.php/pdflibrary2/Open-Access-Files/ssar_public/Herpetological-Review-1967-2015/2015-Herpetological-Review-46(3)-September/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.zenscientist.com/index.php/pdflibrary2/Open-Access-Files/ssar_public/Herpetological-Review-1967-2015/2015-Herpetological-Review-46(3)-September/"><span>Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope’s gray treefrog) x Hyla cinerea (green treefrog): <span class="hlt">putative</span> natural hybrid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, Heather M.; Layton, Rebekah R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Naturally–occurring hybrid treefrogs have been occasionally found in the eastern United States. However, these hybrids are almost always between members of the same species <span class="hlt">group</span>. On 10 Jun 2014, at 2145 h, we located an individual making an unusual advertisement call along Bayou Manual Road in Sherburne Wildlife Management Area in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana, USA, and brought it back to the laboratory for further study. Physically, the treefrog appeared intermediate between a Green Treefrog and a Cope’s Gray Treefrog, which are members of different species <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Call analysis also showed the individual to be intermediate between the two <span class="hlt">putative</span> parental species. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the total genome size from nuclei of whole blood cells, and also determined the individual to be intermediate of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> parental species. Despite vocalizing for mates, the hybrid did not appear to have viable spermatozoa, and was likely the result of an anomalous mis-mating event between a male Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a female Green Treefrog. To our knowledge, natural hybrids between a Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a Green Treefrog have not been previously reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16972986','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16972986"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée</p> <p>2006-09-14</p> <p>The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which <span class="hlt">group</span> I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the <span class="hlt">putative</span> intron has <span class="hlt">group</span> I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a <span class="hlt">putative</span> homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1570459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1570459"><span>The complete sequences and gene organisation of the mitochondrial genomes of the heterodont bivalves Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica – and the first record for a <span class="hlt">putative</span> Atpase subunit 8 gene in marine bivalves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dreyer, Hermann; Steiner, Gerhard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement is highly variable among molluscs and especially among bivalves. Of the 30 complete molluscan mt-genomes published to date, only one is of a heterodont bivalve, although this is the most diverse taxon in terms of species numbers. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of Acanthocardia tuberculata and Hiatella arctica, (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Heterodonta) and describe their gene contents and genome organisations to assess the variability of these features among the Bivalvia and their value for phylogenetic inference. Results The size of the mt-genome in Acanthocardia tuberculata is 16.104 basepairs (bp), and in Hiatella arctica 18.244 bp. The Acanthocardia mt-genome contains 12 of the typical protein coding genes, lacking the Atpase subunit 8 (atp8) gene, as all published marine bivalves. In contrast, a complete atp8 gene is present in Hiatella arctica. In addition, we found a <span class="hlt">putative</span> truncated atp8 gene when re-annotating the mt-genome of Venerupis philippinarum. Both mt-genomes reported here encode all genes on the same strand and have an additional trnM. In Acanthocardia several large non-coding regions are present. One of these contains 3.5 nearly identical copies of a 167 bp motive. In Hiatella, the 3' end of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit (nad)6 gene is duplicated together with the adjacent non-coding region. The gene arrangement of Hiatella is markedly different from all other known molluscan mt-genomes, that of Acanthocardia shows few identities with the Venerupis philippinarum. Phylogenetic analyses on amino acid and nucleotide levels robustly support the Heterodonta and the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> relationship of Acanthocardia and Venerupis. Monophyletic Bivalvia are resolved only by a Bayesian inference of the nucleotide data set. In all other analyses the two unionid species, being to only ones with genes located on both strands, do not <span class="hlt">group</span> with the remaining bivalves. Conclusion The two mt</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031137','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031137"><span>Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Tumescence at the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center began sometime between summer 1996 and summer 1998 and was discovered in April 2001 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Swelling is centered about 5 km west of the summit of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, a composite basaltic-andesite to rhyolite volcano that last erupted between 2200 and 2000 yr ago, and it affects an area ∼20 km in diameter within the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness. Yearly InSAR observations show that the average maximum displacement rate was 3–5 cm/yr through summer 2001, and the velocity of a continuous GPS station within the deforming area was essentially constant from June 2001 to June 2004. The background level of seismic activity has been low, suggesting that temperatures in the source region are high enough or the strain rate has been low enough to favor plastic deformation over brittle failure. A swarm of about 300 small earthquakes (Mmax = 1.9) in the northeast quadrant of the deforming area on March 23–26, 2004, was the first notable seismicity in the area for at least two decades. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established tilt-leveling and EDM networks at South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> in 1985–1986, resurveyed them in 2001, the latter with GPS, and extended them to cover more of the deforming area. The 2001 tilt-leveling results are consistent with the inference drawn from InSAR that the current deformation episode did not start before 1996, i.e., the amount of deformation during 1995–2001 from InSAR fully accounts for the net tilt at South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> during 1985–2001 from tilt-leveling. Subsequent InSAR, GPS, and leveling observations constrain the source location, geometry, and inflation rate as a function of time. A best-fit source model derived from simultaneous inversion of all three datasets is a dipping sill located 6.5 ± 2.5 km below the surface with a volume increase of 5.0 × 106 ± 1.5 × 106m3/yr (95% confidence limits). The most likely cause of tumescence is a pulse of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JVGR..150...35D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JVGR..150...35D"><span>Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>Tumescence at the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center began sometime between summer 1996 and summer 1998 and was discovered in April 2001 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Swelling is centered about 5 km west of the summit of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, a composite basaltic-andesite to rhyolite volcano that last erupted between 2200 and 2000 yr ago, and it affects an area ˜20 km in diameter within the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness. Yearly InSAR observations show that the average maximum displacement rate was 3-5 cm/yr through summer 2001, and the velocity of a continuous GPS station within the deforming area was essentially constant from June 2001 to June 2004. The background level of seismic activity has been low, suggesting that temperatures in the source region are high enough or the strain rate has been low enough to favor plastic deformation over brittle failure. A swarm of about 300 small earthquakes ( Mmax = 1.9) in the northeast quadrant of the deforming area on March 23-26, 2004, was the first notable seismicity in the area for at least two decades. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established tilt-leveling and EDM networks at South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> in 1985-1986, resurveyed them in 2001, the latter with GPS, and extended them to cover more of the deforming area. The 2001 tilt-leveling results are consistent with the inference drawn from InSAR that the current deformation episode did not start before 1996, i.e., the amount of deformation during 1995-2001 from InSAR fully accounts for the net tilt at South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> during 1985-2001 from tilt-leveling. Subsequent InSAR, GPS, and leveling observations constrain the source location, geometry, and inflation rate as a function of time. A best-fit source model derived from simultaneous inversion of all three datasets is a dipping sill located 6.5 ± 2.5 km below the surface with a volume increase of 5.0 × 10 6 ± 1.5 × 10 6 m 3/yr (95% confidence limits). The most likely cause of tumescence is a pulse of basaltic magma</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001484','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27001484"><span>Further insight into reproductive incompatibility between <span class="hlt">putative</span> cryptic species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qin, Li; Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Shu-Sheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with its global distribution and extensive genetic diversity, is now known to be a complex of over 35 cryptic species. However, a satisfactory resolution of the systematics of this species complex is yet to be achieved. Here, we designed experiments to examine reproductive compatibility among species with different levels of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) divergence. The data show that <span class="hlt">putative</span> species with mtCOI divergence of >8% between them consistently exhibited complete reproductive isolation. However, two of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> species, Asia II 9 and Asia II 3, with mtCOI divergence of 4.47% between them, exhibited near complete reproductive compatibility in one direction of their cross, and partial reproductive compatibility in the other direction. Together with some recent reports on this topic from the literature, our data indicates that, while divergence in the mtCOI sequences provides a valid molecular marker for species delimitation in most clades, more genetic markers and more sophisticated molecular phylogeny will be required to achieve adequate delimitation of all species in this whitefly complex. While many attempts have been made to examine the reproductive compatibility among genetic <span class="hlt">groups</span> of the B. tabaci complex, our study represents the first effort to conduct crossing experiments with <span class="hlt">putative</span> species that were chosen with considerations of their genetic divergence. In light of the new data, we discuss the best strategy and protocols to conduct further molecular phylogenetic analysis and crossing trials, in order to reveal the overall pattern of reproductive incompatibility among species of this whitefly complex. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16525421"><span>Molecular genetics: DNA analysis of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> dog clone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parker, Heidi G; Kruglyak, Leonid; Ostrander, Elaine A</p> <p>2006-03-09</p> <p>In August 2005, Lee et al. reported the first cloning of a domestic dog from adult somatic cells. This <span class="hlt">putative</span> dog clone was the result of somatic-cell nuclear transfer from a fibroblast cell of a three-year-old male Afghan hound into a donor oocyte provided by a dog of mixed breed. In light of recent concerns regarding the creation of cloned human cell lines from the same institution, we have undertaken an independent test to determine the validity of the claims made by Lee et al..</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22118156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22118156"><span>Hundreds of <span class="hlt">putatively</span> functional small open reading frames in Drosophila.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ladoukakis, Emmanuel; Pereira, Vini; Magny, Emile G; Eyre-Walker, Adam; Couso, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2011-11-25</p> <p>The relationship between DNA sequence and encoded information is still an unsolved puzzle. The number of protein-coding genes in higher eukaryotes identified by genome projects is lower than was expected, while a considerable amount of <span class="hlt">putatively</span> non-coding transcription has been detected. Functional small open reading frames (smORFs) are known to exist in several organisms. However, coding sequence detection methods are biased against detecting such very short open reading frames. Thus, a substantial number of non-canonical coding regions encoding short peptides might await characterization. Using bio-informatics methods, we have searched for smORFs of less than 100 amino acids in the <span class="hlt">putatively</span> non-coding euchromatic DNA of Drosophila melanogaster, and initially identified nearly 600,000 of them. We have studied the pattern of conservation of these smORFs as coding entities between D. melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura, their presence in syntenic and in transcribed regions of the genome, and their ratio of conservative versus non-conservative nucleotide changes. For negative controls, we compared the results with those obtained using random short sequences, while a positive control was provided by smORFs validated by proteomics data. The combination of these analyses led us to postulate the existence of at least 401 functional smORFs in Drosophila, with the possibility that as many as 4,561 such functional smORFs may exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18929264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18929264"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> golden proportions as predictors of facial esthetics in adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kiekens, Rosemie M A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; van 't Hof, Martin A; van 't Hof, Bep E; Maltha, Jaap C</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>In orthodontics, facial esthetics is assumed to be related to golden proportions apparent in the ideal human face. The aim of the study was to analyze the <span class="hlt">putative</span> relationship between facial esthetics and golden proportions in white adolescents. Seventy-six adult laypeople evaluated sets of photographs of 64 adolescents on a visual analog scale (VAS) from 0 to 100. The facial esthetic value of each subject was calculated as a mean VAS score. Three observers recorded the position of 13 facial landmarks included in 19 <span class="hlt">putative</span> golden proportions, based on the golden proportions as defined by Ricketts. The proportions and each proportion's deviation from the golden target (1.618) were calculated. This deviation was then related to the VAS scores. Only 4 of the 19 proportions had a significant negative correlation with the VAS scores, indicating that beautiful faces showed less deviation from the golden standard than less beautiful faces. Together, these variables explained only 16% of the variance. Few golden proportions have a significant relationship with facial esthetics in adolescents. The explained variance of these variables is too small to be of clinical importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1052109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1052109"><span>CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF A <span class="hlt">PUTATIVE</span> OXIDOREDUCTASE FROM KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baig, M.; Brown, A.; Eswaramoorthy, S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram-negative enteric bacterium, is found in nosocomial infections which are acquired during hospital stays for about 10% of hospital patients in the United States. The crystal structure of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> oxidoreductase from K. pneumoniae has been determined. The structural information of this K. pneumoniae protein was used to understand its function. Crystals of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> oxidoreductase enzyme were obtained by the sitting drop vapor diffusion method using Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.5 as precipitant. These crystals were used to collect X-ray data at beam line X12C of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) atmore » Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The crystal structure was determined using the SHELX program and refi ned with CNS 1.1. This protein, which is involved in the catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, has an alpha/beta structure. It utilizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) or nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to perform its function. This structure could be used to determine the active and co-factor binding sites of the protein, information that could help pharmaceutical companies in drug design and in determining the protein’s relationship to disease treatment such as that for pneumonia and other related pathologies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757350"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> risk factors in developmental dyslexia: a case-control study of Italian children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although dyslexia runs in families, several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted a case-control study of 403 Italian children, 155 with dyslexia, by implementing a stepwise logistic regression applied to the entire sample, and then to boys and girls separately. Younger parental age at child's birth, lower parental education, and risk of miscarriage significantly increased the odds of belonging to the dyslexia <span class="hlt">group</span> (19.5% of the variation). These associations were confirmed in the analyses conducted separately by sex, except for parental education, which significantly affected only males. These findings support reading disabilities as a multifactorial disorder and may bear some importance for the prevention and/or early detection of children at heightened risk for dyslexia. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25018762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25018762"><span>Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight <span class="hlt">putative</span> effectors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pendleton, Amanda L; Smith, Katherine E; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C Dana; Burleigh, J Gordon; Davis, John M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rust fungi are a <span class="hlt">group</span> of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate <span class="hlt">putative</span> effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two <span class="hlt">putative</span> effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G31C0155W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.G31C0155W"><span>Magmatic Activity Beneath the Quiescent Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, Inferred from Satellite InSAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wicks, C. W.; Dzurisin, D.; Ingebritsen, S.; Thatcher, W.; Lu, Z.; Iverson, J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The uplift is centered ~5 km west of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in the volcanic center. The center has been volcanically inactive since the last eruption ~1500 years ago. Multiple European Space Agency ERS-1 and 2 satellite images from 1992 through 2000, used in this study, were selected based on orbital separation and time of year. Summer and early autumn scenes were necessary to avoid decorrelation from snow cover. Interferograms generated from these images indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an apparently ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted ~1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a magma reservoir prior to the uplift. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and a positive correlation between chloride concentration and spring temperature were found within the uplift area, with larger SO4/Cl ratios in springs at higher elevations. These findings are indicative of a high-temperature hydrothermal system driven by magma intrusions. The current inflation episode observed with InSAR may lead to an eruption, but the more persistent geochemical evidence suggests that the episode is likely the latest in a series of hitherto undetected magma intrusions. We do not yet know if the inflation has abated, is continuing, or has accelerated since October 2000--we only know that the highest rate of uplift occurred in the last year for which ERS-2 data was available (1999- 2000). In May of 2001, a continuous GPS receiver and seismometer were installed by the USGS within the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness to monitor the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2017/5022/i/sir2017-5022i.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2017/5022/i/sir2017-5022i.pdf"><span>Emplacement of Holocene silicic lava flows and domes at Newberry, South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and Medicine Lake volcanoes, California and Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fink, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Steven W.</p> <p>2017-07-19</p> <p>This field guide for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly 2017 focuses on Holocene glassy silicic lava flows and domes on three volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Oregon and California: Newberry, South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and Medicine Lake volcanoes. Although obsidian-rich lava flows have been of interest to geologists, archaeologists, pumice miners, and rock hounds for more than a century, many of their emplacement characteristics had not been scientifically observed until two very recent eruptions in Chile. Even with the new observations, several eruptive processes discussed in this field trip guide can only be inferred from their final products. This makes for lively debates at outcrops, just as there have been in the literature for the past 30 years.Of the three volcanoes discussed in this field guide, one (South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>) lies along the main axis defined by major peaks of the Cascade Range, whereas the other two lie in extensional tectonic settings east of the axis. These two tectonic environments influence volcano morphology and the magmatic and volcanic processes that form silicic lava flows and domes. The geomorphic and textural features of glass-rich extrusions provide many clues about their emplacement and the magma bodies that fed them.The scope of this field guide does not include a full geologic history or comprehensive explanation of hazards associated with a particular volcano or volcanic field. The geochemistry, petrology, tectonics, and eruption history of Newberry, South <span class="hlt">Sister</span>, and Medicine Lake volcanic centers have been extensively studied and are discussed on other field excursions. Instead, we seek to explore the structural, textural, and geochemical evolution of well-preserved individual lava flows—the goal is to understand the geologic processes, rather than the development, of a specific volcano.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170009934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170009934"><span>Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North <span class="hlt">Sister</span>. TEM-EDS analyses of the <2 um size fraction of glacial flour samples demonstrate a variety of poorly crystalline (i.e., no long-range crystallographic order) phases: iron oxides, devitrified volcanic glass, and Fe-Si-Al phases. The CheMin XRD on the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has identified significant amounts of X-ray amorphous materials in all samples measured to date. The amorphous component is likely a combination of silicates, iron oxides, and sulfates. Although we have not yet observed amorphous sulfate in the samples from Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, the variety of poorly crystalline weathering products found at this site is consistent with the variable composition of the X-ray amorphous component identified by CheMin. We suggest that these amorphous phases on Mars could have formed in a similarly cold and icy environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/75589-cis-acting-determinants-affecting-centromere-function-sister-chromatid-cohesion-reciprocal-recombination-during-meiosis-saccharomyces-cerevisiae','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/75589-cis-acting-determinants-affecting-centromere-function-sister-chromatid-cohesion-reciprocal-recombination-during-meiosis-saccharomyces-cerevisiae"><span>Cis-acting determinants affecting centromere function, <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion and reciprocal recombination during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sears, D.D.; Hieter, P.; Shero, J.H.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p>We have employed a system that utilizes homologous pairs of human DNA-derived yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) as marker chromosomes to assess the specific role(s) of conserved centromere DNA elements (CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII) in meiotic chromosome disjunction fidelity. Thirteen different centromere (CEN) mutations were tested for their effects on meiotic centromere function. YACs containing a wild-type CEN DNA sequence segregate with high fidelity in meiosis I (99% normal segregation) and in meiosis II (96% normal segregation). YACs containing a 31-bp deletion mutation in centromere DNA element II (CDEII{Delta}31) in either a heterocentric (mutant/wild type), homocentric (mutant/mutant) or monosomic (mutant/-) YACmore » pair configuration exhibited high levels (16-28%) of precocious <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid segregation (PSS) and increased levels (1-6%) of nondisjunction meiosis I (NDI). YACs containing this mutation also exhibit high levels (21%) of meiosis II nondisjunction. Interestingly, significant alterations in homolog recombination frequency were observed in the exceptional PSS class of tetrads, suggesting unusual interactions between prematurely separated <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and their homologous nonsister chromatids. We also have assessed the meiotic segregation effects of rare gene conversion events occurring at sites located immediately adjacent to or distantly from the centromere region. Proximal gene conversion events were associated with extremely high levels (60%) of meiosis I segregation errors (including both PSS and NDI), whereas distal events had no apparent effect. Taken together, our results indicate a critical role for CDEII in meiosis and underscore the importance of maintaining <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion for proper recombination in meiotic prophase and for proper disjunction in meiosis I. 49 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25047538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25047538"><span>Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors: selecting appropriate comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van den Berg, Mh; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E; Overbeek, A; Ronckers, Cm; van Dorp, W; Kremer, Lc; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Mm; Huizinga, Ga; Loonen, Jj; Versluys, Ab; Bresters, D; Lambalk, Cb; Kaspers, Gjl; van Leeuwen, Fe</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span> for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span> in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood Oncology <span class="hlt">Group</span> Long-Term Effects After Childhood Cancer Cohort Study). Experiences of this process are reported. Two types of comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span> were used: <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of participating survivors and controls from the general population. A total of 352 out of 580 (61%) of the participating survivors who had a <span class="hlt">sister</span> gave permission to invite them for the study. The participation rate of <span class="hlt">sisters</span> was much higher than control participants from the general population (74% versus 21%, respectively), whereas considerably more effort was involved in recruiting controls from the general population. Participants in this <span class="hlt">group</span> were significantly older and more highly educated than <span class="hlt">sister</span> controls (P < 0.001 for both <span class="hlt">groups</span>). No significant differences were observed between both types of comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span> in several fertility-related characteristics, suggesting minimal bias owing to selective participation. Researchers setting up a study to investigate late effects among survivors of childhood cancer should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages of using various types of comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3779656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3779656"><span>Effects of alpha-naphthoflavone on levels of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes from active and passive cigarette smokers: dose-response relationships.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Collman, G W; Lundgren, K; Shore, D; Thompson, C L; Lucier, G W</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>The frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) were determined in lymphocytes of nonsmokers, passive smokers, and active smokers in the presence and absence of alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF). Higher levels of SCEs were detected for all smoking <span class="hlt">groups</span> after in vitro addition of ANF when compared with an assay without ANF. There was a highly statistically significant difference between heavy smokers and nonsmokers (9.25 versus 7.43 SCE/cell) for the assay without ANF and for the ANF assay (14.2 versus 8.8). When considering the numerical difference in SCEs between the assays with and without ANF (delta SCE), higher values were noted for moderate smokers (2.7) and heavy smokers (4.9) compared to nonsmokers (1.4). Significant dose-response relationships were found between the frequency of SCEs and factors related to smoking, such as duration and frequency of cigarette use, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide content of brand, and urinary measures of nicotine metabolites (cotinine and thiocyanate). No elevation of SCEs in passive smokers was found when compared to nonsmokers using either assay. The mechanism for SCE enhancement by ANF is unclear, but may be related to metabolic activation of the ANF by the cytochrome P-450 system in lymphocytes. The dosimetry relationships between cigarette smoke exposure and SCE frequency indicate that culture of human lymphocytes via ANF may provide a sensitive tool to detect exposure to cigarette smoke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27618343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27618343"><span>A Clarion Call for Social Work Attention: Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Persons With Acquired Brain Injury in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Degeneffe, Charles Edmund</p> <p>2016-08-11</p> <p>This article presents a clarion call for increased social work attention to the needs of siblings of persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) in the United States. The article overviews how siblings are psychosocially affected, how they provide care to the injured brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, and how they personally develop as a result of their experiences. The article highlights the fact that social workers and other professionals often overlook the needs of siblings of persons with ABI and makes an appeal for social workers to advance clinical practice and research to benefit this often neglected population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25293399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25293399"><span>Pathogenesis in lambs and sequence analysis of <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes of Brazilian orf virus isolates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Mathias; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F</p> <p>2014-11-07</p> <p>The parapoxvirus orf virus (ORFV) is the agent of contagious ecthyma, an ubiquitous mucocutaneous disease of sheep and goats that may present variable clinical presentations. We herein studied the pathogenesis of ORFV infection in lambs and analyzed three <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes of four Brazilian ORFV isolates. Lambs inoculated in the labial commissures with each ORFV isolate (n=4, viral titer 10(5.6) TCID50/ml) developed classical orf lesions, characterized by a progressive course of erythema/macules, vesicles, pustules and proliferative scabs. Lesions lasted an average of 22.9 days (18-26) and virus shedding was detected for approximately 24.6 days (18-30). Two isolates (SV269/11 and SV820/10) produced more severe, long-lasting lesions resulting in highest clinical scores. Lambs inoculated with isolate SV581/11 developed lesions markedly milder (lower clinical scores [p<0.05]) and more limited than the other <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Virus shedding by SV581/11 <span class="hlt">group</span>, however, lasted similarly or even longer than the other <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Sequence analysis of three virulence genes (VEGF, VIR and IL-10v) revealed amino acid deletions and mutations in VEGF and IL-10v genes of SV581/11 and SV252/11, the isolate(s) producing milder lesions. Additionally, the VEGF gene of isolate SV581/11 presented the lowest amino acid identity with the other isolates and with ORFV standard strain OV-IA82. Thus, these results demonstrate that ORFV isolates may display differential virulence in lambs and these differences might be associated with genetic changes in <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915081R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915081R"><span>Glacial alteration of volcanic terrains: A chemical investigation of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, Oregon, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rutledge, Alicia; Horgan, Briony; Havig, Jeff</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Glacial silica cycling is more efficient than previously reported, and in some settings, particularly glaciated mafic volcanics, can be the dominant weathering process. Based on field work at glaciated volcanic sites, we hypothesize that this is due to a combination of high rates of silica dissolution from mafic bedrock and reprecipitation of silica in the form of opaline silica coatings and other poorly crystalline silicate alteration phases. The high rate of bedrock comminution in subglacial environments results in high rates of both chemical and physical weathering, due to the increased reactive mineral surface area formed through glacial grinding. In most bedrock types, carbonate weathering is enhanced and silica fluxes are depressed in glacial outwash compared with global average riverine catchment runoff due to low temperatures and short residence times. However, in mafic systems, higher dissolved SiO2 concentrations have been observed. The major difference between observed glacial alteration of volcanic bedrock and more typical continental terrains is the absence of significant dissolved carbonate in the former. In the absence of carbonate minerals which normally dominate dissolution processes at glacier beds, carbonation of feldspar can become the dominant weathering process, which can result in a high proportion of dissolved silica fluxes in glacial outwash waters compared to the total cation flux. Mafic volcanic rocks are particularly susceptible to silica mobility, due to the high concentration of soluble minerals (i.e. plagioclase) as compared to the high concentration of insoluble quartz found in felsic rocks. To investigate melt-driven chemical weathering of mafic volcanics, water and rock samples were collected during July 2016 from glaciated volcanic bedrock in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness, Oregon, U.S.A. (44°9'N, 121°46'W): Collier Glacier (basaltic andesite, andesite), Hayden Glacier (andesite, dacite), and Diller Glacier (basalt). Here we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28835650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28835650"><span>Disparate subcellular location of <span class="hlt">putative</span> sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peltier, Johann; Shaw, Helen A; Wren, Brendan W; Fairweather, Neil F</p> <p>2017-08-23</p> <p>Clostridium difficile is a gastrointestinal pathogen but how the bacterium colonises this niche is still little understood. Sortase enzymes covalently attach specific bacterial proteins to the peptidoglycan cell wall and are often involved in colonisation by pathogens. Here we show C. difficile proteins CD2537 and CD3392 are functional substrates of sortase SrtB. Through manipulation of the C-terminal regions of these proteins we show the SPKTG motif is essential for covalent attachment to the cell wall. Two additional <span class="hlt">putative</span> substrates, CD0183 which contains an SPSTG motif, and CD2768 which contains an SPQTG motif, are not cleaved or anchored to the cell wall by sortase. Finally, using an in vivo asymmetric cleavage assay, we show that despite containing a conserved SPKTG motif, in the absence of SrtB these proteins are localised to disparate cellular compartments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5619511','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5619511"><span>Basal ganglia calcification as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> cause for cognitive decline</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Oliveira, João Ricardo Mendes; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC) may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a <span class="hlt">putative</span> cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients PMID:29213833</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3709813','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3709813"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Genes Involved in Saikosaponin Biosynthesis in Bupleurum Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Tsai-Yun; Chiou, Chung-Yi; Chiou, Shu-Jiau</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Alternative medicinal agents, such as the herb Bupleurum, are increasingly used in modern medicine to supplement synthetic drugs. First, we present a review of the currently known effects of triterpene saponins-saikosaponins of Bupleurum species. The <span class="hlt">putative</span> biosynthetic pathway of saikosaponins in Bupleurum species is summarized, followed by discussions on identification and characterization of genes involved in the biosynthesis of saikosaponins. The purpose is to provide a brief review of gene extraction, functional characterization of isolated genes and assessment of expression patterns of genes encoding enzymes in the process of saikosaponin production in Bupleurum species, mainly B. kaoi. We focus on the effects of MeJA on saikosaponin production, transcription patterns of genes involved in biosynthesis and on functional depiction. PMID:23783277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8143603','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8143603"><span>Measurement of chromosomal aberrations, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange, hprt mutations, and DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes of human populations at increased risk for cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jacobson-Kram, D; Albertini, R J; Branda, R F; Falta, M T; Iype, P T; Kolodner, K; Liou, S H; McDiarmid, M A; Morris, M; Nicklas, J A</p> <p>1993-10-01</p> <p>Using a multidisciplinary approach, we have measured various indicators of DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of human populations potentially at increased risk for cancer. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were evaluated in a <span class="hlt">group</span> of firefighters; chromosomal aberrations and hprt mutations were evaluated in a <span class="hlt">group</span> of cancer patients undergoing radioimmunoglobulin therapy (RIT); SCE and acrolein-modified DNA were measured in cancer chemotherapy patients and in pharmacists preparing chemotherapy prescriptions; and SCE and PAH-DNA adducts are being measured in U.S. army troops stationed in Kuwait. Our results indicate that both SCE and PAH-DNA adduct levels were not elevated in firefighters, but that other factors such as smoking status and race were risk factors for increased SCE and PAH-DNA adducts. RIT was found to increase background rates of chromosome-type aberrations and frequencies of hprt mutations and there was a strong correlation between levels of therapy-induced chromosome damage sustained in vivo and in vitro sensitivity to radiation-induced chromosome damage. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients treated with cyclophosphamide showed higher levels of SCE and had a higher incidence of acrolein adducts in DNA. Lymphocytes from pharmacists preparing antineoplastic drugs were found to acquire increased in vitro sensitivity to SCE induction by phosphoramide mustard with increased lifetime duration of drug handling. A prospective, longitudinal study was performed to identify environmental factors that modulate genetic damage in breast cancer patients. Women with benign breast masses and no apparent disease served as controls. Mutant frequency, cloning efficiency, and chromosomal aberration frequency did not differ significantly among the three <span class="hlt">groups</span>.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481966','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25481966"><span>For mothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: care of the reproductive female body in the medico-ritual world of early and medieval Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Triplett, Katja</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>While married female members of the Japanese aristocracy followed the ideal of bearing children, female Buddhist novices and ordained women, often belonging to the aristocracy themselves, had to abstain from sexual activity and reproduction in accordance with the ordination rules. Infertility was considered with disdain by the first <span class="hlt">group</span>, whereas not bearing children was the utmost expression of leading a virtuous life for the second <span class="hlt">group</span>. However, both <span class="hlt">groups</span> were concerned with keeping their physical bodies healthy: some to become mothers, the others to live as nuns or religious <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Focusing on the early medieval period, this paper examines various sources to illuminate the ways in which women were cared for and the kind of views and ideas that informed this care. Instead of looking at the ancient methods of treatment through a modern "scientific" lens and sorting them into "proto-scientific" and "superstitious" categories, medico-ritual and religious views on the female body are explored as facets of the worldview prevalent in the period under consideration. Special attention is paid to relevant chapters of the first medical work produced in Japan, the Ishinpō, compiled by a court physician, Tanba no Yasuyori, in the late 10th century CE. The investigation of other sources, such as Buddhist legends and doctrinal texts, suggests that women were recommended to seek to overcome their femaleness altogether by transforming their female bodies into male bodies in order to reach ultimate "healing" in terms of salvation. In lay circles, however, the Buddhist divinities and other powerful deities were worshipped to ensure this-worldly "healing" in terms of successful procreation and continuation of the family line.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12739102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12739102"><span>XRCC1, CYP2E1 and ALDH2 genetic polymorphisms and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency alterations amongst vinyl chloride monomer-exposed polyvinyl chloride workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Ruey-Hong; Wang, Jung-Der; Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Tsun-Jen</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a known human carcinogen, which may be metabolized by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1). A DNA-repair gene, X-ray repair cross-complementing <span class="hlt">group</span> 1 ( XRCC1, exon 10), may also be implicated in the process of VCM-related carcinogenesis. Thus, VCM-exposed workers with inherited susceptible metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxiciy. This study was designed to investigate whether metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes affected <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in occupationally VCM-exposed workers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacturing plants. Study subjects comprised 61 male workers having experienced VCM exposure, and 29 male controls. Questionnaires were administered to obtain detailed histories of cigarette-smoking habits, alcohol consumption behavior, and occupation. The frequency of SCE in peripheral lymphocytes was determined using a standardized method, and genotypes of CYP2E1, ALDH2, GSTT1 and XRCC1 were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Our results demonstrated that smoking, age and VCM exposure and XRCC1 ( P=0.03), CYP2E1 ( P=0.04), and ALDH2 ( P=0.08) were significantly associated with an increased SCE frequency. Further analysis of gene combinations, including CYP2E1, ALDH2 and XRCC1, revealed an increased trend for these genotypes to influence SCE frequencies for the low VCM-exposure <span class="hlt">group</span> ( P<0.01), but not so for the high VCM-exposure <span class="hlt">group</span> ( P=0.29) or for controls ( P=0.49). These results suggest that workers with susceptible metabolic and DNA-repair genotypes, may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by VCM exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013349"><span>Rhodiola rosea L. as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> botanical antidepressant.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amsterdam, Jay D; Panossian, Alexander G</p> <p>2016-06-15</p> <p>Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) is a botanical adaptogen with <span class="hlt">putative</span> anti-stress and antidepressant properties. Evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of R. rosea for depression in adults is limited, and therefore a comprehensive review of available animal and human studies suggesting a <span class="hlt">putative</span> antidepressant action is warranted. A review of the literature was undertaken to ascertain studies of possible antidepressant mechanisms of action and studies of the safety and effectiveness of R. rosea extracts in animals and adult humans. A search of MEDLINE and the Russian state library database was conducted (up to October 2015) on R. rosea. R. rosea extracts and its purified constituent, salidroside, has been shown to produce a variety of mediator interactions with several molecular networks of neuroendocrine-immune and neurotransmitter receptor systems likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. A wide variety of preclinical in vivo and ex vivo studies with laboratory animals suggests the presence of several biochemical and pharmacological antidepressant-like actions. Clinical assessment of R. rosea L. rhizome extracts in humans with various depressive syndromes is based upon results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 146 subjects with major depressive disorder and seven open-label studies totaling 714 individuals with stress-induced mild depression (diagnosed as asthenic syndrome or psychoneurosis). Overall, results of these studies suggests a possible antidepressant action for R. rosea extract in adult humans. In contrast to most conventional antidepressants, R. rosea extract appears to be well-tolerated in short-term studies with a favorable safety profile. R. rosea demonstrates multi-target effects on various levels of the regulation of cell response to stress, affecting various components of the neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter receptor and molecular networks associated with possible beneficial effects on mood</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28198346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28198346"><span>Characterization of two new <span class="hlt">putative</span> adhesins of Leptospira interrogans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Figueredo, Jupciana M; Siqueira, Gabriela H; de Souza, Gisele O; Heinemann, Marcos B; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Chapola, Erica G B; Nascimento, Ana L T O</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We here report the characterization of two novel proteins encoded by the genes LIC11122 and LIC12287, identified in the genome sequences of Leptospira interrogans, annotated, respectively, as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> sigma factor and a hypothetical protein. The CDSs LIC11122 and LIC12287 have signal peptide SPII and SPI and are predicted to be located mainly at the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacteria. The genes were cloned and the proteins expressed using Escherichia coli. Proteinase K digestion showed that both proteins are surface exposed. Evaluation of interaction of recombinant proteins with extracellular matrix components revealed that they are laminin binding and they were called Lsa19 (LIC11122) and Lsa14 (LIC12287), for Leptospiral-surface adhesin of 19 and 14 kDa, respectively. The bindings were dose-dependent on protein concentration, reaching saturation, fulfilling the ligand-binding criteria. Reactivity of the recombinant proteins with leptospirosis human sera has shown that Lsa19 and, to a lesser extent, Lsa14, are recognized by antibodies, suggesting that, most probably, Lsa19 is expressed during infection. The proteins interact with plasminogen and generate plasmin in the presence of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Plasmin generation in Leptospira has been associated with tissue penetration and immune evasion strategies. The presence of a sigma factor on the cell surface playing a secondary role, probably mediating host -pathogen interaction, suggests that LIC11122 is a moonlighting protein candidate. Although the biological significance of these <span class="hlt">putative</span> adhesins will require the generation of mutants, our data suggest that Lsa19 is a potential candidate for future evaluation of its role in adhesion/colonization activities during L. interrogans infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24398512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24398512"><span>Oral contraceptive and reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer within <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in the breast cancer family registry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferris, J S; Daly, M B; Buys, S S; Genkinger, J M; Liao, Y; Terry, M B</p> <p>2014-02-18</p> <p>Oral contraceptive use has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in unrelated, average risk women; however little data exist on whether this benefit extends to higher risk women from cancer families. To examine this, we conducted family-based analyses using the Breast Cancer Family Registry. We used generalised estimating equations to obtain the population average effect across all families (n=389 cases, n=5643 controls) and conditional logistic regression to examine within-family differences in a subset with at least two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> discordant on ovarian cancer status (n=109 cases, n=149 unaffected <span class="hlt">sister</span> controls). In the multivariable generalised estimating equation model there was a reduced risk of ovarian cancer for ever use of oral contraceptives compared with never use (OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.91), and in the conditional logistic model there was a similar inverse association; however, it was not statistically significant (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.23, 1.17). We examined this association by BRCA1/2 status and observed a statistically significant reduced risk in the non-carriers only. We observed a decreased risk of ovarian cancer with oral contraceptive use supporting that this association observed in unrelated women extends to related women at higher risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22415350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22415350"><span>Novel insertion in exon 5 of the TCOF1 gene in twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with Treacher Collins syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marszałek-Kruk, Bożena Anna; Wójcicki, Piotr; Smigiel, Robert; Trzeciak, Wiesław H</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is associated with an abnormal differentiation of the first and second pharyngeal arches during fetal development. This causes mostly craniofacial deformities, which require numerous corrective surgeries. TCS is an autosomal dominant disorder and it occurs in the general population at a frequency of 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the TCOF1 gene, which encodes the serine/alanine-rich protein named Treacle. Over 120 mutations of the TCOF1 gene responsible for TCS have been described. About 70% of recognized mutations are deletions, which lead to a frame shift, formation of a termination codon, and shortening of the protein product of the gene. Herewith, a new heterozygotic insertion, c.484_668ins185bp, was described in two monozygotic twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span> suffering from TCS. This mutation was absent in their father, brother, and uncle, indicating a de novo origin. The insertion causes a shift in the reading frame and premature termination of translation at 167 aa. The novel insertion is the longest ever found in the TCOF1 gene and the only one found among monozygotic twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28187706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28187706"><span>Genome data on the extinct Bison schoetensacki establish it as a <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of the extant European bison (Bison bonasus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Guérin, Claude; Lambourdière, Josie; Maksud, Frédéric; Philippe, Michel; Plaire, Delphine; Stafford, Thomas; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Elalouf, Jean-Marc</p> <p>2017-02-10</p> <p>The European bison (Bison bonasus), now found in Europe and the Caucasus, has been proposed to originate either from the extinct steppe/extant American bison lineage or from the extinct Bison schoetensacki lineage. Bison schoetensacki remains are documented in Eurasian Middle Pleistocene sites, but their presence in Upper Pleistocene sites has been questioned. Despite extensive genetic studies carried out on the steppe and European bison, no remains from the fossil record morphologically identified as Bison schoetensacki has been analyzed up to now. In this paper, we analyzed a 36,000-year-old Bison schoetensaki bone sample from the Siréjol cave (France) and a cave hyena coprolite (fossilized feces) found in a nearby cave and containing large amounts of Bovinae DNA. We show that the Bovinae mitochondrial DNA sequences from both samples, including a complete mitochondrial genome sequence, belong to a clade recently reported in the literature. This clade only includes ancient bison specimens without taxonomic identification and displays a <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship with the extant European bison. The genetic proximity of Bison schoetensacki with specimens from this clade is corroborated by the analysis of nuclear DNA single nucleotide polymorphisms. This work provides genetic evidence supporting the continuing presence of Bison schoetensacki up to the Upper Pleistocene. Bison schoetensacki turns out to be a <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of Bison bonasus, excluding the steppe bison Bison priscus as a direct ancestor of the European bison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28475600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28475600"><span>A new role for Rrm3 in repair of replication-born DNA breakage by <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid recombination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Muñoz-Galván, Sandra; García-Rubio, María; Ortega, Pedro; Ruiz, Jose F; Jimeno, Sonia; Pardo, Benjamin; Gómez-González, Belén; Aguilera, Andrés</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Replication forks stall at different DNA obstacles such as those originated by transcription. Fork stalling can lead to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that will be preferentially repaired by homologous recombination when the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid is available. The Rrm3 helicase is a replisome component that promotes replication upon fork stalling, accumulates at highly transcribed regions and prevents not only transcription-induced replication fork stalling but also transcription-associated hyper-recombination. This led us to explore the possible role of Rrm3 in the repair of DSBs when originating at the passage of the replication fork. Using a mini-HO system that induces mainly single-stranded DNA breaks, we show that rrm3Δ cells are defective in DSB repair. The defect is clearly seen in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid recombination, the major repair pathway of replication-born DSBs. Our results indicate that Rrm3 recruitment to replication-born DSBs is crucial for viability, uncovering a new role for Rrm3 in the repair of broken replication forks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240967','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240967"><span>SACK-Expanded Hair Follicle Stem Cells Display Asymmetric Nuclear Lgr5 Expression With Non-Random <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Segregation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huh, Yang Hoon; King, Johnathan; Cohen, Justin; Sherley, James L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the properties of clonally-expanded mouse hair follicle stem cells (HF-SCs) in culture. The expansion method, suppression of asymmetric cell kinetics (SACK), is non-toxic and reversible, allowing evaluation of the cells' asymmetric production of differentiating progeny cells. A tight association was discovered between non-random <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation, a unique property of distributed stem cells (DSCs), like HF-SCs, and a recently described biomarker, Lgr5. We found that nuclear Lgr5 expression was limited to the HF-SC <span class="hlt">sister</span> of asymmetric self-renewal divisions that retained non-randomly co-segregated chromosomes, which contain the oldest cellular DNA strands, called immortal DNA strands. This pattern-specific Lgr5 association poses a potential highly specific new biomarker for delineation of DSCs. The expanded HF-SCs also maintained the ability to make differentiated hair follicle cells spontaneously, as well as under conditions that induced cell differentiation. In future human cell studies, this capability would improve skin grafts and hair replacement therapies. PMID:22355691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2649772','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2649772"><span>Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Shi</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth. PMID:18600632</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18600632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18600632"><span>Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Shi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.114.4.0402','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5403/oregonhistq.114.4.0402"><span>“Our vanishing glaciers”: One hundred years of glacier retreat in Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Area, Oregon Cascade Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Connor, James E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In August 1910, thirty-nine members of the Mazamas Mountaineering Club ascended the peaks of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in central Oregon. While climbing, geologist Ira A. Williams photographed the surrounding scenery, including images of Collier Glacier. One hundred years later, U.S. Geological Survey research hydrologist Jim E. O’Connor matched those documented photographs with present day images — the result of which is a stunning lapse of glacial change in the Three <span class="hlt">Sister</span> region. O’Connor asserts that “glaciers exist by the grace of climate,” and through a close examination of the history of the region’s glaciers, he provides an intriguing glimpse into the history of geological surveys and glacial studies in the Pacific Northwest, including their connection to significant scientific advances of the nineteenth century. The work of scientists and mountaineers who have monitored and recorded glacier changes for over a century allows us to see dramatic changes in a landscape that is especially sensitive to ongoing climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177232','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4177232"><span>The Scc2/Scc4 complex acts in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation by maintaining nucleosome-free regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lopez-Serra, Lidia; Kelly, Gavin; Patel, Harshil; Stewart, Aengus; Uhlmann, Frank</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The cohesin complex is at the heart of many chromosomal activities, including <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation1-3. Cohesin loading onto chromosomes depends on the Scc2/Scc4 cohesin loader complex4-6, but the chromatin features that form cohesin loading sites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the RSC chromatin remodeling complex recruits budding yeast Scc2/Scc4 to broad nucleosome-free regions, that the cohesin loader itself helps to maintain. Consequently, inactivation of the cohesin loader or RSC complex have similar effects on nucleosome positioning, gene expression and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. These results reveal an intimate link between local chromatin structure and higher order chromosome architecture. Our findings pertain to the similarities between two severe human disorders, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, caused by mutations in the human cohesin loader, and Coffin-Siris syndrome, resulting from mutations in human RSC complex components7-9. Both could arise from gene misregulation due to related changes in the nucleosome landscape. PMID:25173104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4199692','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4199692"><span>Regulation of Centromere Localization of the Drosophila Shugoshin MEI-S332 and <span class="hlt">Sister</span>-Chromatid Cohesion in Meiosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nogueira, Cristina; Kashevsky, Helena; Pinto, Belinda; Clarke, Astrid; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Shugoshin (Sgo) protein family helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation by protecting cohesion at the centromere by preventing cleavage of the cohesin complex. Some Sgo proteins also influence other aspects of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Although many Sgo members require Aurora B kinase to localize to the centromere, factors controlling delocalization are poorly understood and diverse. Moreover, it is not clear how Sgo function is inactivated and whether this is distinct from delocalization. We investigated these questions in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with superb chromosome cytology to monitor Sgo localization and quantitative assays to test its function in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid segregation in meiosis. Previous research showed that in mitosis in cell culture, phosphorylation of the Drosophila Sgo, MEI-S332, by Aurora B promotes centromere localization, whereas Polo phosphorylation promotes delocalization. These studies also suggested that MEI-S332 can be inactivated independently of delocalization, a conclusion supported here by localization and function studies in meiosis. Phosphoresistant and phosphomimetic mutants for the Aurora B and Polo phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on MEI-S332 localization and chromosome segregation in meiosis. Strikingly, MEI-S332 with a phosphomimetic mutation in the Aurora B phosphorylation site prematurely dissociates from the centromeres in meiosis I. Despite the absence of MEI-S332 on meiosis II centromeres in male meiosis, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate normally, demonstrating that detectable levels of this Sgo are not essential for chromosome congression, kinetochore biorientation, or spindle assembly. PMID:25081981</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21622355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21622355"><span>Molecular, morphological, and ecological niche differentiation of sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> oak species, Quercus virginiana and Q. geminata (Fagaceae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Pahlich, Annette</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The genus Quercus (the oaks) is notorious for interspecific hybrization, generating questions about the mechanisms that permit coexistence of closely related species. Two <span class="hlt">sister</span> oak species, Quercus virginiana and Q. geminata, occur in sympatry in Florida and throughout the southeastern United States. In 11 sites from northern and southeastern regions of Florida, we used a leaf-based morphological index to identify individuals to species. Eleven nuclear microsatellite markers significantly differentiated between the species with a high correspondence between molecular and morphological typing of specimens. Nevertheless, Bayesian clustering analysis indicates interspecific gene flow, and six of 109 individuals had mixed ancestry. The identity of several individuals also was mismatched using molecular markers and morphological characters. In a common environment, the two species performed differently in terms of photosynthetic performance and growth, corresponding to their divergent ecological niches with respect to soil moisture and other edaphic properties. Our data support earlier hypotheses that divergence in flowering time causes assortative mating, allowing these ecologically distinct <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to occur in sympatry. Limited gene flow that permits ecological differentiation helps to explain the overdispersion of oak species in local communities.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818333"><span>The hsSsu72 phosphatase is a cohesin-binding protein that regulates the resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid arm cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyun-Soo; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Ha, Geun-Hyoung; Lee, Jae-Chul; Kim, Yu-Na; Lee, Janet; Park, Hye-Young; Lee, Noo Ri; Lee, Ho; Cho, Yunje; Lee, Chang-Woo</p> <p>2010-10-20</p> <p>Cohesin is a multiprotein complex that establishes <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion from S phase until mitosis or meiosis. In vertebrates, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion is dissolved in a stepwise manner: most cohesins are removed from the chromosome arms via a process that requires polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), aurora B and Wapl, whereas a minor amount of cohesin, found preferentially at the centromere, is cleaved by separase following its activation by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Here, we report that our budding yeast two-hybrid assay identified hsSsu72 phosphatase as a Rad21-binding protein. Additional experiments revealed that Ssu72 directly interacts with Rad21 and SA2 in vitro and in vivo, and associates with <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in human cells. Interestingly, depletion or mutational inactivation of Ssu72 phosphatase activity caused the premature resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid arm cohesion, whereas the overexpression of Ssu72 yielded high resistance to this resolution. Interestingly, it appears that Ssu72 regulates the cohesion of chromosome arms but not centromeres, and acts by counteracting the phosphorylation of SA2. Thus, our study provides important new evidence, suggesting that Ssu72 is a novel cohesin-binding protein capable of regulating cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid arms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356279-purification-crystallization-preliminary-characterization-putative-lmbe-like-deacetylase-from-bacillus-cereus','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356279-purification-crystallization-preliminary-characterization-putative-lmbe-like-deacetylase-from-bacillus-cereus"><span>Purification, crystallization and preliminary characterization of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> LmbE-like deacetylase from Bacillus cereus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fadouloglou, Vasiliki E.; Kotsifaki, Dina; Gazi, Anastasia D.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The BC1534 protein from B. cereus was purified and crystallized and a native X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.5 Å using synchrotron radiation. The Bacillus cereus BC1534 protein, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> deacetylase from the LmbE family, has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of the 26 kDa protein grown from MPD and acetate buffer belong to space <span class="hlt">group</span> R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 76.7, c = 410.5 Å (in the hexagonal setting). A complete native data set was collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å from a single cryoprotected crystalmore » using synchrotron radiation. As BC1534 shows significant sequence homology with an LmbE-like protein of known structure from Thermus thermophilus, molecular replacement will be used for crystal structure determination.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22425646"><span>Bioinformatic selection of <span class="hlt">putative</span> epigenetically regulated loci associated with obesity using gene expression data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turcot, Valérie; Groom, Alexandra; McConnell, James C; Pearce, Mark S; Potter, Catherine; Embleton, Nicholas D; Swan, Daniel C; Relton, Caroline L</p> <p>2012-05-10</p> <p>There is considerable interest in defining the relationship between epigenetic variation and the risk of common complex diseases. Strategies which assist in the prioritisation of target loci that have the potential to be epigenetically regulated might provide a useful approach in identifying concrete examples of epigenotype-phenotype associations. Focusing on the postulated role of epigenetic factors in the aetiopathogenesis of obesity this report outlines an approach utilising gene expression data and a suite of bioinformatic tools to prioritise a list of target candidate genes for more detailed experimental scrutiny. Gene expression microarrays were performed using peripheral blood RNA from children aged 11-13years selected from the Newcastle Preterm Birth Growth Study which were <span class="hlt">grouped</span> by body mass index (BMI). Genes showing ≥2.0 fold differential expression between low and high BMI <span class="hlt">groups</span> were selected for in silico analysis. Several bioinformatic tools were used for each following step; 1) a literature search was carried out to identify whether the differentially expressed genes were associated with adiposity phenotypes. Of those obesity-candidate genes, <span class="hlt">putative</span> epigenetically regulated promoters were identified by 2) defining the promoter regions, 3) then by selecting promoters with a CpG island (CGI), 4) and then by identifying any transcription factor binding modules covering CpG sites within the CGI. This bioinformatic processing culminated in the identification of a short list of target obesity-candidate genes <span class="hlt">putatively</span> regulated by DNA methylation which can be taken forward for experimental analysis. The proposed workflow provides a flexible, versatile and low cost methodology for target gene prioritisation that is applicable to multiple species and disease contexts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1618405','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1618405"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> cross-kingdom horizontal gene transfer in sponge (Porifera) mitochondria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rot, Chagai; Goldfarb, Itay; Ilan, Micha; Huchon, Dorothée</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Background The mitochondrial genome of Metazoa is usually a compact molecule without introns. Exceptions to this rule have been reported only in corals and sea anemones (Cnidaria), in which <span class="hlt">group</span> I introns have been discovered in the cox1 and nad5 genes. Here we show several lines of evidence demonstrating that introns can also be found in the mitochondria of sponges (Porifera). Results A 2,349 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced from the sponge Tetilla sp. (Spirophorida). This fragment suggests the presence of a 1143 bp intron. Similar to all the cnidarian mitochondrial introns, the <span class="hlt">putative</span> intron has <span class="hlt">group</span> I intron characteristics. The intron is present in the cox1 gene and encodes a <span class="hlt">putative</span> homing endonuclease. In order to establish the distribution of this intron in sponges, the cox1 gene was sequenced from several representatives of the demosponge diversity. The intron was found only in the sponge order Spirophorida. A phylogenetic analysis of the COI protein sequence and of the intron open reading frame suggests that the intron may have been transmitted horizontally from a fungus donor. Conclusion Little is known about sponge-associated fungi, although in the last few years the latter have been frequently isolated from sponges. We suggest that the horizontal gene transfer of a mitochondrial intron was facilitated by a symbiotic relationship between fungus and sponge. Ecological relationships are known to have implications at the genomic level. Here, an ecological relationship between sponge and fungus is suggested based on the genomic analysis. PMID:16972986</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528137"><span>Is beauty skin deep? The impact of "beautiful attributes" on life opportunities and interpersonal relationships: a tale of two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in South India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ullrich, Helen E</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The focus of this article is the impact of culturally perceived beauty and its attributes on identity formation and interpersonal relationships. In South India skin color is perhaps the most important aspect of beauty. Socialization starts from infancy, as people talk openly about a child's skin color and other "beautiful attributes" from the time of a child's birth. Women with the cultural designation of beautiful are more assertive than those women designated unattractive. Moreover, the increased self-confidence associated with their beauty allows them greater leeway to shape their lives according to their own desires. I will discuss culturally relevant "beautiful attributes" and the developmental impact on two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. The older <span class="hlt">sister</span> was regarded as beautiful while her younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> was considered less attractive. Cultural validation provides a theater for assertiveness while denigration enhances vulnerability to depression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353489','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27353489"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> function of hypothetical proteins expressed by Clostridium perfringens type A strains and their protective efficacy in mouse model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Dwivedi, Pratistha</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The whole genome sequencing and annotation of Clostridium perfringens strains revealed several genes coding for proteins of unknown function with no significant similarities to genes in other organisms. Our previous studies clearly demonstrated that hypothetical proteins CPF_2500, CPF_1441, CPF_0876, CPF_0093, CPF_2002, CPF_2314, CPF_1179, CPF_1132, CPF_2853, CPF_0552, CPF_2032, CPF_0438, CPF_1440, CPF_2918, CPF_0656, and CPF_2364 are genuine proteins of C. perfringens expressed in high abundance. This study explored the <span class="hlt">putative</span> role of these hypothetical proteins using bioinformatic tools and evaluated their potential as <span class="hlt">putative</span> candidates for prophylaxis. Apart from a <span class="hlt">group</span> of eight hypothetical proteins (HPs), a <span class="hlt">putative</span> function was predicted for the rest of the hypothetical proteins using one or more of the algorithms used. The phylogenetic analysis did not suggest an evidence of a horizontal gene transfer event except for HP CPF_0876. HP CPF_2918 is an abundant extracellular protein, unique to C. perfringens species with maximum strain coverage and did not show any significant match in the database. CPF_2918 was cloned, recombinant protein was purified to near homogeneity, and probing with mouse anti-CPF_2918 serum revealed surface localization of the protein in C. perfringens ATCC13124 cultures. The purified recombinant CPF_2918 protein induced antibody production, a mixed Th1 and Th2 kind of response, and provided partial protection to immunized mice in direct C. perfringens challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3718214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3718214"><span>Gymnosperm B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> genes may be involved in ovule/seed development and, in some species, in the growth of fleshy fruit-like structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lovisetto, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Busatto, Nicola; Casadoro, Giorgio</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims The evolution of seeds together with the mechanisms related to their dispersal into the environment represented a turning point in the evolution of plants. Seeds are produced by gymnosperms and angiosperms but only the latter have an ovary to be transformed into a fruit. Yet some gymnosperms produce fleshy structures attractive to animals, thus behaving like fruits from a functional point of view. The aim of this work is to increase our knowledge of possible mechanisms common to the development of both gymnosperm and angiosperm fruits. Methods B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> genes from two gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba and Taxus baccata) were isolated and studied. The Ginkgo gene was also functionally characterized by ectopically expressing it in tobacco. Key Results In Ginkgo the fleshy structure derives from the outer seed integument and the B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> gene is involved in its growth. In Taxus the fleshy structure is formed de novo as an outgrowth of the ovule peduncle, and the B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> gene is not involved in this growth. In transgenic tobacco the Ginkgo gene has a positive role in tissue growth and confirms its importance in ovule/seed development. Conclusions This study suggests that B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> genes have a main function in ovule/seed development and a subsidiary role in the formation of fleshy fruit-like structures when the latter have an ovular origin, as occurs in Ginkgo. Thus, the ‘fruit function’ of B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> genes is quite old, already being present in Gymnosperms as ancient as Ginkgoales, and is also present in Angiosperms where a B-<span class="hlt">sister</span> gene has been shown to be involved in the formation of the Arabidopsis fruit. PMID:23761686</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9159926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9159926"><span>Are the Platyhelminthes a monophyletic primitive <span class="hlt">group</span>? An assessment using 18S rDNA sequences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carranza, S; Baguñà, J; Riutort, M</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>In most zoological textbooks, Platyhelminthes are depicted as an early-emerging clade forming the likely <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of all the other Bilateria. Other phylogenetic proposals see them either as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of most of the Protostomia or as a <span class="hlt">group</span> derived from protostome coelomate ancestors by progenesis. The main difficulty in their correct phylogenetic placing is the lack of convincing synapomorphies for all Platyhelminthes, which may indicate that they are polyphyletic. Moreover, their internal phylogenetic relationships are still uncertain. To test these hypotheses, new complete 18S rDNA sequences from 13 species of "Turbellaria" have been obtained and compared to published sequences of 2 other "Turbellaria," 3 species of parasitic Platyhelminthes, and several diploblastic and deuterostome and protostome triploblastics. Maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and neighbor-joining methods were used to infer their phylogeny. The results show the order Catenulida to form an independent early-branching clade and emerge as a potential <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of the rest of the Bilateria, while the rest of Platyhelminthes (Rhabditophora), which includes the parasites, form a clear monophyletic <span class="hlt">group</span> closely related to the protostomes. The order Acoela, morphologically considered as candidates to be ancestral, are shown to be fast-clock organisms for the 18S rDNA gene. Hence, long-branching of acoels and insufficient sampling of catenulids and acoels leave their position still unresolved and call for further studies. Within the Rhabditophora, our analyses suggest (1) a close relationship between orders Macrostomida and Polycladida, forming a clear <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> to the rest of orders; (2) that parasitic platyhelminthes appeared early in the evolution of the <span class="hlt">group</span> and form a <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> to a still-unresolved clade made by Nemertodermatida, Lecithoepitheliata, Prolecithophora, Proseriata, Tricladida, and Rhabdocoela; and (3) that Seriata is paraphyletic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3945798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3945798"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) in Greenlandic Eskimos. Dose-response relationship between SCE and seal diet, smoking, and blood cadmium and mercury concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wulf, H C; Kromann, N; Kousgaard, N; Hansen, J C; Niebuhr, E; Albøge, K</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The mutagenicity of the chromosomes of the peripheral lymphocytes of 147 Greenlandic Eskimos living in the district of Angmagssalik, Greenland, and in Denmark, was evaluated by means of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) test. Thirty cells from each person were examined. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if there was any relationship between mutagenic activity and diet, and hence the elements selenium, cadmium, mercury and lead. The probands were divided into three <span class="hlt">groups</span> according to their intake of seal meat or industrially prepared food: <span class="hlt">group</span> 1, those eating seal at least six times per week; <span class="hlt">group</span> 2, two to five times per week; and <span class="hlt">group</span> 3 once each week or not at all. The statistical analysis was performed by means of multiple linear regression analyses, with diet, living district, sex, age, tobacco smoking, and blood lead and mercury concentrations as variables. Forty-eight percent of the variation in SCE could be explained by differences in diet, living district, age, and tobacco consumption. <span class="hlt">Groups</span> 1 and 2 had a 1.7 and 0.65 times higher SCE/cell, respectively, than <span class="hlt">group</span> 3. For every additional 10 years of age of the probands, the SCE/cell increased by 0.4, and for every 10 g of tobacco smoked per day the SCE/cell was 0.7 higher compared to non-smokers. When priority was given to blood Hg concentration in the calculation, 16.3% of the total variation in SCE/cell could be explained. An increase in the blood Hg concentration of 10 micrograms l-1 corresponded to an increase of 0.3 SCE/cell. In 92 individuals blood Se and Cd concentrations were also analysed. The variables, tobacco smoking, diet, living district and Cd explained 53% of the total variation in SCE. Giving priority to the blood Hg and Cd concentrations, explained 21.4% of the total variation in SCE/cell. An increase of 10 micrograms l-1 in blood Cd and Hg corresponded to an increase in SCE/cell of 0.7 and 0.2, respectively. No influence on the SCE/cell could be attributed to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24791868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24791868"><span>Epigenetic regulation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> tumor suppressor TGFBI in human leukemias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fang, Hongbo; Liu, Jing; Guo, Dan; Liu, Peixiang; Zhao, Yongliang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Both in vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated the TGFBI gene functions as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> tumor suppressor and is frequently downregulated in human tumors of different histological types. The hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter, as one of the main regulatory mechanisms, is associated with TGFBI silencing. In this study, we used a methylation-specific PCR (MSP) method to evaluate the methylation status of the TGFBI promoter in human leukemias. Real-time RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR approaches were performed to define the TGFBI expression and promoter methylation in human leukemia cell lines and clinical samples. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from leukemia patients, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed by the MSP method. Hypermethylation of the TGFBI promoter occurred in leukemia cell lines and demethylation treatment reexpressed TGFBI at a substantially increased level in most of leukemia cell lines tested. Furthermore, a much higher level of CpG island methylation and a significantly lower TGFBI expression were also identified in clinical leukemia samples. The results suggest an important role of promoter methylation in regulating TGFBI expression in leukemia, which provides a useful diagnostic marker for clinical management of human leukemias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28634745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28634745"><span>Prolactin function and <span class="hlt">putative</span> expression in the brain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabrera-Reyes, Erika Alejandra; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Rivero-Segura, Nadia Alejandra; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Cerbón, Marco</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Prolactin is a peptide hormone mainly synthetized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, but also by extrapituitary tissues, such as mammary gland, decidua, prostate, skin, and possibly the brain. Similarly, prolactin receptor is expressed in the pituitary gland, many peripheral tissues, and in contrast to prolactin, its receptor has been consistently detected in several brain regions, such as cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, among others. Classically, prolactin function has been related to the stimulation of lactogenesis and galactopoiesis, however, it is well known that prolactin induces a wide range of functions in different brain areas. The aim of this review is to summarize recent reports on prolactin and prolactin receptor synthesis and localization, as well as recapitulate both the classic functions attributed to this hormone in the brain and the recently described functions such as neurogenesis, neurodevelopment, sleep, learning and memory, and neuroprotection. The distribution and <span class="hlt">putative</span> expression of prolactin and its receptors in several neuronal tissues suggests that this hormone has pleiotropic functions in the brain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..442B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..442B"><span>The inducible CAM plants in <span class="hlt">putative</span> lunar lander experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burlak, Olexii; Zaetz, Iryna; Soldatkin, Olexii; Rogutskyy, Ivan; Danilchenko, Boris; Mikheev, Olexander; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Vidmachenko, Anatolii; Foing, Bernard H.; Kozyrovska, Natalia</p> <p></p> <p>Precursory lunar lander experiments on growing plants in locker-based chambers will increase our understanding of effect of lunar conditions on plant physiology. The inducible CAM (Cras-sulacean Acid Metabolism)-plants are reasonable model for a study of relationships between environmental challenges and changes in plant/bacteria gene expression. In inducible CAM-plants the enzymatic machinery for the environmentally activated CAM switches on from a C3-to a full-CAM mode of photosynthesis in response to any stresses (Winter et al., 2008). In our study, Kalanchoe spp. are shown to be promising candidates for <span class="hlt">putative</span> lunar experiments as resistant to irradiation and desiccation, especially after inoculation with a bacterial consortium (Boorlak et al., 2010). Within frames of the experiment we expect to get information about the functional activity of CAM-plants, in particular, its organogenesis, photosystem, the circadian regulation of plant metabolism on the base of data gaining with instrumental indications from expression of the reporter genes fused to any genes involved in vital functions of the plant (Kozyrovska et al., 2009). References 1. Winter K., Garcia M., Holtum J. (2008) J. Exp. Bot. 59(7):1829-1840 2. Bourlak O., Lar O., Rogutskyy I., Mikheev A., Zaets I., Chervatyuk N., de Vera J.-P., Danilchenko A.B. Foing B.H., zyrovska N. (2010) Space Sci. Technol. 3. Kozyrovska N.O., Vidmachenko A.P., Foing B.H. et al. Exploration/call/estec/ESA. 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10374293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10374293"><span>[Systemic manifestations of myasthenia gravis and its <span class="hlt">putative</span> pathogenesis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, H; Xu, X; Guo, H</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>We studied the systemic manifestations of myasthenia gravis and its <span class="hlt">putative</span> pathogenesis. 644 clinically, pharmacologically and electrophysiologically diagnosed patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) were studied. 33 patients had Graves disease, 5 periodic paralysis, 4 Hashimoto disease, and 4 epilepsy, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome each. 45 patients had positive anti-skeletal-muscle antibodies, 9 positive anti-thyroid antibody, and 3 positive SSA and SSB. 11 MG patients with positive pyramidal signs (MG+PS) had no evidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) or other neurologic diseases. Compared with 12 MG patients without pyramidal signs (MG-PS) and 23 normal controls (NCs), they had not only high levels of IgGcsf and IgG syn, but also increased ratio of AChRAbcsf/AChRAbs (P < 0.05). Four MG patients had epilepsy. Four MG patients had severe memory disorders. Three MG patients had diseases of the peripheral nerves without diabetes mellitus and toxin. SGPT was significantly increased in 22 MG patients than in 9 normal controls (P < 0.05). These systemic manifestations were improved while MG was improved by immunological therapy. MG is a systemic autoimmune disease predominantly involving AChR on the postsynaptic membrane of N-M conjunction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5006174','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5006174"><span>Rapid Discrimination Among <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lomnitz, Jason G.; Savageau, Michael A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among <span class="hlt">putative</span> models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values. PMID:27578053</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27578053"><span>Rapid Discrimination Among <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A</p> <p>2016-08-31</p> <p>An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among <span class="hlt">putative</span> models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2838977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2838977"><span>[Assessment of the genotoxic risk caused by the gyrase inhibitor ofloxacin using <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange rate analysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kullich, W; Brugger, P; Klein, G</p> <p>1988-03-15</p> <p>Ofloxacin (Tarivid) is a 4-quinolone of the latest generation. Its mechanism of action is the inhibition of the enzyme gyrase which plays a central role in the bacterial DNA-metabolisms. Thus Ofloxacin blocks the reading of the chromosomes and impairs the cell's function and ability to reduplicate leading to eradication of the pathogens. The genotoxicity of Ofloxacin was assessed by analyses of SCE (<span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid-exchange-rates), which is a sensitive and qualitative parameter indicating chromosomal damages. In vitro no change of the SCE-frequencies could be demonstrated in human lymphocytes; in vivo, however, a slight influence not be excluded, which is also true for eventual additive on synergistic effect with other mutagenic factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274551','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25274551"><span>Root foraging elicits niche complementarity-dependent yield advantage in the ancient 'three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' (maize/bean/squash) polyculture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chaochun; Postma, Johannes A; York, Larry M; Lynch, Jonathan P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Since ancient times in the Americas, maize, bean and squash have been grown together in a polyculture known as the 'three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>'. This polyculture and its maize/bean variant have greater yield than component monocultures on a land-equivalent basis. This study shows that below-ground niche complementarity may contribute to this yield advantage. Monocultures and polycultures of maize, bean and squash were grown in two seasons in field plots differing in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability. Root growth patterns of individual crops and entire polycultures were determined using a modified DNA-based technique to discriminate roots of different species. The maize/bean/squash and maize/bean polycultures had greater yield and biomass production on a land-equivalent basis than the monocultures. Increased biomass production was largely caused by a complementarity effect rather than a selection effect. The differences in root crown architecture and vertical root distribution among the components of the 'three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' suggest that these species have different, possibly complementary, nutrient foraging strategies. Maize foraged relatively shallower, common bean explored the vertical soil profile more equally, while the root placement of squash depended on P availability. The density of lateral root branching was significantly greater for all species in the polycultures than in the monocultures. It is concluded that species differences in root foraging strategies increase total soil exploration, with consequent positive effects on the growth and yield of these ancient polycultures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=244223','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=244223"><span>Expanded MLST genotyping and comparative genomic hybridization evidence for host preferred <span class="hlt">groups</span> in Campylobacter coli</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The majority of previous work on campylobacteriosis has centered on the species Campylobacter jejuni, however, Campylobacter coli, the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> to C. jejuni, is also a significant problem, but remains a much less studied organism. The purpose of this work was to develop and apply an expanded 16 ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2907071"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Stem Cells in Human Dental Pulp with Irreversible Pulpitis-An Exploratory Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; Pan, J.; Wright, JT; Bencharit, S.; Zhang, S.; Everett, ET; Teixeira, FB; Preisser, JS</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Methods Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control <span class="hlt">group</span>) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased <span class="hlt">group</span>). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression and cell odonto-osteo-genic differentiation competence were compared. Results Cells from the diseased <span class="hlt">group</span> demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate but had similar STRO-1 expression, and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Conclusion Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp may contain <span class="hlt">putative</span> cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration based dental pulp therapy. PMID:20416426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20416426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20416426"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> stem cells in human dental pulp with irreversible pulpitis: an exploratory study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhengyan; Pan, Jian; Wright, John T; Bencharit, Sompop; Zhang, Shaoping; Everett, Eric T; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Preisser, John S</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Although human dental pulp stem cells isolated from healthy teeth have been extensively characterized, it is unknown whether stem cells also exist in clinically compromised teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Here we explored whether cells retrieved from clinically compromised dental pulp have stem cell-like properties. Pulp cells were isolated from healthy teeth (control <span class="hlt">group</span>) and from teeth with clinically diagnosed irreversible pulpitis (diseased <span class="hlt">group</span>). Cell proliferation, stem cell marker STRO-1 expression, and cell odonto-osteogenic differentiation competence were compared. Cells from the diseased <span class="hlt">group</span> demonstrated decreased colony formation capacity and a slightly decreased cell proliferation rate, but they had similar STRO-1 expression and exhibited a similar percentage of positive ex vivo osteogenic induction and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression from STRO-1-enriched pulp cells. Our study provides preliminary evidence that clinically compromised dental pulp might contain <span class="hlt">putative</span> cells with certain stem cell properties. Further characterization of these cells will provide insight regarding whether they could serve as a source of endogenous multipotent cells in tissue regeneration-based dental pulp therapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..107..150T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..107..150T"><span>Comparative phylogeography of two <span class="hlt">sister</span> (congeneric) species of cardiid bivalve: Strong influence of habitat, life history and post-glacial history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Krakau, Manuela; Jacobsen, Sabine; Wołowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic <span class="hlt">groups</span>, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2569659','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2569659"><span>Prime Time <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Circles: evaluating a gender-specific, culturally relevant health intervention to decrease major risk factors in mid-life African-American women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K.; Thomas, Veronica G.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Prime Time <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Circles (PTSC), a curriculum-based, culture- and gender-specific health intervention, in assisting mid-life African-American women to decrease the major risk factors of physical inactivity, poor nutrition and stress. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-four African-American women were involved in 11 sites across the country in PTSC and comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. PTSC uses a cognitive behavioral modality based on three theoretical approaches to reduce risk factors and promote positive health changes. Pretest and posttest (10 weeks, and six and 12 months) data were collected on various indicators. RESULTS: t test analyses demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the women's involvement in physical activity at 10 weeks, and six and 12 months. A significant 10-week difference was found in the women's diet, with them reporting eating more nutritious foods, t(77) = 3.32, p < 0.001. The women also indicated from pretest to 10 weeks, and six and 12 months that they changed what they ate to prevent disease (40.4%, 62.8%, 97.5% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the women at 10 weeks (62.7%) and 12 months (65.9%) reported utilizing stress management strategies. There was also a 60% increase in yearly mammograms and a 54% increase in blood pressures checks. Finally, 83.7% of the women at 12 months felt that the positive changes could be maintained over their lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTSC in modifying health-related knowledge, attitudes and certain high-risk behaviors in mid-life African-American women. PMID:17444433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17444433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17444433"><span>Prime Time <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Circles: evaluating a gender-specific, culturally relevant health intervention to decrease major risk factors in mid-life African-American women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K; Thomas, Veronica G</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>To evaluate the effectiveness of Prime Time <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Circles (PTSC), a curriculum-based, culture- and gender-specific health intervention, in assisting mid-life African-American women to decrease the major risk factors of physical inactivity, poor nutrition and stress. One-hundred-thirty-four African-American women were involved in 11 sites across the country in PTSC and comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. PTSC uses a cognitive behavioral modality based on three theoretical approaches to reduce risk factors and promote positive health changes. Pretest and posttest (10 weeks, and six and 12 months) data were collected on various indicators. t test analyses demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the women's involvement in physical activity at 10 weeks, and six and 12 months. A significant 10-week difference was found in the women's diet, with them reporting eating more nutritious foods, t(77) = 3.32, p < 0.001. The women also indicated from pretest to 10 weeks, and six and 12 months that they changed what they ate to prevent disease (40.4%, 62.8%, 97.5% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the women at 10 weeks (62.7%) and 12 months (65.9%) reported utilizing stress management strategies. There was also a 60% increase in yearly mammograms and a 54% increase in blood pressures checks. Finally, 83.7% of the women at 12 months felt that the positive changes could be maintained over their lifetime. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTSC in modifying health-related knowledge, attitudes and certain high-risk behaviors in mid-life African-American women.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+factors+AND+sex&id=EJ1051591','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=risk+AND+factors+AND+sex&id=EJ1051591"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Risk Factors in Developmental Dyslexia: A Case-Control Study of Italian Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although dyslexia runs in families, several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685585','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2685585"><span>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> viral defence mechanism in archaeal cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lillestøl, Reidun; Redder, Peter; Garrett, Roger A.; Brügger, Kim</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Clusters of regularly spaced direct repeats, separated by unconserved spacer sequences, are ubiquitous in archaeal chromosomes and occur in some plasmids. Some clusters constitute around 1% of chromosomal DNA. Similarly structured clusters, generally smaller, also occur in some bacterial chromosomes. Although early studies implicated these clusters in segregation/partition functions, recent evidence suggests that the spacer sequences derive from extrachromosomal elements, and, primarily, viruses. This has led to the proposal that the clusters provide a defence against viral propagation in cells, and that both the mode of inhibition of viral propagation and the mechanism of adding spacer-repeat units to clusters, are dependent on RNAs transcribed from the clusters. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory apparatus (piRNA-based) may be evolutionarily related to the interference RNA systems (siRNA and miRNA), which are common in eukarya. Here, we analyze all the current data on archaeal repeat clusters and provide some new insights into their diverse structures, transcriptional properties and mode of structural development. The results are consistent with larger cluster transcripts being processed at the centers of the repeat sequences and being further trimmed by exonucleases to yield a dominant, intracellular RNA species, which corresponds approximately to the size of a spacer. Furthermore, analysis of the extensive clusters of Sulfolobus solfataricus strains P1 and P2B provides support for the presence of a flanking sequence adjoining a cluster being a prerequisite for the incorporation of new spacer-repeat units, which occurs between the flanking sequence and the cluster. An archaeal database summarizing the data will be maintained at http://dac.molbio.ku.dk/dbs/SRSR/. PMID:16877322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16103276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16103276"><span>Investigating the <span class="hlt">putative</span> glycine hinge in Shaker potassium channel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ding, Shinghua; Ingleby, Lindsey; Ahern, Christopher A; Horn, Richard</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>The crystal structure of an open potassium channel reveals a kink in the inner helix that lines the pore (Jiang, Y.X., A. Lee, J.Y. Chen, M. Cadene, B.T. Chait, and R. MacKinnon. 2002. Nature 417:523-526). The <span class="hlt">putative</span> hinge point is a highly conserved glycine residue. We examined the role of the homologous residue (Gly466) in the S6 transmembrane segment of Shaker potassium channels. The nonfunctional alanine mutant G466A will assemble, albeit poorly, with wild-type (WT) subunits, suppressing functional expression. To test if this glycine residue is critical for activation gating, we did a glycine scan along the S6 segment in the background of G466A. Although all of these double mutants lack the higher-level glycosylation that is characteristic of mature Shaker channels, one (G466A/V467G) is able to generate voltage-dependent potassium current. Surface biotinylation shows that functional and nonfunctional constructs containing G466A express at comparable levels in the plasma membrane. Compared with WT channels, the shifted-glycine mutant has impairments in voltage-dependent channel opening, including a right-shifted activation curve and a decreased rate of activation. The double mutant has relatively normal open-channel properties, except for a decreased affinity for intracellular blockers, a consequence of the loss of the side chain of Val467. Control experiments with the double mutants M440A/G466A and G466A/V467A suggest that the flexibility provided by Gly466 is more important for channel function than its small size. Our results support roles for Gly466 both in biogenesis of the channel and as a hinge in activation gating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363486.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED363486.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in the Blood: The Education of Women in Native America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bowker, Ardy</p> <p></p> <p>This book seeks to identify factors contributing to the educational success or lack of success of American Indian female students, and to offer a theoretical framework for understanding American Indian female students and their unique position within tribe and school. Part 1 covers: (1) America's dropout problem, particularly for minority <span class="hlt">groups</span>;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=339317','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=339317"><span>Genome sequence and physiological analysis of Yamadazyma laniorum f.a. sp. nov. and a reevaluation of the apocryphal xylose fermentation of its <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, Candida tenuis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Xylose fermentation is a rare trait that is immensely important to the cellulosic biofuel industry, and Candida tenuis is one of the few yeasts that has been reported with this trait. Here we report the isolation of two strains representing a candidate <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to C. tenuis. Integrated analysi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778819"><span>Infertility and abnormal cervical mucus in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> who are compound heterozygotes for the cystic fibrosis (CF) DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schoyer, Katherine D; Gilbert, Fred; Rosenwaks, Zev</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>To describe two cases of infertile <span class="hlt">sisters</span> who are compound heterozygote carriers of the cystic fibrosis (CF) DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations and who were found to have significantly abnormal cervical mucus. Case reports and review of literature. Infertility practice based in an academic medical center. Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> (ages 34 and 42), compound heterozygote carriers of CF mutations, who presented with involuntary infertility. The partners of both patients tested negative for CF. The evaluation of both <span class="hlt">sisters</span> did not indicate other causes of infertility aside from advanced maternal age in the 42-year-old patient. Both <span class="hlt">sisters</span> underwent natural-cycle intrauterine insemination. Pregnancy conception. The 34-year-old patient has subsequently conceived twice through natural-cycle inseminations. This is the first reported case of infertility due to a cervical mucus factor in a patient who is a compound heterozygote of the DeltaF508 and R117H/7T mutations. This case is important not only because of the distinct phenotypic abnormality seen with specific CF mutations but also because of the associated genotype.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Child+AND+Family+AND+Studies&pg=5&id=EJ1127731','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Journal+AND+Child+AND+Family+AND+Studies&pg=5&id=EJ1127731"><span>Adolescent Siblings of Individuals with and without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings about Their Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Siblings of brothers or <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy&pg=2&id=EJ1071273','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=italy&pg=2&id=EJ1071273"><span>Mobilising Mother Cabrini's Educational Practice: The Transnational Context of the London School of the Missionary <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of the Sacred Heart of Jesus 1898-1911</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Williams, Maria Patricia</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A schoolteacher from Lombardy, Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini (1850-1917), founded the Institute of Missionary <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (MSC) in 1880. It was one of the 185 female religious institutes established in Italy in the nineteenth century. In the newly unified Italy, Cabrini found opportunities to formulate progressive Catholic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bears+AND+colorado&id=EJ454922','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bears+AND+colorado&id=EJ454922"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program: A Way for Children to Learn about Cultural Diversity--When There Isn't Any in Their School.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Koeppel, Janis; Mulrooney, Moe</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Describes a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program involving preschool children in Vail, Colorado, and Teaneck, New Jersey. As part of the program, children develop photo albums, exchange audio and video tapes, exchange a teddy bear, and compile environmental boxes. Sharing allows children to see the similarities and differences of different cultures. (LB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2621206','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2621206"><span>Genomic characterization of <span class="hlt">putative</span> allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Lin; Zhang, Shuiming; Illa, Eudald; Song, Lijuan; Wu, Shandong; Howad, Werner; Arús, Pere; Weg, Eric van de; Chen, Kunsong; Gao, Zhongshan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of <span class="hlt">putative</span> allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4) have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica), these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcis)Pru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize <span class="hlt">putative</span> peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica). Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage <span class="hlt">group</span> 1 (G1). Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage <span class="hlt">groups</span>, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B) were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03) containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02) were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 <span class="hlt">putative</span> peach/almond allergen genes have</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951343"><span>Molecular characterization of <span class="hlt">putative</span> biocorroding microbiota with a novel niche detection of Epsilon- and Zetaproteobacteria in Pacific Ocean coastal seawaters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dang, Hongyue; Chen, Ruipeng; Wang, Lin; Shao, Sudong; Dai, Lingqing; Ye, Ying; Guo, Lizhong; Huang, Guiqiao; Klotz, Martin G</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Submerged metal surfaces in marine waters undergo rapid microbial colonization and biocorrosion, causing huge damage to marine engineering facilities and significant financial losses. In coastal areas, an accelerated and particularly severe form of biocorrosion termed accelerated low water corrosion (ALWC) is widespread globally. While identification of biocorroding microorganisms and the dynamics of their community structures is the key for understanding the processes and mechanisms leading to ALWC, neither one is presently understood. In this study, analysis of constructed clone libraries and qPCR assays targeting <span class="hlt">group</span>-specific 16S rRNA or functional marker genes were used to determine the identity and abundance of <span class="hlt">putative</span> early carbon steel surface-colonizing and biocorroding microbes in coastal seawater. Diverse microbial <span class="hlt">groups</span> including 10 bacterial phyla, archaea and algae were found to <span class="hlt">putatively</span> participate in the surface-colonizing process. Analysis of the community structure of carbon steel surface microbiota revealed a temporal succession leading to ALWC. By extending the current state of knowledge, our work demonstrates the global importance of Alphaproteobacteria (mainly Rhodobacterales), Gammaproteobacteria (mainly Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales), Bacteroidetes (mainly Flavobacteriales) and microalgae as the pioneer and sustaining surface colonizers that contribute to initial formation and development of surface biofilms. We also discovered Epsilonproteobacteria and the recently described Zetaproteobacteria as <span class="hlt">putative</span> corrosion-causing microorganisms during early steps of the ALWC process. Hence, our study reports that Zetaproteobacteria may be ubiquitous also in non-hydrothermal coastal seawaters and that ALWC of submerged carbon steel surfaces in coastal waters may involve a highly diverse, complex and dynamic microbial consortium. Our finding that Epsilon- and Zetaproteobacteria may play pivotal roles in ALWC provides a new starting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.567C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.567C"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> cryomagma interaction with aerosols deposit at Titan's surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coll, Patrice; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Raulin, Francois; Coscia, David; Ramirez, Sandra I.; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Poch, Olivier; Cabane, Michel; Brassé, Coralie</p> <p></p> <p>The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan’s atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with <span class="hlt">putative</span> ammonia-water cryomagma [1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan aerosol analogues, that have been qualified as representative of Titan’s aerosols [2]. Indeed the first results obtained by the ACP experiment onboard Huygens probe revealed that the main products obtained after thermolysis of Titan’s collected aerosols, were ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Then performing a direct comparison of the volatiles produced after a thermal treatment done in conditions similar to the ones used by the ACP experiment, we may estimate that the tholins we used are relevant to chemical analogues of Titan’s aerosols, and to note free of oxygen. Taking into account recent studies proposing that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less [3]), and assuming the presence of specific gas species [4, 5], in particular CO2 and H2S, trapped in likely internal ocean, we determine a new probable composition of the cryomagma which could potentially interact with deposited Titan’s aerosols. We then carried out different hydrolyses, taking into account this composition, and we established the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. References: [1] Mitri et al., 2008. Resurfacing of Titan by ammonia-water cryomagma. Icarus. 196, 216-224. [2] Coll et al. 2013, Can laboratory tholins mimic the chemistry producing Titan's aerosols? A review in light of ACP experimental results, Planetary and Space Science 77, 91-103. [3] Tobie et al. 2012. Titan’s Bulk Composition Constrained by Cassini-Huygens: implication for internal outgassing. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2948146','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2948146"><span>Mind Operational Semantics and Brain Operational Architectonics: A <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Correspondence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Benedetti, Giulio; Marchetti, Giorgio; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Fingelkurts, Andrew A</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>) of different complexity within OA’s theory: EOMC could correspond to simple OMs, correlators to complex OMs and the correlational network to a set of simple and complex OMs. Finally, a set of experiments is proposed to verify the <span class="hlt">putative</span> correspondence between OS and OA and prove the existence of an integrated continuum between brain and mind. PMID:21113277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849287','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849287"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> antioxidant property of sesame oil in an oxidative stress model of myocardial injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saleem, Mohamed T.S.; Chetty, Madhusudhana C.; Kavimani, S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Sesame oil is a potent antioxidant dietary source for human health. Oxidative stress through generation of free radicals damages the myocardium in different experimental condition. The present research was designed to evaluate the antioxidant property of chronic oral administration of sesame oil against isoproterenol induced myocardial injury. Methods and results Male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five <span class="hlt">groups</span> (n = 6) and treated as per treatment protocol with two different doses of sesame oil (5 and 10 ml/kg b.w.) orally for thirty days. At the end of the treatment all the rats (except control rats) were administered with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg) two consecutive days and subjected to biochemical and histopathological estimation. Isoproterenol (<span class="hlt">group</span> ISO) induced the oxidative myocardial damage via alteration in the endogenous antioxidant enzymes and myocardial marker enzymes. Sesame oil in both the dose (<span class="hlt">group</span> S1 and S2) shows protective mechanism via decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and enhancing the endogenous antioxidant enzymes (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase). Sesame oil also increased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) as a myocardial marker enzyme in heart homogenate. As histologically evident isoproterenol induced myocardial injury was well preserved by the chronic administration of sesame oil. The protective role of sesame oil was compared with the reference standard α-tocopherol (<span class="hlt">group</span> S3) also showing the similar effect. Conclusion From this finding it has been concluded that chronic administration of sesame oil offers cardio protective action via <span class="hlt">putative</span> antioxidant property. PMID:24396257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V53C1425L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.V53C1425L"><span>Continuing Inflation at Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V31C0522C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFM.V31C0522C"><span>Intereruptive deformation at Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcano, Oregon, USA: a strategy for traking volume changes through coupled hydraulic-viscoelastic modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charco, M.; Rodriguez Molina, S.; Gonzalez, P. J.; Negredo, A. M.; Poland, M. P.; Schmidt, D. A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic region Oregon (USA) is one of the most active volcanic areas in the Cascade Range and is densely populated with eruptive vents. An extensive area just west of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano has been actively uplifting since about 1998. InSAR data from 1992 through 2001 showed an uplift rate in the area of 3-4 cm/yr. Then the deformation rate considerably decreased between 2004 and 2006 as shown by both InSAR and continuous GPS measurements. Once magmatic system geometry and location are determined, a linear inversion of all GPS and InSAR data available is performed in order to estimate the volume changes of the source along the analyzed time interval. For doing so, we applied a technique based on the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition (TSVD) of the Green's function matrix representing the linear inversion. Here, we develop a strategy to provide a cut-off for truncation removing the smallest singular values without too much loose of data resolution against the stability of the method. Furthermore, the strategy will give us a quantification of the uncertainty of the volume change time series. The strength of the methodology resides in allowing the joint inversion of InSAR measurements from multiple tracks with different look angles and three component GPS measurements from multiple sites.Finally, we analyze the temporal behavior of the source volume changes using a new analytical model that describes the process of injecting magma into a reservoir surrounded by a viscoelastic shell. This dynamic model is based on Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a vertical conduit that leads to an increase in pressure within a spherical reservoir and time-dependent surface deformation. The volume time series are compared to predictions from the dynamic model to constrain model parameters, namely characteristic Poiseuille and Maxwell time scales, inlet and outlet injection pressure, and source and shell geometries. The modeling approach used here could be used to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/937445','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/937445"><span>Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals <span class="hlt">putatively</span> retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 tomore » 3. Furthermore, we could assign <span class="hlt">putative</span> orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each <span class="hlt">group</span> or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their <span class="hlt">putative</span> functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found <span class="hlt">group</span> specific expression patterns. While <span class="hlt">putative</span> orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a <span class="hlt">putative</span> conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22360252-purification-crystallization-preliminary-crystallographic-analysis-putative-thiamine-biosynthesis-protein-ph1313-from-pyrococcus-horikoshii-ot3','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22360252-purification-crystallization-preliminary-crystallographic-analysis-putative-thiamine-biosynthesis-protein-ph1313-from-pyrococcus-horikoshii-ot3"><span>Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> thiamine-biosynthesis protein PH1313 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sugahara, Michihiro; Murai, Satoko; Sugahara, Mitsuaki</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">putative</span> thiamine-biosynthesis protein PH1313 from P. horikoshii OT3 was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space <span class="hlt">group</span> P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and diffract X-rays to 1.9 Å resolution. The <span class="hlt">putative</span> thiamine-biosynthesis protein PH1313 from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 has been overexpressed and purified. Crystallization was performed by the oil-microbatch method using 28%(v/v) 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant at 291 K. A native X-ray diffraction data set at 1.9 Å resolution and a single anomalous dispersion data set from a selenomethionine-derivative crystal at 2.1 Å resolution were collected using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. The native crystal belongs to themore » orthorhombic space <span class="hlt">group</span> P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 71.7, b = 71.2, c = 141.8 Å.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25981911"><span>Identification and characterisation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> seminal fluid proteins from male reproductive tissue EST libraries in tiger beetles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Machado, Vilmar; Galián, José</p> <p>2015-05-16</p> <p>The study of proteins transferred through semen can provide important information for biological questions such as adaptive evolution, the origin of new species and species richness. The objective of this study was to identify seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) that may contribute to the study of the reproductive system of tiger beetles (cicindelids), a <span class="hlt">group</span> of more than 2,500 species distributed worldwide that occupy a great diversity of habitats. Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the male gonads of Calomera littoralis and Cephalota litorea. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analysed by bioinformatics approaches and 14 unigenes were selected as candidate SFPs, which were submitted to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to identify patterns of tissue-specific expression. We have identified four novel <span class="hlt">putative</span> SFPs of cicindelids, of which similarity searches did not show homologues with known function. However, two of the protein classes (immune response and hormone) predicted by Protfun are similar to SFPs reported in other insects. Searches for homology in other cicindelids showed one lineage specific SFPs (rapidly evolving proteins), only present in the closely related species C. littoralis and Lophyra flexuosa and two conserved SFP present in other tiger beetles species tested. This work represents the first characterisation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> SFPs in Adephagan species of the order Coleoptera. The results will serve as a foundation for further studies aimed to understand gene (and protein) functions and their evolutionary implications in this <span class="hlt">group</span> of ecologically relevant beetles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10446731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10446731"><span>Family context and gender role socialization in middle childhood: comparing girls to boys and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> to brothers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McHale, S M; Crouter, A C; Tucker, C J</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>We studied the extent of sex-typing across different areas of child functioning (personality, interests, activities) in middle childhood as a function of the traditionality of parents' gender role attitudes and the sex composition of the sibling dyad. Participants included 200 firstborn children (mean = 10.4 years old), their secondborn siblings (mean = 7.7 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Family members were interviewed in their homes about their attitudes and personal characteristics and completed a series of seven evening telephone interviews about their daily activities. We measured children's attitudes, personality characteristics, and interests in sex-typed leisure activities (e.g., sports, handicrafts) as well as time spent in sex-typed leisure activities and household tasks (e.g., washing dishes, home repairs) and with same and opposite sex companions (i.e., parents, peers). Analyses revealed that sex-typing was most evident in children's interests and activities. Further, comparisons of girls versus boys and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> versus brothers revealed that differences in children's sex-typing as a function of fathers' attitudes and sibling sex constellation were most apparent for children's activities. A notable exception was sex-typed peer involvement; time spent with same versus opposite sex peers was impervious to context effects. Analyses focused on children's sex-typing as a function of mothers' attitudes generally were nonsignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898602"><span>Parallel Patterns of Host-Specific Morphology and Genetic Admixture in <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Lineages of a Commensal Barnacle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Chan, Benny K K; Zardus, John D; Wares, John P</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Symbiotic relationships are often species specific, allowing symbionts to adapt to their host environments. Host generalists, on the other hand, have to cope with diverse environments. One coping strategy is phenotypic plasticity, defined by the presence of host-specific phenotypes in the absence of genetic differentiation. Recent work indicates that such host-specific phenotypic plasticity is present in the West Pacific lineage of the commensal barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). We investigated genetic and morphological host-specific structure in the genetically distinct Atlantic <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of C. testudinaria. We collected adult C. testudinaria from loggerhead sea turtles, horseshoe crabs, and blue crabs along the eastern U.S. coast between Delaware and Florida and in the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi. We find that shell morphology, especially shell thickness, is host specific and comparable in similar host species between the Atlantic and West Pacific lineages. We did not detect significant genetic differentiation related to host species when analyzing data from 11 nuclear microsatellite loci and mitochondrial sequence data, which is comparable to findings for the Pacific lineage. The most parsimonious explanation for these parallel patterns between distinct lineages of C. testudinaria is that C. testudinaria maintained phenotypic plasticity since the lineages diverged 4-5 mya.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27207990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27207990"><span>Sibling Supporters' Experiences of Giving Support to Siblings Who Have a Brother or a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> With Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt; Nilsson, Stefan</p> <p></p> <p>Siblings of a child with a life-threatening disease, such as cancer, have a right to measures that promote their health and welfare. Siblings may find it hard to understand what is happening to the sick child with cancer and why he or she reacts as he or she does. The aim of the study was to explore sibling supporters' thoughts about the experiences they had in providing support for siblings with a brother or a <span class="hlt">sister</span> with a life-threatening disease such as cancer. All the 12 sibling supporters currently working in Sweden participated in a qualitative, descriptive study from which 5 categories emerged, showing that the sibling supporters supported siblings from diagnosis until possible death. They enabled siblings who were in the same situation to meet each other and arranged activities suited to their ages, as well as offering an encouraging environment. To help the siblings, the sibling supporters found it necessary to interact with both the parents and the ward staff. The sibling supporters felt that their support was important and necessary in helping siblings promote their own health both when the sick child was alive and also after his or her death. The experience of the sibling supporters was that they listened to the siblings' stories and met them when they were in their crisis. The study confirms that sibling supporters should be a part of the health care team that treat and support the family when a child has cancer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1288289','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1288289"><span>Transfection of BLM into Cultured Bloom Syndrome Cells Reduces the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>-Chromatid Exchange Rate toward Normal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ellis, Nathan A.; Proytcheva, Maria; Sanz, Maureen M.; Ye, Tian-Zhang; German, James</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Summary The gene BLM, mutated in Bloom syndrome (BS), encodes the nuclear protein BLM, which when absent, as it is from most BS cells, results in genomic instability. A manifestation of this instability is an excessive rate of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchange (SCE). Here we describe the effects on this abnormal cellular phenotype of stable transfection of normal BLM cDNAs into two types of BS cells, SV40-transformed fibroblasts and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Clones of BLM-transfected fibroblasts produced normal amounts of BLM by western blot analysis and displayed a normal nuclear localization of the protein by immunofluorescence microscopy. They had a mean of 24 SCEs/46 chromosomes, in contrast to the mean of 69 SCEs in controls transfected only with the vector. BLM-transfected fibroblast clones that expressed highest levels of the BLM protein had lowest levels of SCE. The lymphoblastoid cells transfected with BLM had SCE frequencies of 22 and 42 in two separate experiments in which two different selectable markers were used, in contrast to 57 and 58 in vector-transfected cells; in this type cell, however, the BLM protein was below the level detectable by western blot analysis. These experiments prove that BLM cDNA encodes a functional protein capable of restoring to or toward normal the uniquely characteristic high-SCE phenotype of BS cells. PMID:10521302</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009BVol...71.1091D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009BVol...71.1091D"><span>Continuing inflation at Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Uplift of a broad area centered ~6 km west of the summit of South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> volcano started in September 1997 (onset estimated from model discussed in this paper) and was continuing when surveyed in August 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since August 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since August 2001 with GPS and leveling surveys, and with continuous GPS since May 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR decreased from 3-5 cm/yr during 1998-2001 to ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004-2006. The other datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface uplift and extension rates decreased over time but deformation continued through August 2006. Our best-fit model to the deformation data is a vertical, prolate, spheroidal point-pressure source located 4.9-5.4 km below the surface. The source inflation rate decreased exponentially during 2001-2006 with a 1/ e decay time of 5.3 ± 1.1 years. The net increase in source volume from September 1997 to August 2006 was 36.5-41.9 x 106 m3. A swarm of ~300 small ( M max = 1.9) earthquakes occurred beneath the deforming area in March 2004; no other unusual seismicity has been noted. Similar deformation episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most are small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4034272','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4034272"><span>Multiple risk factors related to familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury: fraternal twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hewett, T E; Lynch, T R; Myer, G D; Ford, K R; Gwin, R C; Heidt, R S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective A multifactorial combination of predictors may increase anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk in athletes. The objective of this twin study was to examine these risk factors to identify commonalities in risk factors that predisposed female fraternal twins to ACL injury. Methods Female twins in high-risk sports were prospectively measured prior to an injury for neuromuscular control using three-dimensional motion analysis during landing, hamstrings and quadriceps muscular strength on a dynamometer and joint laxity using a modified Beighton–Horan index and a Compu-KT arthrometer. Intraoperative measures of femoral intercondylar notch width were recorded during ACL reconstruction. Results Abduction angles were increased at one knee in both of the twin <span class="hlt">sister</span> athletes relative to uninjured controls at initial contact and at maximum displacement during landing. The twin female athletes that went on to ACL injury also demonstrated decreased peak knee flexion motion at both knees than uninjured females during landing. The twin athletes also had increased joint laxity and decreased hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) torque ratios compared to controls. Femoral intercondylar notch widths were also below the control mean in the twin siblings. Conclusions Prescreened mature female twins that subsequently experienced ACL injury demonstrated multiple potential risk factors including: increased knee abduction angles, decreased knee flexion angles, increased general joint laxity, decreased H/Q ratios and femoral intercondylar notch width. PMID:19158132</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356375-cloning-purification-preliminary-crystallographic-analysis-putative-pyridoxal-kinase-from-bacillus-subtilis','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356375-cloning-purification-preliminary-crystallographic-analysis-putative-pyridoxal-kinase-from-bacillus-subtilis"><span>Cloning, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> pyridoxal kinase from Bacillus subtilis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Newman, Joseph A.; Das, Sanjan K.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> pyridoxal kinase from B. subtilis has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized and data have been collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Pyridoxal kinases (PdxK) are able to catalyse the phosphorylation of three vitamin B{sub 6} precursors, pyridoxal, pyridoxine and pyridoxamine, to their 5′-phosphates and play an important role in the vitamin B{sub 6} salvage pathway. Recently, the thiD gene of Bacillus subtilis was found to encode an enzyme which has the activity expected of a pyridoxal kinase despite its previous assignment as an HMPP kinase owing to higher sequence similarity. As such, this enzyme would appear to representmore » a new class of ‘HMPP kinase-like’ pyridoxal kinases. B. subtilis thiD has been cloned and the protein has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and subsequently crystallized in a binary complex with ADP and Mg{sup 2+}. X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals to 2.8 Å resolution at 100 K. The crystals belong to a primitive tetragonal system, point <span class="hlt">group</span> 422, and analysis of the systematic absences suggest that they belong to one of the enantiomorphic pair of space <span class="hlt">groups</span> P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2. Consideration of the space-<span class="hlt">group</span> symmetry and unit-cell parameters (a = b = 102.9, c = 252.6 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) suggest that the crystals contain between three and six molecules in the asymmetric unit. A full structure determination is under way to provide insights into aspects of the enzyme mechanism and substrate specificity.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1461448"><span>Functional Characterization of the <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Aspergillus nidulans Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Homolog PrpA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Semighini, Camile P.; Savoldi, Marcela; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Harris, Steven D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) polymerase (PARP) is a highly conserved enzyme involved in multiple aspects of animal and plant cell physiology. For example, PARP is thought to be intimately involved in the early signaling events that trigger the DNA damage response. However, the genetic dissection of PARP function has been hindered by the presence of multiple homologs in most animal and plant species. Here, we present the first functional characterization of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> PARP homolog (PrpA) in a microbial system (Aspergillus nidulans). PrpA belongs to a <span class="hlt">group</span> of PARP homologs that includes representatives from filamentous fungi and protists. The genetic analysis of prpA demonstrates that it is an essential gene whose role in the DNA damage response is sensitive to gene dosage. Notably, temporal patterns of prpA expression and PrpA–GFP nuclear localization suggest that PrpA acts early in the A. nidulans DNA damage response. Additional studies implicate PrpA in farnesol-induced cell death and in the initiation of asexual development. Collectively, our results provide a gateway for probing the diverse functions of PARP in a sophisticated microbial genetic system. PMID:16510786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5426850','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5426850"><span>Stability and function of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> microtubule-organizing center in the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leung, Jacqueline M.; He, Yudou; Zhang, Fangliang; Hwang, Yu-Chen; Nagayasu, Eiji; Liu, Jun; Murray, John M.; Hu, Ke</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is dictated by microtubule nucleators or organizing centers. Toxoplasma gondii, an important human parasite, has an array of 22 regularly spaced cortical microtubules stemming from a hypothesized organizing center, the apical polar ring. Here we examine the functions of the apical polar ring by characterizing two of its components, KinesinA and APR1, and show that its <span class="hlt">putative</span> role in templating can be separated from its mechanical stability. Parasites that lack both KinesinA and APR1 (ΔkinesinAΔapr1) are capable of generating 22 cortical microtubules. However, the apical polar ring is fragmented in live ΔkinesinAΔapr1 parasites and is undetectable by electron microscopy after detergent extraction. Disintegration of the apical polar ring results in the detachment of <span class="hlt">groups</span> of microtubules from the apical end of the parasite. These structural defects are linked to a diminished ability of the parasite to move and invade host cells, as well as decreased secretion of effectors important for these processes. Together the findings demonstrate the importance of the structural integrity of the apical polar ring and the microtubule array in the Toxoplasma lytic cycle, which is responsible for massive tissue destruction in acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:28331073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473856"><span>Cognitive processing in <span class="hlt">putative</span> functional gastrointestinal disorder: rumination yields orientation to social threat not pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, Maryanne; Chapman, Sarah C E</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Two possible roles of selective attention in the development and maintenance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined. First, hypervigilance to pain within FGID may exacerbate pain perception and pain-related distress. Second, hypervigilance to socially threatening stimuli could account for the disrupted social functioning reported by patients. Furthermore, stress-related variations in reported symptom severity and functioning impairments may reflect changes in cognitive bias with psychological state. Patterns of selective attention were probed within a sample of <span class="hlt">putative</span> FGID participants (pFGID). The effect of rumination induction on performance on a modified exogenous cueing task was examined. Thirty-three women with pFGID and 27 matched controls responded to dot probes following pain, social threat and neutral word cues, both before and after rumination (passive self-focused thought), or distraction induction. Reaction times revealed that after rumination but not neutral distraction, pFGID participants showed enhanced attention to social threat words, but not to pain or neutral words. Between-<span class="hlt">group</span> differences in mood, anxiety or depression could not account for these effects. These results implicate selective attention in social but not pain-related idiosyncrasies in FGID including IBS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3624020','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3624020"><span>Identification of the PGRMC1 protein complex as the <span class="hlt">putative</span> sigma-2 receptor binding site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xu, Jinbin; Zeng, Chenbo; Chu, Wenhua; Pan, Fenghui; Rothfuss, Justin M.; Zhang, Fanjie; Tu, Zhude; Zhou, Dong; Zeng, Dexing; Vangveravong, Suwanna; Johnston, Fabian; Spitzer, Dirk; Chang, Katherine C.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Hawkins, William G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Mach, Robert H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The sigma-2 receptor, whose gene remains to be cloned, has been validated as a biomarker for tumor cell proliferation. Here we report the use of a novel photoaffinity probe, WC-21, to identify the sigma-2 receptor binding site. WC-21, a sigma-2 ligand containing both a photoactive moiety azide and a fluorescein isothiocyanate <span class="hlt">group</span>, irreversibly labels sigma-2 receptors in rat liver; the membrane-bound protein was then identified as PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component-1). Immunocytochemistry reveals that both PGRMC1 and SW120, a fluorescent sigma-2 receptor ligand, colocalizes with molecular markers of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in HeLa cells. Overexpression and knockdown of the PGRMC1 protein results in an increase and a decrease in binding of a sigma-2 selective radioligand, respectively. The identification of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> sigma-2 receptor binding site as PGRMC1 should stimulate the development of unique imaging agents and cancer therapeutics that target the sigma-2 receptor/PGRMC1 complex. PMID:21730960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...577A.148B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015A%26A...577A.148B"><span>The Seven <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, luminosity, and mass functions of the Pleiades cluster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Berihuete, A.; Olivares, J.; Beletsky, Y.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Context. The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 million unique sources in a region encompassing ~80 deg2 centered on the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades and measure the mass and luminosity functions of the cluster. Methods: Using the probabilistic selection method previously described, we identified high probability members in the DANCe (i ≥ 14 mag) and Tycho-2 (V ≲ 12 mag) catalogues and studied the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. Results: We find a total of 2109 high-probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ~0.025 M⊙. The size, sensitivity, and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Conclusions: Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. Based on service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton <span class="hlt">Group</span> in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 1 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDANCe catalogs (Tables 6 and 7) and full Tables 2-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381652','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381652"><span>Genomic Features of the Damselfly Calopteryx splendens Representing a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Clade to Most Insect Orders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Simao, Felipe A.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Manni, Mosè; Seppey, Mathieu; Robertson, Hugh M.; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Insects comprise the most diverse and successful animal <span class="hlt">group</span> with over one million described species that are found in almost every terrestrial and limnic habitat, with many being used as important models in genetics, ecology, and evolutionary research. Genome sequencing projects have greatly expanded the sampling of species from many insect orders, but genomic resources for species of certain insect lineages have remained relatively limited to date. To address this paucity, we sequenced the genome of the banded demoiselle, Calopteryx splendens, a damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera) belonging to Palaeoptera, the clade containing the first winged insects. The 1.6 Gbp C. splendens draft genome assembly is one of the largest insect genomes sequenced to date and encodes a predicted set of 22,523 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analyses with other sequenced insects identified a relatively small repertoire of C. splendens detoxification genes, which could explain its previously noted sensitivity to habitat pollution. Intriguingly, this repertoire includes a cytochrome P450 gene not previously described in any insect genome. The C. splendens immune gene repertoire appears relatively complete and features several genes encoding novel multi-domain peptidoglycan recognition proteins. Analysis of chemosensory genes revealed the presence of both gustatory and ionotropic receptors, as well as the insect odorant receptor coreceptor gene (OrCo) and at least four partner odorant receptors (ORs). This represents the oldest known instance of a complete OrCo/OR system in insects, and provides the molecular underpinning for odonate olfaction. The C. splendens genome improves the sampling of insect lineages that diverged before the radiation of Holometabola and offers new opportunities for molecular-level evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral studies. PMID:28137743</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255227-integration-genetic-genomic-transcriptomic-information-identifies-putative-regulators-adventitious-root-formation-populus','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1255227-integration-genetic-genomic-transcriptomic-information-identifies-putative-regulators-adventitious-root-formation-populus"><span>Integration of genetic, genomic and transcriptomic information identifies <span class="hlt">putative</span> regulators of adventitious root formation in Populus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Cintia L.; Silva, Cynthia M.; Drost, Derek R.; ...</p> <p>2016-03-16</p> <p>In this study, adventitious roots (AR) develop from tissues other than the primary root, in a process physiologically regulated by phytohormones. Adventitious roots provide structural support and contribute to water and nutrient absorption, and are critical for commercial vegetative propagation of several crops. Here we quantified the number of AR, root architectural traits and root biomass in cuttings from a pseudo-backcross population of Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and whole-transcriptome analysis of individuals with alternative QTL alleles for AR number were used to identify <span class="hlt">putative</span> regulators of AR development. As a result, parental individuals andmore » progeny showed extensive segregation for AR developmental traits. Quantitative trait loci for number of AR mapped consistently in the same interval of linkage <span class="hlt">group</span> (LG) II and LG XIV, explaining 7–10 % of the phenotypic variation. A time series transcriptome analysis identified 26,121 genes differentially expressed during AR development, particularly during the first 24 h after cuttings were harvested. Of those, 1929 genes were differentially regulated between individuals carrying alternative alleles for the two QTL for number of AR, in one or more time point. Eighty-one of these genes were physically located within the QTL intervals for number of AR, including <span class="hlt">putative</span> homologs of the Arabidopsis genes SUPERROOT2 (SUR2) and TRYPTOPHAN SYNTHASE ALPHA CHAIN (TSA1), both of which are involved in the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests the involvement of two genes of the tryptophan-dependent auxin biosynthesis pathway, SUR2 and TSA1, in the regulation of a critical trait for the clonal propagation of woody species. A possible model for this regulation is that poplar individuals that have poor AR formation synthesize auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) primarily through the tryptophan (Trp) pathway. Much of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10222158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10222158"><span>Molecular phylogeny of ateline new world monkeys (Platyrrhini, atelinae) based on gamma-globin gene sequences: evidence that brachyteles is the <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of lagothrix.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meireles, C M; Czelusniak, J; Schneider, M P; Muniz, J A; Brigido, M C; Ferreira, H S; Goodman, M</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>Nucleotide sequences, each spanning approximately 7 kb of the contiguous gamma1 and gamma2 globin genomic loci, were determined for seven species representing all extant genera (Ateles, Lagothrix, Brachyteles, and Alouatta) of the New World monkey subfamily Atelinae. After aligning these seven ateline sequences with outgroup sequences from several other primate (non-ateline) genera, they were analyzed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining algorithms. All three analyzes estimated the same phylogenetic relationships: [Alouatta [Ateles (Brachyteles, Lagothrix)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..839D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CorRe..31..839D"><span>Twisted <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of pygmy angelfishes: discordance between taxonomy, coloration, and phylogenetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DiBattista, Joseph D.; Waldrop, Ellen; Bowen, Brian W.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Pyle, Richard L.; Rocha, Luiz A.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The delineation of reef fish species by coloration is problematic, particularly for the pygmy angelfishes (genus Centropyge), whose vivid colors are sometimes the only characters available for taxonomic classification. The Lemonpeel Angelfish ( Centropyge flavissima) has Pacific and Indian Ocean forms separated by approximately 3,000 km and slight differences in coloration. These disjunct populations hybridize with Eibl's Angelfish ( Centropyge eibli) in the eastern Indian Ocean and the Pearl-Scaled Angelfish ( Centropyge vrolikii) in the western Pacific. To resolve the evolutionary history of these species and color morphs, we employed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b and three nuclear introns (TMO, RAG2, and S7). Phylogenetic analyses reveal three deep mtDNA lineages ( d = 7.0-8.3 %) that conform not to species designation or color morph but to geographic region: (1) most Pacific C. flavissima plus C. vrolikii, (2) C. flavissima from the Society Islands in French Polynesia, and (3) Indian Ocean C. flavissima plus C. eibli. In contrast, the nuclear introns each show a cluster of closely related alleles, with frequency differences between the three geographic <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Hence, the mtDNA phylogeny reveals a period of isolation (ca . 3.5-4.2 million years) typical of congeneric species, whereas the within-lineage mtDNA ΦST values and the nuclear DNA data reveal recent or ongoing gene flow between species. We conclude that an ancient divergence of C. flavissima, recorded in the non-recombining mtDNA, was subsequently swamped by introgression and hybridization in two of the three regions, with only the Society Islands retaining the original C. flavissima haplotypes among our sample locations. Alternatively, the yellow color pattern of C. flavissima may have appeared independently in the central Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean. Regardless of how the pattern arose, C. flavissima seems to be retaining species identity where it interbreeds with C. vrolikii and C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25152466"><span>Structural connectivity patterns associated with the <span class="hlt">putative</span> visual word form area and children's reading ability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fan, Qiuyun; Anderson, Adam W; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E</p> <p>2014-10-24</p> <p>With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, especially functional MRI (fMRI), studies have mapped brain regions that are associated with good and poor reading, most centrally a region within the left occipito-temporal/fusiform region (L-OT/F) often referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA). Despite an abundance of fMRI studies of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA, research about its structural connectivity has just started. Provided that the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA may be connected to distributed regions in the brain, it remains unclear how this network is engaged in constituting a well-tuned reading circuitry in the brain. Here we used diffusion MRI to study the structural connectivity patterns of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA and surrounding areas within the L-OT/F in children with typically developing (TD) reading ability and with word recognition deficits (WRD; sometimes referred to as dyslexia). We found that L-OT/F connectivity varied along a posterior-anterior gradient, with specific structural connectivity patterns related to reading ability in the ROIs centered upon the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA. Findings suggest that the architecture of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA connectivity is fundamentally different between TD and WRD, with TD showing greater connectivity to linguistic regions than WRD, and WRD showing greater connectivity to visual and parahippocampal regions than TD. Findings thus reveal clear structural abnormalities underlying the functional abnormalities in the <span class="hlt">putative</span> VWFA in WRD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087928&hterms=genetics+thyroid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgenetics%2Bthyroid','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087928&hterms=genetics+thyroid&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dgenetics%2Bthyroid"><span>Testing <span class="hlt">putative</span> hemichordate homologues of the chordate dorsal nervous system and endostyle: expression of NK2.1 (TTF-1) in the acorn worm Ptychodera flava (Hemichordata, Ptychoderidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Takacs, Carter M.; Moy, Vanessa N.; Peterson, Kevin J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Recent phylogenetic investigations have confirmed that hemichordates and echinoderms are <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa. However, hemichordates share several cardinal characterstics with chordates and are thus an important taxon for testing hypotheses of homology between key chordate characters and their <span class="hlt">putative</span> hemichordate antecedents. The chordate dorsal nervous system (DNS) and endostyle are intriguing characters because both hemichordate larval and adult structures have been hypothesized as homologues. This study attempts to test these purported homologies through examination of the expression pattem of a Ptychodera flava NK2 gene, PfNK2.1, because this gene is expressed both in the DNS and endostyle/thyroid in a wide range of chordate taxa. We found that PfNK2.1 is expressed in both neuronal and pharyngeal structures, but its expression pattem is broken up into distinct embryonic and juvenile phases. During embryogenesis, PfNK2.1 is expressed in the apical ectoderm, with transcripts later detected in presumable neuronal structures, including the apical organ and ciliated feeding band. In the developing juvenile we detected PfNK2.1 signal throughout the pharynx, including the stomochord, and later in the hindgut. We conclude that the similar utilization of NK2.1 in apical organ development and chordate DNS is probably due to a more general role for NK2.1 in neurogenesis and that hemichordates do not possess a homologue of the chordate DNS. In addition, we conclude that P. flava most likely does not possess a true endostyle; rather during the evolution of the endostyle NK2.1 was recruited from its more general role in pharynx development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27983897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27983897"><span>A Comparison of Trans Women, Trans Men, Genderqueer Individuals, and Cisgender Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory: Ratings by Self and Siblings.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Factor, Rhonda J; Rothblum, Esther D</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A U.S. national sample of 295 transgender adults (trans women, trans men, and genderqueer individuals) and their cisgender siblings completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory about their siblings as well as themselves, which enabled a comparison between self-perceptions and sibling's perceptions of personality characteristics. Self-reported personality characteristics scored as feminine of trans women were not statistically different from those of their cisgender <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, but they were significantly higher than self-reported femininity scores of trans men, genderqueer individuals, and cisgender brothers. Self-reported personality characteristics scored as masculine of trans men did not differ significantly from those of their cisgender brothers, but they were higher than those of trans women. Trans men and cisgender brothers were viewed by their siblings in a more sex-typed way than they rated themselves, whereas trans women and cisgender <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were rated by their siblings in a less sex-typed way than they viewed themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19263805"><span>In vitro antigenotoxicity of Ulva rigida C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae) extract against induction of chromosome aberration, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange and micronuclei by mutagenic agent MMC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Celikler, Serap; Yildiz, Gamze; Vatan, Ozgur; Bilaloglu, Rahmi</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>To determine the in vitro possible clastogenic and cytotoxic activities of Ulva rigida crude extracts (URE), and identify their antigenotoxic and protective effects on chemotherapeutic agent mitomycine-C (MMC). Anti-clastogenic and anti-genotoxic activities of Ulva rigida crude extracts (URE) were studied using chromosome aberration (CA), <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE), and micronuclei (MN) tests in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro. The chromosome aberration, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange or micronuclei tests showed that URE at concentrations of 10, 20, and 40 microg/mL had no clastogenic activity in human lymphocyte cell culture. Three doses of URE significantly decreased the number of chromosomal aberrations and the frequencies of SCE and MN when compared with the culture treated with MMC (P < 0.0001). Although URE itself is not a clastogenic or cytotoxic substance, it possesses strong antigenotoxic, anti-clastogenic, and protective effects on MMC in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28095054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28095054"><span>Adolescent Siblings of Individuals With and Without Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Self-Reported Empathy and Feelings About Their Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shivers, Carolyn M; Dykens, Elisabeth M</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Siblings of brothers or <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are important but understudied family members. As many previous studies have relied on parent report of sibling outcomes, the use of sibling self-report is an important addition to the research. This study assessed the feelings of adolescent siblings toward their brothers or <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with and without IDD, as well as broader aspects of sibling empathy. Data were collected via a national, online survey from 97 parent-sibling pairs. Siblings of individuals with IDD reported higher levels of anxiety toward the target child than did siblings of typically developing individuals. Sibling feelings toward the target child were related to both parental and target child factors, but only among families of individuals with IDD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280238','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280238"><span>Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus Novel <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Na+-Channel Scorpion Toxins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guerrero-Vargas, Jimmy A.; Mourão, Caroline B. F.; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Possani, Lourival D.; Schwartz, Elisabeth F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> Na+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs) from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species. Methodology/Principal Findings cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as <span class="hlt">putative</span> modulators of Na+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as <span class="hlt">putative</span> NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Conclusions/Significance This communication describes new <span class="hlt">putative</span> NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the Na</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3806038','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3806038"><span>Design principles of the sparse coding network and the role of “<span class="hlt">sister</span> cells” in the olfactory system of Drosophila</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Danke; Li, Yuanqing; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Sensory systems face the challenge to represent sensory inputs in a way to allow easy readout of sensory information by higher brain areas. In the olfactory system of the fly drosopohila melanogaster, projection neurons (PNs) of the antennal lobe (AL) convert a dense activation of glomeruli into a sparse, high-dimensional firing pattern of Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body (MB). Here we investigate the design principles of the olfactory system of drosophila in regard to the capabilities to discriminate odor quality from the MB representation and its robustness to different types of noise. We focus on understanding the role of highly correlated homotypic projection neurons (“<span class="hlt">sister</span> cells”) found in the glomeruli of flies. These cells are coupled by gap-junctions and receive almost identical sensory inputs, but target randomly different KCs in MB. We show that <span class="hlt">sister</span> cells might play a crucial role in increasing the robustness of the MB odor representation to noise. Computationally, <span class="hlt">sister</span> cells thus might help the system to improve the generalization capabilities in face of noise without impairing the discriminability of odor quality at the same time. PMID:24167488</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3187356"><span>RSC Facilitates Rad59-Dependent Homologous Recombination between <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatids by Promoting Cohesin Loading at DNA Double-Strand Breaks ▿</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oum, Ji-Hyun; Seong, Changhyun; Kwon, Youngho; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Sid, Amy; Ramakrishnan, Sreejith; Ira, Grzegorz; Malkova, Anna; Sung, Patrick; Lee, Sang Eun; Shim, Eun Yong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks by searching for, invading, and copying information from a homologous template, typically the homologous chromosome or <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid. Tight wrapping of DNA around histone octamers, however, impedes access of repair proteins to DNA damage. To facilitate DNA repair, modifications of histones and energy-dependent remodeling of chromatin are required, but the precise mechanisms by which chromatin modification and remodeling enzymes contribute to homologous DNA repair are unknown. Here we have systematically assessed the role of budding yeast RSC (remodel structure of chromatin), an abundant, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, in the cellular response to spontaneous and induced DNA damage. RSC physically interacts with the recombination protein Rad59 and functions in homologous recombination. Multiple recombination assays revealed that RSC is uniquely required for recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by virtue of its ability to recruit cohesin at DNA breaks and thereby promoting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. This study provides molecular insights into how chromatin remodeling contributes to DNA repair and maintenance of chromatin fidelity in the face of DNA damage. PMID:21807899</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23032571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23032571"><span>Tana1, a new <span class="hlt">putatively</span> active Tc1-like transposable element in the genome of sturgeons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pujolar, José Martin; Astolfi, Laura; Boscari, Elisa; Vidotto, Michele; Barbisan, Federica; Bruson, Alice; Congiu, Leonardo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report the discovery of a new <span class="hlt">putatively</span> active Tc1-like transposable element (Tana1) in the genome of sturgeons, an ancient <span class="hlt">group</span> of fish considered as living fossils. The complete sequence of Tana1 was first characterized in the 454-sequenced transcriptome of the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and then isolated from the genome of the same species and from 12 additional sturgeons including three genera of the Acipenseridae (Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus). The element has a total length of 1588bp and presents inverted repeats of 210bp, one of which partially overlapping the 3' region of the transposase gene. The spacing of the DDE motif within the catalytic domain in Tana1 is unique (DD38E) and indicates that Tana1 can be considered as the first representative of a new Tc1 subfamily. The integrity of the native form (with no premature termination codons within the transposase), the presence of all expected functional domains and its occurrence in the sturgeon transcriptome suggest a current or recent activity of Tana1. The presence of Tana1 in the genome of the 13 sturgeon species in our study points to an ancient origin of the element that existed before the split of the <span class="hlt">group</span> 170 million years ago. The dissemination of Tana1 across sturgeon genomes could be interpreted by postulating vertical transmission from an ancestral Tana1 with a particularly slow evolutionary rate Horizontal transmission might have also played a role in the dissemination of Tana1 as evidenced by the presence of a complete copy in the genome of Atlantic salmon. Vertical and horizontal transmission are not mutually exclusive and may have concurred in shaping the evolution of Tana1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099771','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28099771"><span>Purging <span class="hlt">putative</span> siblings from population genetic data sets: a cautionary view.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waples, Robin S; Anderson, Eric C</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Interest has surged recently in removing siblings from population genetic data sets before conducting downstream analyses. However, even if the pedigree is inferred correctly, this has the potential to do more harm than good. We used computer simulations and empirical samples of coho salmon to evaluate strategies for adjusting samples to account for family structure. We compared performance in full samples and sibling-reduced samples of estimators of allele frequency (P^), population differentiation (F^ST) and effective population size (N^e). (i) unless simulated samples included large family <span class="hlt">groups</span> together with a component of unrelated individuals, removing siblings generally reduced precision of P^ and F^ST; (ii) N^e based on the linkage disequilibrium method was largely unbiased using full random samples but became increasingly upwardly biased under aggressive purging of siblings. Under nonrandom sampling (some families over-represented), N^e using full samples was downwardly biased; removing just the right 'Goldilocks' fraction of siblings could produce an unbiased estimate, but this sweet spot varied widely among scenarios; (iii) weighting individuals based on the inferred pedigree (to produce a best linear unbiased estimator, BLUE) maximized precision of P^ when the inferred pedigree was correct but performed poorly when the pedigree was wrong; (iv) a variant of sibling removal that leaves intact small sibling <span class="hlt">groups</span> appears to be more robust to errors in inferences about family structure. Our results illustrate the complex challenges posed by presence of family structure, suggest that no single optimal solution exists and argue for caution in adjusting population genetic data sets for the presence of <span class="hlt">putative</span> siblings without fully understanding the consequences. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22389071-structure-protease-cleaved-escherichia-coli-macroglobulin-reveals-putative-mechanism-conformational-activation-protease-entrapment','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22389071-structure-protease-cleaved-escherichia-coli-macroglobulin-reveals-putative-mechanism-conformational-activation-protease-entrapment"><span>Structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin reveals a <span class="hlt">putative</span> mechanism of conformational activation for protease entrapment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fyfe, Cameron D.; Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs</p> <p>2015-06-30</p> <p>The X-ray structure of protease-cleaved E. coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a <span class="hlt">putative</span> mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. Bacterial α-2-macroglobulins have been suggested to function in defence as broad-spectrum inhibitors of host proteases that breach the outer membrane. Here, the X-ray structure of protease-cleaved Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin is described, which reveals a <span class="hlt">putative</span> mechanism of activation and conformational change essential for protease inhibition. In this competitive mechanism, protease cleavage of the bait-region domain results in the untethering of an intrinsically disordered region of this domain which disrupts native interdomain interactions that maintain E. colimore » α-2-macroglobulin in the inactivated form. The resulting global conformational change results in entrapment of the protease and activation of the thioester bond that covalently links to the attacking protease. Owing to the similarity in structure and domain architecture of Escherichia coli α-2-macroglobulin and human α-2-macroglobulin, this protease-activation mechanism is likely to operate across the diverse members of this <span class="hlt">group</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356152-putative-polyketide-synthesis-protein-xc5357-from-xanthomonas-campestris-heterologous-expression-crystallization-preliminary-ray-analysis','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22356152-putative-polyketide-synthesis-protein-xc5357-from-xanthomonas-campestris-heterologous-expression-crystallization-preliminary-ray-analysis"><span>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> polyketide-synthesis protein XC5357 from Xanthomonas campestris: heterologous expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chu, Chiao-Li; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Lin, Fu-Yang</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> polyketide-synthesis protein XC5357 from X. campestris pv. campestris has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of at least 1.85 Å. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a Gram-negative yellow-pigmented bacterium and is the causative agent of black rot, one of the major worldwide diseases of cruciferous crops. It also synthesizes a variety of polyketide metabolites that lead to important antibiotics. XC5357 is a <span class="hlt">putative</span> 12.2 kDa protein of unknown structure from Xcc that is likely to be essential for polyketide synthesis. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallizedmore » using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the triclinic space <span class="hlt">group</span> P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.7, b = 43.7, c = 46.5 Å, α = 65.0, β = 64.9, γ = 73.4°, and diffracted to a resolution of 1.85 Å.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21246598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21246598"><span>Divergence of brain and retinal anatomy and histology in pelagic antarctic notothenioid fishes of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa Dissostichus and Pleuragramma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The neutrally buoyant Antarctic fishes of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxa Dissostichus (D. eleginoides and D. mawsoni) and Pleuragramma antarcticum diverged early in the notothenioid radiation and filled different niches in the pelagic realm of the developing Southern Ocean. To assess the influence of phylogenetic and ecological factors in shaping neural morphology in these taxa, we studied the anatomy and histology of the brains and retinae, and determined the proportional weights of brain regions. With the brain of the non-Antarctic <span class="hlt">sister</span> taxon Eleginops maclovinus as plesiomorphic, statistically significant departures in the brains of the two Antarctic taxa include reduction of the corpus cerebelli and expansion of the mesencephalon and medulla. Compared to Eleginops, both species also have a relatively smaller telencephalon, although this is significant only in Dissostichus. There are a number of apomorphic features in the brain of Pleuragramma including reduced olfactory nerves and bulbs, an extremely small corpus cerebelli and an expanded mesencephalon. Although there is not a significant difference in the relative weights of the medulla in the two taxa, the prominence of the eminentia granularis and bulging cap-like appearance of the crista cerebellaris are distinctive in Pleuragramma. Brain histology of Dissostichus and Pleuragramma reflects typical perciform patterns and the two species of Dissostichus are histologically identical. Lateral compression in Pleuragramma and notable lobation in Dissostichus also contribute to differences between the taxa. Compression in Pleuragramma is attributable to convergence on an anchovy/herring body shape and to the relatively large brain in this small fish. The less prominent pattern of lobation of the telencephalon, inferior lobes and corpus cerebelli in Pleuragramma probably reflects underlying histology, specifically a reduction in cellularity of the neuropil in the nuclei and lobes. The retinal histology of Dissostichus and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28543871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28543871"><span>Tropical specialist vs. climate generalist: Diversification and demographic history of <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of Carlia skinks from northwestern Australia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Afonso Silva, Ana C; Bragg, Jason G; Potter, Sally; Fernandes, Carlos; Coelho, Maria Manuela; Moritz, Craig</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Species endemic to the tropical regions are expected to be vulnerable to future climate change due in part to their relatively narrow climatic niches. In addition, these species are more likely to have responded strongly to past climatic change, and this can be explored through phylogeographic analyses. To test the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to climate change than climate generalists, we generated and analyse sequence data from mtDNA and ~2500 exons to compare scales of historical persistence and population fluctuation in two <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of Australian rainbow skinks: the tropical specialist Carlia johnstonei and the climate generalist C. triacantha. We expect the tropical specialist species to have deeper and finer-scale phylogeographic structure and stronger demographic fluctuations relative to the closely related climate generalist species, which should have had more stable populations through periods of harsh climate in the late Quaternary. Within C. johnstonei, we find that some populations from the northern Kimberley islands are highly divergent from mainland populations. In C. triacantha, one major clade occurs across the deserts and into the mesic Top End, and another occurs primarily in the Kimberley with scattered records eastwards. Where their ranges overlap in the Kimberley, both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA suggest stronger phylogeographic structure and range expansion within the tropical specialist, whereas the climate generalist has minimal structuring and no evidence of recent past range expansion. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that tropical specialists are more sensitive to past climatic change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/941390','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/941390"><span>Low doses of alpha particles do not induce <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J</p> <p>2007-10-26</p> <p>We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as anothermore » essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783246','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3783246"><span>Nutrient reserves may allow for genome size increase: evidence from comparison of geophytes and their <span class="hlt">sister</span> non-geophytic relatives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Veselý, Pavel; Bureš, Petr; Šmarda, Petr</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims The genome size of an organism is determined by its capacity to tolerate genome expansion, given the species' life strategy and the limits of a particular environment, and the ability for retrotransposon suppression and/or removal. In some giant-genomed bulb geophytes, this tolerance is explained by their ability to pre-divide cells in the dormant stages or by the selective advantage of larger cells in the rapid growth of their fleshy body. In this study, a test shows that the tendency for genome size expansion is a more universal feature of geophytes, and is a subject in need of more general consideration. Methods Differences in monoploid genome sizes were compared using standardized phylogenetically independent contrasts in 47 <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairs of geophytic and non-geophytic taxa sampled across all the angiosperms. The genome sizes of 96 species were adopted from the literature and 53 species were newly measured using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Key Results The geophytes showed increased genome sizes compared with their non-geophytic relatives, regardless of the storage organ type and regardless of whether or not vernal geophytes, polyploids or annuals were included in the analyses. Conclusions The universal tendency of geophytes to possess a higher genome size suggests the presence of a universal mechanism allowing for genome expansion. It is assumed that this is primarily due to the nutrient and energetic independence of geophytes perhaps allowing continuous synthesis of DNA, which is known to proceed in the extreme cases of vernal geophytes even in dormant stages. This independence may also be assumed as a reason for allowing large genomes in some parasitic plants, as well as the nutrient limitation of small genomes of carnivorous plants. PMID:23960044</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26771079"><span>Sexual dimorphism in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of Leucoraja skate and its relationship to reproductive strategy and life history.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L. erinacea and L. ocellata and its relationship to the development of reproductive organs, based on previous work on the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. We found that allometric trajectories of overall pectoral shape were different in both species of skate, but only L. erinacea varied significantly with respect to endoskeleton development. Male maturation was characterized by a number of sex-specific morphological changes, which appeared concurrently in developmental timing with elongation of cartilage-supported claspers. We suggest that external sexual dimorphism of pectoral fins in skates is a byproduct of skeletal growth needed for clasper development. Further, the magnitude of male shape change appears to be linked to the differential life histories of species. This work reports for the first time that pectoral dimorphism is a persistent feature in rajoid fishes, occurring in varying degrees across several genera. Lastly, our results suggest that pectoral morphology may be useful as a relative indicator of reproductive strategy in some species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5812945','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5812945"><span>Microbial Diversity and <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Opportunistic Pathogens in Dishwasher Biofilm Communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Extreme habitats are not only limited to natural environments, but also exist in manmade systems, for instance, household appliances such as dishwashers. Limiting factors, such as high temperatures, high and low pHs, high NaCl concentrations, presence of detergents, and shear force from water during washing cycles, define microbial survival in this extreme system. Fungal and bacterial diversity in biofilms isolated from rubber seals of 24 different household dishwashers was investigated using next-generation sequencing. Bacterial genera such as Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter, known to include opportunistic pathogens, were represented in most samples. The most frequently encountered fungal genera in these samples belonged to Candida, Cryptococcus, and Rhodotorula, also known to include opportunistic pathogenic representatives. This study showed how specific conditions of the dishwashers impact the abundance of microbial <span class="hlt">groups</span> and investigated the interkingdom and intrakingdom interactions that shape these biofilms. The age, usage frequency, and hardness of incoming tap water of dishwashers had significant impact on bacterial and fungal community compositions. Representatives of Candida spp. were found at the highest prevalence (100%) in all dishwashers and are assumed to be one of the first colonizers in recently purchased dishwashers. Pairwise correlations in tested microbiomes showed that certain bacterial <span class="hlt">groups</span> cooccur, as did the fungal <span class="hlt">groups</span>. In mixed bacterial-fungal biofilms, early adhesion, contact, and interactions were vital in the process of biofilm formation, where mixed complexes of bacteria and fungi could provide a preliminary biogenic structure for the establishment of these biofilms. IMPORTANCE Worldwide demand for household appliances, such as dishwashers and washing machines, is increasing, as is the number of immunocompromised individuals. The harsh conditions in household dishwashers should prevent the growth of most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13121.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-PIA13121.html"><span>Seven <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Get WISE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-16</p> <p>This image shows the famous Pleiades cluster of stars as seen through the eyes of NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer; they are what astronomers call an open cluster of stars, loosely bound to each other to eventually go their separate ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23243816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23243816"><span>So long, <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Sharp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snell, Janet</p> <p></p> <p>Pioneering nurse Margarete Sharp worked in one of the country's first clinics for people who misuse drugs. After 45 years in the field, she is convinced that, with the right level of support from nurses, social workers and doctors, drug treatment can work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23130001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23130001D"><span>Venus: Our Misunderstood <span class="hlt">Sister</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyar, Darby; Smrekar, Suzanne E.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Of all known bodies in the galaxy, Venus is the most Earth-like in size, composition, surface age, and incoming energy. As we search for habitable planets around other stars, learning how Venus works is critical to understanding how Earth evolved to host life, and whether rocky exoplanets in stars’ habitable zones are faraway Earths or Venuses. What caused Venus’ path to its present hostile environment, devoid of oceans, magnetic field, and plate tectonics? This talk reviews recent mission results, presents key unresolved science questions, and describes proposed missions to answer these questions.Despite its importance in understanding habitability, Venus is the least-explored rocky planet, last visited by NASA in 1994. Fundamental, unanswered questions for Venus include: 1. How did Venus evolve differently? 2. How have volatiles shaped its evolution? 3. Did Venus catastrophically resurface? 4. What geologic processes are active today? 5. Why does Venus lack plate tectonics?On Earth, plate tectonics supports long-term climate stability and habitability by cycling volatiles in and out of the mantle. New information on planetary volatiles disputes the long-held notion that Venus’ interior is dry; several lines of evidence indicate that planets start out wet, creating long-term atmospheres by outgassing. ESA’s Venus Express mission provided evidence for recent and ongoing volcanism and for Si-rich crust like Earth’s continents. New hypotheses suggest that lithospheric temperature can explain why Venus lacks tectonics, and are consistent with present-day initiation of subduction on Venus.New data are needed to answer these key questions of rocky planet evolution. Orbital IR data can be acquired through windows in Venus’ CO2-rich atmosphere, informing surface mineralogy, rock types, cloud variations, and active volcanism. High resolution gravity, radar, and topography data along with mineralogical constraints must be obtained. Mineralogy and geochemistry data acquisition on the surface is feasible with current technology, though challenging. Orbital measurements of noble gases/stable isotopes are needed to constrain volatile sources, escape processes, and the history of volcanic outgassing in Venus’ atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28431948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28431948"><span>Serum peptides as <span class="hlt">putative</span> modulators of inflammation in psoriasis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsuura, Tetsuhiko; Sato, Masaaki; Nagai, Kouhei; Sato, Toshiyuki; Arito, Mitsumi; Omoteyama, Kazuki; Suematsu, Naoya; Okamoto, Kazuki; Kato, Tomohiro; Soma, Yoshinao; Kurokawa, Manae S</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Psoriasis is a refractory inflammatory disease, however, its pathophysiology is still not fully understood. We tried to identify novel serum peptides associated with the pathophysiology of psoriasis. Serum peptides from 24 patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV), 10 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), 14 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and 23 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of some peptides on the secretion of humoral factors from dermal cells were investigated by cytokine arrays and ELISAs. A total of 93 peptides were detected. 24, 20, 23, and 2 peptides showed at least 1.2-fold difference in ion intensity between the psoriasis (PV+PsA) and HC <span class="hlt">groups</span>, between the PV+PsA and AD <span class="hlt">groups</span>, between the PV and PsA <span class="hlt">groups</span>, and between patients with severe-to-moderate PV (n=6) and those with mild PV (n=18), respectively (p<0.05). 13 out of 27 peptides that showed at least 1.5-fold ion intensity difference in the abovementioned 4 comparisons were identified. The parent proteins of the identified peptides included a coagulation factor, proteins involved in the maintenance of skin, and a protein relating to cytoskeleton. We focused on 2 peptides that were increased in the PV+PsA <span class="hlt">group</span>: a fibrinogen α chain-derived peptide (1462m/z), the unmodified form of which was fibrinopeptide A-des-alanine (FPAdA), and a filaggrin (FLG)-derived peptide (1977m/z), a modified form of FLG 2099-2118 (Q 2099 pE, Q 2115 E; FLG-pEE). FPAdA stimulation increased the secretion of GROα from dermal microvascular endothelial cells (dMVECs) and decreased the secretion of lipocalin-2 from keratinocytes in comparison to FPAdA-resequenced peptide stimulation (GROα, 280.9±7.3pg/mL vs. 229.6±5.0pg/mL, p<0.001; lipocalin-2, 273±13pg/mL vs. 350±10pg/mL, p<0.01). Interestingly, FLG-pEE stimulation decreased the secretion of GROα, IL-8, and MCP-1 from dMVECs in comparison to FLG-derived control peptide stimulation (GROα, 844.3±47.5pg/mL vs. 1038</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869122"><span>Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the receiver domain of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> response regulator, BPSL0128, from Burkholderia pseudomallei.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abd Aziz, Abd Ghani; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E; Ruzheinikov, Sergey N; Thorpe, Simon; Mohamed, Rahmah; Nathan, Sheila; Rafferty, John B; Baker, Patrick J; Rice, David W</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>bpsl0128, a gene encoding a <span class="hlt">putative</span> response regulator from Burkholderia pseudomallei strain D286, has been cloned into a pETBLUE-1 vector system, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The full-length protein is degraded during purification to leave a fragment corresponding to the <span class="hlt">putative</span> receiver domain, and crystals of this protein that diffracted to beyond 1.75 Å resolution have been grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using PEG 6000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to one of the enantiomorphic pair of space <span class="hlt">groups</span> P3(1)21 and P3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 65.69, c = 105.01 Å and either one or two molecules in the asymmetric unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058248','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058248"><span>Screening for Genes Coding for <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Antitumor Compounds, Antimicrobial and Enzymatic Activities from Haloalkalitolerant and Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria Strains of Algerian Sahara Soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Selama, Okba; Amos, Gregory C. A.; Djenane, Zahia; Borsetto, Chiara; Laidi, Rabah Forar; Porter, David; Nateche, Farida; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.; Hacène, Hocine</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Extreme environments may often contain unusual bacterial <span class="hlt">groups</span> whose physiology is distinct from those of normal environments. To satisfy the need for new bioactive pharmaceuticals compounds and enzymes, we report here the isolation of novel bacteria from an extreme environment. Thirteen selected haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic bacteria were isolated from Algerian Sahara Desert soils. These isolates were screened for the presence of genes coding for <span class="hlt">putative</span> antitumor compounds using PCR based methods. Enzymatic, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were determined by using cultural dependant methods. Several of these isolates are typical of desert and alkaline saline soils, but, in addition, we report for the first time the presence of a potential new member of the genus Nocardia with particular activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to their haloalkali character, the presence of genes coding for <span class="hlt">putative</span> antitumor compounds, combined with the antimicrobial activity against a broad range of indicator strains and their enzymatic potential, makes them suitable for biotechnology applications. PMID:24977147</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967335"><span>ESTs analysis reveals <span class="hlt">putative</span> genes involved in symbiotic seed germination in Dendrobium officinale.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dendrobiumofficinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world's most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D. officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D. officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e(-5)). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D. officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous <span class="hlt">Groups</span> of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D. officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes <span class="hlt">putatively</span> involved in D. officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742586','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742586"><span>ESTs Analysis Reveals <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Genes Involved in Symbiotic Seed Germination in Dendrobium officinale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Da-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Guo, Shun-Xing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dendrobium officinale (Orchidaceae) is one of the world’s most endangered plants with great medicinal value. In nature, D . officinale seeds must establish symbiotic relationships with fungi to germinate. However, the molecular events involved in the interaction between fungus and plant during this process are poorly understood. To isolate the genes involved in symbiotic germination, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of symbiotically germinated D . officinale seeds was constructed. From this library, 1437 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 1074 Unigenes (including 902 singletons and 172 contigs), which were searched against the NCBI non-redundant (NR) protein database (E-value cutoff, e-5). Based on sequence similarity with known proteins, 579 differentially expressed genes in D . officinale were identified and classified into different functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of orthologous <span class="hlt">Groups</span> of proteins (COGs) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The expression levels of 15 selected genes emblematic of symbiotic germination were confirmed via real-time quantitative PCR. These genes were classified into various categories, including defense and stress response, metabolism, transcriptional regulation, transport process and signal transduction pathways. All transcripts were upregulated in the symbiotically germinated seeds (SGS). The functions of these genes in symbiotic germination were predicted. Furthermore, two fungus-induced calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), which were upregulated 6.76- and 26.69-fold in SGS compared with un-germinated seeds (UGS), were cloned from D . officinale and characterized for the first time. This study provides the first global overview of genes <span class="hlt">putatively</span> involved in D . officinale symbiotic seed germination and provides a foundation for further functional research regarding symbiotic relationships in orchids. PMID:23967335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28375748"><span>Improved Isolation, Proliferation, and Differentiation Capacity of Mouse Ovarian <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Stem Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Hosseini, Marzieh Agha; Rajabi, Zahra; Parvari, Soraya; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Koruji, Morteza; Izadyar, Fariborz; Aliakbari, Fereshte; Abbasi, Mehdi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of ovarian stem cells in postnatal mammalian ovaries, also referred to as <span class="hlt">putative</span> stem cells (PSCs), and their roles in mammalian fertility has challenged the long-existing theory that women are endowed with a certain number of germ cells. The rare amount of PSCs is the major limitation for utilizing them through different applications. Therefore, this study was conducted in six phases to find a way to increase the number of Fragilis- and mouse vasa homolog (MVH)-positive sorted cells from 14-day-old NMRI strain mice. Results showed that there is a population of Fragilis- and MVH-positive cells with pluripotent stem cell characteristics, which can be isolated and expanded for months in vitro. PSCs increase their proliferation capacity under the influence of some mitogenic agents, and our results showed that different doses of stem cell factor (SCF) induce PSC proliferation with the maximum increase observed at 50 ng/mL. SCF was also able to increase the number of Fragilis- and MVH-positive cells after sorting by magnetic-activated cell sorting and enhance colony formation efficiency in sorted cells. Differentiation capacity assay indicated that there is a basic level of spontaneous differentiation toward oocyte-like cells during 3 days of culture. However, relative gene expression was significantly higher in the follicle-stimulating hormone-treated <span class="hlt">groups</span>, especially in the Fragilis- sorted PSCs. We suggest that higher number of PSCs provides us either a greater source of energy that can be injected into energy-impaired oocytes in women with a history of repeat IVF failure or a good source for research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1077079.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1077079.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Group</span> Flow and <span class="hlt">Group</span> Genius</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sawyer, Keith</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of <span class="hlt">group</span> creativity and improvisation actions as "<span class="hlt">group</span> flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for <span class="hlt">group</span> flow: <span class="hlt">group</span> goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22360534-protein-preparation-preliminary-ray-crystallographic-analysis-putative-glucosamine-phosphate-deaminase-from-streptococcus-mutants','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22360534-protein-preparation-preliminary-ray-crystallographic-analysis-putative-glucosamine-phosphate-deaminase-from-streptococcus-mutants"><span>Protein preparation and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase from Streptococcus mutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hu, Guan-Jing; Li, Lan-Fen; Li, Dan</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>A glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase homologue from S. mutans was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The SMU.636 protein from Streptococcus mutans is a <span class="hlt">putative</span> glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase with 233 residues. The smu.636 gene was PCR-amplified from S. mutans genomic DNA and cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+). The resultant His-tagged fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity in two steps. Crystals of the fusion protein were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution and belong to space <span class="hlt">group</span> P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, withmore » unit-cell parameters a = 53.83, b = 82.13, c = 134.70 Å.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5471373','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5471373"><span>Reviewing <span class="hlt">putative</span> industrial triggering in pemphigus: cluster of pemphigus in the area near the wastewater treatment plant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gornowicz-Porowska, Justyna; Bartkiewicz, Paweł; Bowszyc-Dmochowska, Monika; Dmochowski, Marian</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A range of pemphigus is relatively rare potentially fatal <span class="hlt">group</span> of autoimmune blistering dermatoses. Usually, there is no apparent triggering, while in some predisposed patients there are alleged environmental/industrial inducing factors. In a short time period (4 years), we diagnosed 3 novel cases of pemphigus (1 pemphigus vulgaris, 1 pemphigus foliaceus and 1 shift from pemphigus foliaceus into pemphigus vulgaris) at a clinical and laboratory level (ELISA, immunofluorescence studies). We discuss a possible common inducing mechanism as these patients inhabit one estate of the Poznan suburbia (Kozieglowy, population < 12,000), Greater Poland district, Poland, and review literature data on alleged pemphigus triggers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report exploring the <span class="hlt">putative</span> association between pemphigus diseases and wastewater treatment plant waterborne or volatile by-products in the vicinity of such a facility. PMID:28670245</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3297512','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3297512"><span>Mutagenicity of inhalation anaesthetics studied by the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange test in lymphocytes of patients and operating room personnel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Husum, B</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>Retrospective studies have indicated that operating room personnel may have increased risks of spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations in offspring, and cancer (Cohen et al 1980, Buring et al 1985). Occupational exposure to waste anaesthetic gases may be responsible for these possible adverse health effects, but a cause-effect relationship has never been proved. Induction of changes in the DNA in the chromosomes leading to mutations may play a role in teratogenicity and carcinogenicity. Along with an increasing concern in society regarding occupational diseases and working and living environment in general, cytogenetic methods have been developed for rapid detection of potential mutagenicity in vitro of chemical agents. One such method is the SCE test, which is based on examination of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs), i.e. exchanges of chromatid-segments between the two chromatids in a chromosome, during cell replication. SCEs are not mutations, but an increased frequency of SCE is a sensitive indicator of exposure to agents that are capable of producing damage to the DNA and thus possibly mutations. In vitro tests like the SCE test are very useful for evaluation of specific chemical agents, which may be added to the culture in known concentrations. In studies of possible hazards from chemical agents in the working or living environment, the exposure is often poorly defined. Also, biotransformation may be different in different species, and the duration and the level of the exposure may play a role. Examination of SCEs is, therefore, increasingly performed directly on human lymphocytes from peripheral blood. Thus, although the examination of SCEs is still performed in vitro, the exposure has taken place in vivo. Increased SCE levels are then regarded as a non-specific indicator that the donor has been exposed to potentially mutagenic agents in the environment. The author and his associates used the SCE test to investigate the possible mutagenicity of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838904"><span>[What is the link between the <span class="hlt">sister</span> of the "Titanic" and the history of medicine in Palestine?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenberg, Zalman</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>On 21st November 1916, the Royal Navy Hospital ship 'Britannic' (the <span class="hlt">sister</span> ship of the 'Titanic') was torpedoed near the island of Kea in the Aegean Sea. Captain Dr. John Cropper, aged 52, was one of 30 people who drowned of the 1100 on board. Dr. Cropper was born in 1864, at Guisborough, England. He obtained his medical degree from Cambridge University in 1891. After his marriage to Anne Ellen Walker in 1895, the Church Missionary Society sent him on a medical mission to Palestine. Dr. Cropper stayed in Palestine for about 10 years working in Acre, Nablus, Ramallah and Jerusalem. He published his experiences in 35 articles and letters in English medical periodicals, more than anyone else did in Palestine at that time. In those publications, he described various operations that he carried out and observations on infectious diseases, most of which were the first descriptions from that remote and unhealthy country. His prominent research was in the field of malaria - the most common and important disease in Palestine during that period. It was less than two years after Grassi's discovery of the role of Anopheles mosquitoes as the vector of human malaria that Dr. Cropper carried out surveys of larval and adult mosquitoes in correlation with malarial distribution in Palestine. Dr. Cropper was the first who routinely examined slides microscopically in Palestine and correctly diagnosed the type of malaria. Dr. Cropper was also the first in Palestine to suggest antimalarial measures aimed directly at the mosquito vector and paid attention to ecological aspects such as breeding places and the daily behavior of adult mosquitoes. Dr. Cropper noted the common antimalarial measurements of that time, such as covering of wells, planting of Eucalyptus trees to drain swamps and the routine use of quinine as a preventive medicine, but he wrote that those measures were not effective under the local conditions. He suggested that the only effective measures must be aimed against the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26031479"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> classification of clades of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 using an IS-printing system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirai, S; Yokoyama, E; Etoh, Y; Seto, J; Ichihara, S; Suzuki, Y; Maeda, E; Sera, N; Horikawa, K; Sato, S; Yamamoto, T</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (O157) strains can be classified in clades by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but this analysis requires significant laboratory effort. As the distribution of insertion sequence (IS) 629 insertions has been reported to be biased among different clades, O157 isolates can be <span class="hlt">putatively</span> classified in clades by comparison with an IS629 distribution database. A database of the IS629 distribution in O157 strains isolated in Chiba Prefecture and their classification in clades was determined by SNP analysis and IS-printing, an easy and quick analytical tool for IS629 in the O157 genome. The IS629 distribution in O157 strains isolated in Fukuoka and Yamagata Prefectures was determined by IS-printing. These strains were <span class="hlt">putatively</span> classified in clades by Relative Likelihood calculations that compared the IS-printing data and the IS629 distribution database. Concordance Ratios were calculated, which compared the number of strains <span class="hlt">putatively</span> classified in a clade by Relative Likelihood to the number of strains classified in that clade by SNP analysis. For the Fukuoka and Yamagata strains, the Concordance Ratios for clades 3, 6 and 8 were 97-100%, for clade 7 about 88%, and for clades 2 and 12 over 90%. In conclusion, O157 clade 2, 3, 6, 7, 8 and 12 strains could be <span class="hlt">putatively</span> classified by IS-printing. This study demonstrated that enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157 (O157) strains could be <span class="hlt">putatively</span> classified in clades using an IS-printing system. IS-printing was previously developed as a relatively quick and easy tool for analysis of insertion sequence 629 in the O157 genome. Since most local government public health institutes in Japan carry out IS-printing for early detection of O157 outbreaks, these data should be useful for <span class="hlt">putative</span> classification of O157 strains in each area. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23766082','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23766082"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in an acidic red soil with different land utilization patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ying, Jiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Ammonia-oxidizers play a key role in nitrification, which is important for nitrogen cycling and soil function. However, little is known about how vegetation successions and agricultural practices caused by human activities impact the ammonia-oxidizers and nitrification process. <span class="hlt">Putative</span> ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) communities under different land utilization patterns of restoration (forest), degradation (pasture), cropland and pine plantation were analysed in an acidic red soil based on bacterial and archaeal amoA genes together with archaeal 16S rRNA gene. Real-time PCR, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequencing of clone libraries were conducted to study their abundance and community structure. Land utilization pattern showed significant effects on the copy numbers of all these genes, but only the bacterial amoA gene correlated significantly with potential nitrification rates (PNR). The cropland plot possessed the highest bacterial amoA gene copies and PNR, while the degradation plot was opposite to that. There were no significant variations in the bacterial amoA gene structure, which was dominated by Clusters 10 and 11 in Nitrosospira. However, archaeal amoA gene structure varied among different land utilization patterns especially for the cropland. The degradation plot was dominated by Crenarchaea 1.1c-related <span class="hlt">groups</span> from which the amoA gene could not been amplified in this study, while other plots were dominated by Crenarchaea 1.1a/b <span class="hlt">group</span> based on archaeal 16S rRNA gene analysis. These results indicated significant effects of land utilization patterns on <span class="hlt">putative</span> ammonia oxidizers, which were especially obvious in the degradation and cropland plots where frequent human disturbance occurred. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22391096-isopermutation-group','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22391096-isopermutation-group"><span>Isopermutation <span class="hlt">group</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muktibodh, A. S.</p> <p>2015-03-10</p> <p>The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a <span class="hlt">group</span> define isopermutation <span class="hlt">group</span> which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic <span class="hlt">groups</span> and isotopic <span class="hlt">groups</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+decision+AND+making&pg=7&id=EJ524403','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=employee+AND+decision+AND+making&pg=7&id=EJ524403"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">Groups</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vail, Kathleen</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot <span class="hlt">group</span>"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by <span class="hlt">group</span> decision making and employee empowerment, hot <span class="hlt">groups</span> can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25325420"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> height acceleration following tethered cord release in children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Kimberly A; Lam, Sandi; Lin, Yimo; Greene, Stephanie</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Tethered cord (TC) is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the normal movement of the spinal cord. A TC can be unmasked by a cutaneous abnormality or manifest clinically in myriad neurological, urological, and orthopedic symptoms. The relationship between TC and height is previously unknown. This study investigates the association between TC release and changes in height profiles in the pediatric population. Fifty-two children undergoing first-time TC release at a single institution were examined retrospectively. Clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, pre- and postoperative height, and height-for-age percentiles were recorded and analyzed. Children with TC experienced a statistically significant increase in age-adjusted height percentiles after TC release (p = 0.0028), with a mean increase of 7 percentile points (from 48.1st to 54.9th percentile). When stratified by age, children 5 years or older (5-18 years) demonstrated a mean percentile increase of 10 percentile points (from 46.7th to 56.4th percentile) (p = 0.0001). Among the same age <span class="hlt">group</span>, this effect scaled significantly with age (p = 0.02, beta coefficient -1.3). There was no significant difference in height-for-age after detethering surgery in children younger than 5 years. There was no significant association between the presence of clinical symptoms or specific radiographic findings and height outcomes after surgery. Overall, 56% of TC-related clinical symptoms improved after detethering (mean follow-up 4.6 months). Among children younger than 5 years, 82% of TC-related clinical symptoms improved after detethering (average follow-up 4.5 months); in children 5-18 years, 47% of symptoms improved after detethering (average follow-up 4.8 months). The authors observed a statistically significant gain in height-for-age percentiles in children undergoing surgical release of TC. The authors' data suggest that such gains may be more significant in older children (≥ 5 years) and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288347','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4288347"><span>Telocytes and <span class="hlt">putative</span> stem cells in ageing human heart</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popescu, Laurentiu M; Curici, Antoanela; Wang, Enshi; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Shengshou; Gherghiceanu, Mihaela</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Tradition considers that mammalian heart consists of about 70% non-myocytes (interstitial cells) and 30% cardiomyocytes (CMs). Anyway, the presence of telocytes (TCs) has been overlooked, since they were described in 2010 (visit http://www.telocytes.com). Also, the number of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) has not accurately estimated in humans during ageing. We used electron microscopy to identify and estimate the number of cells in human atrial myocardium (appendages). Three age-related <span class="hlt">groups</span> were studied: newborns (17 days–1 year), children (6–17 years) and adults (34–60 years). Morphometry was performed on low-magnification electron microscope images using computer-assisted technology. We found that interstitial area gradually increases with age from 31.3 ± 4.9% in newborns to 41 ± 5.2% in adults. Also, the number of blood capillaries (per mm2) increased with several hundreds in children and adults versus newborns. CMs are the most numerous cells, representing 76% in newborns, 88% in children and 86% in adults. Images of CMs mitoses were seen in the 17-day newborns. Interestingly, no lipofuscin granules were found in CMs of human newborns and children. The percentage of cells that occupy interstitium were (depending on age): endothelial cells 52–62%; vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes 22–28%, Schwann cells with nerve endings 6–7%, fibroblasts 3–10%, macrophages 1–8%, TCs about 1% and stem cells less than 1%. We cannot confirm the popular belief that cardiac fibroblasts are the most prevalent cell type in the heart and account for about 20% of myocardial volume. Numerically, TCs represent a small fraction of human cardiac interstitial cells, but because of their extensive telopodes, they achieve a 3D network that, for instance, supports CSCs. The myocardial (very) low capability to regenerate may be explained by the number of CSCs, which decreases fivefold by age (from 0.5% to 0.1% in newborns versus adults). PMID:25545142</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22342134-galaxy-groups','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22342134-galaxy-groups"><span>Galaxy <span class="hlt">groups</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brent Tully, R.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Galaxy <span class="hlt">groups</span> can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small <span class="hlt">groups</span> with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied <span class="hlt">groups</span> over four decades in <span class="hlt">group</span> mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for <span class="hlt">groups</span>, confirming that <span class="hlt">groups</span> with mass of a few times 10{supmore » 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while <span class="hlt">groups</span> with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a <span class="hlt">group</span> and the <span class="hlt">group</span> mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in <span class="hlt">groups</span> are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of <span class="hlt">groups</span>, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AJ....149...54T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AJ....149...54T"><span>Galaxy <span class="hlt">Groups</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tully, R. Brent</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Galaxy <span class="hlt">groups</span> can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small <span class="hlt">groups</span> with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied <span class="hlt">groups</span> over four decades in <span class="hlt">group</span> mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for <span class="hlt">groups</span>, confirming that <span class="hlt">groups</span> with mass of a few times {{10}12}{{M}⊙ } are the most lit up while <span class="hlt">groups</span> with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a <span class="hlt">group</span> and the <span class="hlt">group</span> mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in <span class="hlt">groups</span> are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of <span class="hlt">groups</span>, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of {{Ω}matter}˜ 0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598091','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20598091"><span>GORDITA (AGL63) is a young paralog of the Arabidopsis thaliana B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) MADS box gene ABS (TT16) that has undergone neofunctionalization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erdmann, Robert; Gramzow, Lydia; Melzer, Rainer; Theissen, Günter; Becker, Annette</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>MIKC-type MADS domain proteins are key regulators of flower development in angiosperms. B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes constitute a clade with a close relationship to class B floral homeotic genes, and have been conserved for more than 300 million years. The loss-of-function phenotype of the A. thaliana B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) gene ABS is mild: mutants show reduced seed coloration and defects in endothelium development. This study focuses on GORDITA (GOA, formerly known as AGL63), the most closely related paralog of ABS in A. thaliana, which is thought to act redundantly with ABS. Phylogenetic trees reveal that the duplication leading to ABS and GOA occurred during diversification of the Brassicaceae, and further analyses show that GOA has evolved under relaxed selection pressure. The knockdown phenotype of GOA suggests a role for this gene in fruit longitudinal growth, while over-expression of GOA results in disorganized floral structure and addition of carpel-like features to sepals. Given the phylogeny and function of other B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, our data suggest that GOA has evolved a new function as compared to ABS. Protein analysis reveals that the GOA-specific 'deviant' domain is required for protein dimerization, in contrast to other MIKC-type proteins that require the K domain for dimerization. Moreover, no shared protein interaction partners for ABS and GOA could be identified. Our experiments indicate that modification of a protein domain and a shift in expression pattern can lead to a novel gene function in a relatively short time, and highlight the molecular mechanism by which neofunctionalization following gene duplication can be achieved. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634189"><span>Dynamics of cohesin proteins REC8, STAG3, SMC1 beta and SMC3 are consistent with a role in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion during meiosis in human oocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia-Cruz, R; Brieño, M A; Roig, I; Grossmann, M; Velilla, E; Pujol, A; Cabero, L; Pessarrodona, A; Barbero, J L; Garcia Caldés, M</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion is essential for ordered chromosome segregation at mitosis and meiosis. This is carried out by cohesin complexes, comprising four proteins, which seem to form a ring-like complex. Data from animal models suggest that loss of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion may be involved in age-related non-disjunction in human oocytes. Here, we describe the distribution of cohesins throughout meiosis in human oocytes. We used immunofluorescence in human oocytes at different meiotic stages to detect cohesin subunits REC8, STAG3, SMC1 beta and SMC3, [also synaptonemal complex (SC) protein 3 and shugoshin 1]. Samples from euploid fetuses and adult women were collected, and 51 metaphase I (MI) and 113 metaphase II (MII) oocytes analyzed. SMC1 beta transcript levels were quantified in 85 maturing germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes from 34 women aged 19-43 years by real-time PCR. At prophase I, cohesin subunits REC8, STAG3, SMC1 beta and SMC3 overlapped with the lateral element of the SC. Short cohesin fibers are observed in the oocyte nucleus during dictyate arrest. All four subunits are observed at centromeres and along chromosomal arms, except at chiasmata, at MI and are present at centromeric domains from anaphase I to MII. SMC1 beta transcripts were detected (with high inter-sample variability) in GV oocytes but no correlation between SMC1 beta mRNA levels and age was found. The dynamics of cohesins REC8, STAG3, SMC1 beta and SMC3 suggest their participation in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout the whole meiotic process in human oocytes. Our data do not support the view that decreased levels of SMC1 beta gene expression in older women are involved in age-related non-disjunction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286126','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22286126"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange assessment by chromosome orientation-fluorescence in situ hybridization on the bovine sex chromosomes and autosomes 16 and 26.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Revay, T; King, W A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Mammalian genome replication and maintenance are intimately coupled with the mechanisms that ensure cohesion between the resultant <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and the repair of DNA breaks. Although a <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) is an error-free swapping of precisely matched and identical DNA strands, repetitive elements adjacent to the break site can act as alternative template sites and an unequal <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange can result, leading to structural variations and copy number change. Here we test the vulnerability for SCEs of the repeat-rich bovine Y chromosome in comparison with X, 16 and 26 chromosomes, using chromosome orientation-fluorescence in situ hybridization. The mean SCE rate of the Y chromosome (0.065 ± 0.029) was similar to that of BTA16 and BTA26 (0.065, 0.055), but was only approximately half of that of the X chromosome (0.142). As the chromosomal length affects the number of SCE events, we adjusted the SCE rates of the Y, 16, and 26 chromosomes to the length of the largest chromosome X resulting in very similar adjusted SCE (SCE(adj)) rates in all categories. Our results - based on 3 independent bulls - show that, although the cattle Y chromosome is a chest full of repeated elements, their presence and the documented activity of repeats in SCE formation does not manifest in significantly higher SCE(adj) rates and suggest the importance of the structural organization of the Y chromosome and the role of alternative mitotic DNA repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545123','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3545123"><span>Stimulus selectivity and response latency in <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory and excitatory neurons of the primate inferior temporal cortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mruczek, Ryan E. B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The cerebral cortex is composed of many distinct classes of neurons. Numerous studies have demonstrated corresponding differences in neuronal properties across cell types, but these comparisons have largely been limited to conditions outside of awake, behaving animals. Thus the functional role of the various cell types is not well understood. Here, we investigate differences in the functional properties of two widespread and broad classes of cells in inferior temporal cortex of macaque monkeys: inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection cells. Cells were classified as <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory or <span class="hlt">putative</span> excitatory neurons on the basis of their extracellular waveform characteristics (e.g., spike duration). Consistent with previous intracellular recordings in cortical slices, <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory neurons had higher spontaneous firing rates and higher stimulus-evoked firing rates than <span class="hlt">putative</span> excitatory neurons. Additionally, <span class="hlt">putative</span> excitatory neurons were more susceptible to spike waveform adaptation following very short interspike intervals. Finally, we compared two functional properties of each neuron's stimulus-evoked response: stimulus selectivity and response latency. First, <span class="hlt">putative</span> excitatory neurons showed stronger stimulus selectivity compared with <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory neurons. Second, <span class="hlt">putative</span> inhibitory neurons had shorter response latencies compared with <span class="hlt">putative</span> excitatory neurons. Selectivity differences were maintained and latency differences were enhanced during a visual search task emulating more natural viewing conditions. Our results suggest that short-latency inhibitory responses are likely to sculpt visual processing in excitatory neurons, yielding a sparser visual representation. PMID:22933717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1032071','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1032071"><span>Adult onset supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, cerebellar ataxia, and neurogenic proximal muscle weakness in a brother and <span class="hlt">sister</span>: another hexosaminidase A deficiency syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harding, A E; Young, E P; Schon, F</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>An Ashkenazi Jewish brother and <span class="hlt">sister</span> developed progressive ataxia and proximal neurogenic muscle weakness, associated with supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, in the fourth decade of life. Hexosaminidase A activity, assayed using both synthetic and natural substrates, was severely reduced in the patients' plasma, leukocytes, and skin fibroblasts. Enzyme activity in their parents was in a similar range to that seen in heterozygotes for Tay-Sachs disease. The increasing evidence for marked clinical and molecular heterogeneity in the GM2 gangliosidoses warrants their consideration in the diagnosis of multisystem degenerative neurological disorders, even if onset of symptoms is in adult life. Images PMID:2956362</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1724113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1724113"><span>Syndrome of developmental retardation, facial and skeletal anomalies, and hyperphosphatasia in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>: nosology and genetics of the Coffin-Siris syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabe, P; Haverkamp, F; Emons, D; Rosskamp, R; Zerres, K; Passarge, E</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>We report on 2 <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, 3 and 6 years old, with a possible new syndrome consisting of developmental retardation, facial and skeletal anomalies, and hyperphosphatasia. This disorder closely resembles the Coffin-Siris syndrome (McKusick number 135900). We describe the difficulties in achieving a diagnosis. A major diagnostic clue was the radiological recognition of hypoplasia/aplasia of the terminal phalanx of the 5th finger. Minor facial anomalies and mental retardation alone had not led to the proper diagnosis. Still, several diagnostic possibilities remain. For unknown reasons both children have an increased level of serum alkaline phosphatase activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29700150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29700150"><span>Draft Genome Sequence of the <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Marine Pathogen Aquimarina sp. Strain I32.4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ranson, Hilary J; LaPorte, Jason; Spinard, Edward; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Nelson, David R; Rowley, David C</p> <p>2018-04-26</p> <p>Aquimarina sp. strain I32.4 (formerly Aquimarina sp. ' homaria ') is a <span class="hlt">putative</span> pathogen involved in epizootic shell disease in the American lobster ( Homarus americanus ). We report here the draft genome sequence for Aquimarina sp. strain I32.4 and describe virulence factors that may provide insight into its mechanism of pathogenicity. Copyright © 2018 Ranson et al.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768746','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3768746"><span>An in-house multiplex pcr method to detect of <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence factors in aeromonas species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aguilera-Arreola, Ma. Guadalupe; Martínez, Alma Aidee Carmona; Castro-Escarpulli, Graciela</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A pentaplex PCR was developed and optimised to detect the genes that encode the five most important <span class="hlt">putative</span> virulence factors in Aeromonas isolates. It seems to be more efficient than previously reported techniques and promises to be a powerful tool for more accurate risk assessments and for monitoring pathogenic strains. PMID:24031758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=300293','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=300293"><span>Blueberry mosaic associated virus – A <span class="hlt">putative</span>, new member of Ophioviridae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Blueberry mosaic initially was reported more than 50 years ago and is now known from different parts of the world. A new virus, closely associated with the disease has been identified recently. The virus tentatively named as Blueberry mosaic associated virus (BlMaV), is a <span class="hlt">putative</span> member of the gen...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25918685"><span>Diversity of <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal RNA viruses in metagenomic datasets of a yellowstone acidic hot spring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Hongming; Yu, Yongxin; Liu, Taigang; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two genomic fragments (5,662 and 1,269 nt in size, GenBank accession no. JQ756122 and JQ756123, respectively) of novel, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect archaea were first discovered in an acidic hot spring in Yellowstone National Park (Bolduc et al., 2012). To investigate the diversity of these newly identified <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal RNA viruses, global metagenomic datasets were searched for sequences that were significantly similar to those of the viruses. A total of 3,757 associated reads were retrieved solely from the Yellowstone datasets and were used to assemble the genomes of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal RNA viruses. Nine contigs with lengths ranging from 417 to 5,866 nt were obtained, 4 of which were longer than 2,200 nt; one contig was 204 nt longer than JQ756122, representing the longest genomic sequence of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal RNA viruses. These contigs revealed more than 50% sequence similarity to JQ756122 or JQ756123 and may be partial or nearly complete genomes of novel genogroups or genotypes of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal RNA viruses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the archaeal RNA viruses are genetically diverse, with at least 3 related viral lineages in the Yellowstone acidic hot spring environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35084','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/35084"><span>Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> flower homeotic gene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a <span class="hlt">putative</span> flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324092','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324092"><span>Identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical analysis of <span class="hlt">putative</span> secondary product glucosyltransferases from Citrus paradisi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Flavonoid and limonoid glycosides influence taste properties as well as marketability of citrus fruit and products, particularly in grapefruit. In this work, nine grapefruit <span class="hlt">putative</span> natural product glucosyltransferases (PGTs) were resolved by either using degenerate primers against the semi-conser...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26504143"><span>PDID: database of molecular-level <span class="hlt">putative</span> protein-drug interactions in the structural human proteome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Chen; Hu, Gang; Wang, Kui; Brylinski, Michal; Xie, Lei; Kurgan, Lukasz</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Many drugs interact with numerous proteins besides their intended therapeutic targets and a substantial portion of these interactions is yet to be elucidated. Protein-Drug Interaction Database (PDID) addresses incompleteness of these data by providing access to <span class="hlt">putative</span> protein-drug interactions that cover the entire structural human proteome. PDID covers 9652 structures from 3746 proteins and houses 16 800 <span class="hlt">putative</span> interactions generated from close to 1.1 million accurate, all-atom structure-based predictions for several dozens of popular drugs. The predictions were generated with three modern methods: ILbind, SMAP and eFindSite. They are accompanied by propensity scores that quantify likelihood of interactions and coordinates of the <span class="hlt">putative</span> location of the binding drugs in the corresponding protein structures. PDID complements the current databases that focus on the curated interactions and the BioDrugScreen database that relies on docking to find <span class="hlt">putative</span> interactions. Moreover, we also include experimentally curated interactions which are linked to their sources: DrugBank, BindingDB and Protein Data Bank. Our database can be used to facilitate studies related to polypharmacology of drugs including repurposing and explaining side effects of drugs. PDID database is freely available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/PDID/. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50154','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50154"><span>The efficacy of obtaining genetic-based identifications from <span class="hlt">putative</span> wolverine snow tracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Todd J. Ulizio; John R. Squires; Daniel H. Pletscher; Michael K. Schwartz; James J. Claar; Leonard F. Ruggiero</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Snow-track surveys to detect rare carnivores require unequivocal species identification because of management and political ramifications associated with the presence of such species. Collecting noninvasive genetic samples from <span class="hlt">putative</span> wolverine (Gulo gulo) snow tracks is an effective method for providing definitive species identification for use in presence-...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28878412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28878412"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sung, Hyun-Jeong; Yoon, In-Hwa; Kim, Jung-Hyun</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>A 10-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for an evaluation of acute-onset generalized pustular cutaneous lesions following application of ketoconazole shampoo. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the lesions revealed intra-epidermal pustules with predominantly neutrophils and acantholytic cells. This is the first description of <span class="hlt">putative</span> contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=328565','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=328565"><span>Complete genome sequence of an avian paramyxovirus representative of <span class="hlt">putative</span> new serotype 13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virus of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> new serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). The virus was isolated from a white-fronted goose in Ukraine in 2011 and designated white-fronted goose/Ukraine/Askania-Nova/48-15- 02/2011. The genomic characterization of the isolate s...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3487046','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3487046"><span>Preinspiratory calcium rise in <span class="hlt">putative</span> pre-Bötzinger complex astrocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okada, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Takuya; Oku, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Naoya; Seki, Megumi; Ujita, Sakiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The neural inspiratory activity originates from a ventrolateral medullary region called the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), yet the mechanism underlying respiratory rhythmogenesis is not completely understood. Recently, the role of not only neurons but astrocytes in the central respiratory control has attracted considerable attention. Here we report our discovery that an intracellular calcium rise in a subset of <span class="hlt">putative</span> astrocytes precedes inspiratory neuronal firing in rhythmically active slices. Functional calcium imaging from hundreds of preBötC cells revealed that a subset of <span class="hlt">putative</span> astrocytes exhibited rhythmic calcium elevations preceding inspiratory neuronal activity with a time lag of approximately 2 s. These preinspiratory <span class="hlt">putative</span> astrocytes maintained their rhythmic activities even during the blockade of neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin, whereas the rhythm frequency was lowered and the intercellular phases of these rhythms were decoupled. In addition, optogenetic stimulation of preBötC <span class="hlt">putative</span> astrocytes induced firing of inspiratory neurons. These findings raise the possibility that astrocytes in the preBötC are actively involved in respiratory rhythm generation in rhythmically active slices. PMID:22777672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=277281','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=277281"><span>Identification of <span class="hlt">putative</span> TSWV resistance gene and development of gene-specific marker in peanut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most destructive viral diseases threatening peanut production in the Southeastern U.S. Among different strategies of controlling this disease, the use of resistant cultivars is more efficient. The objective of this study is to develop <span class="hlt">putative</span> TSWV res...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=276215','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=276215"><span>Identification of <span class="hlt">putative</span> TSWV resistance genes and development of gene-specific marker in peanut</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most destructive viral diseases threatening peanut production in the Southeastern U.S. Among different strategies of controlling this disease, the use of resistant cultivars is more efficient. The objective of this study is to develop <span class="hlt">putative</span> TSWV res...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1569383','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1569383"><span>Effects of coal combustion products and metal compounds on <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) in a macrophagelike cell line</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Andersen, Ole</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Investigations of genotoxic effects of particles have almost exclusively been performed by organic extraction, while direct investigations in cells capable of engulfing particles have only been performed in few cases. Thus, in most studies, the eventual effects of particle-associated metal compounds have remained undiscovered. The present study attempted direct measurement of genotoxic effects of particulate coal combustion products by using the P388D1 macrophage cell line. The capability of these cells for phagocytosis was demonstrated with insoluble particles. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) test was used for measuring genotoxic effects of test compounds. Dimethylnitrosamine and benzo(a)pyrene did not increase SCE, indicating that the P388D1 cell line has lost the capacity for metabolism of latent organic carcinogens, reducing the value of these cells for evaluating genotoxic effects of complex particles. Indirect evidence has been obtained that the cell line may be infected with a virus. Thus, interactions between virus and test compound may lead to erroneous results. This should be kept in mind during evaluation of the results. The effects of metals with reported carcinogenic or mutagenic effects on SCE were compared in P388D1 cells and human lymphocytes: NaAsO2, CdCl2, K2Cr2O7, CoCl2, CH3HgCl and MnSO4 increased SCE in both cell systems. Pb(CH3COO)2, BeSO4 and NiSO4 had a weak effect on SCE in P388D1. Pb(CH3COO)2 and NiSO4, but not BeSO4, increased SCE in human lymphocytes. Cr(CH3COO)3 increased SCE in human lymphocytes at high concentration, but was a strong inducer of increased SCE in P388D1 cells, which take up Cr(III) by phagocytosis. This suggests that the Cr(III) ion is an ultimate carcinogenic form of chromium. Generally P388D1 cells and human lymphocytes respond to in vitro exposure to metals in agreement with reported mutagenic/carcinogenic effects of the metals. Of four precipitated coal fly ash samples tested, only one sample (from an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6337826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6337826"><span>Effects of coal combustion products and metal compounds on <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) in a macrophagelike cell line.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Andersen, O</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Investigations of genotoxic effects of particles have almost exclusively been performed by organic extraction, while direct investigations in cells capable of engulfing particles have only been performed in few cases. Thus, in most studies, the eventual effects of particle-associated metal compounds have remained undiscovered. The present study attempted direct measurement of genotoxic effects of particulate coal combustion products by using the P388D(1) macrophage cell line. The capability of these cells for phagocytosis was demonstrated with insoluble particles. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) test was used for measuring genotoxic effects of test compounds. Dimethylnitrosamine and benzo(a)pyrene did not increase SCE, indicating that the P388D(1) cell line has lost the capacity for metabolism of latent organic carcinogens, reducing the value of these cells for evaluating genotoxic effects of complex particles. Indirect evidence has been obtained that the cell line may be infected with a virus. Thus, interactions between virus and test compound may lead to erroneous results. This should be kept in mind during evaluation of the results. The effects of metals with reported carcinogenic or mutagenic effects on SCE were compared in P388D(1) cells and human lymphocytes: NaAsO(2), CdCl(2), K(2)Cr(2)O(7), CoCl(2), CH(3)HgCl and MnSO(4) increased SCE in both cell systems. Pb(CH(3)COO)(2), BeSO(4) and NiSO(4) had a weak effect on SCE in P388D(1). Pb(CH(3)COO)(2) and NiSO(4), but not BeSO(4), increased SCE in human lymphocytes. Cr(CH(3)COO)(3) increased SCE in human lymphocytes at high concentration, but was a strong inducer of increased SCE in P388D(1) cells, which take up Cr(III) by phagocytosis. This suggests that the Cr(III) ion is an ultimate carcinogenic form of chromium. Generally P388D(1) cells and human lymphocytes respond to in vitro exposure to metals in agreement with reported mutagenic/carcinogenic effects of the metals. Of four precipitated coal fly ash</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=expressionism&pg=4&id=ED071102','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=expressionism&pg=4&id=ED071102"><span><span class="hlt">Group</span> Theatre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clark, Brian</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">group</span> interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the <span class="hlt">group</span> will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+values&pg=4&id=EJ1171560','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=work+AND+values&pg=4&id=EJ1171560"><span><span class="hlt">Group</span> Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Kristy J.; Brickman, Peggy; Brame, Cynthia J.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics faculty are increasingly incorporating both formal and informal <span class="hlt">group</span> work in their courses. Implementing <span class="hlt">group</span> work can be improved by an understanding of the extensive body of educational research studies on this topic. This essay describes an online, evidence-based teaching guide published by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24586965"><span>Molecular cloning of a novel glucuronokinase/<span class="hlt">putative</span> pyrophosphorylase from zebrafish acting in an UDP-glucuronic acid salvage pathway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In animals, the main precursor for glycosaminoglycan and furthermore proteoglycan biosynthesis, like hyaluronic acid, is UDP-glucuronic acid, which is synthesized via the nucleotide sugar oxidation pathway. Mutations in this pathway cause severe developmental defects (deficiency in the initiation of heart valve formation). In plants, UDP-glucuronic acid is synthesized via two independent pathways. Beside the nucleotide sugar oxidation pathway, a second minor route to UDP-glucuronic acid exist termed the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway. Within this myo-inositol is ring cleaved into glucuronic acid, which is subsequently converted to UDP-glucuronic acid by glucuronokinase and UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase. Here we report on a similar, but bifunctional enzyme from zebrafish (Danio rerio) which has glucuronokinase/<span class="hlt">putative</span> pyrophosphorylase activity. The enzyme can convert glucuronic acid into UDP-glucuronic acid, required for completion of the alternative pathway to UDP-glucuronic acid via myo-inositol and thus establishes a so far unknown second route to UDP-glucuronic acid in animals. Glucuronokinase from zebrafish is a member of the GHMP-kinase superfamily having unique substrate specificity for glucuronic acid with a Km of 31 ± 8 µM and accepting ATP as the only phosphate donor (Km: 59 ± 9 µM). UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase from zebrafish has homology to bacterial nucleotidyltransferases and requires UTP as nucleosid diphosphate donor. Genes for bifunctional glucuronokinase and <span class="hlt">putative</span> UDP-glucuronic acid pyrophosphorylase are conserved among some <span class="hlt">groups</span> of lower animals, including fishes, frogs, tunicates, and polychaeta, but are absent from mammals. The existence of a second pathway for UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis in zebrafish likely explains some previous contradictory finding in jekyll/ugdh zebrafish developmental mutants, which showed residual glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in knockout mutants of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28094812"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> presynaptic dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia is supported by molecular evidence from post-mortem human midbrain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Purves-Tyson, T D; Owens, S J; Rothmond, D A; Halliday, G M; Double, K L; Stevens, J; McCrossin, T; Shannon Weickert, C</p> <p>2017-01-17</p> <p>The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that increased subcortical dopamine underpins psychosis. In vivo imaging studies indicate an increased presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity in striatal terminals and cell bodies in the midbrain in schizophrenia; however, measures of the dopamine-synthesising enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), have not identified consistent changes. We hypothesise that dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia could result from changes in expression of dopamine synthesis enzymes, receptors, transporters or catabolic enzymes. Gene expression of 12 dopamine-related molecules was examined in post-mortem midbrain (28 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases/29 controls) using quantitative PCR. TH and the synaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins were examined in post-mortem midbrain (26 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases per 27 controls) using immunoblotting. TH and aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC) mRNA and TH protein were unchanged in the midbrain in schizophrenia compared with controls. Dopamine receptor D2 short, vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and DAT mRNAs were significantly decreased in schizophrenia, with no change in DRD3 mRNA, DRD3nf mRNA and DAT protein between diagnostic <span class="hlt">groups</span>. However, DAT protein was significantly increased in <span class="hlt">putatively</span> treatment-resistant cases of schizophrenia compared to <span class="hlt">putatively</span> treatment-responsive cases. Midbrain monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) mRNA was increased, whereas MAOB and catechol-O-methyl transferase mRNAs were unchanged in schizophrenia. We conclude that, whereas some mRNA changes are consistent with increased dopamine action (decreased DAT mRNA), others suggest reduced dopamine action (increased MAOA mRNA) in the midbrain in schizophrenia. Here, we identify a molecular signature of dopamine dysregulation in the midbrain in schizophrenia that mainly includes gene expression changes of molecules involved in dopamine synthesis and in regulating the time course of dopamine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5545725','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5545725"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> presynaptic dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia is supported by molecular evidence from post-mortem human midbrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Purves-Tyson, T D; Owens, S J; Rothmond, D A; Halliday, G M; Double, K L; Stevens, J; McCrossin, T; Shannon Weickert, C</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that increased subcortical dopamine underpins psychosis. In vivo imaging studies indicate an increased presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity in striatal terminals and cell bodies in the midbrain in schizophrenia; however, measures of the dopamine-synthesising enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), have not identified consistent changes. We hypothesise that dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia could result from changes in expression of dopamine synthesis enzymes, receptors, transporters or catabolic enzymes. Gene expression of 12 dopamine-related molecules was examined in post-mortem midbrain (28 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases/29 controls) using quantitative PCR. TH and the synaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins were examined in post-mortem midbrain (26 antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia cases per 27 controls) using immunoblotting. TH and aromatic acid decarboxylase (AADC) mRNA and TH protein were unchanged in the midbrain in schizophrenia compared with controls. Dopamine receptor D2 short, vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) and DAT mRNAs were significantly decreased in schizophrenia, with no change in DRD3 mRNA, DRD3nf mRNA and DAT protein between diagnostic <span class="hlt">groups</span>. However, DAT protein was significantly increased in <span class="hlt">putatively</span> treatment-resistant cases of schizophrenia compared to <span class="hlt">putatively</span> treatment-responsive cases. Midbrain monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) mRNA was increased, whereas MAOB and catechol-O-methyl transferase mRNAs were unchanged in schizophrenia. We conclude that, whereas some mRNA changes are consistent with increased dopamine action (decreased DAT mRNA), others suggest reduced dopamine action (increased MAOA mRNA) in the midbrain in schizophrenia. Here, we identify a molecular signature of dopamine dysregulation in the midbrain in schizophrenia that mainly includes gene expression changes of molecules involved in dopamine synthesis and in regulating the time course of dopamine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27834745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27834745"><span>Altered Expression of Long Noncoding RNAs in Blood After Ischemic Stroke and Proximity to <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Stroke Risk Loci.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dykstra-Aiello, Cheryl; Jickling, Glen C; Ander, Bradley P; Shroff, Natasha; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, DaZhi; Hull, Heather; Orantia, Miles; Stamova, Boryana S; Sharp, Frank R</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Although peripheral blood mRNA and micro-RNA change after ischemic stroke, any role for long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which comprise most of the genome and have been implicated in various diseases, is unknown. Thus, we hypothesized that lncRNA expression also changes after stroke. lncRNA expression was assessed in 266 whole-blood RNA samples drawn once per individual from patients with ischemic stroke and matched with vascular risk factor controls. Differential lncRNA expression was assessed by ANCOVA (P<0.005; fold change>|1.2|), principal components analysis, and hierarchical clustering on a derivation set (n=176) and confirmed on a validation set (n=90). Poststroke temporal lncRNA expression changes were assessed using ANCOVA with confounding factor correction (P<0.005; partial correlation with time since event >|0.4|). Because sexual dimorphism exists in stroke, analyses were performed for each sex separately. A total of 299 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between stroke and control males, whereas 97 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between stroke and control females. Significant changes of lncRNA expression with time after stroke were detected for 49 lncRNAs in men and 31 lncRNAs in women. Some differentially expressed lncRNAs mapped close to genomic locations of previously identified <span class="hlt">putative</span> stroke-risk genes, including lipoprotein, lipoprotein(a)-like 2, ABO (transferase A, α1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, α1-3-galactosyltransferase) blood <span class="hlt">group</span>, prostaglandin 12 synthase, and α-adducins. This study provides evidence of altered and sexually dimorphic lncRNA expression in peripheral blood of patients with stroke compared with that of controls and suggests that lncRNAs have potential for stroke biomarker development. Some regulated lncRNA could regulate some previously identified <span class="hlt">putative</span> stroke-risk genes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23489845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23489845"><span>Molecular epidemiology of bovine papillomatosis and the identification of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> new virus type in Brazilian cattle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batista, Marcus V A; Silva, Maria A R; Pontes, Nayara E; Reis, Marcio C; Corteggio, Annunziata; Castro, Roberto S; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Balbino, Valdir Q; Freitas, Antonio C</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are a diverse <span class="hlt">group</span> of double-stranded DNA viruses, of which 12 viral types have been detected and characterized so far. However, there is still a limited understanding of the diversity of BPV. Several <span class="hlt">putative</span> new BPVs have been detected and some of these have been recently characterized as new viral types. However, only a very limited amount of information is available on the pathology associated with these novel viral types yet this information could be of significant value in improving our understanding of the biology of BPV. The objective of this study was to examine some of the epidemiological features of cutaneous bovine papillomatosis in Brazilian cattle, in particular to establish the relationship between BPV types isolated from beef and dairy cattle herds and the lesions they cause. Seventy-two cutaneous lesions were collected from 60 animals. Histopathological, PCR and sequencing assays were conducted to characterize the lesions and detect the BPV types responsible. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using the maximum likelihood method. BPV types 1-6 and 8-10 were found, as well as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> new BPV type that belongs to the Deltapapillomavirus genus. The tumors were all classified as fibropapillomas. This is believed to be the first record of BPV types 3 and 10 associated with fibropapillomas. These results confirm that there is a wide range of BPV types that infect cattle, and that an understanding of this diversity is necessary for improved methods of therapeutic treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006sham.book...87P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006sham.book...87P"><span>Dynamical <span class="hlt">Groups</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paldus, Josef</p> <p></p> <p>The well known symmetry (invariance, degeneracy) dynamical <span class="hlt">groups</span> or algebras of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians provide quantum numbers (conservation laws, integrals of motion) for state labeling and the associated selection rules. In addition, it is often advantageous to employ much larger <span class="hlt">groups</span>, referred to as the dynamical <span class="hlt">groups</span> (noninvariance <span class="hlt">groups</span>, dynamical algebras, spectrum generating algebras), which may or may not be the invariance <span class="hlt">groups</span> of the studied system [4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. In all known cases, they are Lie <span class="hlt">groups</span> (LGs), or rather corresponding Lie algebras (LAs), and one usually requires that all states of interest of a system be contained in a single irreducible representation (irrep). Likewise, one may require that the Hamiltonian be expressible in terms of the Casimir operators of the corresponding universal enveloping algebra [4.8,9]. In a weaker sense, one regards any <span class="hlt">group</span> (or corresponding algebra) as a dynamical <span class="hlt">group</span> if the Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of its generators [4.10,11,12]. In nuclear physics, one sometimes distinguishes exact (baryon number preserving), almost exact (e.g., total isospin), approximate (e.g., SU(3) of the "eightfold way") and model (e.g., nuclear shell model) dynamical symmetries [4.13]. The dynamical <span class="hlt">groups</span> of interest in atomic and molecular physics can be conveniently classified by their topological characteristic of compactness. Noncompact LGs (LAs) generally arise in simple problems involving an infinite number of bound states, while those involving a finite number of bound states (e.g., molecular vibrations or ab initio models of electronic structure) exploit compact LG's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28606155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28606155"><span>Complete genome sequence of T'Ho virus, a novel <span class="hlt">putative</span> flavivirus from the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Briese, Thomas; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Dorman, Karin S; Lipkin, W Ian; Blitvich, Bradley J</p> <p>2017-06-12</p> <p>We previously reported the discovery of a novel, <span class="hlt">putative</span> flavivirus designated T'Ho virus in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A 1358-nt region of the NS5 gene was amplified and sequenced but an isolate was not recovered. The complete genome of T'Ho virus was sequenced using a combination of unbiased high-throughput sequencing, 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. The genome contains a single open reading frame of 10,284 nt which is flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions of 97 and 556-nt, respectively. Genome sequence alignments revealed that T'Ho virus is most closely related to Rocio virus (67.4% nucleotide identity) and Ilheus virus (65.9%), both of which belong to the Ntaya <span class="hlt">group</span>, followed by other Ntaya <span class="hlt">group</span> viruses (58.8-63.3%) and Japanese encephalitis <span class="hlt">group</span> viruses (62.0-63.7%). Phylogenetic inference is in agreement with these findings. This study furthers our understanding of flavivirus genetics, phylogeny and diagnostics. Because the two closest known relatives of T'Ho virus are human pathogens, T'Ho virus could be an unrecognized cause of human disease. It is therefore important that future studies investigate the public health significance of this virus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PrOce..65...55G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PrOce..65...55G"><span>Genetic and morphological description of Eucalanus spinifer T. Scott, 1894 (Calanoida: Eucalanidae), a circumglobal <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of the copepod E. hyalinus s.s. (Claus, 1866)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goetze, Erica; Bradford-Grieve, Janet</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>A distinct genetic form of the eucalanid calanoid copepod Eucalanus hyalinus s.l. was identified in subtropical and temperate waters of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans. Results from mitochondrial (16S rRNA, COI) and nuclear (ITS2) genetic markers suggest that the two E. hyalinus forms are reproductively isolated. Eucalanus spinifer T. Scott is taken out of synonymy with E. hyalinus and is applied to the smaller of the two genetic forms, increasing the number of species in the genus Eucalanus to a total of six. Adult females of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> species E. hyalinus s.s. and E. spinifer can be distinguished morphologically by the shape of the anterior portion of the head in lateral and ventral views, asymmetry in the length of antennule segments 22 and 23, length ratios of 22/5 and 23/5 of the longer of the antennules, the length of the caudal rami, and total body size, as measured by total length or prosome length. We illustrate and describe both adult females and males of E. spinifer, and discuss aspects of sexual dimorphism. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> species are sympatric throughout much of their circumglobal biogeographic distributions, but appear to have centers of abundance in slightly different water mass types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tecto..28.5015K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tecto..28.5015K"><span>Thermal evolution of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone, southern New Zealand; Formation of the Great South Basin and onset of Pacific-Antarctic spreading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kula, Joseph; Tulloch, Andy J.; Spell, Terry L.; Wells, Michael L.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The separation of Zealandia from West Antarctica was the final stage in the Cretaceous breakup of the Gondwana Pacific margin. Continental extension resulting in formation of the Great South Basin and thinning of the Campbell Plateau leading to development of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge was partially accommodated along the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone. This east-northeast striking brittle-ductile structure exposed along the southeast coast of Stewart Island, New Zealand, is a greenschist facies extensional shear zone that separates a hanging wall of chloritic, brecciated granites, and undeformed conglomerate from a footwall of mylonitic Carboniferous and Early Cretaceous granites. This complex structure exhibits bivergent kinematics and can be subdivided into a northern and southern segment. The 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicates that cooling of the shear zone footwall began at ˜94 Ma with accelerated cooling over the interval ˜89-82 Ma. Structural and thermochronological data indicate a spatial and temporal link between the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> shear zone, initial sedimentation within the offshore Great South Basin, extension of the Campbell Plateau, and initiation of the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6377676-cells-from-immunodeficient-patient-defect-dna-ligation-hypomutable-hypersensitive-induction-sister-chromatid-exchanges','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6377676-cells-from-immunodeficient-patient-defect-dna-ligation-hypomutable-hypersensitive-induction-sister-chromatid-exchanges"><span>Cells from an immunodeficient patient (46BR) with a defect in DNA ligation are hypomutable but hypersensitive to the induction of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Henderson, L.M.; Arlett, C.F.; Harcourt, S.A.</p> <p>1985-04-01</p> <p>A fibroblast cell strain, 46BR, derived from an immunodeficient patient is hypersensitive to the lethal effects of a wide range of DNA-damaging agents. It is also defective in strand-break rejoining after treatment with dimethyl sulfate and UV light. The present study shows that the cells have a defect in joining Okazaki-type fragments during DNA replication, supporting the interpretation that the basic defect is in ligation of DNA strands. The baseline level of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange is slightly higher than in normal cells but it does not approach that of Bloom's syndrome or dyskeratosis congenita cells. Sensitivity to the induction ofmore » <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange and the hypersensitivity to the lethal effects of a set of DNA-damaging agents are correlated, implying that the basic defect influences both end points in similar manner. No 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants could be induced by either ..gamma..- or UV-irradiation in these cells, suggesting that error-prone repair pathways for damage induced by these agents may contain a common ligation step in human cells.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2569886','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2569886"><span>Crossovers trigger a remodeling of meiotic chromosome axis composition that is linked to two-step loss of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Schvarzstein, Mara; Barroso, Consuelo; Lightfoot, James; Dernburg, Abby F.; Villeneuve, Anne M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on linkages (chiasmata) created by crossovers and on selective release of a subset of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion at anaphase I. During Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis, each chromosome pair forms a single crossover, and the position of this event determines which chromosomal regions will undergo cohesion release at anaphase I. Here we provide insight into the basis of this coupling by uncovering a large-scale regional change in chromosome axis composition that is triggered by crossovers. We show that axial element components HTP-1 and HTP-2 are removed during late pachytene, in a crossover-dependent manner, from the regions that will later be targeted for anaphase I cohesion release. We demonstrate correspondence in position and number between chiasmata and HTP-1/2-depleted regions and provide evidence that HTP-1/2 depletion boundaries mark crossover sites. In htp-1 mutants, diakinesis bivalents lack normal asymmetrical features, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion is prematurely lost during the meiotic divisions. We conclude that HTP-1 is central to the mechanism linking crossovers with late-prophase bivalent differentiation and defines the domains where cohesion will be protected until meiosis II. Further, we discuss parallels between the pattern of HTP-1/2 removal in response to crossovers and the phenomenon of crossover interference. PMID:18923085</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1077967.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1077967.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Group</span> Grammar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Adams, Karen</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate <span class="hlt">group</span> grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29507090"><span>Iron and zinc regulate expression of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> ABC metal transporter inCorynebacterium diphtheriae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Eric D; Oram, Diana M; Battistel, Marcos D; Lyman, Lindsey R; Freedberg, Darón I; Schmitt, Michael P</p> <p>2018-03-05</p> <p>Corynebacterium diphtheriae , a Gram-positive, aerobic bacterium, is the causative agent of diphtheria and cutaneous infections. While mechanisms required for heme iron acquisition are well known in C. diphtheriae , systems involved in the acquisition of other metals such as zinc and manganese remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified a genetic region that encodes an ABC-type transporter ( iutBCD ) flanked by two genes ( iutA and iutE ) encoding <span class="hlt">putative</span> substrate binding proteins of the cluster 9 family, a related <span class="hlt">group</span> of transporters primarily associated with the import of Mn and Zn. We showed that IutA and IutE are both membrane proteins with comparable Mn and Zn binding ability. We demonstrated that the iutABCD genes are co-transcribed and repressed in response to iron by the iron-responsive repressor DtxR. Transcription of iutE was positively regulated in response to iron availability in a DtxR-dependent manner, and repressed in response to Zn by the Zn-dependent repressor Zur. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that DtxR does not bind to the iutE upstream region, which indicates that DtxR regulation of iutE is indirect and that other regulatory factors controlled by DtxR are likely responsible for the iron-responsive regulation. Analysis of the iutE promoter region identified a 50-bp sequence at the 3' end of the iutD gene that is required for the DtxR-dependent and iron-responsive activation of the iutE gene. These findings indicate that transcription of iutE is controlled by a complex mechanism that involves multiple regulatory factors whose activity is impacted by both Zn and Fe. IMPORTANCE Vaccination against diphtheria prevents toxin-related symptoms, but does not inhibit bacterial colonization of the human host by the bacterium. Thus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae remains an important human pathogen that poses a significant health risk to unvaccinated individuals. The ability to acquire iron, zinc, and manganese is critical to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142035&hterms=titanium+dioxide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Bdioxide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040142035&hterms=titanium+dioxide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dtitanium%2Bdioxide"><span>Peroxide-modified titanium dioxide: a chemical analog of <span class="hlt">putative</span> Martian soil oxidants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Hydrogen peroxide chemisorbed on titanium dioxide (peroxide-modified titanium dioxide) is investigated as a chemical analog to the <span class="hlt">putative</span> soil oxidants responsible for the chemical reactivity seen in the Viking biology experiments. When peroxide-modified titanium dioxide (anatase) was exposed to a solution similar to the Viking labeled release (LR) experiment organic medium, CO2 gas was released into the sample cell headspace. Storage of these samples at 10 degrees C for 48 hr prior to exposure to organics resulted in a positive response while storage for 7 days did n