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Sample records for putative sister group

  1. Horsetails are the sister group to all other monilophytes and Marattiales are sister to leptosporangiate ferns.

    PubMed

    Knie, Nils; Fischer, Simon; Grewe, Felix; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2015-09-01

    The "Monilophyte" clade comprising ferns, horsetails and whisk ferns receives unequivocal support from molecular data as the sister clade to seed plants. However, the branching order of its earliest emerging lineages, the Equisetales (horsetails), the Marattiales, the Ophioglossales/Psilotales and the large group of leptosporangiate ferns has remained dubious. We investigated the mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 genes as two new, intron-containing loci for a wide sampling of taxa. We found that both group II introns - nad2i542g2 and rpl2i846g2 - are universally present among monilophytes. Both introns have orthologues in seed plants where nad2i542g2 has evolved into a trans-arrangement. In contrast and despite substantial size extensions to more than 5kb in Psilotum, nad2i542g2 remains cis-arranged in the monilophytes. For phylogenetic analyses, we filled taxonomic gaps in previously investigated mitochondrial (atp1, nad5) and chloroplast (atpA, atpB, matK, rbcL, rps4) loci and created a 9-gene matrix that also included the new mitochondrial nad2 and rpl2 loci. We extended the taxon sampling with two taxa each for all land plant outgroups (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, lycophytes and seed plants) to minimize the risk of phylogenetic artefacts. We ultimately obtained a well-supported molecular phylogeny placing Marattiales as sister to leptosporangiate ferns and horsetails as sister to all remaining monilophytes. In addition, an indel in an exon of the here introduced rpl2 locus independently supports the placement of horsetails. We conclude that under dense taxon sampling, phylogenetic information from a prudent choice of loci is currently superior to character-rich phylogenomic approaches at low taxon sampling. As here shown the selective choice of loci and taxa enabled us to resolve the long-enigmatic diversifications of the earliest monilophyte lineages.

  2. Ecologically distinct dinosaurian sister group shows early diversification of Ornithodira.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Sidor, Christian A; Irmis, Randall B; Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Smith, Roger M H; Tsuji, Linda A

    2010-03-04

    The early evolutionary history of Ornithodira (avian-line archosaurs) has hitherto been documented by incomplete (Lagerpeton) or unusually specialized forms (pterosaurs and Silesaurus). Recently, a variety of Silesaurus-like taxa have been reported from the Triassic period of both Gondwana and Laurasia, but their relationships to each other and to dinosaurs remain a subject of debate. Here we report on a new avian-line archosaur from the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) of Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis places Asilisaurus kongwe gen. et sp. nov. as an avian-line archosaur and a member of the Silesauridae, which is here considered the sister taxon to Dinosauria. Silesaurids were diverse and had a wide distribution by the Late Triassic, with a novel ornithodiran bauplan including leaf-shaped teeth, a beak-like lower jaw, long, gracile limbs, and a quadrupedal stance. Our analysis suggests that the dentition and diet of silesaurids, ornithischians and sauropodomorphs evolved independently from a plesiomorphic carnivorous form. As the oldest avian-line archosaur, Asilisaurus demonstrates the antiquity of both Ornithodira and the dinosaurian lineage. The initial diversification of Archosauria, previously documented by crocodilian-line archosaurs in the Anisian, can now be shown to include a contemporaneous avian-line radiation. The unparalleled taxonomic diversity of the Manda archosaur assemblage indicates that archosaur diversification was well underway by the Middle Triassic or earlier.

  3. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-12-15

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data.

  4. A molecular test of alternative hypotheses of tetraodontiform (Acanthomorpha: Tetraodontiformes) sister group relationships using data from the RAG1 gene.

    PubMed

    Holcroft, Nancy I

    2004-09-01

    Two primary competing hypotheses regarding the identity of the sister group of the order Tetraodontiformes exist. The first hypothesis holds that some or all acanthuroid fishes represent the sister of Tetraodontiformes. The second, proposed in 1984 by Rosen, holds that the order Zeiformes is sister to Tetraodontiformes and that the family Caproidae is sister to this Zeiformes + Tetraodontiformes clade. These two hypotheses were tested using data from the single-copy nuclear gene RAG1. Representatives of most major orders of acanthomorph fishes were included to provide an appropriate context in which to place Tetraodontiformes and its hypothesized sister groups. The results of an unweighted parsimony analysis indicate that Zeiformes is not the sister group of Tetraodontiformes. In addition, Caproidae appears unrelated to Zeiformes. A monophyletic Tetraodontiformes was recovered as the sister group of the clade Ephippidae + Drepanidae and was more distantly related to the included zeiform and caproid representatives.

  5. Identifying possible sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera: a combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Dictyoptera.

    PubMed

    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between sisters in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as sister to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different sister groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as sister group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as sister to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important

  6. Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how complex traits, such as epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, or guts, originated depends on a well-supported hypothesis about the phylogenetic relationships among major animal lineages. Traditionally, sponges (Porifera) have been interpreted as the sister group to the remaining animals, a hypothesis consistent with the conventional view that the last common animal ancestor was relatively simple and more complex body plans arose later in evolution. However, this premise has recently been challenged by analyses of the genomes of comb jellies (Ctenophora), which, instead, found ctenophores as the sister group to the remaining animals (the “Ctenophora-sister” hypothesis). Because ctenophores are morphologically complex predators with true epithelia, nervous systems, muscles, and guts, this scenario implies these traits were either present in the last common ancestor of all animals and were lost secondarily in sponges and placozoans (Trichoplax) or, alternatively, evolved convergently in comb jellies. Here, we analyze representative datasets from recent studies supporting Ctenophora-sister, including genome-scale alignments of concatenated protein sequences, as well as a genomic gene content dataset. We found no support for Ctenophora-sister and conclude it is an artifact resulting from inadequate methodology, especially the use of simplistic evolutionary models and inappropriate choice of species to root the metazoan tree. Our results reinforce a traditional scenario for the evolution of complexity in animals, and indicate that inferences about the evolution of Metazoa based on the Ctenophora-sister hypothesis are not supported by the currently available data. PMID:26621703

  7. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  8. Osteological evidence for sister group relationship between pseudo-toothed birds (Aves: Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes).

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle

    2005-12-01

    The phylogenetic affinities of the extinct pseudo-toothed birds have remained controversial. Some authors noted that they resemble both pelicans and allies (Pelecaniformes) and tube-nosed birds (Procellariiformes), but assigned them to a distinct taxon, the Odontopterygiformes. In most recent studies, the pseudo-toothed birds are referred to the family Pelagornithidae inside the Pelecaniformes. Here, I perform a cladistic analysis with five taxa of the pseudo-toothed birds including two undescribed new species from the Early Tertiary of Morocco. The present hypothesis strongly supports a sister group relationship of pseudo-toothed birds (Odontopterygiformes) and waterfowls (Anseriformes). The Odontoanserae (Odontopterygiformes plus Anseriformes) are the sister group of Neoaves. The placement of the landfowls (Galliformes) as the sister taxon of all other neognathous birds does not support the consensus view that the Galloanserae (Galliformes plus Anseriformes) are monophyletic.

  9. A Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals.

    PubMed

    Simion, Paul; Philippe, Hervé; Baurain, Denis; Jager, Muriel; Richter, Daniel J; Di Franco, Arnaud; Roure, Béatrice; Satoh, Nori; Quéinnec, Éric; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Lapébie, Pascal; Corre, Erwan; Delsuc, Frédéric; King, Nicole; Wörheide, Gert; Manuel, Michaël

    2017-04-03

    Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the sister-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-sister. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged.

  10. A sister group metabolomic contrast delineates the biochemical regulation underlying desiccation tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding how plant cells tolerate dehydration is a vital prerequisite for developing strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation tolerant grass Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation sensitive S. pyramidalis were used to form a sister-group contrast to reveal adaptive metabo...

  11. Molecular phylogeny of choanoflagellates, the sister group to Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M.; Leadbeater, B. S. C.; Hassan, R.; Nelson, M.; Baldauf, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Choanoflagellates are single-celled aquatic flagellates with a unique morphology consisting of a cell with a single flagellum surrounded by a “collar” of microvilli. They have long interested evolutionary biologists because of their striking resemblance to the collared cells (choanocytes) of sponges. Molecular phylogeny has confirmed a close relationship between choanoflagellates and Metazoa, and the first choanoflagellate genome sequence has recently been published. However, molecular phylogenetic studies within choanoflagellates are still extremely limited. Thus, little is known about choanoflagellate evolution or the exact nature of the relationship between choanoflagellates and Metazoa. We have sequenced four genes from a broad sampling of the morphological diversity of choanoflagellates including most species currently available in culture. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences, alone and in combination, reject much of the traditional taxonomy of the group. The molecular data also strongly support choanoflagellate monophyly rejecting proposals that Metazoa were derived from a true choanoflagellate ancestor. Mapping of a complementary matrix of morphological and ecological traits onto the phylogeny allows a reinterpretation of choanoflagellate character evolution and predicts the nature of their last common ancestor. PMID:18922774

  12. The First Record of a Trans-Oceanic Sister-Group Relationship between Obligate Vertebrate Troglobites

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P.; Sparks, John S.

    2012-01-01

    We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km) are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance. PMID:22937155

  13. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Davis, Matthew P; Sparks, John S

    2012-01-01

    We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km) are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  14. The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus group

    PubMed Central

    Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Vörös, Aniko; Kroeger, Jasmin K.; Simm, Roger; Tourasse, Nicolas J.; Finke, Sarah; Henderson, Peter J. F.; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis using our Transporter Automated Annotation Pipeline. More than 90 putative drug efflux systems were found within each of these strains, accounting for up to 2.7% of their protein coding potential. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the efflux systems are highly conserved between these species; 70–80% of the putative efflux pumps were shared between all three strains studied. Furthermore, 82% of the putative efflux system proteins encoded by the prototypical B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 (type strain) were found to be conserved in at least 80% of 169 B. cereus group strains that have high quality genome sequences available. However, only a handful of these efflux pumps have been functionally characterized. Deletion of individual efflux pump genes from B. cereus typically had little impact to drug resistance phenotypes or the general fitness of the strains, possibly because of the large numbers of alternative efflux systems that may have overlapping substrate specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the possible transport functions of efflux systems in B. cereus, we undertook large-scale qRT-PCR analyses of efflux pump gene expression following drug shocks and other stress treatments. Clustering of gene expression changes identified several groups of similarly regulated systems that may have overlapping drug resistance functions. In this article we review current

  15. The putative drug efflux systems of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Karl A; Fagerlund, Annette; Elbourne, Liam D H; Vörös, Aniko; Kroeger, Jasmin K; Simm, Roger; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Finke, Sarah; Henderson, Peter J F; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Paulsen, Ian T; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2017-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria includes seven closely related species, three of which, B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, are pathogens of humans, animals and/or insects. Preliminary investigations into the transport capabilities of different bacterial lineages suggested that genes encoding putative efflux systems were unusually abundant in the B. cereus group compared to other bacteria. To explore the drug efflux potential of the B. cereus group all putative efflux systems were identified in the genomes of prototypical strains of B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis using our Transporter Automated Annotation Pipeline. More than 90 putative drug efflux systems were found within each of these strains, accounting for up to 2.7% of their protein coding potential. Comparative analyses demonstrated that the efflux systems are highly conserved between these species; 70-80% of the putative efflux pumps were shared between all three strains studied. Furthermore, 82% of the putative efflux system proteins encoded by the prototypical B. cereus strain ATCC 14579 (type strain) were found to be conserved in at least 80% of 169 B. cereus group strains that have high quality genome sequences available. However, only a handful of these efflux pumps have been functionally characterized. Deletion of individual efflux pump genes from B. cereus typically had little impact to drug resistance phenotypes or the general fitness of the strains, possibly because of the large numbers of alternative efflux systems that may have overlapping substrate specificities. Therefore, to gain insight into the possible transport functions of efflux systems in B. cereus, we undertook large-scale qRT-PCR analyses of efflux pump gene expression following drug shocks and other stress treatments. Clustering of gene expression changes identified several groups of similarly regulated systems that may have overlapping drug resistance functions. In this article we review current

  16. Seed plant phylogeny: gnetophytes are derived conifers and a sister group to Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Xia, Junnan; Drouin, Guy

    2006-07-01

    The phylogenetic position of gnetophytes has long been controversial. We sequenced parts of the genes coding for the largest subunit of nuclear RNA polymerase I, II, and III and combined these sequences with those of four chloroplast genes, two mitochondrial genes, and 18S rRNA genes to address this issue. Both maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of the sites not affected by high substitution levels strongly support a phylogeny where gymnosperms and angiosperms are monophyletic, where cycads are at the base of gymnosperm tree and are followed by ginkgos, and where gnetophytes are grouped within conifers as the sister group of pines. The evolution of several morphological and molecular characters of gnetophytes and conifers will therefore need to be reinterpreted.

  17. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria).

    PubMed

    Chiari, Ylenia; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2012-07-27

    The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. These results provide a phylogenetic framework

  18. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  19. Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Victor C.; Li, Gang; Minx, Patrick; Schmitz, Jürgen; Churakov, Gennady; Doronina, Liliya; Melin, Amanda D.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.; Lim, Norman T-L.; Springer, Mark S.; Wilson, Richard K.; Warren, Wesley C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Colugos are among the most poorly studied mammals despite their centrality to resolving supraordinal primate relationships. Two described species of these gliding mammals are the sole living members of the order Dermoptera, distributed throughout Southeast Asia. We generated a draft genome sequence for a Sunda colugo and a Philippine colugo reference alignment, and used these to identify colugo-specific genetic changes that were enriched in sensory and musculoskeletal-related genes that likely underlie their nocturnal and gliding adaptations. Phylogenomic analysis and catalogs of rare genomic changes overwhelmingly support the contested hypothesis that colugos are the sister group to primates (Primatomorpha), to the exclusion of treeshrews. We captured ~140 kb of orthologous sequence data from colugo museum specimens sampled across their range and identified large genetic differences between many geographically isolated populations that may result in a >300% increase in the number of recognized colugo species. Our results identify conservation units to mitigate future losses of this enigmatic mammalian order. PMID:27532052

  20. The taxonomic status and sister group relationship of the cardinalfish species Jaydia striatodes (Percomorphaceae: Apogonidae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengsen; Song, Na; Han, Zhiqiang; Gao, Tianxiang; Shui, Bonian; Gon, Ofer

    2016-10-12

    Two similar cardinalfish species, Jaydia striatodes and J. striata, were compared morphologically and genetically, using the fragment of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of the mitochondrial DNA. The results confirmed the validity of both species and their sister group relationship. The species formed well-supported monophyletic clades that were distinctly separate with mean sequence divergence of 12.2%. Jaydia striatodes is distinct in having 4-5 + 12-13 gill rakers; 3 + 11-12 developed gill rakers; 9 gill rakers on the first ceratobranchial; 3-9 weak serration at the angle of preopercular edge; and a usually blackish distal half of anal fin. Jaydia striatodes was recorded for the first time from Beibu Gulf, China, and from Vietnam.

  1. Phylogenomic Analyses of Echinodermata Support the Sister Groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general. PMID:25794146

  2. Phylogenomic analyses of Echinodermata support the sister groups of Asterozoa and Echinozoa.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adrian; Dunn, Casey; Akasaka, Koji; Wessel, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms (sea urchins, sea stars, brittle stars, sea lilies and sea cucumbers) are a group of diverse organisms, second in number within deuterostome species to only the chordates. Echinoderms serve as excellent model systems for developmental biology due to their diverse developmental mechanisms, tractable laboratory use, and close phylogenetic distance to chordates. In addition, echinoderms are very well represented in the fossil record, including some larval features, making echinoderms a valuable system for studying evolutionary development. The internal relationships of Echinodermata have not been consistently supported across phylogenetic analyses, however, and this has hindered the study of other aspects of their biology. In order to test echinoderm phylogenetic relationships, we sequenced 23 de novo transcriptomes from all five clades of echinoderms. Using multiple phylogenetic methods at a variety of sampling depths we have constructed a well-supported phylogenetic tree of Echinodermata, including support for the sister groups of Asterozoa (sea stars and brittle stars) and Echinozoa (sea urchins and sea cucumbers). These results will help inform developmental and evolutionary studies specifically in echinoderms and deuterostomes in general.

  3. Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-11-02

    Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants ("bryophytes": liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the sister group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Sexual systems in hornworts are labile, and the higher

  4. Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants (“bryophytes”: liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the sister group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Results Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Conclusions Sexual systems in

  5. Chromosomal relationships of Simulium armoricanum and its undescribed sister species in the Simulium vernum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae).

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter H; Belqat, Boutaïna; González, Josefina Garrido; Pérez, Alexandre Justo; Seitz, Gunther

    2016-07-11

    The banding sequence of the polytene chromosomes of Simulium armoricanum Doby & David from England, Portugal, and Spain was resolved relative to the standard map for the S. vernum group. The species is characterized by 11 fixed inversions, one nearly fixed inversion, and three common polymorphisms. The sister species of S. armoricanum is proposed as a formally undescribed species discovered in samples from Portugal. It shares one unique inversion with S. armoricanum, but otherwise differs by eight fixed or nearly fixed rearrangements. Simulium armoricanum and its newly discovered sister species, informally referred to as Simulium 'IL-8', are members of a larger clade of Palearctic species defined by a small pericentric inversion in chromosome III. Among the simuliid species occupying the same streams with S. armoricanum was the first record, chromosomally confirmed, of S. aureum Fries sensu stricto in Portugal. Successful chromosomal analysis of samples of S. armoricanum 17 years after initial fixation demonstrates the importance of storing cytologically fixed larvae at subzero temperatures.

  6. A novel MADS-box gene subfamily with a sister-group relationship to class B floral homeotic genes.

    PubMed

    Becker, A; Kaufmann, K; Freialdenhoven, A; Vincent, C; Li, M-A; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

    2002-02-01

    Class B floral homeotic genes specify the identity of petals and stamens during the development of angiosperm flowers. Recently, putative orthologs of these genes have been identified in different gymnosperms. Together, these genes constitute a clade, termed B genes. Here we report that diverse seed plants also contain members of a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B genes, termed B(sister) (B(s)) genes. We have isolated members of the B(s) clade from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon, the monocotyledonous angiosperm Zea mays and the eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. In addition, MADS-box genes from the basal angiosperm Asarum europaeum and the eudicot Petunia hybrida were identified as B(s) genes. Comprehensive expression studies revealed that B(s) genes are mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs (ovules and carpel walls). This is in clear contrast to the B genes, which are predominantly expressed in male reproductive organs (and in angiosperm petals). Our data suggest that the B(s) genes played an important role during the evolution of the reproductive structures in seed plants. The establishment of distinct B and B(s) gene lineages after duplication of an ancestral gene may have accompanied the evolution of male microsporophylls and female megasporophylls 400-300 million years ago. During flower evolution, expression of B(s) genes diversified, but the focus of expression remained in female reproductive organs. Our findings imply that a clade of highly conserved close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes has been completely overlooked until recently and awaits further evaluation of its developmental and evolutionary importance. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-001-0615-8.

  7. Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the sister group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost sisters, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches.

  8. Ringiculid bubble snails recovered as the sister group to sea slugs (Nudipleura)

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Yasunori; Brenzinger, Bastian; Nützel, Alexander; Wilson, Nerida G.; Schrödl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Euthyneuran gastropods represent one of the most diverse lineages in Mollusca (with over 30,000 species), play significant ecological roles in aquatic and terrestrial environments and affect many aspects of human life. However, our understanding of their evolutionary relationships remains incomplete due to missing data for key phylogenetic lineages. The present study integrates such a neglected, ancient snail family Ringiculidae into a molecular systematics of Euthyneura for the first time, and is supplemented by the first microanatomical data. Surprisingly, both molecular and morphological features present compelling evidence for the common ancestry of ringiculid snails with the highly dissimilar Nudipleura—the most species-rich and well-known taxon of sea slugs (nudibranchs and pleurobranchoids). A new taxon name Ringipleura is proposed here for these long-lost sisters, as one of three major euthyneuran clades with late Palaeozoic origins, along with Acteonacea (Acteonoidea + Rissoelloidea) and Tectipleura (Euopisthobranchia + Panpulmonata). The early Euthyneura are suggested to be at least temporary burrowers with a characteristic ‘bubble’ shell, hypertrophied foot and headshield as exemplified by many extant subtaxa with an infaunal mode of life, while the expansion of the mantle might have triggered the explosive Mesozoic radiation of the clade into diverse ecological niches. PMID:27498754

  9. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister-group to protostomes

    SciTech Connect

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Vanjani, Rohit G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence from a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms). The Paraspadella gotoi mtDNA is highly unusual, missing 23 of the genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs, including atp6, which has otherwise been found universally to be present. Its 14 genes are unusually arranged into two groups, one on each strand. One group is punctuated by numerous non-coding intergenic nucleotides, while the other group is tightly packed, having no non-coding nucleotides, leading to speculation that there are two transcription units with differing modes of expression. The phylogenetic position of the Chaetognatha within the Metazoa has long been uncertain, with conflicting or equivocal results from various morphological analyses and rRNA sequence comparisons. Comparisons here of amino acid sequences from mitochondrially encoded proteins gives a single most parsimonious tree that supports a position of Chaetognatha as sister to the protostomes studied here. From this, one can more clearly interpret the patterns of evolution of various developmental features, especially regarding the embryological fate of the blastopore.

  10. Molecular phylogenetic evidence confirming the Eulipotyphla concept and in support of hedgehogs as the sister group to shrews.

    PubMed

    Douady, Christophe J; Chatelier, Pascale I; Madsen, Ole; de Jong, Wilfried W; Catzeflis, Francois; Springer, Mark S; Stanhope, Michael J

    2002-10-01

    For more than a century, living insectivore-like mammals have been viewed as little removed from the ancestral mammalian stock based on their retention of numerous primitive characteristics. This circumstance has made "insectivores" a group of special interest in the study of mammalian evolution. included hedgehogs, moles, shrews, solenodons, golden moles, tenrecs, flying lemurs, tree shrews, and elephant shrews in Insectivora. Subsequently, morphologists excluded flying lemurs, tree shrews, and elephant shrews from Insectivora and placed these taxa in the orders Dermoptera, Scandentia, and Macroscelidea, respectively. The remaining insectivores constitute Lipotyphla, which is monophyletic based on morphology. In contrast, molecular data suggest that lipotyphlans are polyphyletic, with golden moles and tenrecs placed in their own order (Afrosoricida) in the superordinal group Afrotheria. Studies based on nuclear genes support the monophyly of the remaining lipotyphlans (=Eulipotyphla) whereas mitochondrial genome studies dissociate hedgehogs from moles and place the former as the first offshoot on the placental tree. One shortcoming of previous molecular studies investigating lipotyphlan relationships is limited taxonomic sampling. Here, we evaluate lipotyphlan relationships using the largest and taxonomically most diverse data set yet assembled for Lipotyphla. Our results provide convincing support for both lipotyphlan diphyly and the monophyly of Eulipotyphla. More surprisingly, we find strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between shrews and hedgehogs to the exclusion of moles.

  11. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister group to protostomes

    PubMed Central

    Helfenbein, Kevin G.; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Vanjani, Rohit G.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-01-01

    We report the complete mtDNA sequence from a member of the phylum Chaetognatha (arrow worms). The Paraspadella gotoi mtDNA is highly unusual, missing 23 of the genes commonly found in animal mtDNAs, including atp6, which has otherwise been found universally to be present. Its 14 genes are unusually arranged into two groups, one on each strand. One group is punctuated by numerous noncoding intergenic nucleotides although the other group is tightly packed, having no noncoding nucleotides, leading to speculation that there are two transcription units with differing modes of expression. The phylogenetic position of the Chaetognatha within the Metazoa has long been uncertain, with conflicting or equivocal results from various morphological analyses and rRNA sequence comparisons. Comparisons here of amino acid sequences from mitochondrially encoded proteins give a single most parsimonious tree that supports a position of Chaetognatha as sister to the protostomes studied here. From this analysis, one can more clearly interpret the patterns of evolution of various developmental features, especially regarding the embryological fate of the blastopore. PMID:15249679

  12. Little evidence for enhanced phenotypic evolution in early teleosts relative to their living fossil sister group.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John T; Lloyd, Graeme T; Friedman, Matt

    2016-10-11

    Since Darwin, biologists have been struck by the extraordinary diversity of teleost fishes, particularly in contrast to their closest "living fossil" holostean relatives. Hypothesized drivers of teleost success include innovations in jaw mechanics, reproductive biology and, particularly at present, genomic architecture, yet all scenarios presuppose enhanced phenotypic diversification in teleosts. We test this key assumption by quantifying evolutionary rate and capacity for innovation in size and shape for the first 160 million y (Permian-Early Cretaceous) of evolution in neopterygian fishes (the more extensive clade containing teleosts and holosteans). We find that early teleosts do not show enhanced phenotypic evolution relative to holosteans. Instead, holostean rates and innovation often match or can even exceed those of stem-, crown-, and total-group teleosts, belying the living fossil reputation of their extant representatives. In addition, we find some evidence for heterogeneity within the teleost lineage. Although stem teleosts excel at discovering new body shapes, early crown-group taxa commonly display higher rates of shape evolution. However, the latter reflects low rates of shape evolution in stem teleosts relative to all other neopterygian taxa, rather than an exceptional feature of early crown teleosts. These results complement those emerging from studies of both extant teleosts as a whole and their sublineages, which generally fail to detect an association between genome duplication and significant shifts in rates of lineage diversification.

  13. Little evidence for enhanced phenotypic evolution in early teleosts relative to their living fossil sister group

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John T.; Lloyd, Graeme T.; Friedman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Since Darwin, biologists have been struck by the extraordinary diversity of teleost fishes, particularly in contrast to their closest “living fossil” holostean relatives. Hypothesized drivers of teleost success include innovations in jaw mechanics, reproductive biology and, particularly at present, genomic architecture, yet all scenarios presuppose enhanced phenotypic diversification in teleosts. We test this key assumption by quantifying evolutionary rate and capacity for innovation in size and shape for the first 160 million y (Permian–Early Cretaceous) of evolution in neopterygian fishes (the more extensive clade containing teleosts and holosteans). We find that early teleosts do not show enhanced phenotypic evolution relative to holosteans. Instead, holostean rates and innovation often match or can even exceed those of stem-, crown-, and total-group teleosts, belying the living fossil reputation of their extant representatives. In addition, we find some evidence for heterogeneity within the teleost lineage. Although stem teleosts excel at discovering new body shapes, early crown-group taxa commonly display higher rates of shape evolution. However, the latter reflects low rates of shape evolution in stem teleosts relative to all other neopterygian taxa, rather than an exceptional feature of early crown teleosts. These results complement those emerging from studies of both extant teleosts as a whole and their sublineages, which generally fail to detect an association between genome duplication and significant shifts in rates of lineage diversification. PMID:27671652

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of two Plectus mitochondrial genomes (Nematoda: Plectida) supports a sister group relationship between Plectida and Rhabditida within Chromadorea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kern, Elizabeth; Kim, Taeho; Sim, Mikang; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Yuseob; Park, Chungoo; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2017-02-01

    Plectida is an important nematode order with species that occupy many different biological niches. The order includes free-living aquatic and soil-dwelling species, but its phylogenetic position has remained uncertain. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of two members of this order, Plectus acuminatus and Plectus aquatilis and compared them with those of other major nematode clades. The genome size and base composition of these species are similar to other nematodes; 14,831 and 14,372bp, respectively, with AT contents of 71.0% and 70.1%. Gene content was also similar to other nematodes, but gene order and coding direction of Plectus mtDNAs were dissimilar from other chromadorean species. P. acuminatus and P. aquatilis are the first chromadorean species found to contain a gene inversion. We reconstructed mitochondrial genome phylogenetic trees using nucleotide and amino acid datasets from 87 nematodes that represent major nematode clades, including the Plectus sequences. Trees from phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods depicted Plectida as the sister group to other sequenced chromadorean nematodes. This finding is consistent with several phylogenetic results based on SSU rDNA, but disagrees with a classification based on morphology. Mitogenomes representing other basal chromadorean groups (Araeolaimida, Monhysterida, Desmodorida, Chromadorida) are needed to confirm their phylogenetic relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate niches of milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae; Apocynaceae) and the milkweed sister group link ancient African climates and floral evolution.

    PubMed

    Livshultz, Tatyana; Mead, Jerry V; Goyder, David J; Brannin, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    Climate change that increases mortality of plants and pollinators can create mate-finding Allee effects and thus act as a strong selective force on floral morphology. Milkweeds (Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae; Apocynaceae) are typically small plants of seasonally dry habitats, with pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency. Their sister group (tribe Baisseeae and Dewevrella) is mostly comprised of giant lianas of African rainforests, with pollen in monads. Comparison of the two groups motivated a new hypothesis: milkweeds evolved in the context of African aridification and the shifting of rainforest to dry forest. Pollinia and high pollen-transfer efficiency may have been adaptations that alleviated mate-finding Allee effects generated by high mortality during droughts. We formally tested whether milkweeds have a drier climate niche by comparing milkweeds with plesiomorphic traits (Secamonoideae) and the milkweed sister group in continental Africa. We georeferenced specimens of the milkweed sister group and Secamonoideae in continental Africa, extracted 19 climatic variables from the Worldclim model, conducted factor analysis to identify correlated suites of variables, and compared the frequency distributions of the two lineages relative to each factor. The distributions of Secamonoideae and the milkweed sister group differed significantly relative to four factors, each correlated with a distinct suite of climate parameters: (1) air temperature (Secamonoideae: cooler), (2) total and (3) summer precipitation (Secamonoideae: drier), and (4) temperature seasonality and isothermality (Secamonoideae: more seasonal and less isothermal). Secamonoideae in continental Africa inhabit drier, cooler sites than do the milkweed sister group, consistent with a shift from rainforests to dry forests in a cooling climate.

  16. Sperm accessory microtubules suggest the placement of Diplura as the sister-group of Insecta s.s.

    PubMed

    Dallai, Romano; Mercati, David; Carapelli, Antonio; Nardi, Francesco; Machida, Ryuichiro; Sekiya, Kaoru; Frati, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Sperm ultrastructure and spermiogenesis of the dipluran Japygidae (Japyx solifugus, Metajapyx braueri and Occasjapyx japonicus) and Campodeidae (Campodea sp.) were studied with the aim of looking for potential characters for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods. Both Japygidae and Campodeidae share a common sperm axonemal model 9+9+2, provided with nine accessory microtubules. These microtubules, however, after their formation lose the usual position around the 9+2 and migrate between the two mitochondria. In Japygidae, four of these microtubules are very short and were observed beneath the nucleus after negative staining and serial sections. Accessory microtubules have 13 protofilaments in their tubular wall. Diplura have a sperm morphology which is very different from that of the remaining Entognatha (Protura+Collembola). On the basis of the present results, the presence of accessory microtubules suggests that Diplura are the sister-group of the Insecta s.s.. Moreover, Japygidae and Campodeidae differ with regards to the relative position of the sperm components, the former having the axoneme starting from beneath the nucleus (above which sits the short acrosome), while the latter having a long apical acrosome and a nucleus running parallel with the proximal part of the axoneme. The present study also allowed to redescribe the male genital system of Japyx. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The platypus is in its place: nuclear genes and indels confirm the sister group relation of monotremes and Therians.

    PubMed

    van Rheede, Teun; Bastiaans, Trijntje; Boone, David N; Hedges, S Blair; de Jong, Wilfried W; Madsen, Ole

    2006-03-01

    Morphological data supports monotremes as the sister group of Theria (extant marsupials + eutherians), but phylogenetic analyses of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes have strongly supported the grouping of monotremes with marsupials: the Marsupionta hypothesis. Various nuclear genes tend to support Theria, but a comprehensive study of long concatenated sequences and broad taxon sampling is lacking. We therefore determined sequences from six nuclear genes and obtained additional sequences from the databases to create two large and independent nuclear data sets. One (data set I) emphasized taxon sampling and comprised five genes, with a concatenated length of 2,793 bp, from 21 species (two monotremes, six marsupials, nine placentals, and four outgroups). The other (data set II) emphasized gene sampling and comprised eight genes and three proteins, with a concatenated length of 10,773 bp or 3,669 amino acids, from five taxa (a monotreme, a marsupial, a rodent, human, and chicken). Both data sets were analyzed by parsimony, minimum evolution, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods using various models and data partitions. Data set I gave bootstrap support values for Theria between 55% and 100%, while support for Marsupionta was at most 12.3%. Taking base compositional bias into account generally increased the support for Theria. Data set II exclusively supported Theria, with the highest possible values and significantly rejected Marsupionta. Independent phylogenetic evidence in support of Theria was obtained from two single amino acid deletions and one insertion, while no supporting insertions and deletions were found for Marsupionta. On the basis of our data sets, the time of divergence between Monotremata and Theria was estimated at 231-217 MYA and between Marsupialia and Eutheria at 193-186 MYA. The morphological evidence for a basal position of Monotremata, well separated from Theria, is thus fully supported by the available molecular data from nuclear genes.

  18. A pair of new sister species of Loneura (Psocodea, 'Psocoptera', Ptiloneuridae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, representing a new infrageneric group.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Nieto, Julián A Mendivil; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2012-01-01

    Two sister species of Loneura, from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are here described and illustrated. They constitute a new species group that modifies the scheme of classification, proposed earlier for the genus by García Aldrete et al. (2011b). The new group is characterized by having the central sclerite of the male hypandrium with four posterior projections. A key to the males of Group II is included. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of the Universidad del Valle. Colombia may prove to be the most species rich area for Loneura.

  19. Ectrodactyly in sisters and half sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, M H; Wood, S K

    1987-01-01

    An extended family is described in which four sisters and half sisters presented with ectrodactyly. Two of the sisters had associated agenesis of the tibiae. The paper describes the malformations and discusses the management and possible genetic inheritance involved. An autosomal recessive gene seems likely to be the mode of inheritance. Images PMID:3585937

  20. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    PubMed Central

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  1. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lahcen I.; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J.; Telford, Maximilian J.; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pisani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations—comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning—we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods. PMID:21896763

  2. MicroRNAs and phylogenomics resolve the relationships of Tardigrada and suggest that velvet worms are the sister group of Arthropoda.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lahcen I; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Marchioro, Trevor; Longhorn, Stuart J; Telford, Maximilian J; Philippe, Hervé; Rebecchi, Lorena; Peterson, Kevin J; Pisani, Davide

    2011-09-20

    Morphological data traditionally group Tardigrada (water bears), Onychophora (velvet worms), and Arthropoda (e.g., spiders, insects, and their allies) into a monophyletic group of invertebrates with walking appendages known as the Panarthropoda. However, molecular data generally do not support the inclusion of tardigrades within the Panarthropoda, but instead place them closer to Nematoda (roundworms). Here we present results from the analyses of two independent genomic datasets, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), which congruently resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tardigrada. Our EST analyses, based on 49,023 amino acid sites from 255 proteins, significantly support a monophyletic Panarthropoda including Tardigrada and suggest a sister group relationship between Arthropoda and Onychophora. Using careful experimental manipulations--comparisons of model fit, signal dissection, and taxonomic pruning--we show that support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group derives from the phylogenetic artifact of long-branch attraction. Our small RNA libraries fully support our EST results; no miRNAs were found to link Tardigrada and Nematoda, whereas all panarthropods were found to share one unique miRNA (miR-276). In addition, Onychophora and Arthropoda were found to share a second miRNA (miR-305). Our study confirms the monophyly of the legged ecdysozoans, shows that past support for a Tardigrada + Nematoda group was due to long-branch attraction, and suggests that the velvet worms are the sister group to the arthropods.

  3. Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia.

    PubMed Central

    Gaubert, Philippe; Veron, Géraldine

    2003-01-01

    Although molecular studies have helped to clarify the phylogeny of the problematic family Viverridae, a recent phylogenetic investigation based on cytochrome b (cyt b) has excluded the Asiatic linsangs (genus Prionodon) from the family. To assess the phylogenetic position of the Asiatic linsangs within the Feliformia, we analysed an exhaustive taxonomic sample set with cyt b and newly produced transthyretin intron I sequences (TR-I-I). TR-I-I alone and cyt b +TR-I-I combined (maximum-likelihood analysis) highly support the position of Asiatic linsangs as sister-group of the Felidae. The estimation of minimum divergence dates from molecular data suggests a splitting event ca. 33.3 million years (Myr) ago, which lends support to historical assertions that the Asiatic linsangs are "living fossils" that share a plesiomorphic morphotype with the Oligocene feliform Paleoprionodon. The African linsang is estimated to appear more than 20 Myr later and represents the sister-group of the genus Genetta. Our phylogenetic results illustrate numerous morphological convergences of "diagnostic" characters among Feliformia that might be problematic for the identification of fossil taxa. The morphotype reappearance from the Asiatic to the African linsangs suggests that the genome of the Feliformia conserved its potential ability of expression for a peculiar adaptive phenotype throughout evolution, in this case arboreality and hypercarnivory in tropical forest. PMID:14667345

  4. Exhaustive sample set among Viverridae reveals the sister-group of felids: the linsangs as a case of extreme morphological convergence within Feliformia.

    PubMed

    Gaubert, Philippe; Veron, Géraldine

    2003-12-07

    Although molecular studies have helped to clarify the phylogeny of the problematic family Viverridae, a recent phylogenetic investigation based on cytochrome b (cyt b) has excluded the Asiatic linsangs (genus Prionodon) from the family. To assess the phylogenetic position of the Asiatic linsangs within the Feliformia, we analysed an exhaustive taxonomic sample set with cyt b and newly produced transthyretin intron I sequences (TR-I-I). TR-I-I alone and cyt b +TR-I-I combined (maximum-likelihood analysis) highly support the position of Asiatic linsangs as sister-group of the Felidae. The estimation of minimum divergence dates from molecular data suggests a splitting event ca. 33.3 million years (Myr) ago, which lends support to historical assertions that the Asiatic linsangs are "living fossils" that share a plesiomorphic morphotype with the Oligocene feliform Paleoprionodon. The African linsang is estimated to appear more than 20 Myr later and represents the sister-group of the genus Genetta. Our phylogenetic results illustrate numerous morphological convergences of "diagnostic" characters among Feliformia that might be problematic for the identification of fossil taxa. The morphotype reappearance from the Asiatic to the African linsangs suggests that the genome of the Feliformia conserved its potential ability of expression for a peculiar adaptive phenotype throughout evolution, in this case arboreality and hypercarnivory in tropical forest.

  5. Round and pointed-head grenadier fishes (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes) represent a single sister group: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takashi P; Miya, Masaki; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2006-07-01

    The gene order of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) has been employed as a useful phylogenetic marker in various metazoan animals, because it may represent uniquely derived characters shared by members of monophyletic groups. During the course of molecular phylogenetic studies of the order Gadiformes (cods and their relatives) based on whole mitogenome sequences, we found that two deep-sea grenadiers (Squalogadus modificatus and Trachyrincus murrayi: family Macrouridae) revealed a unusually identical gene order (translocation of the tRNA(Leu (UUR))). Both are members of the same family, although their external morphologies differed so greatly (e.g., round vs. pointed head) that they have been placed in different subfamilies Macrouroidinae and Trachyrincinae, respectively. Additionally, we determined the whole mitogenome sequences of two other species, Bathygadus antrodes and Ventrifossa garmani, representing a total of four subfamilies currently recognized within Macrouridae. The latter two species also exhibited gene rearrangements, resulting in a total of three different patterns of unique gene order being observed in the four subfamilies. Partitioned Bayesian analysis was conducted using available whole mitogenome sequences from five macrourids plus five outgroups. The resultant trees clearly indicated that S. modificatus and T. murrayi formed a monophyletic group, having a sister relationship to other macrourids. Thus, monophyly of the two species with disparate head morphologies was corroborated by two different lines of evidence (nucleotide sequences and gene order). The overall topology of the present tree differed from any of the previously proposed, morphology-based phylogenetic hypotheses.

  6. Cultivation and Characterisation of New Species of Apusomonads (the Sister Group to Opisthokonts), Including Close Relatives of Thecamonas (Chelonemonas n. gen.).

    PubMed

    Heiss, Aaron A; Lee, Won J; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Simpson, Alastair G B

    2015-01-01

    Apusomonads comprise an understudied and undersampled group of heterotrophic flagellates that is closely related to opisthokonts, the supergroup containing animals and fungi. We cultured representatives of a new clade of apusomonads, Chelonemonas n. gen., which is sister to marine forms of Thecamonas in SSU rRNA gene phylogenies. Scanning electron microscopy shows that members of Chelonemonas have a hexagonal patterning to their submembranous pellicle, which is not known to exist in other apusomonads. We propose that the subfamily Thecamonadinae refer to the marine Thecamonas/Chelonomonas clade. We also report two new strains of Multimonas, one of which is genetically divergent from previously described strains, and here described as a new species, Multimonas koreensis. Both strains of Multimonas have appendages on their dorsal surface that could be extrusomes, and a frilled appearance to the border of their pellicle. Explorations of taxon sampling in SSU rRNA gene phylogenies confirm the new strains' evolutionary affinities, but do not resolve relationships among the five main apusomonad clades. These phylogenies also separate the freshwater species "Thecamonas" oxoniensis from the marine members of the genus Thecamonas. The new strains described here may provide valuable genetic and morphological data for evaluating the relationships and evolution of apusomonads.

  7. The desert tortoise trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, new sister-species of tortoise in the Gopherus morafkai-G. agassizii group.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Taylor; Karl, Alice E; Vaughn, Mercy; Rosen, Philip C; Torres, Cristina Meléndez; Murphy, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka's desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of Gopherus morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern 'desert' tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it as Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of Gopherus morafkai to desertscrub habitat only. By contrast, Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats.

  8. The desert tortoise trichotomy: Mexico hosts a third, new sister-species of tortoise in the Gopherus morafkai–G. agassizii group

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Taylor; Karl, Alice E.; Vaughn, Mercy; Rosen, Philip C.; Torres, Cristina Meléndez; Murphy, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Desert tortoises (Testudines; Testudinidae; Gopherus agassizii group) have an extensive distribution throughout the Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran desert regions. Not surprisingly, they exhibit a tremendous amount of ecological, behavioral, morphological and genetic variation. Gopherus agassizii was considered a single species for almost 150 years but recently the species was split into the nominate form and Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai, the latter occurring south and east of the Colorado River. Whereas a large body of literature focuses on tortoises in the United States, a dearth of investigations exists for Mexican animals. Notwithstanding, Mexican populations of desert tortoises in the southern part of the range of Gopherus morafkai are distinct, particularly where the tortoises occur in tropical thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Recent studies have shed light on the ecology, morphology and genetics of these southern ‘desert’ tortoises. All evidence warrants recognition of this clade as a distinctive taxon and herein we describe it as Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. The description of the new species significantly reduces and limits the distribution of Gopherus morafkai to desertscrub habitat only. By contrast, Gopherus evgoodei sp. n. occurs in thornscrub and tropical deciduous forests only and this leaves it with the smallest range of the three sister species. We present conservation implications for the newly described Gopherus evgoodei, which already faces impending threats. PMID:27006625

  9. A Sister Group Contrast Using Untargeted Global Metabolomic Analysis Delineates the Biochemical Regulation Underlying Desiccation Tolerance in Sporobolus stapfianus[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Melvin J.; Guo, Lining; Alexander, Danny C.; Ryals, John A.; Wone, Bernard W.M.; Cushman, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how plants tolerate dehydration is a prerequisite for developing novel strategies for improving drought tolerance. The desiccation-tolerant (DT) Sporobolus stapfianus and the desiccation-sensitive (DS) Sporobolus pyramidalis formed a sister group contrast to reveal adaptive metabolic responses to dehydration using untargeted global metabolomic analysis. Young leaves from both grasses at full hydration or at 60% relative water content (RWC) and from S. stapfianus at lower RWCs were analyzed using liquid and gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry or tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the two species in the fully hydrated state revealed intrinsic differences between the two metabolomes. S. stapfianus had higher concentrations of osmolytes, lower concentrations of metabolites associated with energy metabolism, and higher concentrations of nitrogen metabolites, suggesting that it is primed metabolically for dehydration stress. Further reduction of the leaf RWC to 60% instigated a metabolic shift in S. stapfianus toward the production of protective compounds, whereas S. pyramidalis responded differently. The metabolomes of S. stapfianus leaves below 40% RWC were strongly directed toward antioxidant production, nitrogen remobilization, ammonia detoxification, and soluble sugar production. Collectively, the metabolic profiles obtained uncovered a cascade of biochemical regulation strategies critical to the survival of S. stapfianus under desiccation. PMID:21467579

  10. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  11. Crocodile Talk: Attributions of Incestuously Abused and Nonabused Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the retrospective attributions of adult sisters (five abused sister dyads, and five abused and nonabused sister dyads) who grew up in incestuous families. It examined the attributions of subjects regarding the general sibling group; victim selection and nonselection; and attributions regarding jealousy, protection,…

  12. Goddard Welcomes SISTER

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., hosted a weeklong summer institute, SISTER, for the purpose of increasing the awareness of and providing opportunities for middle school girls to ...

  13. A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kevin E.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

  14. Extending the cereus group genomics to putative food-bornepathogens of different toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron,Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L.; Broussole,Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis,Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Winker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S.Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2006-08-24

    The cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteriacontaining pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic foodpoisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presencein natural samples of these bacteria of about thirty clonal complexes.Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due tothe major interest for representatives closely related to B. anthracis.Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined,existing dataindicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetictree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomesdiscussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of thecereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severefood-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain must be arepresentative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacilluscytotoxis is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared toother cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma Bfactor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, notdetected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonalcomplex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B.cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B.anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge fromclinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4,is a typical psychrotrophe characteristic to unbiased soil communities.Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group interms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence ofextra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account forthis phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmidin this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicityspread from the psychrotrophic strain community. The results of thisgenomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite

  15. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Segurens, Beatrice; Simon, Jorg; Dossat, Carole; Broussolle, Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis, Vincent; Nguen-the, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, P M; Wincker, Patrick; Sorokin, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  16. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman, Eugene; Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Ségurens, Béatrice; Dossat, Carole; Land, Miriam L; Broussolle, Veronique; Brillard, Julien; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene; Sanchis, Vincent; Nguen-The, Christophe; Lereclus, Didier; Richardson, Paul; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Sorokin, Alexei

    2008-01-30

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  17. THREE SISTERS WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Norman S.; Causey, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon indicated little promise for the occcurrence of metallic mineral resources. Block pumice suitable for commercial uses occurs at an undeveloped claim at Rock Mesa in the wilderness, but numerous other sources occur outside the wilderness closer to markets. A broad area centered around South Sister volcano is among the most favorable targets for geothermal resources in the Oregon Cascade Range, based on the very young age and large volume of silicic volcanic rocks that occur in this area. Deep exploration holes could be drilled in areas outside the wilderness south of South Sister to provide data on the subsurface thermal and hydrologic regimes in the southern part of the area most likely to contain geothermal resources.

  18. Grouping and characterization of putative glycosyltransferase genes from Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Khorolragchaa, Altanzul; Kim, Yu-Jin; Rahimi, Shadi; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Jang, Moon-Gi; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2014-02-15

    Glycosyltransferases are members of the multigene family of plants that can transfer single or multiple activated sugars to a range of plant molecules, resulting in the glycosylation of plant compounds. Although the activities of many glycosyltransferases and their products have been recognized for a long time, only in recent years were some glycosyltransferase genes identified and few have been functionally characterized in detail. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer), belonging to Araliaceae, has been well known as a popular mysterious medicinal herb in East Asia for over 2,000 years. A total of 704 glycosyltransferase unique sequences have been found from a ginseng expressed sequence tag (EST) library, and these sequences encode enzymes responsible for the secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Finally, twelve UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs) were selected as the candidates most likely to be involved in triterpenoid synthesis. In this study, we classified the candidate P. ginseng UGTs (PgUGTs) into proper families and groups, which resulted in eight UGT families and six UGT groups. We also investigated those gene candidates encoding for glycosyltransferases by analysis of gene expression in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated ginseng adventitious roots and different tissues from four-year-old ginseng using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For organ-specific expression, most of PgUGT transcription levels were higher in leaves and roots compared with flower buds and stems. The transcription of PgUGTs in adventitious roots treated with MeJA increased as compared with the control. PgUGT1 and PgUGT2, which belong to the UGT71 family genes expressed in MeJA-treated adventitious roots, were especially sensitive, showing 33.32 and 38.88-fold expression increases upon 24h post-treatments, respectively.

  19. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Remipedia (Crustacea): support for a sister group relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Remipedia were initially seen as a primitive taxon within Pancrustacea based on characters considered ancestral, such as the homonomously segmented trunk. Meanwhile, several morphological and molecular studies proposed a more derived position of Remipedia within Pancrustacea, including a sister group relationship to Hexapoda. Because of these conflicting hypotheses, fresh data are crucial to contribute new insights into euarthropod phylogeny. The architecture of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons has successfully been used for phylogenetic considerations in Euarthropoda. Here, we identified neurons in three species of Remipedia with an antiserum against serotonin and compared our findings to reconstructed ground patterns in other euarthropod taxa. Additionally, we traced neurite connectivity and neuropil outlines using antisera against acetylated α-tubulin and synapsin. Results The ventral nerve cord of Remipedia displays a typical rope-ladder-like arrangement of separate metameric ganglia linked by paired longitudinally projecting connectives. The peripheral projections comprise an intersegmental nerve, consisting of two branches that fuse shortly after exiting the connectives, and the segmental anterior and posterior nerve. The distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive interneurons in the trunk segments is highly conserved within the remipede species we analyzed, which allows for the reconstruction of a ground pattern: two posterior and one anterior pair of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons that possess a single contralateral projection. Additionally, three pairs of immunoreactive neurons are found in the medial part of each hemiganglion. In one species (Cryptocorynetes haptodiscus), the anterior pair of immunoreactive neurons is missing. Conclusions The anatomy of the remipede ventral nerve cord with its separate metameric ganglia mirrors the external morphology of the animal’s trunk. The rope

  20. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Results Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting’ scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Conclusions Sulawesi’s Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely

  1. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral nerve cord of Remipedia (Crustacea): support for a sister group relationship of Remipedia and Hexapoda?

    PubMed

    Stemme, Torben; Iliffe, Thomas M; von Reumont, Björn M; Koenemann, Stefan; Harzsch, Steffen; Bicker, Gerd

    2013-06-10

    Remipedia were initially seen as a primitive taxon within Pancrustacea based on characters considered ancestral, such as the homonomously segmented trunk. Meanwhile, several morphological and molecular studies proposed a more derived position of Remipedia within Pancrustacea, including a sister group relationship to Hexapoda. Because of these conflicting hypotheses, fresh data are crucial to contribute new insights into euarthropod phylogeny. The architecture of individually identifiable serotonin-immunoreactive neurons has successfully been used for phylogenetic considerations in Euarthropoda. Here, we identified neurons in three species of Remipedia with an antiserum against serotonin and compared our findings to reconstructed ground patterns in other euarthropod taxa. Additionally, we traced neurite connectivity and neuropil outlines using antisera against acetylated α-tubulin and synapsin. The ventral nerve cord of Remipedia displays a typical rope-ladder-like arrangement of separate metameric ganglia linked by paired longitudinally projecting connectives. The peripheral projections comprise an intersegmental nerve, consisting of two branches that fuse shortly after exiting the connectives, and the segmental anterior and posterior nerve. The distribution and morphology of serotonin-immunoreactive interneurons in the trunk segments is highly conserved within the remipede species we analyzed, which allows for the reconstruction of a ground pattern: two posterior and one anterior pair of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons that possess a single contralateral projection. Additionally, three pairs of immunoreactive neurons are found in the medial part of each hemiganglion. In one species (Cryptocorynetes haptodiscus), the anterior pair of immunoreactive neurons is missing. The anatomy of the remipede ventral nerve cord with its separate metameric ganglia mirrors the external morphology of the animal's trunk. The rope-ladder-like structure and principal architecture of

  2. Age estimates for an adaptive lake fish radiation, its mitochondrial introgression, and an unexpected sister group: Sailfin silversides of the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi.

    PubMed

    Stelbrink, Björn; Stöger, Isabella; Hadiaty, Renny K; Schliewen, Ulrich K; Herder, Fabian

    2014-05-03

    The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting' scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Sulawesi's Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely coincide with geological age estimates of

  3. The Sister Libraries Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, Don

    2000-01-01

    These articles describe the Sister Libraries program, part of the White House Millennium project, sponsored by the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science and the American Library Association to build relationships with libraries in other cultures. Discusses projects with public and school libraries and library development in…

  4. Brain and sense organ anatomy and histology of the Falkland Islands mullet, Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae), the sister group of the Antarctic notothenioid fishes (Perciformes: Notothenioidei).

    PubMed

    Eastman, Joseph T; Lannoo, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The perciform notothenioid fish Eleginops maclovinus, representing the monotypic family Eleginopidae, has a non-Antarctic distribution in the Falkland Islands and southern South America. It is the sister group of the five families and 103 species of Antarctic notothenioids that dominate the cold shelf waters of Antarctica. Eleginops is the ideal subject for documenting the ancestral morphology of nervous and sensory systems that have not had historical exposure to the unusual Antarctic thermal and light regimes, and for comparing these systems with those of the phyletically derived Antarctic species. We present a detailed description of the brain and cranial nerves of Eleginops and ask how does the neural and sensory morphology of this non-Antarctic notothenioid differ from that seen in the phyletically derived Antarctic notothenioids? The brain of Eleginops is similar to those of visually oriented temperate and tropical perciforms. The tectum is smaller but it has well-developed olfactory and mechanoreceptive lateral line areas and a large, caudally projecting corpus cerebellum. Eye diameter is about twofold smaller in Eleginops than in many Antarctic species. Eleginops has a duplex (rod and cone) retina with single and occasional twin cones conspicuous centrally. Ocular vascular structures include a large choroid rete mirabile and a small lentiform body; a falciform process and hyaloid arteries are absent. The olfactory rosette is oval with 50-55 lamellae, a large number for notothenioids. The inconspicuous bony canals of the cephalic lateral line system are simple with membranous secondary branches that lack neuromasts. In Antarctic species, the corpus cerebellum is the most variable brain region, ranging in size from large and caudally projecting to small and round. "Stalked" brains showing reduction in the size of the telencephalon, tectum, and corpus cerebellum are present in the deep-living artedidraconid Dolloidraco longedorsalis and in most of the deep

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) [corrected] identifies Syagrus as sister group of the coconut.

    PubMed

    Meerow, Alan W; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W; Couvreur, Thomas L P; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J; Kuhn, David N; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H; Schnell, Raymond J

    2009-10-06

    The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for clades resolved in the Attaleinae suggests that WRKY loci are informative

  6. The genomes, proteomes, and structures of three novel phages that infect the Bacillus cereus group and carry putative virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Grose, Julianne H; Belnap, David M; Jensen, Jordan D; Mathis, Andrew D; Prince, John T; Merrill, Bryan D; Burnett, Sandra H; Breakwell, Donald P

    2014-10-01

    This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. Importance: The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding the

  7. The Genomes, Proteomes, and Structures of Three Novel Phages That Infect the Bacillus cereus Group and Carry Putative Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Belnap, David M.; Jensen, Jordan D.; Mathis, Andrew D.; Prince, John T.; Merrill, Bryan D.; Burnett, Sandra H.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reports the results of studying three novel bacteriophages, JL, Shanette, and Basilisk, which infect the pathogen Bacillus cereus and carry genes that may contribute to its pathogenesis. We analyzed host range and superinfection ability, mapped their genomes, and characterized phage structure by mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The JL and Shanette genomes were 96% similar and contained 217 open reading frames (ORFs) and 220 ORFs, respectively, while Basilisk has an unrelated genome containing 138 ORFs. Mass spectrometry revealed 23 phage particle proteins for JL and 15 for Basilisk, while only 11 and 4, respectively, were predicted to be present by sequence analysis. Structural protein homology to well-characterized phages suggested that JL and Shanette were members of the family Myoviridae, which was confirmed by TEM. The third phage, Basilisk, was similar only to uncharacterized phages and is an unrelated siphovirus. Cryogenic electron microscopy of this novel phage revealed a T=9 icosahedral capsid structure with the major capsid protein (MCP) likely having the same fold as bacteriophage HK97 MCP despite the lack of sequence similarity. Several putative virulence factors were encoded by these phage genomes, including TerC and TerD involved in tellurium resistance. Host range analysis of all three phages supports genetic transfer of such factors within the B. cereus group, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. This study provides a basis for understanding these three phages and other related phages as well as their contributions to the pathogenicity of B. cereus group bacteria. IMPORTANCE The Bacillus cereus group of bacteria contains several human and plant pathogens, including B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. Phages are intimately linked to the evolution of their bacterial hosts and often provide virulence factors, making the study of B. cereus phages important to understanding

  8. [Concordant deuteranomaly in monozygotic twin sisters (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, A T; Klein, D; Dieterle, P

    1976-12-01

    Colorblind twin sisters were born from the marriage of a hemizygote with a carrier for colorblindness. The proof of monozygosity is given by the blood-group typing and the dermatoglyphs. The deuteranomaly is of the same degree in each but is more marked in one of the sisters. The mother has none of the microsymptoms sometimes found in carriers.

  9. Pituitary cretinism in two sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, H; Watanabe, N; Ootsuka, M; Kajiwara, M; Gohya, N

    1980-01-01

    Two sisters with cretinism are reported. Each showed low levels of serum triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In the elder sister, serum TSH did not increase after administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone. We conclude that cretinism in these 2 sisters was due to TSH deficiency. This is the second report of 'familial' pituitary cretinism (TSH-deficient congenital hypothyroidism). PMID:7436542

  10. A general likelihood approach to trait-based multipoint linkage analysis in large groups of half-sibs and super sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Reinsch, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    The idea of trait-based linkage analysis in half-sibs is extended by comparing the frequency of parental marker haplotypes in animals with different phenotypes. This article first presents the likelihood of observing different classes of paternal haplotypes in a half-sib family, where only family members of a certain phenotype (e.g., affected) are genotyped and are fully informative. The likelihood function is then generalized to multiple phenotypic categories. A linear predictor allows for discontinuous as well as for continuous phenotypes and other explanatory variables. Finally, how to incorporate not fully informative offspring and how to analyze super sister families are shown. Maximum-likelihood estimates of all parameters can be found by a Newton-Raphson algorithm, which mimics an iteratively weighted least-squares procedure. The method allows for any multilocus feasible mapping function and, among others, for situations with selective or nonselective genotyping, single or multiple traits, and continuous or categorical traits. No parameters are required to describe the mode of inheritance and the method copes with virtually any family size. Fields of applications are therefore mapping experiments in species with a high reproductive capacity, such as cattle, pigs, horses, honey bees, trees, and fish. PMID:12242250

  11. Sister-sister incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    PubMed

    Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Griffee, Karen; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Beard, Keith W; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using a computer-assisted self-interview. Thirty-one participants were victims of sister-sister incest, 40 were victims of brother-sister incest, 19 were victims of father-daughter incest, 8 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult female (including one mother), and 232 were victims of sexual abuse by an adult male other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The rest (1,203) served as controls. The victims of sister-sister incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures as adults. Victims of sister-sister incest were more depressed and more likely than controls to be distant from the perpetrator-sister and to have traded sex for money, experienced an unplanned pregnancy, engaged in four different types of masturbation, and engaged in 13 different same-sex behaviors. Our findings were consistent with other reports of early eroticization and persistent hypereroticization of incest victims.

  12. Chromosome segregation: Samurai separation of Siamese sisters.

    PubMed

    Glotzer, M

    1999-07-15

    How do cells ensure that sister chromatids are precisely partitioned in mitosis? New studies on budding yeast have revealed that sister chromatid separation at anaphase requires endoproteolytic cleavage of a protein that maintains the association between sister chromatids.

  13. Where are Sedna's Sisters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. F.

    2005-05-01

    Simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud from the Kuiper Belt typically are presented as an animated scatter diagram. Here the orbit of each object appears as a point of perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a. (eg. Levison, Morbidelli, & Dones 2004). These plots show a conspicuous void, bounded by the inequalities: q < a, q > 50 AU, and a < 5000-10000 AU. Brown (2005) calls this void the ``Bermuda Triangle". The only present occupant is Sedna (q=76 AU, a=501 AU). Brown, Trujillo, & Rabinowitz , the discovers of Sedna, have challenged others to explain how Sedna got inside the triangle and to predict where similar objects might be found. Sedna could not have simply formed in its current orbit by the accumulation of smaller objects (Stern 2005). Several authors have suggested that a passing star scattered Sedna into the triangle shortly after the birth of the solar system. Here I offer an alternative which uses the very strong galactic tidal forces of the Sinusoidal potential (Bartlett 2001, 2004). In this potential, the numerator of Newton's law is replaced by GM cos(ko r) where ko = 2 π / lambdao and the 'wavelength' λ o is 425 pc. The 20 radial oscillations between the sun and the center of the Galaxy give tidal forces that are 120 times as big as generally expected. I will show how this tidal force, acting over the lifetime of the solar system, could move the perihelion of Sedna from about 40 to 76 AU. Sedna's sisters are likely to have still larger q & a and to have perihelia in two specific quadrants of the ecliptic plane.

  14. The genome and linkage map of the northern pike (Esox lucius): conserved synteny revealed between the salmonid sister group and the Neoteleostei.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Minkley, David R; Leong, Jong S; Messmer, Amber M; Jantzen, Johanna R; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H; Koop, Ben F

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations of the

  15. The Genome and Linkage Map of the Northern Pike (Esox lucius): Conserved Synteny Revealed between the Salmonid Sister Group and the Neoteleostei

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Eric B.; Minkley, David R.; Leong, Jong S.; Messmer, Amber M.; Jantzen, Johanna R.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Lemon, Craig; Bird, Nathan H.; Koop, Ben F.

    2014-01-01

    The northern pike is the most frequently studied member of the Esociformes, the closest order to the diverse and economically important Salmoniformes. The ancestor of all salmonids purportedly experienced a whole-genome duplication (WGD) event, making salmonid species ideal for studying the early impacts of genome duplication while complicating their use in wider analyses of teleost evolution. Studies suggest that the Esociformes diverged from the salmonid lineage prior to the WGD, supporting the use of northern pike as a pre-duplication outgroup. Here we present the first genome assembly, reference transcriptome and linkage map for northern pike, and evaluate the suitability of this species to provide a representative pre-duplication genome for future studies of salmonid and teleost evolution. The northern pike genome sequence is composed of 94,267 contigs (N50 = 16,909 bp) contained in 5,688 scaffolds (N50 = 700,535 bp); the total scaffolded genome size is 878 million bases. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that over 96% of the protein-coding genome is present in the genome assembly. The reference transcriptome was constructed from 13 tissues and contains 38,696 transcripts, which are accompanied by normalized expression data in all tissues. Gene-prediction analysis produced a total of 19,601 northern pike-specific gene models. The first-generation linkage map identifies 25 linkage groups, in agreement with northern pike's diploid karyotype of 2N = 50, and facilitates the placement of 46% of assembled bases onto linkage groups. Analyses reveal a high degree of conserved synteny between northern pike and other model teleost genomes. While conservation of gene order is limited to smaller syntenic blocks, the wider conservation of genome organization implies the northern pike exhibits a suitable approximation of a non-duplicated Protacanthopterygiian genome. This dataset will facilitate future studies of esocid biology and empower ongoing examinations

  16. Novel insertion sequence-like elements in phytoplasma strains of the aster yellows group are putative new members of the IS3 family.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-M; Zhao, Y; Bottner, K D

    2005-01-15

    Novel insertion sequence (IS)-like elements were isolated and characterized from phytoplasma strains in the aster yellows (AY) group (16SrI). The IS-like elements were cloned from phytoplasma strains AY1 and NJAY or PCR-amplified from 15 additional strains representing nine subgroups in the AY group using primers based on sequences of the putative transposases (Tpases). All IS-like elements contained sequences encoding similar Tpases of 321 amino acids (320 for strain CPh). Substantial amino acid sequence variability suggested multiple species of Tpases or IS-like elements exist in the AY phytoplasma group. These Tpases have an identical DDE motif that is most similar to the DDE consensus of Tpases in the IS3 family.

  17. Obstetric prognosis in sisters of preeclamptic women - implications for genetic linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo; Kirkinen, Pertti

    2003-02-23

    BACKGROUND: To investigate obstetric prognosis in sisters of preeclamptic women. METHODS: We identified consecutive 635 sib pairs from the Birth Registry data of Kuopio University Hospital who had their first delivery between January 1989 and December 1999 in our institution. Of these, in 530 pairs both sisters had non-preeclamptic pregnancies (the reference group), in 63 pairs one of the sisters had preeclampsia and the unaffected sisters were studied (study group I). In 42 pairs both sister's first delivery was affected (study group II). Pregnancy outcome measures in these groups were compared. RESULTS: Unaffected sisters of the index patients had uncompromised fetal growth in their pregnancies, and overall, as good obstetric outcomes as in the reference group. The data on affected sisters of the index patients showed an increased prematurity rate, and increased incidences of low birth weight and small-for-gestational age infants, as expected. CONCLUSION: Unaffected sisters of the index patients had no signs of utero-placental insufficiency and they were at low risk with regard to adverse obstetric outcome, whereas affected sisters were high-risk. Clinically, affected versus unaffected status appears to be clear-cut in first-degree relatives regardless of their genetic susceptibility and unaffected sisters do not need special antepartum surveillance.

  18. Recognition of chitooligosaccharides and their N-acetyl groups by putative subsites of chitin deacetylase from a deuteromycete, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    PubMed

    Tokuyasu, K; Mitsutomi, M; Yamaguchi, I; Hayashi, K; Mori, Y

    2000-08-01

    The reaction pattern of an extracellular chitin deacetylase from a Deuteromycete, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum ATCC 56676, was investigated by use of chitooligosaccharides [(GlcNAc)(n)(), n = 3-6] and partially N-deacetylated chitooligosaccharides as substrates. When 0.5% of (GlcNAc)(n)() was deacetylated, the corresponding monodeacetylated products were initially detected without any processivity, suggesting the involvement of a multiple-chain mechanism for the deacetylation reaction. The structural analysis of these first-step products indicated that the chitin deacetylase strongly recognizes a sequence of four N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) residues of the substrate (the subsites for the four GlcNAc residues are defined as -2, -1, 0, and +1, respectively, from the nonreducing end to the reducing end), and the N-acetyl group in the GlcNAc residue positioned at subsite 0 is exclusively deacetylated. When substrates of a low concentration (100 microM) were deacetylated, the initial deacetylation rate for (GlcNAc)(4) was comparable to that of (GlcNAc)(5), while deacetylation of (GlcNAc)(3) could not be detected. Reaction rate analyses of partially N-deacetylated chitooligosaccharides suggested that subsite -2 strongly recognizes the N-acetyl group of the GlcNAc residue of the substrate, while the deacetylation rate was not affected when either subsite -1 or +1 was occupied with a D-glucosamine residue instead of GlcNAc residue. Thus, the reaction pattern of the chitin deacetylase is completely distinct from that of a Zygomycete, Mucor rouxii, which produces a chitin deacetylase for accumulation of chitosan in its cell wall.

  19. EBL-1, a putative erythrocyte binding protein of Plasmodium falciparum, maps within a favored linkage group in two genetic crosses.

    PubMed

    Peterson, D S; Wellems, T E

    2000-01-05

    The Duffy binding-like (DBL) superfamily of Plasmodium falciparum encompasses genes which encode ligands for host cell receptors. This superfamily includes two distinct groups of genes, the var genes which encode antigenically variant cytoadherence proteins (PfEMP1), and the eba-175 gene which encodes a glycophorin A binding protein involved in erythrocyte invasion. Here we describe another DBL superfamily member related to eba-175, the ebl-1 gene. Like the eba-175 gene, ebl-1 is a single copy gene encoding DBL domains that have sequences and an overall arrangement distinct from var genes. The inheritance of ebl-1 was found to be strongly favored in two genetic crosses in which one parental clone lacked a chromosome segment carrying the gene. A proliferation phenotype has been previously linked to the same chromosome segment in the first genetic cross. These results suggest that ebl-1 and eba-175 are related members of a multigene family involved in the invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum.

  20. A Brief Analysis of Sister Carrie's Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Hanying

    2010-01-01

    Carrie is always dreaming while the rocking chair is rocking again and again, this is the deep impression on us after we read "Sister Carrie" which is the first novel of Theodore Dreiser. In this novel the protagonist Sister Carrie is a controversial person. This paper tries to analyze the character of Sister Carrie in order to find out…

  1. Two Sisters with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenggeli, Charles A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Clinical histories and physical findings are presented for 2 sisters with Rett syndrome. The older sister, age 25, was typically affected, whereas the younger sister, 22 years old, was affected with a seizure disorder showing an unusually early onset. The paper discusses hypotheses in genetic causation of Rett syndrome. (JDD)

  2. Two Sisters with Rett Syndrome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenggeli, Charles A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Clinical histories and physical findings are presented for 2 sisters with Rett syndrome. The older sister, age 25, was typically affected, whereas the younger sister, 22 years old, was affected with a seizure disorder showing an unusually early onset. The paper discusses hypotheses in genetic causation of Rett syndrome. (JDD)

  3. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor"…

  4. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor"…

  5. Complete genome sequence analysis and identification of putative metallo-beta-lactamase and SpoIIIE homologs in Bacillus cereus group phage BCP8-2, a new member of the proposed Bastille-like group.

    PubMed

    Asare, Paul Tetteh; Bandara, Nadeeka; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Ryu, Sangryeol; Klumpp, Jochen; Kim, Kwang-Pyo

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus cereus group-specific bacteriophage BCP8-2 exhibits a broad lysis spectrum among food and human isolates (330/364) of B. cereus while not infecting B. subtilis (50) or B. licheniformis (12) strains. Its genome is 159,071 bp long with 220 open reading frames, including genes for putative methyltransferases, metallo-beta-lactamase, and a sporulation-related SpoIIIE homolog, as wells as 18 tRNAs. Comparative genome analysis showed that BCP8-2 is related to the recently proposed Bastille-like phages, but not with either SPO1-like or Twort-like phages of the subfamily Spounavirinae.

  6. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the green alga Pseudendoclonium akinetum (Ulvophyceae) highlights distinctive evolutionary trends in the chlorophyta and suggests a sister-group relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae.

    PubMed

    Pombert, Jean-François; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique

    2004-05-01

    appears to be accelerated to an intermediary level as compared with the rates observed in "ancestral" and "reduced-derived" mtDNAs. In agreement with the finding that Pseudendoclonium mtDNA exhibits features typical of both the "ancestral" and "reduced-derived" patterns of evolution, phylogenetic analyses of seven mtDNA-encoded proteins revealed a sister-group relationship between this ulvophyte and chlorophytes displaying "reduced-derived" mtDNAs.

  7. Evolution of Pleopsidium (lichenized Ascomycota) S943 group I introns and the phylogeography of an intron-encoded putative homing endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Valérie; Haugen, Peik; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Lutzoni, François

    2007-03-01

    The sporadic distribution of nuclear group I introns among different fungal lineages can be explained by vertical inheritance of the introns followed by successive losses, or horizontal transfers from one lineage to another through intron homing or reverse splicing. Homing is mediated by an intron-encoded homing endonuclease (HE) and recent studies suggest that the introns and their associated HE gene (HEG) follow a recurrent cyclical model of invasion, degeneration, loss, and reinvasion. The purpose of this study was to compare this model to the evolution of HEGs found in the group I intron at position S943 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of the lichen-forming fungus Pleopsidium. Forty-eight S943 introns were found in the 64 Pleopsidium samples from a worldwide screen, 22 of which contained a full-length HEG that encodes a putative 256-amino acid HE, and 2 contained HE pseudogenes. The HEGs are divided into two closely related types (as are the introns that encode them) that differ by 22.6% in their nucleotide sequences. The evolution of the Pleopsidium intron-HEG element shows strong evidence for a cyclical model of evolution. The intron was likely acquired twice in the genus and then transmitted via two or three interspecific horizontal transfers. Close geographical proximity plays an important role in intron-HEG horizontal transfer because most of these mobile elements were found in Europe. Once acquired in a lineage, the intron-HEG element was also vertically transmitted, and occasionally degenerated or was lost.

  8. Fulfilling the sisters' promise. The heritage of healthcare's early days.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1997-01-01

    Members of religious orders--the sisters--built not just Catholic healthcare, but healthcare in America. A good 50 years before Henry and Edgar Kaiser got the idea, prepaid capitated health insurance was being offered by sisters who looked at what was needed and realized this was simply the best way to get it done. The sisters also created the integrated healthcare system at a time when the emerging medical elite wanted nothing to do with any patient who was not socially acceptable and potentially curable. They arranged a continuum of care for the aging sisters within their own communities. And they understood the concept of social medicine, of population-based healthcare, of healthy communities, long before these ideas became commonplace. But the sisters are gone, most of them. The question today is, How do we preserve the sisters' heritage and transfer it to a new millennium, a new healthcare system, and a new set of rules? First, it is important to understand that much of what we remember the sisters for--courage, compassion, vision-was not unique. They created many of the structures that today are the new models; but they were not alone. However, three aspects of how they expressed their vision and their faith were unique to the sisters and must be understood by those who wish to treat the path the sisters blazed. The purity of their commitment and its underlying philosophy--that the helpless and the sick must always be the point of the exercise--should pervade Catholic healthcare to its soul. These women, living in poverty, represented, and still represent, a singular group: a group of women who, having told the world that their only wish is to serve others, humble became CEOs of vast systems and trustees of huge enterprises, without ever abandoning that simple, original pledge. Although they bowed to the rule of obedience, and they were humble, the were fighters. They spoke out against poverty, bigotry, the shunning of those with certain diseases, lack of

  9. little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play.

    PubMed

    De Berry, Misty

    2016-09-12

    little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play is at once a memory-scape and a mytho-biography set to poetry, movement, and mixed media. A performance poem spanning from the Antebellum South to present-moment Chicago, it tells the story of a nomadic spirit named little-she who shape-shifts through the memories and imaginings of her sister, the narrator. Through the characters little-she and the narrator, the solo-performance explores embodied ways to rupture and relieve the impact of macro forms of violence in the micro realm of the everyday. To this end, little sister witnesses and disrupts the legacy of violence in the lives of queer Black women through a trans-temporal navigation of everyday encounters within familial, small groups and intimate partner spaces.

  10. Holocentric plant meiosis: first sisters, then homologues.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, Stefan; Schubert, Veit; Houben, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Meiosis is a crucial process of sexual reproduction by forming haploid gametes from diploid precursor cells. It involves 2 subsequent divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) after one initial round of DNA replication. Homologous monocentric chromosomes are separated during the first and sister chromatids during the second meiotic division. The faithful segregation of monocentric chromosomes is realized by mono-orientation of fused sister kinetochores at metaphase I and by bi-orientation of sister kinetochores at metaphase II. Conventionally this depends on a 2-step loss of cohesion, along chromosome arms during meiosis I and at sister centromeres during meiosis II.

  11. Putative new genera and species of avian schistosomes potentially involved in human cercarial dermatitis in the Americas, Europe and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson A; Pulido-Murillo, Eduardo A; de Melo, Alan L; Brant, Sara V

    2017-12-01

    New larval avian schistosomes found in planorbid snails from Brazil and USA were used for morphological and molecular studies. Eggs with a distinctive long polar filament were found in ducks infected experimentally with Brazilian cercariae. Similar eggs were reported previously in wild or experimentally infected anatids from Brazil, South Africa, and the Czech Republic. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that the North American and European schistosomes are sister taxa, which are both sister to the Brazilian species. However, these clades do not group with any named genus. Molecular data plus egg morphology suggest that these are new putative genera and species of avian schistosomes that can cause human cercarial dermatitis in the Americas, Africa and Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Triassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Corwin; Liu, Jun; Butler, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs) following the Permo–Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower–Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’, and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no apomorphies or unique

  13. [A method to calculate the probability of paternity between relatives--a paternity case where the putative father was a deceased granduncle].

    PubMed

    Ishitani, A; Minakata, K; Ito, N; Nagaike, C; Morimura, Y; Hirota, T; Hatake, K

    1996-06-01

    To test paternity in a case where the putative father was a deceased uncle of mother (plaintiff's granduncle), we designed a new method to calculate the probability of paternity likelihood. The putative father's genotypes of red cell antigens, HLA and short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism were estimated from those of mother and sister of the plaintiff. When the probability was calculated from the frequencies in the unrelated individuals (the standard method), a significant bias might be introduced since the putative father and the plaintiff were likely to have the same alleles come from their common ancestry. Therefore, we designed a new method to calculate the likelihood ratio from the frequencies in the group of mother's uncles estimated from mother's genotypes. The probability (0.9299) calculated with our method was found to be lower than that (0.9992) done with the standard method indicating that the new method could remove the bias introduced from the incest.

  14. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2014-03-07

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under 'budding' speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister-non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities.

  15. All in the Family: The Sister Study

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues All in the Family: The Sister Study Past Issues / ... that may ultimately eliminate this dreaded disease. We all know that breast cancer does not discriminate. Whether ...

  16. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Tips on what to say to your friends, how to deal with stress, and where to find support – as well as information about cancer and cancer treatments, for young people who have a brother or sister with cancer.

  17. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  18. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    PubMed

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  19. Sisters of pregnant teens at risk of unwanted pregnancy, CDC says.

    PubMed

    1985-06-01

    Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control suggest that family planning professionals focus efforts to prevent unwanted pregnancies on the sisters of pregnant teenagers. Dr. Andrew M. Friede states that because sisters of pregnant teenagers can be easily identified, they should be sought out and actively enrolled in family planning programs. To determine if the sisters of pregnant teenagers are a high risk group for unwanted pregnancy, researchers analyzed the pregnancy hisory of 3731 women aged 12-16 in multisister families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in Arkansas from 1978-80. A preliminary analysis revealed that teenagers with pregnant sisters had a relative risk of pregnancy of 1.8 compared with teens without pregnant sisters. Further analysis permitted researchers to examine such factors as race, number of people in the household eligible for AFDC, degree of urbanization, and history of family planning services. They confirmed that a young woman with a pregnant sister was more likely to become pregnant, but they also found that the risk was higher if the pregnant sister was older (2.4 relative risk) than if the pregnant sister was younger (1.3 relative risk). The analysis revealed that blacks were at increased risk (2.8 relative risk) as were members of households with 9 or more persons eligible for AFDC (1.8 relative risk). Friede noted that 20% of black women who are exposed to a pregnant sister may be pregnant by their 17th birthday. He recommended further research to identify other groups at high risk and emphasized that improved understanding of families is needed.

  20. Chromosome and sister chromatid exchange studies in Behcet's patients.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Sitki; Gullulu, Gulay; Tatar, Abdulgani; Astam, Neslihan; Akyol, Ilknur; Karakuzu, Ali; Aktas, Akin; Odabas, Ali Riza

    2006-06-01

    Behcet's disease is a chronic multisystemic disease of unknown pathogenesis characterized by four major symptoms: oral aphthous ulcers, skin lesions, ocular symptoms and genital ulcerations. The disease is spread throughout the world, but it is most frequent in Turkey, Japan, Korea and China. Although HLA-Bw51 has been found to predominate in Behcet's cases, the genetic etiology has not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the chromosomal abnormalities and sister chromatid exchange rates in patients with Behcet's diseases. Thirty-eight patients with Behcet's disease (diagnosed for the first time) and 30 healthy subjects (as controls) were included in this study. Although numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in our patients, we found an increased rate of sister chromatid exchange in patients over the control groups (P < 0.01). On the basis of these results, we discuss the genetic etiology of Behcet's disease.

  1. Southall Black Sisters. Hannana Siddiqui speaks to Rasna Warah.

    PubMed

    Warah, R

    1994-01-01

    Southall Black Sisters, an organization for Asian and Afro-Caribbean women in Great Britain, was established in 1979 at the height of anti-racist protests to address the otherwise neglected issue of women's oppression. The group has campaigned against discriminatory immigration laws, illegal virginity tests at Heathrow airport, domestic violence, and other issues of particular concern to British Asian women. Women who migrate to England for an arranged marriage must remain with their husband at least 1 year or face deportation and denial of any public assistance, placing them at risk of unreported domestic violence. Southall Black Sisters has attempted to raise the public consciousness about domestic violence as a criminal issue and garner support for Asian women who leave abusive husbands. However, no support has been forthcoming from the anti-racist movement, which fears that publicity on domestic violence will create a racist backlash against Asian men. More support has been available for the group's campaign to protect battered women who kill their husbands by removing from the law on provocation the need for an immediate response. Another campaign has involved protests against "bounty hunters" hired by Asian families to return girls who have escaped from arranged marriages in their home country or sexual abuse within their family. Southall Black Sisters attributes many of the problems faced by its clients to a rise in religious fundamentalism and Muslim attempts to reverse the gains of the feminist movement.

  2. The geography and ecology of plant speciation: range overlap and niche divergence in sister species

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Brian L.; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2014-01-01

    A goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the roles of geography and ecology in speciation. The recent shared ancestry of sister species can leave a major imprint on their geographical and ecological attributes, possibly revealing processes involved in speciation. We examined how ecological similarity, range overlap and range asymmetry are related to time since divergence of 71 sister species pairs in the California Floristic Province (CFP). We found that plants exhibit strikingly different age-range correlation patterns from those found for animals; the latter broadly support allopatric speciation as the primary mode of speciation. By contrast, plant sisters in the CFP were sympatric in 80% of cases and range sizes of sisters differed by a mean of 10-fold. Range overlap and range asymmetry were greatest in younger sisters. These results suggest that speciation mechanisms broadly grouped under ‘budding’ speciation, in which a larger ranged progenitor gives rise to a smaller ranged derivative species, are probably common. The ecological and reproductive similarity of sisters was significantly greater than that of sister–non-sister congeners for every trait assessed. However, shifts in at least one trait were present in 93% of the sister pairs; habitat and soil shifts were especially common. Ecological divergence did not increase with range overlap contrary to expectations under character displacement in sympatry. Our results suggest that vicariant speciation is more ubiquitous in animals than plants, perhaps owing to the sensitivity of plants to fine-scale environmental heterogeneity. Despite high levels of range overlap, ecological shifts in the process of budding speciation may result in low rates of fine-scale spatial co-occurrence. These results have implications for ecological studies of trait evolution and community assembly; despite high levels of sympatry, sister taxa and potentially other close relatives, may be missing from local communities

  3. Perceptions of "Big Sisters" and Their "Little Sisters" Regarding Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Alice; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the relationships between six Little Sisters (mentees) and their Big Sisters (mentors) to develop an understanding of the perceptions of high-risk adolescent female mentees and their mentors regarding their mentoring relationships. Participants were purposefully selected--those actively involved in a formal…

  4. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    PubMed Central

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  5. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  6. Sister Circles as a Culturally Relevant Intervention for Anxious African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Neal-Barnett, Angela; Stadulis, Robert; Murray, Marsheena; Payne, Margaret Ralston; Thomas, Anisha; Salley, Bernadette B.

    2011-01-01

    Research on anxiety treatment with African American women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. Sister circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among African Americans females. Sister circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore sister circles as an intervention for anxious African American women. Culturally-infused aspects from our sister circle work with middle-class African American women are presented. Further research is needed. PMID:22081747

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of the Intracellular Facultative Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis: Expression of Putative Groups of Genes Associated with Virulence and Iron Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Machuca, Alvaro; Martinez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular facultative bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the most important pathogens of the Chilean aquaculture. However, there is a lack of information regarding the whole genomic transcriptional response according to different extracellular environments. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) of RNA (RNA-seq) to study the whole transcriptome of an isolate of P. salmonis (FAVET-INBIOGEN) using a cell line culture and a modified cell-free liquid medium, with or without iron supplementation. This was done in order to obtain information about the factors there are involved in virulence and iron acquisition. First, the isolate was grown in the Sf21 cell line; then, the bacteria were cultured into a cell-free liquid medium supplemented or not with iron. We identified in the transcriptome, genes associated with type IV secretion systems, genes related to flagellar structure assembly, several proteases and sigma factors, and genes related to the development of drug resistance. Additionally, we identified for the first time several iron-metabolism associated genes including at least two iron uptake pathways (ferrous iron and ferric iron uptake) that are actually expressed in the different conditions analyzed. We further describe putative genes that are related with the use and storage of iron in the bacteria, which have not been previously described. Several sets of genes related to virulence were expressed in both the cell line and cell-free culture media (for example those related to flagellar structure; such as basal body, MS-ring, C-ring, proximal and distal rod, and filament), which may play roles in other basic processes rather than been restricted to virulence. PMID:28033422

  8. Immunoreactivity and differential developmental expression of known and putative Chlamydia trachomatis membrane proteins for biologically variant serovars representing distinct disease groups.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João P; Hsia, Ru-ching; Mead, Sally; Borrego, Maria J; Dean, Deborah

    2005-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that causes ocular and urogenital diseases worldwide. Membrane proteins have only been partially characterized, and the discovery of a nine-member polymorphic membrane protein gene family has enhanced interest in defining their function. We previously reported two putative insertion sequence-like elements in pmpC for biovariant Ba and one each for G and L2, suggesting horizontal gene transfer. Because of this and the tissue tropism differences for these biovariants, we analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR pmpC expression relative to immunogenic protein genes ompA, groEL and gseA throughout development. Sera from infected adolescents were reacted by immunoblot against recombinant (r)PmpC and rMOMP. ompA and groEL revealed different developmental transcriptome profiles among the biovariants. pmpC expression occurred at 2 h, peaked at 18 for L2 (at 24 for Ba and G), with the highest mRNA levels throughout development for L2. pmpC expression as a function of time paralleled ompA expression with higher mRNA levels compared with groEL later in development. Only sera from D-, E- and G-infected patients reacted to rPmpC; all infected patients reacted to rMOMP. pmpC expression during logarithmic growth suggests a role in membrane building and/or integrity, which is supported by the presence of a signal peptidase and C-terminal phenylalanine in PmpC. Because phylogenetic analyses of pmpC segregate serovars according to tissue tropism, we speculate that biovariant transcriptome differences may contribute to this tropism. The heterogeneous biovariant pmpC expression throughout development and differential PmpC immunoreactivity also suggest a role for pmpC in antigenic variation.

  9. Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Moroz, Leonid L; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-05-05

    Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ctenophores or sponges as sister to other animals has been limited and inconsistent among studies. Lack of agreement among phylogenomic analyses using different data and methods obscures how complex traits, such as epithelia, neurons, and muscles evolved. A consensus view of animal evolution will not be accepted until datasets and methods converge on a single hypothesis of early metazoan relationships and putative sources of systematic error (e.g., long-branch attraction, compositional bias, poor model choice) are assessed. Here, we investigate possible causes of systematic error by expanding taxon sampling with eight novel transcriptomes, strictly enforcing orthology inference criteria, and progressively examining potential causes of systematic error while using both maximum-likelihood with robust data partitioning and Bayesian inference with a site-heterogeneous model. We identified ribosomal protein genes as possessing a conflicting signal compared with other genes, which caused some past studies to infer ctenophores and cnidarians as sister. Importantly, biases resulting from elevated compositional heterogeneity or elevated substitution rates are ruled out. Placement of ctenophores as sister to all other animals, and sponge monophyly, are strongly supported under multiple analyses, herein.

  10. Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Nathan V.; Kocot, Kevin M.; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ctenophores or sponges as sister to other animals has been limited and inconsistent among studies. Lack of agreement among phylogenomic analyses using different data and methods obscures how complex traits, such as epithelia, neurons, and muscles evolved. A consensus view of animal evolution will not be accepted until datasets and methods converge on a single hypothesis of early metazoan relationships and putative sources of systematic error (e.g., long-branch attraction, compositional bias, poor model choice) are assessed. Here, we investigate possible causes of systematic error by expanding taxon sampling with eight novel transcriptomes, strictly enforcing orthology inference criteria, and progressively examining potential causes of systematic error while using both maximum-likelihood with robust data partitioning and Bayesian inference with a site-heterogeneous model. We identified ribosomal protein genes as possessing a conflicting signal compared with other genes, which caused some past studies to infer ctenophores and cnidarians as sister. Importantly, biases resulting from elevated compositional heterogeneity or elevated substitution rates are ruled out. Placement of ctenophores as sister to all other animals, and sponge monophyly, are strongly supported under multiple analyses, herein. PMID:25902535

  11. The Seven Sisters Pose for Spitzer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-16

    The Seven Sisters, also known as the Pleiades star cluster, seem to float on a bed of feathers in a new infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Clouds of dust sweep around the stars, swaddling them in a cushiony veil.

  12. When Your Brother or Sister Has Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Help when a brother or sister has cancer. Learn how families cope and find support when a sibling has cancer. Tips to help you talk with your friends, deal with stress, and take care of your mind and body are also shared.

  13. Differences in Two Sisters' Acquisition of First Verbs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunwald, Susan R.

    This study examined prior qualitative differences in the process of the emergence of verb use in two sisters when they were each 12 to 24 months of age (the older sister is 2 years and 9 months older than the younger sister). Daily diaries on both children were kept by the mother, who noted emergent structure and vocabulary. Systematic Analysis of…

  14. Suicide pact among three young sisters.

    PubMed

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Yanik, Medaim

    2005-01-01

    A suicide pact is an agreement between two or more people to kill themselves. They represent 0.6-4.0% of all suicides, the vast majority being double suicides. We present a triple suicide pact involving three young sisters. Atypical features of this case include the number of participants, their young ages, and their good health conditions. Similarities to previously reported cases include participants having family disturbances, histories of depression and borderline personality.

  15. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  16. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric...

  17. Propargyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate: A Putatively More Stable Prosthetic group for the Fluorine-18 Labeling of Biomolecules via Click Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; White, Benjamin J.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Faster and more efficient approaches for radiolabeling biomolecules with short-lived 18F are in dire need. Herein we report a new 18F-labeled prosthetic group containing an acetylene function that permits the labeling of biomolecules via click chemistry. This template, propargyl 4-[18F]fluorobenzoate ([18F]PFB) was synthesized from a quaternary salt precursor in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 58 ± 31%. Several model compounds containing an azide moiety—benzyl azide, two lysine derivatives and a transglutaminase-reactive peptide—were labeled using [18F]PFB via a click reaction in decay-corrected radiochemical yields of 88 ± 4%, 79 ± 33%, 75 ± 5%, and 37 ± 31%, respectively. Our results suggest that the novel agent [18F]PFB is a potentially useful template for the 18F-labeling of biomolecules via click chemistry. PMID:20414475

  18. Putative new groups of invertebrate water channels based on the snail Helix pomatia L. (Helicidae) MIP protein identification and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kosicka, Ewa; Grobys, Daria; Kmita, Hanna; Lesicki, Andrzej; Pieńkowska, Joanna R

    2016-12-01

    Water channel proteins, classified as a family of Membrane Intrinsic Proteins (MIPs) superfamily, enable rapid movement of water and small uncharged molecules through biological membranes. Although water channel proteins are required in several important processes characteristic for the animals, such as osmoregulation, mucus secretion, or defense against desiccation, molluscs, until now, have been very poorly explored in this aspect. Therefore, we decided to study MIPs in Helix pomatia L. applied as a model in studies on terrestrial snail physiology. Our studies consisted in: the snail organ transcriptome sequencing and consecutive bioinformatic analysis of the predicted protein, estimation of the encoding transcript expression (qPCR), investigation of the predicted protein function in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the phylogenetic analysis. We identified six water channel proteins, named HpAQP1 to HpAQP6. All of them were proven to transport water, two of them (HpAQP3 and HpAQP4) were also shown to be able to transport glycerol, and other two (HpAQP5 and HpAQP6) to transport H2O2. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the proteins either fell into aquaporins (HpAQP1, HpAQP2 and HpAQP5) or formed new groups of invertebrate water channel proteins, not described until now, that we suggest to term malacoglyceroporins (HpAQP3 and HpAQP4) and malacoaquaporins (HpAQP6). Thus, the classification of animal water channels based on the vertebrate proteins and including aquaporin, aquaglyceroporin, S-aquaporin and AQP8-type grades does not reflect diversity of these proteins in invertebrates. The obtained results provide important data concerning diversity of water channel protein repertoire in aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates and should also contribute to the improvement of animal water channel classification system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromosome breakage and sister chromatid exchange analysis in computer operators

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.G.; Yost, J.; Jenkins, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome breakage analysis with Mitomycin C (MMC) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were obtained on 10 computer operators with computer exposure for a minimum of 3 hours per day for 4 years and 10 control subjects matched for age and personal lifestyle. No difference was found between the two groups in the total number of chromatid and chromosome aberrations in cells grown at 48 and/or 96 hours in Mitomycin C (20 or 50 ng/ml-final concentration). The average number of SCE per cell in approximately 30 cells from each person was 6.4 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- standard deviation) for the computer operators and 9.2 +/- 1.6 for the controls. This difference was significant (p < .001). The replicative index was significantly higher (p < .01) in computer operators than in control subjects. The number of SCE appeared not to be influenced by the years of computer exposure. Additional studies with larger sample sizes will be needed to identify if significant differences exist in cell kinetics and sister chromatid exchanges in individuals employed as computer operators.

  20. Neuropsychological profiles of three sisters homozygous for the fragile X premutation

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, M.M.M.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome (fraX) is associated with an amplification of a CGG repeat within the fraX mental retardation (FMR-1) gene. We describe an exceptional family in which 3 adult sisters are homozygous for the FMR-1 premutation. Each sister inherited 2 premutation alleles (ca. 80 CGG repeats) from their biologically unrelated parents. The 3 sisters were administered measures of executive function, visual spatial, memory, and verbal skills. Deficiencies in the first 2 of these domains have been reported among females with the full mutation. The sisters` performances were compared with available normative data and with published group means for females affected by fraX. These women did not appear to have verbal or memory difficulties. None of the women demonstrated a global executive function deficit, and none had global deficits in spatial ability. The profiles of these sisters are consistent with reports that the fragile X premutation does not affect cognitive performance. 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  2. Exploring Undergraduate Black Womyn's Motivations for Engaging in "Sister Circle" Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Natasha N.; Beatty, Cameron C.; Acker, Lorraine D.; Butler, Malika

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this critical qualitative inquiry was to explore what motivated undergraduate Black womyn (UBW) to engage in "Sister Circle"-type student organizations--or groups that center race and gender. Using a critical race feminist theoretical lens, data were collected through a combination of one-on-one interviews and focus…

  3. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  4. Genome evolution in Reptilia, the sister group of mammals.

    PubMed

    Janes, Daniel E; Organ, Christopher L; Fujita, Matthew K; Shedlock, Andrew M; Edwards, Scott V

    2010-01-01

    The genomes of birds and nonavian reptiles (Reptilia) are critical for understanding genome evolution in mammals and amniotes generally. Despite decades of study at the chromosomal and single-gene levels, and the evidence for great diversity in genome size, karyotype, and sex chromosome diversity, reptile genomes are virtually unknown in the comparative genomics era. The recent sequencing of the chicken and zebra finch genomes, in conjunction with genome scans and the online publication of the Anolis lizard genome, has begun to clarify the events leading from an ancestral amniote genome--predicted to be large and to possess a diverse repeat landscape on par with mammals and a birdlike sex chromosome system--to the small and highly streamlined genomes of birds. Reptilia exhibit a wide range of evolutionary rates of different subgenomes and, from isochores to mitochondrial DNA, provide a critical contrast to the genomic paradigms established in mammals.

  5. Regulation of sister chromatid cohesion during the mitotic cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ge; Yu, HongTao

    2015-11-01

    Orderly execution of two critical events during the cell cycle--DNA replication and chromosome segregation--ensures the stable transmission of genetic materials. The cohesin complex physically connects sister chromatids during DNA replication in a process termed sister chromatid cohesion. Timely establishment and dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion is a prerequisite for accurate chromosome segregation, and is tight regulated by the cell cycle machinery and cohesin-associated proteins. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the molecular understanding of sister chromatid cohesion during the mitotic cell cycle.

  6. A Bangladeshi family with three sisters 'Bombay' or Oh phenotype.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Abdullah, A Z; Husain, M; Hague, K M; Hossain, M M

    1990-12-01

    Three sisters in a same family (MIAH FAMILY) are of 'Bombay' phenotype. These being the first known female examples of 'Bombay' blood group have been detected in Bangladesh. As predicted by current theory their red cells are Le(a+b-) and their saliva do not contain any of the antigens A, B and H except Lea substance. Family studies showed that individuals with 'Bombay' or Oh phenotype may have A or B gene which are not expressed. This very particular type of blood is one of the rarest in any other parts of world except in India. Due to the presence of anti-H antibody in the plasma of Oh phenotype, when considering such patients for transfusion only blood of identical Bombay type can be safely transfused.

  7. EarthLabs Meet Sister Corita Kent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quartini, E.; Ellins, K. K.; Cavitte, M. G.; Thirumalai, K.; Ledley, T. S.; Haddad, N.; Lynds, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthLabs project provides a framework to enhance high school students' climate literacy and awareness of climate change. The project provides climate science curriculum and teacher professional development, followed by research on students' learning as teachers implement EarthLabs climate modules in the classroom. The professional development targets high school teachers whose professional growth is structured around exposure to current climate science research, data observation collection and analysis. During summer workshops in Texas and Mississippi, teachers work through the laboratories, experiments, and hand-on activities developed for their students. In summer 2013, three graduate students from the University of Texas at Austin Institute for Geophysics with expertise in climate science participated in two weeklong workshops. The graduate students partnered with exemplary teacher leaders to provide scientific content and lead the EarthLabs learning activities. As an experiment, we integrated a visit to the Blanton Museum and an associated activity in order to motivate participants to think creatively, as well as analytically, about science. This exercise was inspired by the work and educational philosophy of Sister Corita Kent. During the visit to the Blanton Museum, we steered participants towards specific works of art pre-selected to emphasize aspects of the climate of Texas and to draw participants' attention to ways in which artists convey different concepts. For example, artists use of color, lines, and symbols conjure emotional responses to imagery in the viewer. The second part of the exercise asked participants to choose a climate message and to convey this through a collage. We encouraged participants to combine their experience at the museum with examples of Sister Corita Kent's artwork. We gave them simple guidelines for the project based on techniques and teaching of Sister Corita Kent. Evaluation results reveal that participants enjoyed the

  8. Mentoring At-Risk Adolescent Girls: Listening to "Little Sisters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Nancy L.; Quarles, Alice; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop an understanding of mentoring relationships and the impact these relationships might have on the development of high-risk adolescent girls, this qualitative study explored the relationships between six "Little Sisters" and their "Big Sister" mentors. The purposefully-selected sample includes women and girls…

  9. One sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Joon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Ungsoo S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of one sister and brother with mirror image myopic anisometropia. One sister and brother complained visual disturbance. The sister was 10 years 11 months old, and brother was 8 years 4 months old. Full ophthalmic examinations were performed, including slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure, keratometry, anterior chamber depth, axial length, fundus examination and the cycloplegic refraction. The cycloplegic refractive power was -15.50 dpt cyl.+4.50 dpt Ax 85 degrees (right eye), -1.00 dpt cyl.+0.50 dpt Ax 90 degrees (left eye) in the sister; -1.75 dpt cyl.+2.25 dpt Ax 90 degrees (right eye), -9.50 dpt cyl.+4.00 dpt Ax 80 degrees (left eye) in the brother. The co-occurrence of severe myopic anisometropia in a sister and brother is extremely rare. The present case suggests that severe myopic anisometropia may be related by genetic inheritance.

  10. Sister chromatid exchanges in rotogravure printing plant workers.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K D; Mayer, N; Pfeiffer, E H

    1998-03-01

    The individual burden of inhaled ambient-air toluene and its link to genotoxic phenomena in exposed printing workers. The influence of toluene on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was investigated by monitoring of the individual toluene burden of 42 exposed printing workers. Therefore, the urinary hippuric acid (HA) excretion was measured directly after the work shift. The results were compared with those recorded for a control group consisting of 45 blood donors. SCE frequencies were determined from peripheral lymphocytes for both groups. The median HA excretion of the exposed and nonexposed groups amounted to 1.94 and 0.45 g/g creatinine, respectively. For both groups, different SCE rates were detected: 10.13 and 6.84 counts/lymphocyte for exposed and nonexposed persons, respectively. The independence of the measured values proved to be significant at a high confidence level (P = 0.000) for both groups. The influences of smoking and alcohol consumption on SCE as well as on HA values could be clearly separated from those induced by toluene. The results of our study indicate a strong relationship between the individual toluene burden and the genotoxic risk of the exposed persons. Since toluene was used for dilution of the letter-press ink, the influence of ink mist on the genotoxic effects could not be completely excluded.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus Group Reveal a Conserved Genomic Island MmGI-1 Related to Putative Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Nakata, Noboru; Kazumi, Yuko; Maeda, Shinji; Makino, Masahiko; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Kuroda, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898). Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce) operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1), in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32%) and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%), as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States). The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC), suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC. PMID:25503461

  12. Glycosyltransfer in mutants of putative catalytic residue Glu303 of the human ABO(H) A and B blood group glycosyltransferases GTA and GTB proceeds through a labile active site.

    PubMed

    Blackler, Ryan J; Gagnon, Susannah M L; Polakowski, Robert; Rose, Natisha L; Zheng, Ruixiang B; Letts, James A; Johal, Asha R; Schuman, Brock; Borisova, Svetlana N; Palcic, Monica M; Evans, Stephen V

    2016-11-22

    The homologous glycosyltransferases α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GTA) and α-1,3-galactosyltransferase (GTB) carry out the final synthetic step of the closely related human ABO(H) blood group A and B antigens. The catalytic mechanism of these model retaining enzymes remains under debate, where Glu303 has been suggested to act as a putative nucleophile in a double displacement mechanism, a local dipole stabilizing the intermediate in an orthogonal associative mechanism or a general base to stabilize the reactive oxocarbenium ion-like intermediate in an S N i-like mechanism. Kinetic analysis of GTA and GTB point mutants E303C, E303D, E303Q and E303A shows that despite the enzymes having nearly identical sequences, the corresponding mutants of GTA/GTB have up to a 13-fold difference in their residual activities relative to wild type. High-resolution single crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal, surprisingly, that the mutated Cys, Asp and Gln functional groups are no more than 0.8 Å further from the anomeric carbon of donor substrate compared to wild type. However, complicating the analysis is the observation that Glu303 itself plays a critical role in maintaining the stability of a strained "double-turn" in the active site through several hydrogen bonds, and any mutation other than E303Q leads to significantly higher thermal motion or even disorder in the substrate recognition pockets. Thus, there is a remarkable juxtaposition of the mutants E303C and E303D, which retain significant activity despite disrupted active site architecture, with GTB/E303Q, which maintains active site architecture but exhibits zero activity. These findings indicate that nucleophilicity at position 303 is more catalytically valuable than active site stability and highlight the mechanistic elasticity of these enzymes.

  13. Pregnant and parenting adolescents and their younger sisters: the influence of relationship qualities for younger sister outcomes.

    PubMed

    East, P L; Shi, C R

    1997-04-01

    On the basis of social modeling theory and a sibling interaction hypothesis, it was hypothesized that specific relationship qualities between a pregnant or parenting teen and her younger sister would be associated with permissive younger sister outcomes, such as permissive childbearing attitudes and permissive sexual behavior. Results indicated that negative relationship qualities, such as rivalry, competition, and conflict, were more closely related to younger sisters engaging in problem delinquent-like behavior and sexual behavior than were positive relationship qualities, such as warmth and closeness. Additionally, a shared friendship network with the older sister was found to be associated with extensive younger sister problem behavior and sexual behavior. Three potential explanatory processes are discussed.

  14. Genes involved in sister chromatid separation and segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Biggins, S; Bhalla, N; Chang, A; Smith, D L; Murray, A W

    2001-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires the precise coordination of events during the cell cycle. Replicated sister chromatids are held together while they are properly attached to and aligned by the mitotic spindle at metaphase. At anaphase, the links between sisters must be promptly dissolved to allow the mitotic spindle to rapidly separate them to opposite poles. To isolate genes involved in chromosome behavior during mitosis, we microscopically screened a temperature-sensitive collection of budding yeast mutants that contain a GFP-marked chromosome. Nine LOC (loss of cohesion) complementation groups that do not segregate sister chromatids at anaphase were identified. We cloned the corresponding genes and performed secondary tests to determine their function in chromosome behavior. We determined that three LOC genes, PDS1, ESP1, and YCS4, are required for sister chromatid separation and three other LOC genes, CSE4, IPL1, and SMT3, are required for chromosome segregation. We isolated alleles of two genes involved in splicing, PRP16 and PRP19, which impair alpha-tubulin synthesis thus preventing spindle assembly, as well as an allele of CDC7 that is defective in DNA replication. We also report an initial characterization of phenotypes associated with the SMT3/SUMO gene and the isolation of WSS1, a high-copy smt3 suppressor. PMID:11606525

  15. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  16. Breast cancer after Hodgkin's disease in two sisters

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Canellos, G.; Neitlich, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Two sisters had breast cancer at four years and 11 years after diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The affected breast tissues had received several hundred rads of scatter radiation during treatment of the lymphoma. Family history revealed breast cancer in a third sister and five other women in the paternal line. Cytogenetic and HLA studies showed no markers of susceptibility to neoplasia. Development of second primary neoplasms of the breast in the two sisters may have resulted from interactions between genetic factors and carcinogenic effects of radiation exposure.

  17. A non-sister act: recombination template choice during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Humphryes, Neil; Hochwagen, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Meiotic recombination has two key functions: the faithful assortment of chromosomes into gametes and the creation of genetic diversity. Both processes require that meiotic recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes, rather than sister chromatids. Accordingly, a host of regulatory factors are activated during meiosis to distinguish sisters from homologs, suppress recombination between sister chromatids and promote the chromatids of the homologous chromosome as the preferred recombination partners. Here, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of meiotic recombination template choice, focusing primarily on developments in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the regulation is currently best understood.

  18. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    PubMed

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  19. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. I: Gender-related behavior and attitudes in female patients and sisters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, R W; Kappes, M H; Kappes, M E; Börger, D; Stegner, H; Willig, R H; Wallis, H

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-five female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were compared to a group of 16 healthy sisters in regard to gender-related behavioral patterns, present attitudes, and plans for the future. A semi-structured interview with the subjects, ages 11 to 41 yr, and their mothers concentrated on four to five age stages. Results of retrospective data from single items as well as from several related composite scales ("interests and behavior," "appearance," "overall scores") revealed significant group differences: Both in mother-assessment and self-assessment, CAH patients showed a "more masculine" orientation than their sisters, but this was far from consistent across all age stages, especially for single items. Unexpectedly, the gender-behavior differences between CAH patients and sisters did not hold for certain items and scales of "social behavior" (e.g., assertiveness, dominance, acceptance in peer groups) and, in contrast to some of the existing literature, also not for "high-energy expenditure." With regard to expectations for the future, CAH patients had less of a "wish to have their own children" and a higher preference for "having a career versus staying at home." Age, socioeconomic status, intelligence, and presence or absence of a sister as possibly intervening psychosocial/demographic factors could not explain the group differences in behavior. Degree of genital masculinization (Prader stages) or "onset and quality" of therapy as measures of pre- and postnatal androgenization, respectively, could also not account for the degree of the "more masculine" orientation in the CAH group. Nevertheless, the overall results are compatible with earlier findings on the masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on behavior in humans and point to a time period after sexual differentiation of the genitalia and before birth as the most likely one for the effects of prenatal hormones on behavioral masculinization in humans.

  20. Frequency of sister chromatid exchange in peripheral lymphocytes of male pesticide applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Rupa, D.S. ); Reddy, P.P. ); Sreemannarayana, K. ); Reddi, O.S. )

    1991-01-01

    In the present study 61 male pesticide applicators who worked in cotton fields and regularly sprayed pesticides such as DDT, BHC, endosulfan, malathion, methyl parathion, phosphamidon, dimethoate, monocrotophos, quinalphos fenvelrate, and cypermethrin were analyzed for sister chromatid exchanges, mitotic index, and cell cycle kinetics in peripheral lymphocytes. Subjects who handled pesticides were non-smokers and teetotalers and the data were compared with the matched control group. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges was significantly higher among the pesticide applicators at all the durations of exposure when compared to controls. Subjects exposed to pesticides also showed cell cycle delay and decrease in mitotic index when compared to the control group.

  1. 38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal conveyor, blast stoves, "A" furnace, stoves, "B" furnace, stoves, "C" furnace, bottle cars. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  2. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines procedures for demonstrating and preparing a permanent slide of sister chromatid exchanges and recombination events between the two chromatids of a single chromosome. Provides the name of an additional resource for making preparations of exchanges. (RT)

  3. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.

    PubMed

    Sarangapani, Krishna K; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L; Asbury, Charles L

    2014-10-10

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance.

  4. Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward sisters.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha

    The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward sister's role. It recommends that sisters should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward sisters are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward sisters spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role.

  5. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

  6. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines procedures for demonstrating and preparing a permanent slide of sister chromatid exchanges and recombination events between the two chromatids of a single chromosome. Provides the name of an additional resource for making preparations of exchanges. (RT)

  7. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum in Two Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Yehuda; Cohen, Tirza

    1973-01-01

    Two sisters are described. They are offspring of Arabic parents who are both first and second cousins, through both sets of grandparents; additionally the father's parents are first cousins. The diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in the propositae was made by the characteristic picture on the pneumoencephalogram. The clinical symptoms in the two sisters varied considerably. The older sister had shown delayed psychomotor development in infancy, mild mental retardation, and developed seizures at 7 years of age of both the grand mal and akinetic types. Her physical and neurological examination did not show any abnormalities. The EEG was severely abnormal with slow wave activity over the posterior parts of the brain and focal spiking. The younger sister presented at 6 months of age with failure to thrive, generalized hypotonia, but without seizures. Her EEG was within normal limits. This anomaly was probably transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene. The clinical and genetic aspects of this syndrome are discussed. Images PMID:4204338

  8. Linking chromosome duplication and segregation via sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Leman, Adam R; Noguchi, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication during S phase generates two identical copies of each chromosome. Each chromosome is destined for a daughter cell, but each daughter must receive one and only one copy of each chromosome. To ensure accurate chromosome segregation, eukaryotic cells are equipped with a mechanism to pair the chromosomes during chromosome duplication and hold the pairs until a bi-oriented mitotic spindle is formed and the pairs are pulled apart. This mechanism is known as sister chromatid cohesion, and its actions span the entire cell cycle. During G1, before DNA is copied during S phase, proteins termed cohesins are loaded onto DNA. Paired chromosomes are held together through G2 phase, and finally the cohesins are dismantled during mitosis. The processes governing sister chromatid cohesion ensure that newly replicated sisters are held together from the moment they are generated to the metaphase-anaphase transition, when sisters separate.

  9. Sister chromatid decatenation: bridging the gaps in our knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Ronan; Niedzwiedz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation is critical in preventing genome loss or damage during cell division. Failure to properly disentangle catenated sister chromatids can lead to the formation of bulky or ultrafine anaphase bridges, and ultimately genome instability. In this review we present an overview of the current state of knowledge of how sister chromatid decatenation is carried out, with particular focus on the role of TOP2A and TOPBP1 in this process. PMID:26266709

  10. Two sisters resembling Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Teresa; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Pizarro, Oscar; Aracena, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    The Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS), was describe initially by Gorlin et al. [Gorlin et al. (1960)] in two sisters with craniosynostosis, hypertrichosis, hypoplastic labia majora, dental defects, eye anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, and normal intelligence. Two other sporadic instances have been documented. Here, we report on two sisters with a condition with some similarities to GCMS as well as some differences, which could represent either previously unreported variability in GCMS, or it may represent a novel disorder.

  11. Chloroplast phylogenomics indicates that Ginkgo biloba is sister to cycads.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Huang, Ya-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic studies have not yet reached a consensus on the placement of Ginkgoales, which is represented by the only living species, Ginkgo biloba (common name: ginkgo). At least six discrepant placements of ginkgo have been proposed. This study aimed to use the chloroplast phylogenomic approach to examine possible factors that lead to such disagreeing placements. We found the sequence types used in the analyses as the most critical factor in the conflicting placements of ginkgo. In addition, the placement of ginkgo varied in the trees inferred from nucleotide (NU) sequences, which notably depended on breadth of taxon sampling, tree-building methods, codon positions, positions of Gnetopsida (common name: gnetophytes), and including or excluding gnetophytes in data sets. In contrast, the trees inferred from amino acid (AA) sequences congruently supported the monophyly of a ginkgo and Cycadales (common name: cycads) clade, regardless of which factors were examined. Our site-stripping analysis further revealed that the high substitution saturation of NU sequences mainly derived from the third codon positions and contributed to the variable placements of ginkgo. In summary, the factors we surveyed did not affect results inferred from analyses of AA sequences. Congruent topologies in our AA trees give more confidence in supporting the ginkgo-cycad sister-group hypothesis.

  12. Two sisters in the same dress: Heliconius cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Sister species divergence and reproductive isolation commonly results from ecological adaptation. In mimetic Heliconius butterflies, shifts in colour pattern contribute to pre- and post-mating reproductive isolation and are commonly correlated with speciation. Closely related mimetic species are therefore not expected, as they should lack several important sources of reproductive isolation. Results Here we present phenotypic, behavioral and genetic evidence for the coexistence of two sympatric 'cryptic' species near Florencia in the eastern Andes of Colombia that share the same orange rayed colour pattern. These represent H. melpomene malleti and a novel taxon in the H. cydno group, here designated as novel race of Heliconius timareta, Heliconius timareta florencia. No-choice mating experiments show that these sympatric forms have strong assortative mating (≈96%) despite great similarity in colour pattern, implying enhanced divergence in pheromonal signals. Conclusion We hypothesize that these species might have resulted from recent convergence in colour pattern, perhaps facilitated by hybrid introgression of wing pattern genes. PMID:19040737

  13. Geographic variance of cardiovascular risk factors among community women: the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Johnson, Caitlin E; Wang, Yun; Wan, Yun; Aslam, Farhan; Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; Pollin, Irene; Foody, JoAnne M

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and outcomes among women. We sought to determine geographic variation in risk factor prevalence in a contemporary sample of U.S. women. Using 2008-2009 Sister to Sister (STS) free heart screening data from 17 U.S. cities, we compared rates of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (HTN ≥140/90 mm Hg), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C <40 mg/dL), and hyperglycemia (≥126 mg/dL) with national rates. In 18,892 women (mean age 49.8 ± 14.3 years, 37% black, 32% white, 14% Hispanic), compared to overall STS rates, significantly higher rates were observed for obesity in Baltimore (42.4%), Atlanta (40.0%), Dallas (37.9%), and Jacksonville (36.0%); for HTN in Atlanta (43.9%), Baltimore (42.5%), and New York (39.1%); for hyperglycemia in Jacksonville (20.3%), Philadelphia (18.1%), and Tampa (17.8%); and for HDL-C <40 mg/dL in Phoenix (37.4%), Dallas (26.5%), and Jacksonville (18.1%). Compared to national American Heart Association (AHA) 2010 update rates, most STS cities had higher rates of hyperglycemia and low HDL-C. In a large, community-based sample of women nationwide, this comprehensive analysis shows remarkable geographic variation in risk factors, which provides opportunities to improve and reduce a woman's CVD risk. Further investigation is required to understand the reasons behind such variation, which will provide insight toward tailoring preventive interventions to narrow gaps in CVD risk reduction in women.

  14. A Molecular Genetic Timescale for the Diversification of Autotrophic Stramenopiles (Ochrophyta): Substantive Underestimation of Putative Fossil Ages

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joseph W.; Sorhannus, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Background Stramenopiles constitute a large and diverse eukaryotic clade that is currently poorly characterized from both phylogenetic and temporal perspectives at deeper taxonomic levels. To better understand this group, and in particular the photosynthetic stramenopiles (Ochrophyta), we analyzed sequence data from 135 taxa representing most major lineages. Our analytical approach utilized several recently developed methods that more realistically model the temporal evolutionary process. Methodology/Principal Findings Phylogenetic reconstruction employed a Bayesian joint rate- and pattern-heterogeneity model to reconstruct the evolutionary history of these taxa. Inferred phylogenetic resolution was generally high at all taxonomic levels, sister-class relationships in particular receiving good statistical support. A signal for heterotachy was detected in clustered portions of the tree, although this does not seem to have had a major influence on topological inference. Divergence time estimates, assuming a lognormally-distributed relaxed molecular clock while accommodating topological uncertainty, were broadly congruent over alternative temporal prior distributions. These data suggest that Ochrophyta originated near the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary, diverging from their sister-taxon Oomycota. The evolution of the major ochrophyte lineages appears to have proceeded gradually thereafter, with most lineages coming into existence by ∼200 million years ago. Conclusions/Significance The evolutionary timescale of the autotrophic stramenopiles reconstructed here is generally older than previously inferred from molecular clocks. However, this more ancient timescale nevertheless casts serious doubt on the taxonomic validity of putative xanthophyte/phaeophyte fossils from the Proterozoic, which predate by as much as a half billion years or more the age suggested by our molecular genetic data. If these fossils truly represent crown stramenopile lineages, then this would

  15. Volcano hazards in the Three Sisters region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, William E.; Iverson, R.M.; Schilling, S.P.; Fisher, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three potentially active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. Two types of volcanoes exist in the Three Sisters region and each poses distinct hazards to people and property. South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top, major composite volcanoes clustered near the center of the region, have erupted repeatedly over tens of thousands of years and may erupt explosively in the future. In contrast, mafic volcanoes, which range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater, are typically short-lived (weeks to centuries) and erupt less explosively than do composite volcanoes. Hundreds of mafic volcanoes scattered through the Three Sisters region are part of a much longer zone along the High Cascades of Oregon in which birth of new mafic volcanoes is possible. This report describes the types of hazardous events that can occur in the Three Sisters region and the accompanying volcano-hazard-zonation map outlines areas that could be at risk from such events. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the

  16. Protein requirements for sister telomere association in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Canudas, Silvia; Houghtaling, Benjamin R; Kim, Ju Youn; Dynek, Jasmin N; Chang, William G; Smith, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies in human cells indicate that sister telomeres have distinct requirements for their separation at mitosis. In cells depleted for tankyrase 1, a telomeric poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, sister chromatid arms and centromeres separate normally, but telomeres remain associated and cells arrest in mitosis. Here, we use biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that might mediate the persistent association at sister telomeres. We use immunoprecipitation analysis to show that the telomeric proteins, TRF1 (an acceptor of PARsylation by tankyrase 1) and TIN2 (a TRF1 binding partner) each bind to the SA1 ortholog of the cohesin Scc3 subunit. Sucrose gradient sedimentation shows that TRF1 cosediments with the SA1–cohesin complex. Depletion of the SA1 cohesin subunit or the telomeric proteins (TRF1 and TIN2) restores the normal resolution of sister telomeres in mitosis in tankyrase 1-depleted cells. Moreover, depletion of TRF1 and TIN2 or SA1 abrogates the requirement for tankyrase 1 in mitotic progression. Our studies indicate that sister telomere association in human cells is mediated by a novel association between a cohesin subunit and components of telomeric chromatin. PMID:17962804

  17. The template choice decision in meiosis: is the sister important?

    PubMed

    Pradillo, Mónica; Santos, Juan L

    2011-10-01

    Recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial to ensure their proper segregation during meiosis. This is achieved by regulating the choice of recombination template. In mitotic cells, double-strand break repair with the sister chromatid appears to be preferred, whereas interhomolog recombination is favoured during meiosis. However, in the last year, several studies in yeast have shown the importance of the meiotic recombination between sister chromatids. Although this thinking seems to be new, evidences for sister chromatid exchange during meiosis were obtained more than 50 years ago in non-model organisms. In this mini-review, we comment briefly on the most recent advances in this hot topic and also describe observations which suggest the existence of inter-sister repair during meiotic recombination. For instance, the behaviour of mammalian XY bivalents and that of trivalents in heterozygotes for chromosomal rearrangements are cited as examples. The "rediscovering" of the requirement for the sister template, although it seems to occur at a low frequency, will probably prompt further investigations in organisms other than yeast to understand the complexity of the partner choice during meiosis.

  18. Do the sisters of childbearing teenagers have increased rates of childbearing?

    PubMed

    Friede, A; Hogue, C J; Doyle, L L; Hammerslough, C R; Sniezek, J E; Arrighi, H

    1986-10-01

    In 1983, 89,000 children were born to United States women aged less than or equal to 16. To reduce teenage fertility rates, public health workers will need to identify teenagers at elevated risk for childbearing. We tested the hypothesis that the sisters of childbearing teenagers may form such a group. We performed an historical cohort study of 3,767 teenagers aged 12-16 years who were enrolled in Arkansas Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 1978-81; they had 247 pregnancies. Multivariable log-linear hazard models were used to control and study age, race, number of AFDC-eligibles per household, and county urbanization and family planning services. Teenagers whose sisters bore children had elevated rate ratios (RR) for childbearing (RR = 1.8; 95% Confidence Limits [CL] = 1.2-2.6), as did Blacks (RR = 3.1; 95% CL = 2.0-4.8), and members of households with more than nine AFDC-eligibles (RR = 1.7; 95% CL = 1.1-2.6). Because they may have elevated childbearing rates, and would be easy to contact, the sisters of pregnant teenagers could form an important target population for family planning efforts.

  19. Expressed sequence tags reveal Proctotrupomorpha (minus Chalcidoidea) as sister to Aculeata (Hymenoptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Sharanowski, Barbara J; Robbertse, Barbara; Walker, John; Voss, S Randal; Yoder, Ryan; Spatafora, Joseph; Sharkey, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Hymenoptera is one of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet and have vital importance for ecosystem function as pollinators and parasitoids. Higher-level relationships among Hymenoptera have been notoriously difficult to resolve with both morphological and traditional molecular approaches. Here we examined the utility of expressed sequence tags for resolving relationships among hymenopteran superfamilies. Transcripts were assembled for 6 disparate Hymenopteran taxa with additional sequences added from public databases for a final dataset of 24 genes for 16 taxa and over 10 kb of sequence data. The concatenated dataset recovered a robust and well-supported topology demonstrating the monophyly of Holometabola, Hymenoptera, Apocrita, Aculeata, Ichneumonoidea, and a sister relationship between the two most closely related proctotrupomorphs in the dataset (Cynipoidea+Proctotrupoidea). The data strongly supported a sister relationship between Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha, contrary to previously proposed hypotheses. Additionally there was strong evidence indicating Ichneumonoidea as sister to Aculeata+Proctotrupomorpha. These relationships were robust to missing data, nucleotide composition biases, low taxonomic sampling, and conflicting signal across gene trees. There was also strong evidence indicating that Chalcidoidea is not contained within Proctotrupomorpha. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Female rhesus macaques discriminate unfamiliar paternal sisters in playback experiments: support for acoustic phenotype matching

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Widespread evidence exists that when relatives live together, kinship plays a central role in shaping the evolution of social behaviour. Previous studies showed that female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) recognize familiar maternal kin using vocal cues. Recognizing paternal kin might, however, be more difficult as rhesus females mate promiscuously during the possible conception period, most probably concealing paternity. Behavioural observations indicate that semi free-ranging female rhesus macaques prefer to associate with their paternal half-sisters in comparison to unrelated females within the same group, particularly when born within the same age cohort. However, the cues and mechanism/s used in paternal kin discrimination remain under debate. Here, we investigated whether female rhesus macaques use the acoustic modality to discriminate between paternal half-sisters and non-kin, and tested familiarity and phenotype matching as the underlying mechanisms. We found that test females responded more often to calls of paternal half-sisters compared with calls of unrelated females, and that this discrimination ability was independent of the level of familiarity between callers and test females, which provides, to our knowledge, the first evidence for acoustic phenotype matching. Our study strengthens the evidence that female rhesus macaques can recognize their paternal kin, and that vocalizations are used as a cue. PMID:24225452

  1. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    PubMed

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  2. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II: deprotection through phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-05-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed--deprotected--for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection.

  3. Familial acromegaly - case study of two sisters with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Malicka, Joanna; Świrska, Joanna; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In the majority of cases, acromegaly is sporadic. However, it can also occur in a familial setting as a component of MEN-1, MEN-4, Carney complex (CNC) or as the extremely rare syndrome of isolated familial somatotropinoma (IFS), the latter belonging to familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). The diagnosis of IFS is based on the recognition of acromegaly/gigantism in at least two family members, given that the family is not affected by MEN-1, MEN-4 or CNC. The authors present a case study of two sisters: a 56 year-old patient (case no. 1) and a 61 year-old patient (case no. 2). In both sisters, acromegaly was recognised in the course of pituitary macroadenoma. Neither of the sisters showed features of MEN-1, MEN-4 or Carney complex. The authors suppose that the presented cases are manifestations of IFS. However, this diagnosis has not been confirmed yet because of the poor availability of genetic tests.

  4. Parallel phylogeographic structure in ecologically similar sympatric sister taxa.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Michael N

    2012-02-01

    Present-day phylogeographic patterns have been shaped by the dual histories of lineages and places, producing a diversity of relationships that may challenge discovery of general rules. For example, the predicted positive correlation between dispersal ability and gene flow has been supported inconsistently, suggesting unaccounted complexity in theory or the comparative framework. Here, I extend the sympatric sister-species approach, in which variance between lineages and places is minimized, to sister clades and test a fundamental assumption of comparative genetic studies of dispersal: that taxa which evolved at the same time and in the same place will, if they have similar life histories and ecologies, have essentially the same phylogeographic structure. Phylogenetic analyses of 197 Stigmatopora pipefishes using two nuclear (creatine kinase intron 6, α-tropomyosin) and two mitochondrial (16S, noncoding region) loci revealed largely synchronous parallel diversification of sister clades that are codistributed from Western Australia to New Zealand, supporting the null hypothesis. Only one comparison, however, yielded a sympatric sister-species pair (the two stem species), so I also explored the potential for extant species sharing a substantial proportion of their evolutionary histories in sympatry to substitute for sister taxon comparisons. In eastern Australia, where strong environmental structure is lacking, phylogeographic differences between species that have been codistributed for ~85% of their evolutionary histories were consistent with tendencies favoured by their modest life-history differences, that is the larger, rarer species had lower genetic diversity. In contrast, in New Zealand, two species codistributed for ~70% of their evolutionary histories were both structured similarly by a strong biogeographic filter despite differences in life history. Rigorously quantifying the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on phylogeographic structure may

  5. Catholic sister nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940-1972.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters' work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South.

  6. Japanese sisters with Pfeiffer syndrome and achondroplasia: a mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagase, T; Nagase, M; Hirose, S; Ohmori, K

    1998-09-01

    The authors report the rare existence of a family that includes an older sister with Pfeiffer syndrome and a younger sister with achondroplasia. Gene analysis of these patients showed a T341P mutation in the FGFR2 gene in the patient with Pfeiffer syndrome, and a G380R mutation in the FGFR3 gene in the patient with achondroplasia. Both mutations have been reported previously. Their parents had no mutation in either locus. This result suggests the possibility that there may be predisposing factors for different FGFR mutations.

  7. The Essene's sister sect in Egypt: another medical site?

    PubMed

    Moss, G A

    2002-12-01

    The Essenes were, allegedly, the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls and were settled by the Dead Sea. An ancient source locates their sister sect, The 'Therapeutae', as being by the shores of Lake Mareotis in Egypt. No scholar has previously sought to locate where exactly on Lake Mareotis they were settled. Using clues from Essene sites around the Dead Sea, an attempt is made to suggest a specific location for the Therapeutae. Since there are signs of medical activity at many of the Essene sites, a site with medical association is also sought for the location of the Essene's sister sect in Egypt. A suitable site is found at Canopus.

  8. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  9. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Blattner, Ariane C.; McKee, Bruce D.; Lehner, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase. PMID:27120695

  10. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  11. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Sister chromatid separation: falling apart at the seams.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Fix, O

    2000-11-16

    Cohesion between sister chromatids must be dissolved at the time of chromosome segregation. Recent studies reveal that the principles of cohesion dissolution in mitosis and meiosis are the same, but that there are important differences that stem from the distinct natures of these two processes.

  13. 46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at the Marine Safety Center or in the files of the cognizant OCMI; (2) The owner of the plans... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100...

  14. 46 CFR 116.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessel, provided: (1) Approved plans for the original vessel are on file at the Marine Safety Center or.... (b) If approved plans for original vessel are not on file at the Marine Safety Center (MSC) or with... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 116.210 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 177.210 - Plans for sister vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... at the Marine Safety Center or in the files of the cognizant OCMI; (2) The owner of the plans... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Plans for sister vessels. 177.210 Section 177.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100...

  16. Sister chromatid resolution: a cohesin releasing network and beyond.

    PubMed

    Shintomi, Keishi; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2010-10-01

    When chromosomes start to assemble in mitotic prophase, duplicated chromatids are not discernible within each chromosome. As condensation proceeds, they gradually show up, culminating in two rod-shaped structures apposed along their entire length within a metaphase chromosome. This process, known as sister chromatid resolution, is thought to be a prerequisite for rapid and synchronous separation of sister chromatids in anaphase. From a mechanistic point of view, the resolution process can be dissected into three distinct steps: (1) release of cohesin from chromosome arms; (2) formation of chromatid axes mediated by condensins; and (3) untanglement of inter-sister catenation catalyzed by topoisomerase II (topo II). In this review article, we summarize recent progress in our understanding the molecular mechanisms of sister chromatid resolution with a major focus on its first step, cohesin release. An emerging idea is that this seemingly simple step is regulated by an intricate network of positive and negative factors, including cohesin-binding proteins and mitotic kinases. Interestingly, some key factors responsible for cohesin release in early mitosis also play important roles in controlling cohesin functions during interphase. Finally, we discuss how the step of cohesin release might mechanistically be coordinated with the actions of condensins and topo II.

  17. Precocious Sister Chromatid Separation (PSCS) in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Maninder; DeScipio, Cheryl; McCallum, Jennifer; Yaeger, Dinah; Devoto, Marcella; Jackson, Laird G.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Krantz, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) (OMIM# 122470) is a dominantly inherited multisystem developmental disorder. The phenotype consists of characteristic facial features, hirsutism, abnormalities of the upper extremities ranging from subtle changes in the phalanges and metacarpal bones to oligodactyly and phocomelia, gastroesophageal dysfunction, growth retardation, and neurodevelopmental delay. Prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 10,000. Recently, mutations in NIPBL were identified in sporadic and familial CdLS cases. To date, mutations in this gene have been identified in over 45% of individuals with CdLS. NIPBL is the human homolog of the Drosophila Nipped-B gene. Although its function in mammalian systems has not yet been elucidated, sequence homologs of Nipped-B in yeast (Scc2 and Mis4) are required for sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis, and a similar role was recently demonstrated for Nipped-B in Drosophila. In order to evaluate NIPBL role in sister chromatid cohesion in humans, metaphase spreads on 90 probands (40 NIPBL mutation positive and 50 NIPBL mutation negative) with CdLS were evaluated for evidence of precocious sister chromatid separation (PSCS). We screened 50 metaphases from each proband and found evidence of PSCS in 41% (compared to 9% in control samples). These studies indicate that NIPBL may play a role in sister chromatid cohesion in humans as has been reported for its homologs in Drosophila and yeast. PMID:16100726

  18. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  19. Letters from a suicide: Van Gogh and his sister.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-04-01

    An analysis of trends over a 3-yr. period in the letters of Vincent Van Gogh to his sister as the time of his suicide approached identified 8 trends, including an increase in words concerned with anxiety and words concerned with the past.

  20. Analysis of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Aaron F.

    2016-01-01

    In sexually reproducing organisms, the formation of healthy gametes (sperm and eggs) requires the proper establishment and release of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). SCC tethers replicated sisters from their formation in premeiotic S phase until the stepwise removal of cohesion in anaphase of meiosis I and II allows the separation of homologs and then sisters. Defects in the establishment or release of meiotic cohesion cause chromosome segregation errors that lead to the formation of aneuploid gametes and inviable embryos. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for studies of meiotic sister chromatid cohesion due to its genetic tractability and the excellent cytological properties of the hermaphrodite gonad. Moreover, mutants defective in the establishment or maintenance of meiotic SCC nevertheless produce abundant gametes, allowing analysis of the pattern of chromosome segregation. Here I will describe two approaches for analysis of meiotic cohesion in C. elegans. The first approach relies on cytology to detect and quantify defects in SCC. The second approach relies on PCR and restriction digests to identify embryos that inherited an incorrect complement of chromosomes due to aberrant meiotic chromosome segregation. Both approaches are sensitive enough to identify rare errors and precise enough to reveal distinctive phenotypes resulting from mutations that perturb meiotic SCC in different ways. The robust, quantitative nature of these assays should strengthen phenotypic comparisons of different meiotic mutants and enhance the reproducibility of data generated by different investigators. PMID:27797074

  1. The Racial Integration of the Seven Sister Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Linda M.

    1998-01-01

    Although the number of African-American women who attended the elite Seven Sisters colleges prior to 1900 was small, these women were highly influential. Early integration is discussed for: (1) Wellesley College; (2) Radcliffe College; (3) Smith College; (4) Mount Holyoke College; (5) Bryn Mawr College; (6) Vassar College; and (7) Barnard College.…

  2. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  3. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule that originated from lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haruki, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Kubouchi, Yasuaki; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Adachi, Yoshin; Fujioka, Shinji; Ito, Hisao

    2011-03-01

    Umbilical metastasis of cancer, known as Sister Mary Joseph's nodule (SMJN), is a rare phenomenon. It is usually due to intraabdominal malignancies and is quite rare from lung cancer. Here we describe a case of SMJN that originated from advanced lung adenocarcinoma. SMJN should be noted as an important sign of some hidden malignancy including lung cancer.

  4. Hearing My Mother's Voice: A Study of Sisters and Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Beverley

    There seems to be an assumption among many people that parents can mold the later adult personality of their offspring by manipulating their childhood upbringing. To tease out the variables in childrearing and to discover some of the sources of the childbearing practices of mothers in the 1980s, a study of sisters and their mothers (N=48) in the…

  5. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. Methods In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. Results A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza. Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). Conclusion The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. PMID:26946528

  6. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  7. Comparing breast cancer risk between lesbians and their heterosexual sisters.

    PubMed

    Dibble, Suzanne L; Roberts, Stephanie A; Nussey, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences between lesbians and their heterosexual sisters in the established risks for developing breast cancer. The design for this study was a matched (lesbian with heterosexual sister) cross-sectional, mail-back, anonymous survey. We distributed the surveys throughout the state of California to English-speaking women who identified themselves as lesbians, age 40 and older, and their sisters. Using the modified Gail Breast Cancer Risk model as well as other well-established factors associated with the development of breast cancer, we compared the breast cancer risk potential for 324 sister pairs (N = 648). Data were analyzed using paired t-tests, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), McNemar's chi(2), or the Bowker statistic, as appropriate for the level of data. The lesbians had significantly higher 5-year (p <.0001) and lifetime (p =.001) risk for developing breast cancer. The reasons for lesbians' predicted rate of breast cancer were most likely their higher scores on all pregnancy-related variables and the relatively high number of breast biopsies they reported. The lesbians had used birth control pills less (p <. 0001), had significantly fewer pregnancies (p <.0001), children (p <.0001), abortions (p <.0001), and miscarriages (p <.0001) as well as significantly more breast biopsies (p =.02) than did their heterosexual sisters. A lesbian who comes out to her clinician is relying on the clinician to be informed and be open to discuss her life. When a lesbian has a lump or a suspicious mammogram, she needs her clinician to advocate for her within the health care system because she is at higher risk for having cancer than a heterosexual woman.

  8. Brother-sister incest - father-daughter incest: a comparison of characteristics and consequences.

    PubMed

    Rudd, J M; Herzberger, S D

    1999-09-01

    One group of women who were sexually abused by brothers and a second group who were sexually abused by fathers are compared with the intent to identify the differing characteristics of each type of abuse and the effects of the abuse on their adult functioning. Our hypothesis was that there would indeed be differences in the characteristics of the abuse and its effects, and that this would necessitate differing treatment strategies. Surveys were distributed to women attending support groups for incest survivors. Of the 62 women completing questionnaires, 14 women (23%) had been sexually abused by a brother. A similar number of women (15) who had been sexually abused by their fathers were chosen from the overall sample for comparison. The absence of the father as a vital force in family life played a key role in the sexual abuse of women by their brothers in every case. The duration of the sexual abuse for brother-abused women and father-abused women was lengthy. The characteristics, including use of force, are equally as serious for sisters as for daughters. The family circumstances surrounding the abuse were examined for both groups and the results yielded a fuller understanding of the incestuous family. Despite an appearance of normalcy, the level of family-wide disturbances, for example substance abuse, mental illness and pervasive family-wide violence were profound for both groups. In this study, we also examine the effects in adulthood of the serious disruption of childhood developmental phases for both brother-abused and father-abused women, taking into account the incidence of substance abuse, depression, suicidality, and eating disorders. The authors conclude that the characteristics and consequences of brother-sister incest are of equal seriousness to those of father-daughter incest. This would suggest that brother-sister incest is one of the current blind spots in incest research, and one that we cannot afford to ignore. In-depth knowledge of the dynamics

  9. Constructing and enacting kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: a multi-family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Van Parys, Hanna; Provoost, Veerle; Zeiler, Kristin; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2016-12-05

    Although intra-familial egg donation has been practiced for more than 15 years in several countries, little is known about family relationships in this family type. Framed within the new kinship studies, this article focuses on the experiential dimension of kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: how is kinship 'unpacked' and 'reconstructed' in this specific family constellation? Qualitative data analysis of interviews with receiving parents, their donating sisters and the donor children revealed six themes: (1) being connected as an extended family; (2) disambiguating motherhood; (3) giving and receiving as structuring processes; (4) acknowledging and managing the 'special' link between donor and child; (5) making sense of the union between father and donor; and (6) kinship constructions being challenged. This study showed the complex and continuous balancing of meanings related to the mother-child dyad, the donor-child dyad and the donor-father dyad. What stood out was the complexity of, on the one hand cherishing the genetic link with the child allowed by the sisters' egg donation, while, on the other, managing the meanings related to this link, by, for instance, acknowledging, downsizing, symbolising, and differentiating it from the mother-child bond. (A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be accessed at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_979cmCmR9rLrKuD7z0ycA).

  10. Sibling Conversations about Dating and Sexuality: Sisters as Confidants, Sources of Support, and Mentors

    PubMed Central

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Roach, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an observational methodology to examine sibling communication, sisters (N = 28 dyads) were videotaped discussing their ideas about dating and sexuality. Social provision theory was used as a framework for the examination of roles enacted by sisters during these conversations. Inductive thematic analytic procedures were conducted and three roles were identified: sisters as confidants, sources of support, and mentors. Older and younger sisters both served as confidants and sources of support for one another, whereas, older sisters were more likely to be mentors for their younger sisters than vice versa. Findings indicate the potential importance of sisters in the formation of adolescent girls’ ideas about romantic relationships and sexuality, sibling communication as a socialization mechanism of sisters’ similarities in romantic experiences and sexual behaviors/attitudes, and the inclusion of older sisters in prevention intervention programs focused on reducing adolescent sexual risk behaviors and promoting healthy romantic relationships and sexuality development. PMID:24659843

  11. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

    PubMed

    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  12. Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a Sister Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a sister species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group. PMID:26787157

  13. Mitochondrial Genes Reveal Triatoma jatai as a Sister Species to Triatoma costalimai (Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Teves, Simone Caldas; Gardim, Sueli; Carbajal de la Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir Reis; da Rosa, João Aristeu; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Triatoma jatai was described using a set of morphological structures from specimens collected in Paranã municipality of Tocantins State, Brazil. Under a Bayesian framework and using two mitochondrial genes (16S and COI), phylogenetic analysis recovered T. jatai as a sister species to Triatoma costalimai with higher genetic distances than between other well-recognized species. Our results agree with previous suggestions based on morphometric analysis. In the light of the non-monophyly of Matogrossensis subcomplex, the inclusion of T. jatai shall be considered for reevaluating this group.

  14. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist

  15. Testing of the "Healthy 'Little' Lives Project": A Training Program for Big Sister Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Big Brothers/Big Sisters is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big Sister mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little Sisters about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication…

  16. Testing of the "Healthy 'Little' Lives Project": A Training Program for Big Sister Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Big Brothers/Big Sisters is a national program aimed at providing mentors for disadvantaged children. This study tested whether Big Sister mentors could be trained to increase communication with their Little Sisters about sexual health issues. The study tested an intervention based on social cognitive theory in which a sexual health communication…

  17. Transcriptome fingerprint of bovine 2-cell stage blastomeres is directly correlated with the individual developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomere.

    PubMed

    Held, Eva; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Linke, Matthias; Zechner, Ulrich; Rings, Franca; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Hoelker, Michael

    2012-06-01

    To date, gene expression profiles of bovine preimplantation embryos have only been indirectly related to developmental potential due to the invasive nature of such procedures. This study sought to find a direct correlation between transcriptome fingerprint of blastomeres of bovine 2-cell stage embryos with developmental competence of the corresponding sister blastomeres. Isolated blastomeres were classified according to the sister blastomere's development into three groups: two groups displayed developmental incompetency, including those blastomeres whose corresponding sister blastomeres either stopped cleaving after separation (2CB) or were blocked after two additional cleavages before embryonic genome activation (8CB). In the third group were competent blastomeres, which were defined as those whose sister blastomeres developed to the blastocyst stage (BL). As a result, developmental capacity of corresponding sister blastomeres was highly similar. Microarray analysis revealed 77 genes to be commonly differentially regulated among competent and incompetent blastomeres as well as blocked blastomeres. Clustering of differentially expressed genes according to molecular functions and pathways revealed antioxidant activity, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and oxidative phosphorylation to be the main ontologies affected. Expression levels of selected candidate genes were further characterized in an independent model for developmental competence based on the time of first cleavage postfertilization. Moreover, overall results of this study were confirmed by higher developmental rates and more beneficial expression of CAT and PRDX1 when cultured in an antioxidative environment. These results will help us to understand molecular mechanisms defining developmental destination of individual bovine preimplantation embryos.

  18. Idiopathic Steatorrhea Presenting with Different Manifestations in Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Rally, C. R.; Munroe, D. S.; Bogoch, A.

    1964-01-01

    Although it is well known that the incidence of idiopathic steatorrhea is much higher in relatives of patients with this disease than it is in the general population, there has been little comment on the variability of symptoms in familial cases. Two sisters with this disease are reported. One presented with a relatively acute history of diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue and peripheral edema and was found to have a normal hemoglobin, hypocalcemia and a markedly decreased prothrombin activity. Her elder sister tended to constipation and had a 10-year history of refractory iron-deficiency anemia. The diagnosis was confirmed in both by peroral jejunal biopsy. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14122463

  19. Umbilical metastasis (Sister Joseph's nodule) from carcinoma of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Y N; Subhi, J; Hashim, E; Senoussi, M

    1991-01-01

    A case is reported of a squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina with metastasis to the umbilicus (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule). Systemic cisplatinum chemotherapy resulted in partial response, however, the "nodule" was a sign of poor prognosis and indicative of short-term survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of umbilical metastasis from a primary carcinoma of the vagina.

  20. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest.

    PubMed

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir

    2003-06-01

    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  1. Genomic sister-disorders of neurodevelopment: an evolutionary approach

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle; Dorus, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Genomic sister-disorders are defined here as diseases mediated by duplications versus deletions of the same region. Such disorders can provide unique information concerning the genomic underpinnings of human neurodevelopment because effects of diametric variation in gene copy number on cognitive and behavioral phenotypes can be inferred. We describe evidence from the literature on deletions versus duplications for the regions underlying the best-known human neurogenetic sister-disorders, including Williams syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, and Smith–Magenis syndrome, as well as the X-chromosomal conditions Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. These data suggest that diametric copy-number alterations can, like diametric alterations to imprinted genes, generate contrasting phenotypes associated with autistic-spectrum and psychotic-spectrum conditions. Genomically based perturbations to the development of the human social brain are thus apparently mediated to a notable degree by effects of variation in gene copy number. We also conducted the first analyses of positive selection for genes in the regions affected by these disorders. We found evidence consistent with adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes, or selective sweeps, for three of the four sets of sister-syndromes analyzed. These studies of selection facilitate identification of candidate genes for the phenotypes observed and lend a novel evolutionary dimension to the analysis of human cognitive architecture and neurogenetic disorders. PMID:25567849

  2. [The umbilical metastasis. Sister Mary Joseph and her time].

    PubMed

    Trebing, D; Göring, H-D

    2004-02-01

    Although Baluff in 1854 and Nelaton in 1860 had already described umbilical metastases, the best known description of the metastasis of carcinomas to this site as "trouser button navel" was published in 1928 by William James Mayo (1861-1939), son of William Worrall Mayo (1815-1911), the founder of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, This phenomenon is supposed to have been pointed out to Mayo by his long-serving head surgical nurse Sister Mary Joseph (1856-1939). The English surgeon Hamilton Bailey, in his famous textbook "Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery" in 1949, coined the term "Sister Joseph's nodule" for an umbilical metastasis. The expression has become widely accepted and used. Sister Mary Joseph, daughter of Irish immigrants, belonged to the 3rd order of the Holy Francis, was distinguished for her skills, intelligence and devotion to nursing which was also her calling. She worked for many decades at the world-famous Mayo Clinic and taught generations of young nurses. In recent years, the original surgical building at Saint Mary's Hospital has been named "Joseph Building" in her memory. Among the numerous eponyms occurring in the dermatology and the medicine, the association with the name of a nurse represents beyond doubt a special feature.

  3. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    PubMed

    Timme, Ruth E; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Delwiche, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum") as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1) the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2) the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  4. Nonrandom sister chromatid segregation of sex chromosomes in Drosophila male germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yukiko M

    2013-05-01

    Sister chromatids are the product of DNA replication, which is assumed to be a very precise process. Therefore, sister chromatids should be exact copies of each other. However, reports have indicated that sister chromatids are segregated nonrandomly during cell division, suggesting that sister chromatids are not the same, although their DNA sequences are the same. Researchers have speculated that stem cells may retain template strands to avoid replication-induced mutations. An alternative proposal is that cells may segregate distinct epigenetic information carried on sister chromatids. Recently, we found that Drosophila male germline stem cells segregate sister chromatids of X and Y chromosomes with a strong bias. We discuss this finding in relation to existing models for nonrandom sister chromatid segregation.

  5. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges in traffic policemen exposed to vehicular exhaust.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Varre; Hemaprasad, Mundluru; Sandhyadevi, Gundimeda; Reddy, Penagaluru Pardhanandana

    2006-07-14

    In urban areas there is an explosive growth of population and the number of automobiles. The ever-increasing vehicular traffic density is posing continued threat to the ambient air quality. Traffic policemen as a group of workers are exposed occupationally to the pollutants from vehicular exhaust. Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) as a biomarker of the pollutant's effect, were analyzed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 85 traffic policemen and 60 control subjects. There was a significant increase in the mean SCEs+/-S.D./cell in the exposed group (9.31+/-5.29) when compared to the controls (4.18+/-1.85). Thus the present study concludes that vehicular exhaust might induce cytogenetic damage in traffic police. Further, the more pronounced frequency of SCEs observed in the smoking traffic policemen than in the non-smoking group suggests the joint effect of smoking and vehicular exhaust.

  6. Compound heterozygous mutations in UBA5 causing early-onset epileptic encephalopathy in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Arnadottir, Gudny A; Jensson, Brynjar O; Marelsson, Sigurdur E; Sulem, Gerald; Oddsson, Asmundur; Kristjansson, Ragnar P; Benonisdottir, Stefania; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Masson, Gisli; Thorisson, Gudmundur A; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Magnusson, Olafur Th; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Arngrimsson, Reynir; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-10-02

    Epileptic encephalopathies are a group of childhood epilepsies that display high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. The recent, extensive use of next-generation sequencing has identified a large number of genes in epileptic encephalopathies, including UBA5 in which biallelic mutations were first described as pathogenic in 2016 (Colin E et al., Am J Hum Genet 99(3):695-703, 2016. Muona M et al., Am J Hum Genet 99(3):683-694, 2016). UBA5 encodes an activating enzyme for a post-translational modification mechanism known as ufmylation, and is the first gene from the ufmylation pathway that is linked to disease. We sequenced the genomes of two sisters with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy along with their unaffected parents in an attempt to find a genetic cause for their condition. The sisters, born in 2004 and 2006, presented with infantile spasms at six months of age, which later progressed to recurrent, treatment-resistant seizures. We detected a compound heterozygous genotype in UBA5 in the sisters, a genotype not seen elsewhere in an Icelandic reference set of 30,067 individuals nor in public databases. One of the mutations, c.684G > A, is a paternally inherited exonic splicing mutation, occuring at the last nucleotide of exon 7 of UBA5. The mutation is predicted to disrupt the splice site, resulting in loss-of-function of one allele of UBA5. The second mutation is a maternally inherited missense mutation, p.Ala371Thr, previously reported as pathogenic when in compound heterozygosity with a loss-of-function mutation in UBA5 and is believed to produce a hypomorphic allele. Supportive of this, we have identified three adult Icelanders homozygous for the p.Ala371Thr mutation who show no signs of neurological disease. We describe compound heterozygous mutations in the UBA5 gene in two sisters with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of mutations in UBA5 since the initial discovery that pathogenic biallelic

  7. Effects of orally administered antioxidants on micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange frequency in workers professionally exposed to antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Mrđanović, Jasminka; Jungić, Saša; Šolajić, Slavica; Bogdanović, Višnja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2012-08-01

    The widespread use of antineoplastic drugs in cancer treatment increased concern about possible hazard to workers involved in the preparation and administration of these drugs. In the present study, the effects of commercial antioxidative drug Oligogal Se on genome protection were analyzed in 15 nurses handling the antineoplastic drugs at the Oncology Department in comparison to twenty healthy volunteers. The nurses took antioxidant mixture Oligogal Se, consisting of vitamins C, E, A and selenium, one capsule per day, over a period of 6 months. Genome damage was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes by usage of sister chromatid exchange test and the cytokinesis-block micronuclei test. The frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) in the exposed group was significantly higher when compared to the control group (SCE, p<0.05; MN, p<0.01 respectively). After antioxidant supplementation, the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and micronuclei decreased (p<0.05) when compared with the values from the beginning of the study, but were still above the values of the control group. The effects of confounding factors such as cigarette smoking and cytostatics exposure time were also evaluated. The data indicated that Oligogal Se contributed to the decreasing of genome damages in workers handling the cytostatics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the in vitro effect of taurine on the infant lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Soysal, Yasemin; Kismet, Erol; Akay, Cemal; Dundaroz, Rusen; Ilhan, Mustafan; Imirzalioglu, Necat

    2006-06-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulphonic acid) is normally present in most mammalian tissues and the most abundant free amino acid in lymphocytes. It participates in various important physiological activities including modulation of the functioning of the central nervous system, cell proliferation, viability and prevention of oxidant-induced injury in many tissues. Its levels in human milk are very high which may be the most important difference from cow's milk. In contrast, an inverse association between breast-feeding and carcinogenesis in childhood or later in life has been suggested by several studies. The study group consisted of eight healthy infants. Peripheral blood was collected and lymphocytes were cultured with either Taurine or Mitomycin C (MMC). Sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes of the infants were calculated. Statistical differences were found between untreated and MMC-treated lymphocytes, untreated and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes, and between MMC and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes (P = 0.012). The results indicated that taurine plays a protective role in MMC-induced sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. The authors suggest that the high levels of taurine found in human milk may induce protecting effects from breast-feeding against DNA damage and malignancy.

  9. Sisters who developed piloerection after administration of milnacipran.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Nobuko; Hori, Satoko; Suehira, Mayu; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2016-03-01

    We previously reported the first case of piloerection in a patient receiving milnacipran hydrochloride (MLP). Here, we now present a second case of MLP-induced piloerection. We discuss this effect in terms of α1-adrenoceptor occupancy. After the first case of MLP-induced piloerection, we monitored occurrence of piloerection in our patients taking MLP. In response to our interview, a 43-year-old woman who had been prescribed MLP by a psychiatrist for depression mentioned that piloerection occurred frequently all over her body, starting soon after initiation of MLP administration (50 mg/day). Although she was concerned at the time, she assumed it might be related to her depression or to coldness in winter. She also mentioned that the incidence of piloerection increased with MLP dose escalation. The piloerection disappeared after several months. Interestingly, the previous patient and the current patient are biological sisters. Changes in α1-adrenoceptor occupancy by endogenous norepinephrine (as an index of the risk of piloerection) in the presence of MLP were estimated. The occupancy values increased with MLP dose escalation, in accordance with the patient's report of the phenomenon. other concomitant drugs, such as nortriptyline, had little effect. Since the two patients were sisters, genetic factors might influence the risk of piloerection. The incidence of piloerection appeared to increase with MLP dose escalation in this patient, who was the biological sister of the previously reported patient. Clinicians should recognize the possibility of MLP-induced piloerection in view of its potential impact on patients' quality of life and on drug compliance.

  10. FtsK actively segregates sister chromosomes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Stouf, Mathieu; Meile, Jean-Christophe; Cornet, François

    2013-07-02

    Bacteria use the replication origin-to-terminus polarity of their circular chromosomes to control DNA transactions during the cell cycle. Segregation starts by active migration of the region of origin followed by progressive movement of the rest of the chromosomes. The last steps of segregation have been studied extensively in the case of dimeric sister chromosomes and when chromosome organization is impaired by mutations. In these special cases, the divisome-associated DNA translocase FtsK is required. FtsK pumps chromosomes toward the dif chromosome dimer resolution site using polarity of the FtsK-orienting polar sequence (KOPS) DNA motifs. Assays based on monitoring dif recombination have suggested that FtsK acts only in these special cases and does not act on monomeric chromosomes. Using a two-color system to visualize pairs of chromosome loci in living cells, we show that the spatial resolution of sister loci is accurately ordered from the point of origin to the dif site. Furthermore, ordered segregation in a region ∼200 kb long surrounding dif depended on the oriented translocation activity of FtsK but not on the formation of dimers or their resolution. FtsK-mediated segregation required the MatP protein, which delays segregation of the dif-surrounding region until cell division. We conclude that FtsK segregates the terminus region of sister chromosomes whether they are monomeric or dimeric and does so in an accurate and ordered manner. Our data are consistent with a model in which FtsK acts to release the MatP-mediated cohesion and/or interaction with the division apparatus of the terminus region in a KOPS-oriented manner.

  11. Catholic Sister Nurses in Selma, Alabama, 1940–1972

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the activities of religious sister nurses as they confronted racism in the American South from 1940 to 1972. Selma was chosen as a case study because, in the 1960s, events in that southern town marked a turning point in the civil rights movement in the United States. This is a story about the workings of gender, race, religion, and nursing. The sisters’ work demonstrates how an analysis of race in nursing history is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to African Americans in the Deep South. PMID:19218843

  12. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed “gallbladder agenesis.” Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality. PMID:26925274

  13. Agenesis of the Gallbladder in Monozygotic Twin Sisters.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Koki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Sato, Ai; Maki, Takumi

    2016-01-01

    Agenesis of the gallbladder, a rare anomaly, is generally regarded as an organogenic failure. Several reports suggest that this congenital defect is inherited but that supposition remains controversial. We described agenesis of the gallbladder in identical twins. A 21-year-old female presented with a history of acute pain in the epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Various imaging modalities showed "gallbladder agenesis." Moreover, her older identical twin sister had also no visualized gallbladder in imaging modalities. This case report strongly suggested that agenesis of the gallbladder would be caused by a genetic abnormality.

  14. Lipschütz ulcers in twin sisters.

    PubMed

    Truchuelo, Maria T; Vano-Galván, Sergio; Alcántara, Javier; Pérez, Bibiana; Jaén, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Lipschütz ulcer (LU) is an uncommon condition that usually affects prepubertal and pubertal girls. It can be misdiagnosed as a sexually transmitted disease or even as a sign of child abuse, causing great anxiety to patients and their families. We present two cases of LU consecutively affecting twin sisters. To our knowledge, this is the first case in two family members, supporting infectious transmission. We propose airborne transmission as the most probable cause in our cases. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. District nursing sister attached to hospital surgical department.

    PubMed

    Hockey, L

    1970-04-18

    An experiment of attaching a district nursing sister to the surgical department of a general hospital was designed to show the use of the district nursing service for the after-care of patients discharged from hospital after surgical treatment. In a 15-week period about 590 bed days were saved, and only six out of 126 patients discharged early had to be readmitted. Most of the patients and the general practitioners who replied to questionaries about the scheme were in favour of it.

  16. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits.

  17. Sister chromatid exchange analysis in workers exposed to noise and vibration.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Carothers, A; Branco, N C; Dias, A; Boavida, M G

    1996-07-10

    Workers chronically exposed to whole-body vibration and noise are known to develop pathophysiological and psychological disturbances. The frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and of cells with high frequencies of SCEs (HFCs) were analyzed in lymphocytes of 50 workers occupationally exposed to vibration and noise and of 34 controls. The exposed group included: individuals operating hand-vibrating tools (group 1), 'test-cell operators' (group 2) and 'run-up' operators (group 3) from an air base and helicopter pilots (group 4). The statistical analysis of the mean SCE count per cell was carried out by multiple regression analysis, comparing various predictor variables: exposure group, duration of exposure, age and cigarette consumption. Only cigarette consumption and exposure group were found to be significantly correlated with the mean SCE frequency. After allowing for the effects of smoking, the analysis indicates that: (1) there was no significant difference between group 1 and controls (p > 0.05); (2) the differences between group 2 and group 0, group 3 and group 0 and group 4 and group 0 were all highly significant (p < 0.001); (3) there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3 (p > 0.05), nor between groups 2 and 3 combined and group 4 (p > 0.05); (4) exposure groups 2, 3 and 4 combined, had a significantly elevated mean SCE frequency compared to the control group (p < 0.0001). Statistical analysis of the proportion of HFCs was consistent with these results. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to whole-body vibration and noise may lead to an increase in the level of SCEs in man. The observed effects may not reflect a direct action of these physical agents on DNA. Alternative explanations may include some of the whole-body vibration and noise-induced or stress-induced pathophysiological alterations which may indirectly induce SCE formation.

  18. Sisters and Brothers, Brothers and Sisters in the Family Affected by Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Betty

    This report is based on a qualitative research study which utilized a nominal group process to identify major life stressors for parents of children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). It focuses first on effects of TBI on siblings and then on effective interventions. The first section uses quotes from participating parents to identify their…

  19. Narcolepsy with Cataplexy Mimicry: The Strange Case of Two Sisters

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyo-graphic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases. Citation: Pizza F; Vandi S; Poli F; Moghadam KK; Fran-ceschini C; Bellucci C; Cipolli C; Ingravallo F; Natalini G; Mignot E; Plazzi G. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):611-612. PMID:23772196

  20. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  1. Telomere sister chromatid exchange in telomerase deficient murine cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Giannone, Richard J; Liu, Yie

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that several types of genomic rearrangements (i.e., telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE), genomic-SCE, or end-to-end fusions) were more often detected in long-term cultured murine telomerase deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells than in freshly prepared murine splenocytes, even through they possessed similar frequencies of critically short telomeres. The high rate of genomic rearrangements in telomerase deficient ES cells, when compared to murine splenocytes, may reflect the cultured cells' gained ability to protect chromosome ends with eroded telomeres allowing them to escape 'end crisis'. However, the possibility that ES cells were more permissive to genomic rearrangements than other cell types or that differences in the microenvironment or genetic background of the animals might consequentially determine the rate of T-SCEs or other genomic rearrangements at critically short telomeres could not be ruled out.

  2. Sister chromatid exchange, DNA repair, and single-gene mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrano, A.V.; Thompson, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) has been studied in cultured mammalian cells with regard to the nature of the inducing lesion, mutation induction, and factors that modify the observed frequency following mutagen exposure, SCEs can be induced by a wide spectrum of DNA lesions and, for nine agents examined, the frequency of induced SCE is linearly related to induced single-gene mutation. Further, a deficiency in DNA repair may alter the expression of both SCE and mutation in a qualitatively similar manner. The frequency of SCE induced by mitomycin-C is suppressed in heterochromatic relative to euchromatin and, in nondividing lymphocytes, the lesions leading to the formation of SCEs may persist for several months.

  3. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    PubMed Central

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26109979

  4. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Ezzat; Aelami, Mohammadhassan; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2015-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  5. Sister chromatid exchange in Polish White improved goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in Polish White Improved goats (Capra hircus). The mean number of SCEs/cell was 2.73 +/- 1.84. The effect of sex and age on SCE incidence was also investigated. No statistically significant differences in the number of SCEs/cell were observed between the males and females. On the other hand, age was found to significantly influence SCE frequency. A lower SCE frequency was observed in younger goats. A positive correlation between chromosome length and SCE number was identified. The longer the chromosome, the more exchanges occurred. The highest number of SCEs was observed in the interstitial region, the lowest in the distal area.

  6. Narcolepsy with cataplexy mimicry: the strange case of two sisters.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Poli, Francesca; Moghadam, Keivan Kaveh; Franceschini, Christian; Bellucci, Claudia; Cipolli, Carlo; Ingravallo, Francesca; Natalini, Giuliana; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-15

    We report on two sisters, 17 and 12 years of age, with clinical features suggesting narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC): daytime sleepiness, spontaneous and emotionally triggered sudden falls to the ground, and overweight/obesity. MSLT showed borderline sleep latency, with 1 and 0 sleep onset REM periods. HLA typing disclosed the DQB1*0602 allele. Video-polygraphy of the spells ruled out NC diagnosis by demonstrating their easy elicitation by suggestion, with wake EEG, electromyographic persistence of muscle tone, and stable presence of tendon reflexes (i.e., pseudo-cataplexy), together with normal cerebrospinal hypocretin-1 levels. Our cases emphasize the need of a clear depiction of cataplexy pattern at the different ages, the usefulness of examining ictal neurophysiology, and collecting all available disease markers in ambiguous cases.

  7. Increased levels of sister chromatid exchanges in military aircraft pilots.

    PubMed

    Silva, M J; Carothers, A; Castelo Branco, N; Dias, A; Boavida, M G

    1999-04-26

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were scored in lymphocytes of nine high-performance pilots of alphajet aircrafts and of ten control individuals from the same air base. Statistical analysis of the mean SCE count per cell in the total number of cells analyzed as well as in those having 12 or more SCEs (high-frequency cells, HFCs) revealed a significant difference between pilots and controls, after adjusting for the effect of smoking. Analysis of the cell cycle kinetic data (replication and mitotic indices) revealed no significant differences either between pilots and controls or between smokers and nonsmokers. Previously, we reported an increase in the SCE levels in workers of the aeronautical industry exposed to noise and whole-body vibration. The present results corroborate those findings and indicate that noise and whole-body vibration may cause genotoxic effects in man.

  8. Sisters in Science: Confronting Equity in Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly D.

    The Sisters in Science (SIS) program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics. This article reports on how 577 fourth grade girls changed their interest and achievement in science and mathematics during their involvement in year 1 of the program. Findings show that the girls started the program with positive attitudes and perceptions of science and about science career possibilities. The girls significantly (p < 0.001) increased their science and mathematics skill levels after having participated in the program. It could be stated that the girls' achievement scores on the skills test increased significantly because the girls' attitudes and perceptions were positive before program implementation.

  9. Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as initial pancreatic cancer manifestation.

    PubMed

    Vallejo Bernad, Cristina; Casamayor Franco, María Carmen; Hakim Alonso, Sofía

    2017-02-01

    We report the case of an 85-year-old female patient who presented with umbilical pain associated with an indurated growth, the whole being apparently consistent with incarcerated umbilical hernia, which prompted an urgent surgical procedure for its removal. The pathology study revealed dermal infiltration by a malignancy. Gland tumor cells expressed an immunohistochemical profile initially consistent with a pancreatic origin. In view of these findings a CT scan was performed, which revealed a pancreatic tail tumor as well as multiple hepatic metastasis. Skin metastasis is a rare sign usually reflecting a carcinoma of unknown origin. Umbilical skin metastasis, called Sister Mary Joseph´s nodule, reflect an intra-abdominal tumor, being pancreatic cancer strange.

  10. Evolutionary basis of mitonuclear discordance between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Denton, Robert D; Kenyon, Laura J; Greenwald, Katherine R; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2014-06-01

    Distinct genetic markers should show similar patterns of differentiation between species reflecting their common evolutionary histories, yet there are increasing examples of differences in the biogeographic distribution of species-specific nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants within and between species. Identifying the evolutionary processes that underlie these anomalous patterns of genetic differentiation is an important goal. Here, we analyse the putative mitonuclear discordance observed between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri and A. texanum) in which A. barbouri-specific mtDNA is found in animals located within the range of A. texanum. We test three hypotheses for this discordance (undetected range expansion, mtDNA introgression, and hybridization) using nuDNA and mtDNA data analysed with methods that varied in the parameters estimated and the timescales measured. Results from a Bayesian clustering technique (structure), bidirectional estimates of gene flow (migrate-n and IMa2) and phylogeny-based methods (*beast, bucky) all support the conclusion that the discordance is due to geographically restricted mtDNA introgression from A. barbouri into A. texanum. Limited data on species-specific tooth morphology match this conclusion. Significant differences in environmental conditions exist between sites where A. texanum with and without A. barbouri-like mtDNA occur, suggesting a possible role for selection in the process of introgression. Overall, our study provides a general example of the value of using complimentary analyses to make inferences of the directionality, timescale, and source of mtDNA introgression in animals.

  11. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  12. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  13. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  14. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  15. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  16. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  17. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  18. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  19. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  20. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  1. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  2. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  3. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  4. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  5. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  6. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  7. 20 CFR 725.222 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.222 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual is eligible for benefits as a surviving parent, brother or sister if all of the following requirements are met:...

  8. 20 CFR 725.223 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or... Benefits) § 725.223 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) A parent, sister, or brother....222 are met. (b) The last month for which such parent is entitled to benefits is the month in...

  9. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's parent, brother, or sister will be determined to have been dependent on the miner if, during the...

  10. 20 CFR 725.224 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent... Benefits) § 725.224 Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister. (a) An individual will be considered to be the parent, brother, or sister of a miner if the courts of the State in which the miner...

  11. 20 CFR 410.215 - Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.215 Duration of entitlement; parent, brother, or sister. (a) parent, brother, or sister is entitled to benefits beginning with the month all...

  12. Addressing the Apparent Paradox of the Catholic Sister Principal: 1940-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donoghue, Tom; Harford, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A body of scholarship on the history of the lives of Catholic teaching sisters has thrown up various challenges to educational historians. One challenge can be posed by asking how teaching sisters were able to go on to take up leadership positions. This is prompted by the observation that a particular body of literature for the period 1940-1965…

  13. Mothers' differential treatment of adolescent siblings: predicting college attendance of sisters versus brothers.

    PubMed

    Bissell-Havran, Joanna M; Loken, Eric; McHale, Susan M

    2012-10-01

    Current estimates suggest that by 2015, 60% of college students will be women, a change since 1970 when 59% were men. We investigated family dynamics that might explain the growing gender gap in college attendance, focusing on an ethnically diverse sample of 522 mixed sex sibling dyads from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We examined whether the difference between sisters' and brothers' reports of their mothers' expectations for, and involvement in, their education during adolescence predicted their differential odds of college attendance seven years later. Sisters were more likely than brothers to attend college, and this gap was more pronounced among non-Whites and non-Asians. Sisters also had higher grades in school than their brothers. Although there were no gender differences overall in maternal educational expectations or involvement, brothers reported greater maternal involvement than sisters in non-White and non-Asian families. After controlling for family background factors, the average of siblings' reports of maternal treatment, and differences between siblings' grades, the results revealed that as sisters reported greater maternal educational expectations than their brothers, it became more likely that only the sister rather than only the brother in the family attended college. The difference between brothers' and sisters' reports of their mothers' educational involvement and their odds of attending college showed the same pattern of association but was not statistically significant. These results suggest that within-family social comparisons may play a role in sisters' and brothers' choices about attending college.

  14. Having a Brother or Sister with Down Syndrome: Perspectives from Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Skotko, Brian G.; Levine, Susan P.; Goldstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study asks brothers and sisters about their feelings and perceptions toward their sibling with Down syndrome. We analyzed valid and reliable surveys from 822 brothers and sisters whose families were on the mailing lists of six non-profit Down syndrome organizations around the country. More than 96% of brothers/sisters that responded to the survey indicated that they had affection toward their sibling with Down syndrome; and 94% of older siblings expressed feelings of pride. Less than 10% felt embarrassed, and less than 5% expressed a desire to trade their sibling in for another brother or sister without Down syndrome. Among older siblings, 88% felt that they were better people because of their siblings with Down syndrome, and more than 90% plan to remain involved in their sibling’s lives as they become adults. The vast majority of brothers and sisters describe their relationship with their sibling with Down syndrome as positive and enriching. PMID:21910244

  15. The role of brothers and sisters in the gender development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Rust, J; Golombok, S; Hines, M; Johnston, K; Golding, J

    2000-12-01

    The study examined whether the sex of older siblings influences the gender role development of younger brothers and sisters of age 3 years. Data on the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a measure of gender role behavior that discriminates within as well as between the sexes, were obtained in a general population study for 527 girls and 582 boys with an older sister, 500 girls and 561 boys with an older brother, and 1665 singleton girls and 1707 singleton boys. It was found that boys with older brothers and girls with older sisters were more sex-typed than same-sex singletons who, in turn, were more sex-typed than children with other-sex siblings. Having an older brother was associated with more masculine and less feminine behavior in both boys and girls, whereas boys with older sisters were more feminine but not less masculine and girls with older sisters were less masculine but not more feminine.

  16. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages

  17. Sisters Helping Sisters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Madeleine E.

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the philosophy, organization, and management of a mentoring program for African American girls. It is based on a program sponsored by the Wheeler Avenue Baptist Church in Houston (Texas). This program matches between 25 and 50 young women with Christian women mentors. The program emphasizes Christian values,…

  18. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Charkoudian, Louise K.; Docherty, Kathryn M.; Jones, Evan; Kembel, Steven W.; Green, Jessica L.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics. PMID:26102275

  19. Biogenic Origin for Earth's Oldest Putative Microfossils

    SciTech Connect

    De Gregorio, B.; Sharp, T; Flynn, G; Wirick, S; Hervig, R

    2009-01-01

    Carbonaceous microbe-like features preserved within a local chert unit of the 3.5 Ga old Apex Basalt in Western Australia may represent some of the oldest evidence of life on Earth. However, the biogenicity of these putative microfossils has been called into question, primarily because the sample collection locality is a black, carbon-rich, brecciated chert dike representing an Archean submarine hydrothermal spring, suggesting a formation via an abiotic organic synthesis mechanism. Here we describe the macromolecular hydrocarbon structure, carbon bonding, functional group chemistry, and biotic element abundance of carbonaceous matter associated with these filamentous features. These characteristics are similar to those of biogenic kerogen from the ca. 1.9 Ga old Gunflint Formation. Although an abiotic origin cannot be entirely ruled out, it is unlikely that known abiotic synthesis mechanisms could recreate both the structural and compositional complexity of this ancient carbonaceous matter. Thus, we find that a biogenic origin for this material is more likely, implying that the Apex microbe-like features represent authentic biogenic organic matter.

  20. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production.

    PubMed

    Morlon, Hélène; O'Connor, Timothy K; Bryant, Jessica A; Charkoudian, Louise K; Docherty, Kathryn M; Jones, Evan; Kembel, Steven W; Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics.

  1. Effect of pretreatment with cysteamine on gamma-radiation-induced sister chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Mendiola-Cruz, M.T.; Morales-Ramirez, P.

    1989-04-01

    The effect of pretreatment with cysteamine on gamma-radiation-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and on the mitotic index and average generation time was determined. Groups of mice were treated in one of the following regimens: (1) irradiated, (2) treated with cysteamine and irradiated, (3) treated with cysteamine only, or (4) left untreated. Intraperitoneal administration of cysteamine preceding gamma-radiation exposure protected against SCE induction. However, radioprotection was not reflected by change in the mitotic index or in the average generation time. The results suggest that, under the experimental conditions of this study, the SCEs are caused by free radicals produced by gamma radiation, but not the additional damage indices measured.

  2. Chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and high frequency cells in young patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1).

    PubMed

    Bigatti, M P; Ardito, G; Lamberti, L; Crovella, S; Collell, M; Giordanino, S; Benso, L

    2000-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and high frequency cells (HFCs) have been assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 10 neurofibromatosis (NF1) patients and 10 healthy controls. In both groups, the spontaneous rates and the induced (bleomycin for CA and MMC for SCE) frequencies were analyzed. No differences between cells from NF1 patients and controls were observed with respect to spontaneous or bleomycin induced CA. Spontaneous or MMC induced SCE frequencies were also similar in NF1 patients and controls. HFCs, on the contrary, were statistically lower in NF1 patients.

  3. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    PubMed

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between the mean of the experimental group (11.05) and the mean of a matched control group (8.18). The experimental group also has an exceptionally high proportion of HFCs (cells with high SCE frequencies) above the 95th percentile compared to the controls (11.0 and 0.07%, respectively). We conclude that the New Zealand Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam.

  4. Helium and Carbon Isotope Systematics of Springs in the Separation Creek Drainage System, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon Cascades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.; Schmidt, M. E.

    2002-12-01

    In response to recent and on-going uplift in the Separation Creek drainage system, 5 km west of South Sister volcano in the central Oregon Cascades (e.g. Wicks et al., 2001), a hydrogeochemical monitoring project was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the summer of 2001. When compared to existing literature data, we found no significant changes in the helium isotope composition of hot springs located in the vicinity of South Sister volcano, but outside the area of uplift. Nor were there significant changes in fluid chemistry or conductivity of cold springs within the area of uplift. For the latter group, there are no pre-uplift helium or carbon isotope data. Therefore, the implications of the strong magmatic helium and carbon isotope signals measured in two of these samples and their possible relationship to the recent uplift could not be evaluated (Van Soest et al., 2001; Evans et al., 2002). Within the scope of the hydrogeochemical monitoring project, a detailed survey of cold springs in the Separation Creek drainage area was planned for the spring, summer and fall of 2002. Preliminary results for spring 2002 samples suggest a relationship between helium isotope composition and distance from South Sister volcano, but not the center of uplift: 8.6RA at 3 km (from a sample nearest the youngest erupted volcanics), 7.4RA at 5 km (near the center of uplift), 7.0RA at 10 km, 6.8RA at 18 km, and 5.2RA at 25 km from South Sister volcano. The last value is from the hot spring closest to the area of uplift for which there is pre-uplift data and it suggests a constant helium isotope ratio over time (1982-present). The new carbon isotope results confirm the existence of a mixing relationship between deep abiogenic (magmatic) carbon and shallow biogenic carbon that was apparent in the 2001 samples. The carbon isotope results appear to correlate with the Cl and conductivity anomalies in the springs. At this time, whether a similar correlation exists for the helium

  5. Siblings' experiences of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation: a case study of 14 siblings from five families.

    PubMed

    Benderix, Ylva; Sivberg, Bengt

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the present and past experiences of 14 siblings from five families in terms of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation. Personal interviews were conducted with the siblings before their brothers or sisters were moved to a newly opened group home. Qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis of the transcribed texts. The analysis resulted in seven content categories: precocious responsibility, feeling sorry, exposed to frightening behavior, empathetic feelings, hoping that a group home will be a relief, physical violence made siblings feel unsafe and anxious, and relations with friends were affected negatively. The conclusion is that these siblings' experiences revealed stressful life conditions. Counseling for the family and for siblings is recommended to help them deal with their feelings and problems. For the siblings in these five families, a group home was a relevant alternative as a temporary or permanent placement for the child with autism and mental retardation.

  6. Chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) to study sister chromatid segregation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ester; Chavez, Elizabeth; Henderson, Alexander; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, assays for sister chromatid segregation patterns relied on incorporation of BrdU and indirect methods to infer segregation patterns after two cell divisions. Here we describe a method to differentially label sister chromatids of murine cells and directly assay sister chromatid segregation patterns following one cell division in vitro and in vivo by adaptation of the well-established CO-FISH (chromosome orientation fluorescent in situ hybridization) technique. 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is incorporated into newly-formed DNA strands, followed by photolysis and exonuclease digestion to create single-stranded sister chromatids containing parental template DNA only. Such single-stranded sister chromatids are differentially labeled using unidirectional probes to major satellite sequences coupled to fluorescent markers. Differentially-labeled sister chromatids in post-mitotic cells are visualized using fluorescence microscopy and sister chromatid segregation patterns can be directly assayed after one cell division. This procedure requires four days for in vivo mouse tissues, and two days for in vitro cultured cells. PMID:20595964

  7. Narrative research on mental health recovery: two sister paradigms.

    PubMed

    Spector-Mersel, Gabriela; Knaifel, Evgeny

    2017-06-24

    Despite the breadth of narrative studies on individuals with severe mental illness, the suitability of narrative inquiry to exploring mental health recovery (MHR) has not been examined. (1) Examining the appropriateness of narrative inquiry to studying MHR; (2) assessing the extent to which narrative studies on MHR conform to the unique features of narrative research, as a distinctive form of qualitative inquiry. Review of empirical, theoretical and methodological literature on recovery and narrative inquiry. Considering the perspectives of recovery and narrative as paradigms, the similarity between their ontology and epistemology is shown, evident in 10 common emphases: meaning, identity, change and development, agency, holism, culture, uniqueness, context, language and giving voice. The resemblance between these "sister" paradigms makes narrative methodology especially fruitful for accessing the experiences of individuals in recovery. Reviewing narrative studies on MHR suggests that, currently, narrative research's uniqueness, centered on the holistic principle, is blurred on the philosophical, methodological and textual levels. Well-established narrative research has major implications for practice and policy in recovery-oriented mental health care. The narrative inquiry paradigm offers a possible path to enhancing the distinctive virtues of this research, realizing its potential in understanding and promoting MHR.

  8. Detection of sister chromatid exchanges induced by volatile genotoxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Xu, J.; Stewart, J.; Baciu, P.C.; Ong, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    To test the recently developed method of exposing cells to volatile compounds, phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral lymphocyte cultures were exposed to gaseous methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, and propylene oxide, as well as diesel exhaust. The cultures were placed in sterile dialysis tubing and inserted into enclosed flasks containing additional culture medium. The test compounds (in gaseous state) were diluted with air and bubbled through the flasks for various lengths of time. The cells were then washed and incubated for a total of 75 h. The harvest was performed according to established procedures, and second-division cells were scored for induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The SCE frequency was more than doubled in the cultures treated with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; methyl bromide also induced SCEs. Cultures treated with diesel exhaust showed an increase in the SCE frequency in cells from two of four donors tested. These results further substantiate the use of this method for detecting the induction of SCEs by airborne genotoxins.

  9. The Bacterial Nucleoid: Nature, Dynamics and Sister Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Kleckner, Nancy; Fisher, Jay K.; Stouf, Mathieu; White, Martin A.; Bates, David; Witz, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that the bacterial nucleoid has a defined, self-adherent shape and an underlying longitudinal organization and comprises a viscoelastic matrix. Within this shape, mobility is enhanced by ATP-dependent processes and individual loci can undergo ballistic off-equilibrium movements. In E.coli, two global dynamic nucleoid behaviors emerge pointing to nucleoid-wide accumulation and relief of internal stress. Sister segregation begins with local splitting of individual loci, which is delayed at origin, terminus and specialized interstitial snap regions. Globally, as studied in several systems, segregation is a multi-step process in which internal nucleoid state plays critical roles that involve both compaction and expansion. The origin and terminus regions undergo specialized programs partially driven by complex ATP burning mechanisms such as a ParAB Brownian ratchet and a septum-associated FtsK motor. These recent findings reveal strong, direct parallels among events in different systems and between bacterial nucleoids and mammalian chromosomes with respect to physical properties, internal organization and dynamic behaviors. PMID:25460806

  10. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution

    PubMed Central

    Rabeling, Christian; Brown, Jeremy M.; Verhaagh, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Ants are the world's most conspicuous and important eusocial insects and their diversity, abundance, and extreme behavioral specializations make them a model system for several disciplines within the biological sciences. Here, we report the discovery of a new ant that appears to represent the sister lineage to all extant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The phylogenetic position of this cryptic predator from the soils of the Amazon rainforest was inferred from several nuclear genes, sequenced from a single leg. Martialis heureka (gen. et sp. nov.) also constitutes the sole representative of a new, morphologically distinct subfamily of ants, the Martialinae (subfam. nov.). Our analyses have reduced the likelihood of long-branch attraction artifacts that have troubled previous phylogenetic studies of early-diverging ants and therefore solidify the emerging view that the most basal extant ant lineages are cryptic, hypogaeic foragers. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic evidence we suggest that these specialized subterranean predators are the sole surviving representatives of a highly divergent lineage that arose near the dawn of ant diversification and have persisted in ecologically stable environments like tropical soils over great spans of time. PMID:18794530

  11. Unprotected Replication Forks Are Converted into Mitotic Sister Chromatid Bridges.

    PubMed

    Ait Saada, Anissia; Teixeira-Silva, Ana; Iraqui, Ismail; Costes, Audrey; Hardy, Julien; Paoletti, Giulia; Fréon, Karine; Lambert, Sarah A E

    2017-05-04

    Replication stress and mitotic abnormalities are key features of cancer cells. Temporarily paused forks are stabilized by the intra-S phase checkpoint and protected by the association of Rad51, which prevents Mre11-dependent resection. However, if a fork becomes dysfunctional and cannot resume, this terminally arrested fork is rescued by a converging fork to avoid unreplicated parental DNA during mitosis. Alternatively, dysfunctional forks are restarted by homologous recombination. Using fission yeast, we report that Rad52 and the DNA binding activity of Rad51, but not its strand-exchange activity, act to protect terminally arrested forks from unrestrained Exo1-nucleolytic activity. In the absence of recombination proteins, large ssDNA gaps, up to 3 kb long, occur behind terminally arrested forks, preventing efficient fork merging and leading to mitotic sister chromatid bridging. Thus, Rad52 and Rad51 prevent temporarily and terminally arrested forks from degrading and, despite the availability of converging forks, converting to anaphase bridges causing aneuploidy and cell death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mars' atmosphere: The sister planet, our statistical twin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wilbur; Lovejoy, Shaun; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-10-01

    Satellite-based Martian reanalyses have allowed unprecedented comparisons between our atmosphere and that of our sister planet, underlining various similarities and differences in their respective dynamics. Yet by focusing on large scale structures and deterministic mechanisms they have improved our understanding of the dynamics only over fairly narrow ranges of (near) planetary scales. However, the Reynolds numbers of the flows on both planets are larger than 1011 and dissipation only occurs at centimetric (Mars) or millimetric scales (Earth) so that over most of their scale ranges, the dynamics are fully turbulent. In this paper, we therefore examine the high-level, statistical, turbulent laws for the temperature, horizontal wind, and surface pressure, finding that Earth and Mars have virtually identical statistical exponents so that their statistics are very similar over wide ranges. Therefore, it would seem that with the exception of certain aspects of the largest scales (such as the role of dust in atmospheric heating on Mars, or of water in its various phases on Earth), that the nonlinear dynamics are very similar. We argue that this is a prediction of the classical laws of turbulence when extended to planetary scales and that it supports our use of turbulent laws on both planetary atmospheres.

  13. Sororin actively maintains sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Rene; Kreidl, Emanuel; Ivanov, Miroslav P; Ekker, Heinz; Idarraga-Amado, Maria Helena; Busslinger, Georg A; Wutz, Gordana; Cisneros, David A; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-03-15

    Cohesion between sister chromatids is established during DNA replication but needs to be maintained to enable proper chromosome-spindle attachments in mitosis or meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but also depends on cohesin acetylation and sororin. Sororin contributes to cohesion by stabilizing cohesin on DNA. Sororin achieves this by inhibiting WAPL, which otherwise releases cohesin from DNA and destroys cohesion. Here we describe mouse models which enable the controlled depletion of sororin by gene deletion or auxin-induced degradation. We show that sororin is essential for embryonic development, cohesion maintenance, and proper chromosome segregation. We further show that the acetyltransferases ESCO1 and ESCO2 are essential for stabilizing cohesin on chromatin, that their only function in this process is to acetylate cohesin's SMC3 subunit, and that DNA replication is also required for stable cohesin-chromatin interactions. Unexpectedly, we find that sororin interacts dynamically with the cohesin complexes it stabilizes. This implies that sororin recruitment to cohesin does not depend on the DNA replication machinery or process itself, but on a property that cohesin acquires during cohesion establishment.

  14. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cláudia Sossai; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Machado, Carla Botelho; Moreira, Érika Bueno de Carvalho; Teixeira, Felipe Roberti; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2013-05-01

    PA28γ is a proteasome activator involved in the regulation of the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA from Schistosoma mansoni exhibiting significant homology to PA28γ of diverse taxa ranging from mammals (including humans) to simple invertebrates. Designated SmPA28γ, this transcript has a 753bp predicted ORF encoding a protein of 250 amino acid residues. Alignment of SmPA28γ with multiple PA28γ orthologues revealed an average similarity of ~40% among the investigated organisms, and 90% similarity with PA28γ from Schistosoma japonicum. In addition, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close linkage between SmPA28γ to its sister group that contains well-characterized PA28γ sequences from Drosophila spp., as well as sharing the same branch with PA28γ from S. japonicum. Gene expression profiling of SmPA28γ using real-time quantitative PCR revealed elevated steady-state transcript levels in the eggs, miracidia and paired adult worms compared to other stages. In parallel with gene expression profiles, an affinity-purified anti-SmPA28γ antibody produced against recombinant protein exhibited strongest reactivity in Western blot analyses to endogenous SmPA28γ from miracidia, sporocysts and paired adult worms. Given its known regulatory function in other organisms, we hypothesized that the high level of SmPA28γ transcript and protein in these stages may be correlated with an important role of the PA28γ in the cellular growth and/or development of this parasite. To address this hypothesis, miracidia were transformed in vitro to sporocysts in the presence of SmPA28γ double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and cultivated for 4 days, after which time steady-state transcript and protein levels, and phenotypic changes were evaluated. SmPA28γ dsRNA treatment resulted in gene and protein knockdown of ~60% and ~80%, respectively, which were correlated with a significant decrease in larval length

  15. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Cláudia Sossai; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Magalhães, Lizandra G.; Machado, Carla Botelho; Moreira, Érika Bueno de Carvalho; Teixeira, Felipe Roberti; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Yoshino, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    PA28γ is a proteasome activator involved in the regulation of the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA from Schistosoma mansoni exhibiting significant homology to PA28γ of diverse taxa ranging from mammals (including humans) to simple invertebrates. Designated SmPA28γ, this transcript has a 753 bp predicted ORF encoding a protein of 250 amino acid residues. Alignment of SmPA28γ with multiple PA28γ orthologues revealed an average similarity of ~40% among the investigated organisms, and 90% similarity with PA28γ from Schistosoma japonicum. In addition, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close linkage between SmPA28γ to its sister group that contains well-characterized PA28γ sequences from Drosophila spp., as well as sharing the same branch with PA28γ from S. japonicum. Gene expression profiling of SmPA28γ using real-time quantitative PCR revealed elevated steady-state transcript levels in the eggs, miracidia and paired adult worms compared to other stages. In parallel with gene expression profiles, an affinity-purified anti-SmPA28γ antibody produced against recombinant protein exhibited strongest reactivity in Western blot analyses to endogenous SmPA28γ from miracidia, sporocysts and paired adult worms. Given its known regulatory function in other organisms, we hypothesized that the high level of SmPA28γ transcript and protein in these stages may be correlated with an important role of the PA28γ in the cellular growth and/or development of this parasite. To address this hypothesis, miracidia were transformed in vitro to sporocysts in the presence of SmPA28γ double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and cultivated for 4 days, after which time steady-state transcript and protein levels, and phenotypic changes were evaluated. SmPA28γ dsRNA treatment resulted in gene and protein knockdown of ~60% and ~80%, respectively, which were correlated with a significant decrease in larval length

  16. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier.

    PubMed

    Eilegård, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Nyberg, Tommy; Kreicbergs, Ulrika

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess long-term psychological distress in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier, as compared with a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population. During 2009, we conducted a nationwide follow-up study in Sweden by using an anonymous study-specific questionnaire. Siblings who had lost a brother or sister to cancer between the years 2000 and 2007 and also a control group of non-bereaved siblings from the general population were invited to participate. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure psychological distress, and to test for differences in the ordinal outcome responses between the groups, we used Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Among the bereaved siblings, 174/240 (73%) participated and 219/293 (75%) among the non-bereaved. Self-assessed low self-esteem (p = 0.002), difficulties falling asleep (p = 0.005), and low level of personal maturity (p = 0.007) at follow-up were more prevalent among bereaved siblings. However, anxiety (p = 0.298) and depression (p = 0.946), according to HADS, were similar. Bereaved siblings are at increased risk of low self-esteem, low level of personal maturity and difficulties falling asleep as compared with non-bereaved peers. Yet, the bereaved were not more likely to report anxiety or depression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Wild female baboons bias their social behaviour towards paternal half-sisters.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kerri; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Adult female cercopithecines have long been known to bias their social behaviour towards close maternal kin. However, much less is understood about the behaviour of paternal kin, especially in wild populations. Here, we show that wild adult female baboons bias their affiliative behaviour towards their adult paternal half-sisters in the same manner and to the same extent that they bias their behaviour towards adult maternal half-sisters. Females appear to rely heavily on social familiarity as a means of biasing their behaviour towards paternal half-sisters, but may use phenotype matching as well. PMID:12641905

  18. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A

    2015-01-01

    When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself.

  19. Solution Radioactivated by Hadron Radiation Can Increase Sister Chromatid Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Junko; Yurkon, Charles R.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Sayaka; Brents, Colleen A.; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fujimori, Akira; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2015-01-01

    When energetic particles irradiate matter, it becomes activated by nuclear reactions. Radioactivation induced cellular effects are not clearly understood, but it could be a part of bystander effects. This investigation is aimed at understanding the biological effects from radioactivation in solution induced by hadron radiation. Water or phosphate buffered saline was activated by being exposed to hadron radiation including protons, carbon- and iron-ions. 1 mL of radioactivated solution was transferred to flasks with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells cultured in 5 mL of complete media. The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) was used to observe any increase in DNA damage responses. The energy spectrum and the half-lives of the radioactivation were analyzed by NaI scintillation detector in order to identify generated radionuclides. In the radioactivated solution, 511 keV gamma-rays were observed, and their half-lives were approximately 2 min, 10 min, and 20 min. They respectively correspond to the beta+ decay of 15O, 13N, and 11C. The SCE frequencies in CHO cells increased depending on the amount of radioactivation in the solution. These were suppressed with a 2-hour delayed solution transfer or pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Our results suggest that the SCE induction by radioactivated solution was mediated by free radicals produced by the annihilated gamma-rays. Since the SCE induction and DMSO modulation are also reported in radiation-induced bystander effects, our results imply that radioactivation of the solution may have some contribution to the bystander effects from hadron radiation. Further investigations are required to assess if radioactivation effects would attribute an additional level of cancer risk of the hadron radiation therapy itself. PMID:26657140

  20. Sister chromatid exchange data and Gram-Charlier series.

    PubMed

    Bowman, K O; Eddings, W; Kastenbaum, M A; Shenton, L R

    1998-07-17

    Bowman et al. [K.O. Bowman, M.A. Kastenbaum, L.R. Shenton, Fitting multi-parameter distributions to SCE data, Mutat. Res., 358 (1996) 15-24.] showed how discrete Pearson and discrete Johnson translation-system distributions may be fitted to sister chromatid exchange (SCE) data presented by Bender et al. [M.A. Bender, R.J. Pearston, R.C. Leonard, B.E. Pyatt, P.C. Gooch, On the distribution of spontaneous SCE in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, Mutat. Res., 281 (1992) 227-232.]. When their performances were measured by the chi-squared test of goodness of fit, these distributions proved to be only moderately better alternatives to the poorly fitting Poisson, binomial, and negative binomial distributions. In this paper, we extend our search for better characterizations of the SCE data by calling upon the Gram-Charlier type B approximation of the negative binomial distribution. We introduce an innovative extension of methods described in a little-known paper by Aitken and Gonin [A.C. Aitken, H.T. Gonin, On fourfold sampling with and without replacement, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh, 55 (1934) 114-125.], and show how this leads to fits of the SCE data that, in general, are within acceptable levels of probability. Moreover, we show how a theorem by Cramér [H. Cramér, Mathematical Methods of Statistics, Princeton Univ. Press, 1946.], relating to the scale factor m2/m'1 and its asymptotic distribution, may be used to discriminate between smokers and nonsmokers of the same gender.

  1. On Sister, Where Art Thou? The Galilean Satellites After Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, W. B.

    2006-12-01

    A rich picture has emerged of the four Galileans in the last decade, but for each moon fundamental questions naturally remain unanswered. I will attempt to review a selection of these whose broader application to planetary and satellite science may prove important. Io's volcanic hyperactivity is well known, and offers clues to Io's tidally heated interior state, but the same effusions obscure much of what happens in the interior. The magmas are hot, but how hot? What is the spatial pattern of tidal heating and how is magma transported? Are models based on upwelling of the Earth's upper mantle sufficient, or must more exotic models, such as porous flow through a non-convecting solid matrix, be invoked? What about the canonical (at least at one time) magma ocean? Are Io's spectacular mountains mere "window dressing" or vital clues to otherwise perplexing interior processes? Moving to the exterior moon, Callisto, the central scientific question for this body is how it acquired its ocean yet managed not to be deeply melted (differentiated)? Ganymede (an honorary sister) is ostensibly deeply differentiated, but the existence (if not persistence) of a strong magnetic dynamo within its iron core is a profound puzzle. At the surface, the relative roles of ice-water volcanism and tectonic resurfacing in creating the grooved and "smooth" terrains that cover 2/3 of the solar system's largest satellite remain debated. The stakes for understanding ice resurfacing elsewhere (Europa, Enceladus) are great. And it is Europa that commands our greatest attention. A decade of research has reached a level of maturity: while researchers may disagree on shell thickness, the consensus is that the ocean exists. With a massive body of liquid water, multiple energy sources proposed, and different paths to provide C and other biogenic elements, the central question is Europa's potential for life. There is no greater question.

  2. Fear and loathing in Mississippi: the attack on cAMP sister spirit.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kate

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1993, the small rural community of Ovett, Miss., and a group of self-described radical lesbian feminists clashed over the establishment by the women of a feminist educational retreat known as Camp Sister Spirit. This dispute took the form of physical and psychological harassment of the women, wide-open public debate in the community, in the press, and on television, federal mediation efforts, and two lawsuits. This article analyzes this dispute using Mary Daly's seven patterns of the sado-ritual syndrome (Daly, 1978). The analysis examines the ideological and moral standpoints of the participants, the issues of "blaming the victim" and scapegoating, the development of the conflict from a dispute between neighbors to the involvement of international media, national activists and the Clinton Administration, the transformation of the conflict from a political to legal dispute, the representations of the groups within the community and the media, the effect of public opinion on the dispute, and the politics of the media in the dispute.

  3. Birth order and ratio of brothers to sisters in Spanish transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gil, Esther; Esteva, Isabel; Carrasco, Rocío; Almaraz, M Cruz; Pasaro, Eduardo; Salamero, Manel; Guillamon, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    Three Western studies have shown that male-to-female (MF) homosexual transsexuals tend to be born later than their siblings and to come from sibships with more brothers than sisters. The objective of this study was to determine whether these variables would be replicated in 530 MF and female-to-male (FM) Spanish transsexuals according to sexual orientation. The results showed that MF homosexual transsexuals had significantly more older brothers than the non-homosexual MF group. Compared with the expected rates in the general population, birth order was significantly higher in both MF (Slater's Index = 0.59; Fraternal Index = 0.61; Sororal Index = 0.58) and FM homosexual transsexuals (Slater's Index = 0.65; Fraternal Index = 0.68; Sororal Index = 0.67), and sibling sex ratio was significantly higher than expected in homosexual MF (sex ratio = 0.55) but not in homosexual FM transsexuals. No significant differences were found in the non-homosexual subgroups. The replication of the later birth order and sibling sex-ratio effect in MF homosexual transsexuals corroborates previous findings in a variety of groups from different cultures and may suggest a common mechanism underlying the etiology of transsexualism.

  4. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  5. Two sisters with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome and serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Huepenbecker, Sarah P; Divine, Laura; Chu, Christina S; Mutch, David G

    2017-11-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is a rare entity with proposed genetic underpinnings. Ovarian carcinoma has well-described genetic associations and syndromes, although much of the etiology of the disease remains unknown. Two sisters present in the 1970s with primary amenorrhea, 46, XX karyotypes, and absent uteri consistent with MRKH syndrome. In the 2010s, both sisters again present for care. Case 1 presents one sister with stage IIIC serous ovarian adenocarcinoma and negative BRCA panel. Case No 2 presents the other sister with stage IIIC serous ovarian adenocarcinoma and a negative panel for 32 genetic variants associated with ovarian carcinoma. The familial association of two rare diseases and negative genetic workup could point to a new genetic understanding of reproductive structure development and ovarian carcinogenesis.

  6. Radiologic findings of Patterson-Lowry rhizomelic dysplasia in two sisters.

    PubMed

    Damar, Çağrı; Boyunağa, Öznur; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Battaloğlu, Nergiz; Ezgü, Fatih Süheyl

    2014-11-01

    We report two sisters who have a rare skeletal abnormality termed Patterson-Lowry rhizomelic dysplasia. The typical findings of these cases on bone survey are isolated shortening and proximal metaphyseal enlargement and cupping of the bilateral humeri. The elder sister also has coxa vara deformity and dysplastic proximal femoral epiphyses on both sides. The younger sister has normal hip joint bones bilaterally, but her proximal femoral epiphyses are smaller than normal. All other bones of the sisters are of normal size and configuration. Our patients are two siblings, and their parents are first degree relatives, suggesting autosomal-recessive (AR) inheritance. The present patients help us to understand the genetic relationships and skeletal variabilities of this rare entity.

  7. Endovascular Repair of Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysms in Two Sisters with SMAD3 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Nevidomskyte, Daiva; Shalhub, Sherene; Aldea, Gabriel S; Byers, Peter H; Schwarze, Ulrike; Murray, Mitzi L; Starnes, Benjamin

    2017-03-07

    True aneurysms of the internal mammary artery are rare and have been described in association with vasculitis or connective tissue disorders. Herein we describe two cases of familial internal mammary artery aneurysms in two sisters with SMAD3 mutation. The older sister presented at the age of 54 with an incidental diagnosis of a multilobed right internal mammary artery aneurysm (IMA) and the younger sister presented several years earlier with a ruptured left IMA aneurysm at the age of 49. Both sisters had Debakey type I aortic dissections prior to the IMA aneurysm presentation. To our knowledge this is the first time IMA aneurysms has been described in siblings with SMAD3 mutation. In our experience endovascular repair is a feasible and safe treatment option. An assessment of the entire arterial tree is recommended in patients diagnosed with SMAD3 mutations.

  8. The Putative Son's Attractiveness Alters the Perceived Attractiveness of the Putative Father.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2015-08-01

    A body of literature has investigated female mate choice in the pre-mating context (pre-mating sexual selection). Humans, however, are long-living mammals forming pair-bonds which sequentially produce offspring. Post-mating evaluations of a partner's attractiveness may thus significantly influence the reproductive success of men and women. I tested herein the theory that the attractiveness of putative sons provides extra information about the genetic quality of fathers, thereby influencing fathers' attractiveness across three studies. As predicted, facially attractive boys were more frequently attributed to attractive putative fathers and vice versa (Study 1). Furthermore, priming with an attractive putative son increased the attractiveness of the putative father with the reverse being true for unattractive putative sons. When putative fathers were presented as stepfathers, the effect of the boy's attractiveness on the stepfather's attractiveness was lower and less consistent (Study 2). This suggests that the presence of an attractive boy has the strongest effect on the perceived attractiveness of putative fathers rather than on non-fathers. The generalized effect of priming with beautiful non-human objects also exists, but its effect is much weaker compared with the effects of putative biological sons (Study 3). Overall, this study highlighted the importance of post-mating sexual selection in humans and suggests that the heritable attractive traits of men are also evaluated by females after mating and/or may be used by females in mate poaching.

  9. Ecological divergence and speciation between lemur (Eulemur) sister species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Blair, M E; Sterling, E J; Dusch, M; Raxworthy, C J; Pearson, R G

    2013-08-01

    Understanding ecological niche evolution over evolutionary timescales is crucial to elucidating the biogeographic history of organisms. Here, we used, for the first time, climate-based ecological niche models (ENMs) to test hypotheses about ecological divergence and speciation processes between sister species pairs of lemurs (genus Eulemur) in Madagascar. We produced ENMs for eight species, all of which had significant validation support. Among the four sister species pairs, we found nonequivalent niches between sisters, varying degrees of niche overlap in ecological and geographic space, and support for multiple divergence processes. Specifically, three sister-pair comparisons supported the null model that niches are no more divergent than the available background region. These findings are consistent with an allopatric speciation model, and for two sister pairs (E. collaris-E. cinereiceps and E. rufus-E. rufifrons), a riverine barrier has been previously proposed for driving allopatric speciation. However, for the fourth sister pair E. flavifrons-E. macaco, we found support for significant niche divergence, and consistent with their parapatric distribution on an ecotone and the lack of obvious geographic barriers, these findings most strongly support a parapatric model of speciation. These analyses thus suggest that various speciation processes have led to diversification among closely related Eulemur species.

  10. More than 1000 ultraconserved elements provide evidence that turtles are the sister group of archosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Nicholas G.; Faircloth, Brant C.; McCormack, John E.; Brumfield, Robb T.; Winker, Kevin; Glenn, Travis C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first genomic-scale analysis addressing the phylogenetic position of turtles, using over 1000 loci from representatives of all major reptile lineages including tuatara. Previously, studies of morphological traits positioned turtles either at the base of the reptile tree or with lizards, snakes and tuatara (lepidosaurs), whereas molecular analyses typically allied turtles with crocodiles and birds (archosaurs). A recent analysis of shared microRNA families found that turtles are more closely related to lepidosaurs. To test this hypothesis with data from many single-copy nuclear loci dispersed throughout the genome, we used sequence capture, high-throughput sequencing and published genomes to obtain sequences from 1145 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and their variable flanking DNA. The resulting phylogeny provides overwhelming support for the hypothesis that turtles evolved from a common ancestor of birds and crocodilians, rejecting the hypothesized relationship between turtles and lepidosaurs. PMID:22593086

  11. Phylogenomic data analyses provide evidence that Xenarthra and Afrotheria are sister groups.

    PubMed

    Hallström, Björn M; Kullberg, Morgan; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel

    2007-09-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the 4 clades, Euarchontoglires, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra, have been major issues in the recent discussion of basal relationships among placental mammals. However, despite considerable efforts these relationships, crucial to the understanding of eutherian evolution and biogeography, have remained essentially unresolved. Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria are generally joined into a common clade (Boreoeutheria), whereas the position of Afrotheria and Xenarthra relative to Boreoeutheria has been equivocal in spite of the use of comprehensive amounts of nuclear encoded sequences or the application of genome-level characters such as retroposons. The probable reason for this uncertainty is that the divergences took place long time ago and within a narrow temporal window, leaving only short common branches. With the aim of further examining basal eutherian relationships, we have collected conserved protein-coding sequences from 11 placental mammals, a marsupial and a bird, whose nuclear genomes have been largely sequenced. The length of the alignment of homologous sequences representing each individual species is 2,168,859 nt. This number of sites, representing 2840 protein-coding genes, exceeds by a considerable margin that of any previous study. The phylogenetic analysis joined Xenarthra and Afrotheria on a common branch, Atlantogenata. This topology was found to fit the data significantly better than the alternative trees.

  12. Possible sister groups and phylogenetic relationships among selected North Pacific and North Atlantic Rhodophyta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.

    1987-09-01

    Although the cool temperate (boreal) waters of the N. Pacific and N. Atlantic share many similar if not identical species, there have been few studies to test the identity of these species pairs. Whereas such tests are important from a taxonomic perspective, they tell us little if anything about biogeographic relationships. A more useful approach is one employing phylogenetic systematics (cladistics). The interpretation of phylogenetic diagrams (cladograms) in terms of biogeographic area relationships is explained. It is argued that cladistic analyses of taxa occurring in the cool temperate waters of the northern oceans can provide biogeographic tracks, which in turn can suggest the origins and migrations of species and possibly even floras. A number of cool temperate taxa that appear particularly amenable to this approach are discussed, including genera in the Palmariaceae, Corallinaceae, Dumontiaceae, Solieriaceae, Petrocelidaceae, Ceramiaceae and Rhodomelaceae.

  13. New Fossil Evidence on the Sister-Group of Mammals and Early Mesozoic Faunal Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Neil H.; Crompton, A. W.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Olsen, Paul E.

    1991-03-01

    Newly discovered remains of highly advanced mammal-like reptiles (Cynodontia: Tritheledontidae) from the Early Jurassic of Nova Scotia, Canada, have revealed that aspects of the characteristic mammalian occlusal pattern are primitive. Mammals and tritheledontids share an homologous pattern of occlusion that is not seen in other cynodonts. The new tritheledontids represent the first definite record of this family from North America. The extreme similarity of North American and African tritheledontids supports the hypothesis that the global distribution of terrestrial tetrapods was homogeneous in the Early Jurassic. This Early Jurassic cosmopolitanism represents the continuation of a trend toward increased global homogeneity among terrestrial tetrapod communities that began in the late Paleozoic.

  14. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  15. Toddlers' Duration of Attention toward Putative Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2011-01-01

    Although individual differences in reactions to novelty in the toddler years have been consistently linked to risk of developing anxious behavior, toddlers' attention toward a novel, putatively threatening stimulus while in the presence of other enjoyable activities has rarely been examined as a precursor to such risk. The current study examined…

  16. Reducing HIV Risk among Transgender Women in Thailand: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Sisters Program

    PubMed Central

    Pawa, Duangta; Firestone, Rebecca; Ratchasi, Sindh; Dowling, Olivia; Jittakoat, Yaowalak; Duke, Alex; Mundy, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238), participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64–6.31). Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47–4.52). Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies. PMID:24204750

  17. Chromosomal differentiation and speciation in sister-species of Grammatidae (Perciformes) from the Western Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Wagner Franco; da Costa, Gideão Wagner Werneck Felix; de Bello Cioffi, Marcelo; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos

    2012-09-01

    In the tropical Atlantic, the ichthyofauna between the coast of Brazil and the Caribbean regions, divided by the Amazon barrier, is very similar presenting several geminate species, including Gramma brasiliensis, endemic in Brazil, and its Caribbean counterpart Gramma loreto. Morphological and molecular studies have helped establish evolutionary patterns that sister-species of these two marine habitats are subjected to. However, their chromosomal characteristics are only beginning to be better characterized. Accordingly, a comparative cytogenetic analysis was carried out in G. brasiliensis and G. loreto, seeking evidence of cytotaxonomic markers implicated in the karyotypic diversification of these species and likely associated with speciation events. Heterochromatic regions and their affinity to fluorochromes GC- or AT-specific were identified, as well as the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites in chromosomes, either by silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NORs) or dual-color FISH mapping with 18S and 5S rDNA probes. While displaying the same diploid number, 2 n = 48 chromosomes, considered basal for Perciformes, the two species differed in karyotype structure, showing karyotypic formulas and species-specific heterochromatin pattern. The cytological characters found support the differentiating status of these species, possibly achieved under the conditions of allopatry due to the Amazon/Orinoco barrier, showing chromosomal peculiarities in Grammatidae species when compared to other groups of Perciformes.

  18. p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent sister species of pine voles.

    PubMed

    Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M

    2015-11-01

    Genes with relevant roles in the differentiation of closely-related species are likely to have diverged simultaneously with the species and more accurately reproduce the species tree. The Lusitanian (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated sister species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M. duodecimcostatus to the underground habitat. Here we asked whether the differentiation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus involved genetic variations within the tumour suppressor p53 gene, given its role in stress-associated responses. We performed a population-genetic analysis through sequencing of exons and introns of p53 in individuals from sympatric and allopatric populations of both the species in the Iberian Peninsula in which a unidirectional introgression of mitochondrial DNA was previously observed. We were able to discriminate the two species to a large extent. We show that M. duodecimcostatus is composed of one genetically unstructured group of populations sharing a P53 protein that carries a mutation in the DNA-binding region not observed in M. lusitanicus, raising the possibility that this mutation may have been central in the evolutionary history of M. duodecimcostatus. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of a master transcription factor in the separation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus during Microtus radiation in the Quaternary presumably via a differential adaptive role of the novel p53 in M. duodecimcostatus.

  19. p53 gene discriminates two ecologically divergent sister species of pine voles

    PubMed Central

    Quina, A S; Bastos-Silveira, C; Miñarro, M; Ventura, J; Jiménez, R; Paulo, O S; da Luz Mathias, M

    2015-01-01

    Genes with relevant roles in the differentiation of closely-related species are likely to have diverged simultaneously with the species and more accurately reproduce the species tree. The Lusitanian (Microtus lusitanicus) and Mediterranean (M. duodecimcostatus) pine voles are two recently separated sister species with fossorial lifestyles whose different ecological, physiological and morphological phenotypes reflect the better adaptation of M. duodecimcostatus to the underground habitat. Here we asked whether the differentiation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus involved genetic variations within the tumour suppressor p53 gene, given its role in stress-associated responses. We performed a population-genetic analysis through sequencing of exons and introns of p53 in individuals from sympatric and allopatric populations of both the species in the Iberian Peninsula in which a unidirectional introgression of mitochondrial DNA was previously observed. We were able to discriminate the two species to a large extent. We show that M. duodecimcostatus is composed of one genetically unstructured group of populations sharing a P53 protein that carries a mutation in the DNA-binding region not observed in M. lusitanicus, raising the possibility that this mutation may have been central in the evolutionary history of M. duodecimcostatus. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of a master transcription factor in the separation of M. lusitanicus and M. duodecimcostatus during Microtus radiation in the Quaternary presumably via a differential adaptive role of the novel p53 in M. duodecimcostatus. PMID:25990877

  20. Sister chromatid exchange as an index of chromosome instability in chondrodystrophic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Wójcik, E; Andraszek, K; Ciszewska, M; Smalec, E

    2013-01-01

    Commercially bred broiler chickens reared in inadequate breeder-created habitat conditions often suffer from a disease that afflicts their lower limbs, chondrodystrophy. The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test makes it possible to detect chromosome instability that corresponds with elevated vulnerability of the organism to genotoxic factors of a mutagenic and carcinogenic nature. The frequency of SCE in chromosomes of chondrodystrophic and healthy broilers was analyzed. Chromosome preparations were obtained from our in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes stained using the fluorescence plus Giemsa technique. The SCE/cell mean of the population under analysis was 6.8 ± 1.6. The SCE/cell mean in the chromosomes of the chondrodystrophic chickens was 8.5 ± 1.0. The healthy chickens had an SCE/cell mean of 5.1 ± 1.3. Statistically significant differences were identified between both chicken groups. Moreover, a higher SCE/cell mean was observed in the males: 6.9 ± 1.7 compared with 6.7 ± 1.7 in the females. However, this difference was not statistically significant. Additionally, SCE incidence in the first 3 biggest autosome pairs (1, 2, 3) was analyzed in detail. The number of identified SCE was proportional to chromosome length. The most exchanges were observed in the proximal region of the chromosomes under analysis.

  1. The effect of environmental factors on sister chromatid exchange incidence in domestic horse (Equus caballus) chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    The SCE test is often used as a sensitive and reliable technique in the biomonitoring of genotoxicity of mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. This study analysed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange in domestic horse chromosomes depending on the habitat and age of the analysed horses. The chromosome preparations were obtained from an in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes stained using the FPG technique. Both the habitat and the age significantly influence SCE frequency. A higher SCE incidence was observed in horses that lived in a large urban agglomeration than in those from the country. Also, a higher SCE incidence was identified in the group of horses above 6 years of age in comparison with the younger ones. Additionally, the frequency of SCEs in the first, second and third chromosomes and the X sex chromosome were analysed in detail. More exposed to the effect of environmental pollutants, the horses from the urban environment developed more double and triple SCEs in comparison with the village horses. The urban horses also developed quadruple SCEs, in addition to the less frequent exchanges.

  2. Sister chromatid exchange in Greenleg Partridge and Polbar hens covered by the gene-pool protection program for farm animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, E; Andraszek, K; Gryzinska, M; Witkowski, A; Palyszka, M; Smalec, E

    2012-10-01

    A basic assay that detects genotoxic DNA damage disrupting DNA replication and repair mechanisms is the sister chromatid exchange test. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges was analyzed in chromosomes of the following hen breeds: Greenleg Partridge and Polbar. Chromosome preparations were obtained from our in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes stained using the fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) technique. The sister chromatid exchange (SCE)/cell mean of the hens under analysis was 7.83 ± 1.76 (7.22 ± 1.70 in the Greenleg Partridge and 8.43 ± 1.61 in the Polbar population). Statistically significant differences were identified between the hen breeds. A higher mean number of SCE/cell was observed in the group of hens producing fewer eggs (8.55 ± 1.51) compared with the group with a better egg yield (7.10 ± 1.65). The differences were statistically significant. Additionally, SCE frequency in the first, second, and third chromosome was analyzed in detail. The highest number of SCE was observed in the first and the lowest in the third chromosome. The SCE distribution in the particular regions of the analyzed chromosomes was also studied. The most numerous exchanges were observed in the proximal region, followed by the interstitial and distal areas.

  3. A Manyfold Increase in Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Bloom's Syndrome Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chaganti, R. S. K.; Schonberg, S.; German, James

    1974-01-01

    Dividing cells from persons with Bloom's syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder of growth, exhibit increased numbers of chromatid breaks and rearrangements. A highly characteristic feature of the chromosome instability in this syndrome is the tendency for exchanges to occur between chromatids of homologous chromosomes at homologous sites. In the present experiments, a cytogenetic technique by which the sister chromatids of a metaphase chromosome are stained differentially has been used to demonstrate a striking and possibly specific, but hitherto unrecognized, increase in the frequency with which sister chromatids also exchange segments. The cells were grown in bromodeoxyuridine and stained with 33258 Hoechst and Giemsa. Whereas phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes from normal controls had a mean of 6.9 sister chromatid exchanges per metaphase (range 1-14), those from persons with Bloom's syndrome had a mean of 89.0 (range 45-162). Normal frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges were found in cells heterozygous for the Bloom's syndrome gene, and also in cells either homozygous or heterozygous for the genes of the Louis-Bar (ataxia telangiectasia) syndrome and Fanconi's anemia, two other rare disorders characterized by chromosome instability. In a differentially stained chromatid interchange configuration discovered during the study, it was possible to determine the new distribution of both sister and non-sister-but-homologous chromatids that had resulted from numerous exchanges. By following shifts in the pattern of staining from chromatid to chromatid, visual evidence was obtained that the quadriradial configurations long recognized as characteristic of Bloom's syndrome represent exchanges between homologous chromosomes, apparently at homologous points. We postulate that the increase in the frequency of exchanges between nonsister-but-homologous chromatids and those between sister chromatids in Bloom's syndrome represents aspects of one and the same

  4. Comparative genomic analysis of the genus Staphylococcus including Staphylococcus aureus and its newly described sister species Staphylococcus simiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus belongs to the Gram-positive low G + C content group of the Firmicutes division of bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is an important human and veterinary pathogen that causes a broad spectrum of diseases, and has developed important multidrug resistant forms such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Staphylococcus simiae was isolated from South American squirrel monkeys in 2000, and is a coagulase-negative bacterium, closely related, and possibly the sister group, to S. aureus. Comparative genomic analyses of closely related bacteria with different phenotypes can provide information relevant to understanding adaptation to host environment and mechanisms of pathogenicity. Results We determined a Roche/454 draft genome sequence for S. simiae and included it in comparative genomic analyses with 11 other Staphylococcus species including S. aureus. A genome based phylogeny of the genus confirms that S. simiae is the sister group to S. aureus and indicates that the most basal Staphylococcus lineage is Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, followed by Staphylococcus carnosus. Given the primary niche of these two latter taxa, compared to the other species in the genus, this phylogeny suggests that human adaptation evolved after the split of S. carnosus. The two coagulase-positive species (S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius) are not phylogenetically closest but share many virulence factors exclusively, suggesting that these genes were acquired by horizontal transfer. Enrichment in genes related to mobile elements such as prophage in S. aureus relative to S. simiae suggests that pathogenesis in the S. aureus group has developed by gene gain through horizontal transfer, after the split of S. aureus and S. simiae from their common ancestor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses across 12 Staphylococcus species provide hypotheses about lineages in which human adaptation has taken place and contributions of horizontal transfer in pathogenesis. PMID

  5. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Three Sisters Region, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Iverson, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Three Sisters is one of three active volcanic centers that lie close to rapidly growing communities and resort areas in Central Oregon. The major composite volcanoes of this area are clustered near the center of the region and include South Sister, Middle Sister, and Broken Top. Additionally, hundreds of mafic volcanoes are scattered throughout the Three Sisters area. These range from small cinder cones to large shield volcanoes like North Sister and Belknap Crater. Hazardous events include landslides from the steep flanks of large volcanoes and floods, which need not be triggered by eruptions, as well as eruption-triggered events such as fallout of tephra (volcanic ash) and lava flows. A proximal hazard zone roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter surrounding the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be affected within minutes of the onset of an eruption or large landslide. Distal hazard zones that follow river valleys downstream from the Three Sisters and Broken Top could be inundated by lahars (rapid flows of water-laden rock and mud) generated either by melting of snow and ice during eruptions or by large landslides. Slow-moving lava flows could issue from new mafic volcanoes almost anywhere within the region. Fallout of tephra from eruption clouds can affect areas hundreds of kilometers (miles) downwind, so eruptions at volcanoes elsewhere in the Cascade Range also contribute to volcano hazards in Central Oregon. Scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory created a geographic information system (GIS) data set which depicts proximal and distal lahar hazard zones as well as a regional lava flow hazard zone for Three Sisters (USGS Open-File Report 99-437, Scott and others, 1999). The various distal lahar zones were constructed from LaharZ software using 20, 100, and 500 million cubic meter input flow volumes. Additionally, scientists used the depositional history of past events in the Three Sisters Region as well as experience and judgment derived from the

  6. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model English</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Isbaner, Sebastian; Heermann, Dieter</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654126','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2654126"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> telomeres rendered dysfunctional by persistent cohesion are fused by NHEJ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hsiao, Susan J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being viewed as double-strand breaks and from eliciting a DNA damage response. Deprotection of chromosome ends occurs when telomeres become critically short because of replicative attrition or inhibition of TRF2. In this study, we report a novel form of deprotection that occurs exclusively after DNA replication in S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. In cells deficient in the telomeric poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase tankyrase 1, <span class="hlt">sister</span> telomere resolution is blocked. Unexpectedly, cohered <span class="hlt">sister</span> telomeres become deprotected and are inappropriately fused. In contrast to telomeres rendered dysfunctional by TRF2, which engage in chromatid fusions predominantly between chromatids from different chromosomes (Bailey, S.M., M.N. Cornforth, A. Kurimasa, D.J. Chen, and E.H. Goodwin. 2001. Science. 293:2462–2465; Smogorzewska, A., J. Karlseder, H. Holtgreve-Grez, A. Jauch, and T. de Lange. 2002. Curr. Biol. 12:1635–1644), telomeres rendered dysfunctional by tankyrase 1 engage in chromatid fusions almost exclusively between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. We show that cohered <span class="hlt">sister</span> telomeres are fused by DNA ligase IV–mediated nonhomologous end joining. These results demonstrate that the timely removal of <span class="hlt">sister</span> telomere cohesion is essential for the formation of a protective structure at chromosome ends after DNA replication in S/G2 phase of the cell cycle. PMID:19221198</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033573','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3033573"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> cohesion and structural axis components mediate homolog bias of meiotic recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Keun P.; Weiner, Beth M.; Zhang, Liangran; Jordan, Amy; Dekker, Job; Kleckner, Nancy</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY Meiotic recombination occurs between one chromatid of each maternal and paternal homolog (homolog bias) versus between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids (<span class="hlt">sister</span> bias). Physical DNA analysis reveals that meiotic cohesin/axis component Rec8 promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span> bias, likely via its cohesion activity. Two meiosis-specific axis components, Red1/Mek1kinase, counteract this effect. With this precondition satisfied, other molecules directly specify homolog bias per se. Rec8 also acts positively to maintain homolog bias during crossover recombination. These observations point to sequential release of double-strand break ends from association with their <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Red1 and Rec8 are found to play distinct roles for <span class="hlt">sister</span> cohesion, DSB formation and recombination progression kinetics. Also, the two components are enriched in spatially distinct domains of axial structure that develop prior to DSB formation. We propose that Red1 and Rec8 domains provide functionally complementary environments whereby inputs evolved from DSB repair and late-stage chromosome morphogenesis are integrated to give the complete meiotic chromosomal program. PMID:21145459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199077"><span>Investigating the etiology of multiple tooth agenesis in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with severe oligodontia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Swinnen, S; Bailleul-Forestier, I; Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Devriendt, K; Carels, C</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>To describe the dentofacial phenotypes of three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with severe non-syndromic oligodontia, to report on the mutation analysis in three genes, previously shown to cause various phenotypes of non-syndromic oligodontia and in two other suspected genes. Based on the phenotypes in the pedigree of this family, the different possible patterns of transmission are discussed. Anamnestic data and a panoramic radiograph were taken to study the phenotype of the three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and their first-degree relatives. Blood samples were also taken to obtain their karyotypes and DNA samples. Mutational screening was performed for the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 and DLX2 genes. The probands' pedigree showed evidence for a recessive or multifactorial inheritance pattern. Normal chromosomal karyotypes were found and - despite the severe oligodontia present in all three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> - no mutation appeared to be present in the five genes studied so far in these patients. In the three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> reported, their common oligodontia phenotype is not caused by mutations in the coding regions of MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, DLX1 or DLX2 genes, but genetic factors most probably play a role as all three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were affected. Environmental and epigenetic factors as well as genes regulating odontogenesis need further in vivo and in vitro investigation to explain the phenotypic heterogeneity and to increase our understanding of the odontogenic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224182"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Unbound Is Required for Meiotic Centromeric Cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E.; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B.; McKee, Bruce D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. PMID:25194162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060784','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18060784"><span>Mps1 kinase promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span>-kinetochore bi-orientation by a tension-dependent mechanism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maure, Jean-François; Kitamura, Etsushi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U</p> <p>2007-12-18</p> <p>Segregation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids to opposite spindle poles during anaphase is dependent on the prior capture of <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores by microtubules extending from opposite spindle poles (bi-orientation). If <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores attach to microtubules from the same pole (syntelic attachment), the kinetochore-spindle pole connections must be re-oriented to be converted to proper bi-orientation. This re-orientation is facilitated by Aurora B kinase (Ipl1 in budding yeast), which eliminates kinetochore-spindle pole connections that do not generate tension. Mps1 is another evolutionarily conserved protein kinase, required for spindle-assembly checkpoint and, in some organisms, for duplication of microtubule-organizing centers. Separately from these functions, however, Mps1 has an important role in chromosome segregation. Here we show that, in budding yeast, Mps1 has a crucial role in establishing <span class="hlt">sister</span>-kinetochore bi-orientation on the mitotic spindle. Failure in bi-orientation with inactive Mps1 is not due to a lack of kinetochore-spindle pole connections by microtubules, but due to a defect in properly orienting the connections. Mps1 promotes re-orientation of kinetochore-spindle pole connections and eliminates those that do not generate tension between <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores. We did not find evidence that Ipl1 regulates Mps1 or vice versa; therefore, they play similar, but possibly independent, roles in facilitating bi-orientation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21171768','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21171768"><span>Links between <span class="hlt">sisters</span>' sexual and dating victimization: the roles of neighborhood crime and parental controls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Adams, Joyce A; Hokoda, Audrey; Maier, Ashley</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This study examined the extent to which a <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s prior sexual and dating victimization is a risk factor for young women being similarly victimized and the possible factors underlying a co-occurrence. The sample involved 122 young adult Latina or African American <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairs (244 women; ages 16-25) who resided in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Results indicated that women whose <span class="hlt">sisters</span> had been victimized had increased risk of victimization even after controlling for neighborhood crime, parental controls, age and race-ethnicity (odds ratios were 4.0 for unwanted touching, 6.2 for a forced sex act, and 16.7 for dating violence). In high-crime neighborhoods, the presence of two adult parent figures in the home was associated with women's reduced likelihood of unwanted touching, and mothers' high monitoring during adolescence was associated with women's lower risk of dating aggression. Survival analysis results showed that the risk period of a second <span class="hlt">sister</span> being victimized lasts between 7 and 10 years after a first <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s victimization. The prevention implications of study findings are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955849"><span>Unzipped and loaded: the role of DNA helicases and RFC clamp-loading complexes in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2005-06-20</p> <p>It is well known that the products of chromosome replication are paired to ensure that the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> segregate away from each other during mitosis. A key issue is how cells pair <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids but preclude the catastrophic pairing of nonsister chromatids. The identification of both replication factor C and DNA helicases as critical for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid pairing has brought new insights into this fundamental process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28630803"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vik, Dean R; Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R; Bolduc, Ben; Emerson, Joanne B; Padilla, Cory C; Stewart, Frank J; Sullivan, Matthew B</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce "MArVD", for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5474096','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5474096"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> archaeal viruses from the mesopelagic ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roux, Simon; Brum, Jennifer R.; Bolduc, Ben; Emerson, Joanne B.; Padilla, Cory C.; Stewart, Frank J.; Sullivan, Matthew B.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Oceanic viruses that infect bacteria, or phages, are known to modulate host diversity, metabolisms, and biogeochemical cycling, while the viruses that infect marine Archaea remain understudied despite the critical ecosystem roles played by their hosts. Here we introduce “MArVD”, for Metagenomic Archaeal Virus Detector, an annotation tool designed to identify <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus contigs in metagenomic datasets. MArVD is made publicly available through the online iVirus analytical platform. Benchmarking analysis of MArVD showed it to be >99% accurate and 100% sensitive in identifying the 127 known archaeal viruses among the 12,499 viruses in the VirSorter curated dataset. Application of MArVD to 10 viral metagenomes from two depth profiles in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen minimum zone revealed 43 new <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus genomes and large genome fragments ranging in size from 10 to 31 kb. Network-based classifications, which were consistent with marker gene phylogenies where available, suggested that these <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal virus contigs represented six novel candidate genera. Ecological analyses, via fragment recruitment and ordination, revealed that the diversity and relative abundances of these <span class="hlt">putative</span> archaeal viruses were correlated with oxygen concentration and temperature along two OMZ-spanning depth profiles, presumably due to structuring of the host Archaea community. Peak viral diversity and abundances were found in surface waters, where Thermoplasmata 16S rRNA genes are prevalent, suggesting these archaea as hosts in the surface habitats. Together these findings provide a baseline for identifying archaeal viruses in sequence datasets, and an initial picture of the ecology of such viruses in non-extreme environments. PMID:28630803</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120835"><span>Associations among personal care product use patterns and exogenous hormone use in the NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Kyla W; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Troester, Melissa A</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify <span class="hlt">groups</span> of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions. Personal care products were categorized into three product types (beauty, hair, and skincare products) and separate latent classes were constructed for each type. Adjusted prevalence differences (PD) were calculated to estimate the association between exogenous hormone use, as measured by ever/never OC or HT use, and patterns of personal care product use. LCA reduced data dimensionality by <span class="hlt">grouping</span> of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use into mutually exclusive latent classes (three latent classes for beauty product use, three for hair, and four for skin care. There were strong differences in personal care usage by race, particularly for haircare products. For both blacks and whites, exogenous hormone exposures were associated with higher levels of product use, especially beauty and skincare products. Relative to individual product use questions, latent class variables capture complex patterns of personal care product usage. These patterns differed by race and were associated with ever OC and HT use. Future studies should consider personal care product exposures with other exogenous exposures when modeling health risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057685"><span>The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Nhu, Dang Duc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tawara, Kenji; Horikawa, Hiroaki; Sato, Yuko; Dung, Phung Tri; Thom, Le Hong; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD <span class="hlt">groups</span> from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area <span class="hlt">group</span> were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64), and octaCDD (β = 0.65) were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34) and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42). The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38) was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents); R2 = 0.23). This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid) is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency. PMID:24786289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28792950"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> Sri Lankan white-eyes (genus Zosterops) are a result of independent colonizations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wickramasinghe, Nelum; Robin, V V; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Reddy, Sushma; Seneviratne, Sampath S</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Co-occurrence of closely related taxa on islands could be attributed to sympatric speciation or multiple colonization. Sympatric speciation is considered to be rare in small islands, however multiple colonizations are known to be common in both oceanic and continental islands. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relatedness and means of origin of the two sympatrically co-occurring Zosterops white-eyes, the endemic Zosterops ceylonensis and its widespread regional congener Z. palpebrosus, in the island of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is a continental island in the Indian continental shelf of the Northern Indian Ocean. Our multivariate morphometric analyses confirmed the phenotypic distinctness of the two species. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses with ~2000bp from two mitochondrial (ND2 and ND3) and one nuclear (TGF) gene indicated that they are phylogenetically distinct, and not <span class="hlt">sister</span> to each other. The two subspecies of the peninsula India; Z. p. egregius of Sri Lanka and India and Z. p. nilgiriensis of Western Ghats (India) clustered within the Z. palpebrosus clade having a common ancestor. In contrast, the divergence of the endemic Z. ceylonensis appears to be much deeper and is basal to the other Zosterops white-eyes. Therefore we conclude that the two Zosterops species originated in the island through independent colonizations from different ancestral lineages, and not through island speciation or multiple colonization from the same continental ancestral population. Despite high endemism, Sri Lankan biodiversity is long considered to be a subset of southern India. This study on a speciose <span class="hlt">group</span> with high dispersal ability and rapid diversification rate provide evidence for the contribution of multiple colonizations in shaping Sri Lanka's biodiversity. It also highlights the complex biogeographic patterns of the South Asian region, reflected even in highly vagile <span class="hlt">groups</span> such as birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5549887','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5549887"><span>Non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> Sri Lankan white-eyes (genus Zosterops) are a result of independent colonizations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wickramasinghe, Nelum; Robin, V. V.; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Reddy, Sushma</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Co-occurrence of closely related taxa on islands could be attributed to sympatric speciation or multiple colonization. Sympatric speciation is considered to be rare in small islands, however multiple colonizations are known to be common in both oceanic and continental islands. In this study we investigated the phylogenetic relatedness and means of origin of the two sympatrically co-occurring Zosterops white-eyes, the endemic Zosterops ceylonensis and its widespread regional congener Z. palpebrosus, in the island of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka is a continental island in the Indian continental shelf of the Northern Indian Ocean. Our multivariate morphometric analyses confirmed the phenotypic distinctness of the two species. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses with ~2000bp from two mitochondrial (ND2 and ND3) and one nuclear (TGF) gene indicated that they are phylogenetically distinct, and not <span class="hlt">sister</span> to each other. The two subspecies of the peninsula India; Z. p. egregius of Sri Lanka and India and Z. p. nilgiriensis of Western Ghats (India) clustered within the Z. palpebrosus clade having a common ancestor. In contrast, the divergence of the endemic Z. ceylonensis appears to be much deeper and is basal to the other Zosterops white-eyes. Therefore we conclude that the two Zosterops species originated in the island through independent colonizations from different ancestral lineages, and not through island speciation or multiple colonization from the same continental ancestral population. Despite high endemism, Sri Lankan biodiversity is long considered to be a subset of southern India. This study on a speciose <span class="hlt">group</span> with high dispersal ability and rapid diversification rate provide evidence for the contribution of multiple colonizations in shaping Sri Lanka’s biodiversity. It also highlights the complex biogeographic patterns of the South Asian region, reflected even in highly vagile <span class="hlt">groups</span> such as birds. PMID:28792950</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1128680"><span>DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control <span class="hlt">group</span> were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10480213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10480213"><span>Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and their mother: MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Valk, P H; Snoeck, I; Meiners, L C; des Portes, V; Chelly, J; Pinard, J M; Ippel, P F; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Peters, A C</p> <p>1999-06-01</p> <p>MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was considered most useful in the demonstration of the heterotopic band of gray matter and the assessment of cortical thickness. The younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> presented with epileptic seizures at the age of five months and a delayed achievement of developmental milestones. The older <span class="hlt">sister</span> of seven years had epileptic seizures since the age of one year, and developmental delay. Their mother has only had one seizure-like episode at the age of 39. Her psychomotor development had been normal. Investigation of DNA samples of the three female family-members revealed a mutation in the X-linked doublecortin gene. Within families with band heterotopia, this gene has also been related to male family members with lissencephaly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730567','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9730567"><span>A case of IgA nephropathy in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with thin basement membrane disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshida, K; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, S; Kume, K; Suzuki, H; Hujiki, T</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>IgA nephropathy associated with thin basement membrane disease is reported in a 9-year-old female. The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy was made by means of an immunofluorescence investigation, which showed generalized diffuse mesangial deposits. Thin basement membrane disease was identified by electron-microscopic investigations, which disclosed thinning of the basement membrane of several capillary loops and prominence of the lamina densa. Her father, elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> and younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> were also found to have hematuria and her <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were diagnosed as having thin basement membrane disease by renal biopsy. Patients with IgA nephropathy have focal thinning of the glomerular basement membrane, but we consider that urinalysis of the family needs to be done for the diagnosis of familial thin basement membrane disease, when diffuse thinning of the glomerular basement membrane is detected in such patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23076835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23076835"><span>Using a sibling design to compare childhood adversities in female patients with BPD and their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer; Correa, José A</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Abuse and neglect are well-established risk correlates of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The goal of this study was to examine whether BPD probands can be differentiated from their <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with respect to a range of developmental adversity and maltreatment indicators, including retrospective self-reports of past experiences of childhood abuse and neglect, dysfunctional parent-child relationships and peer victimization and dysfunctional peer relationships. A total of 53 patients with BPD were compared to 53 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> who were currently free of psychopathology on measures assessing childhood adversities. Both probands and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> reported similar prevalence of intrafamilial abuse, although BPD patients reported more severe physical and emotional abuse. BPD patients reported higher prevalence of physical abuse by peers. These findings generally support the principle of multifinality, in which similar histories of adversities can be associated with a variety of outcomes, ranging from psychopathology to resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24362571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24362571"><span>RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> during DNA break repair.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J</p> <p>2014-02-13</p> <p>DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one <span class="hlt">sister</span> can be repaired efficiently using distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut <span class="hlt">sister</span>. After <span class="hlt">sister</span> locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Natur.506..249L"><span>RecA bundles mediate homology pairing between distant <span class="hlt">sisters</span> during DNA break repair</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lesterlin, Christian; Ball, Graeme; Schermelleh, Lothar; Sherratt, David J.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination has evolved to maintain genetic integrity in all organisms. Although many reactions that occur during homologous recombination are known, it is unclear where, when and how they occur in cells. Here, by using conventional and super-resolution microscopy, we describe the progression of DSB repair in live Escherichia coli. Specifically, we investigate whether homologous recombination can occur efficiently between distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> loci that have segregated to opposite halves of an E. coli cell. We show that a site-specific DSB in one <span class="hlt">sister</span> can be repaired efficiently using distant <span class="hlt">sister</span> homology. After RecBCD processing of the DSB, RecA is recruited to the cut locus, where it nucleates into a bundle that contains many more RecA molecules than can associate with the two single-stranded DNA regions that form at the DSB. Mature bundles extend along the long axis of the cell, in the space between the bulk nucleoid and the inner membrane. Bundle formation is followed by pairing, in which the two ends of the cut locus relocate at the periphery of the nucleoid and together move rapidly towards the homology of the uncut <span class="hlt">sister</span>. After <span class="hlt">sister</span> locus pairing, RecA bundles disassemble and proteins that act late in homologous recombination are recruited to give viable recombinants 1-2-generation-time equivalents after formation of the initial DSB. Mutated RecA proteins that do not form bundles are defective in <span class="hlt">sister</span> pairing and in DSB-induced repair. This work reveals an unanticipated role of RecA bundles in channelling the movement of the DNA DSB ends, thereby facilitating the long-range homology search that occurs before the strand invasion and transfer reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3116551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3116551"><span>Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jain, Nitin R; Jethani, Jitendra; Narendran, Kalpana; Kanth, L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign) differing in degree (younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> had more marked changes). PMID:21350292</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21350292"><span>Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jain, Nitin R; Jethani, Jitendra; Narendran, Kalpana; Kanth, L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM), congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign) differing in degree (younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> had more marked changes).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21595367"><span>An illness in the family: Dr. Maude Abbott and her <span class="hlt">sister</span>, Alice Abbott.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brookes, Barbara</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores Maude Abbott's internationally significant career in medicine and her parallel commitment to caring for her <span class="hlt">sister</span>, Alice Abbott. An examination of Abbott's life reveals the difficulties faced by an ambitious Canadian woman in medicine from the 1890s to the 1920s; difficulties compounded by caring for a <span class="hlt">sister</span> with a mental illness. The Abbott archive suggests that it was far more difficult for a woman doctor to make the kind of sharp distinction between public and private life that might be expected of professional men.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=implication+NOT+hr+AND+best+AND+practice&pg=4&id=EJ1025056','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=implication+NOT+hr+AND+best+AND+practice&pg=4&id=EJ1025056"><span>From the inside Out: <span class="hlt">Group</span> Work with Women of Color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article will present two models for conducting <span class="hlt">group</span> work with Women of Color (WOC): the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Circle Approach and the <span class="hlt">Group</span> Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of <span class="hlt">group</span> work that can assist <span class="hlt">group</span> workers to conduct individual and <span class="hlt">group</span>-level…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&id=EJ1025056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Group+AND+work&id=EJ1025056"><span>From the inside Out: <span class="hlt">Group</span> Work with Women of Color</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Short, Ellen L.; Williams, Wendi S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article will present two models for conducting <span class="hlt">group</span> work with Women of Color (WOC): the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Circle Approach and the <span class="hlt">Group</span> Relations Model. The authors contend that the models, when used together, combine an internal and external focus ("inside out") of <span class="hlt">group</span> work that can assist <span class="hlt">group</span> workers to conduct individual and <span class="hlt">group</span>-level…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240803','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240803"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges and micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of shoe factory workers exposed to solvents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pitarque, Marià; Vaglenov, Alexander; Nosko, Maria; Pavlova, Sonya; Petkova, Vera; Hirvonen, Ari; Creus, Amadeu; Norppa, Hannu; Marcos, Ricard</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>We examined <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN; cytokinesis-block method) in cultured peripheral lymphocytes from 52 female workers of two shoe factories and from 36 unexposed age- and sex-matched referents. The factory workers showed an elevated level of urinary hippuric acid, a biomarker of toluene exposure, and workplace air contained high concentrations of various organic solvents such as toluene, gasoline, acetone, and (in one of the plants only) ethylacetate and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate. The shoe factory workers showed a statistically significant higher frequency of micronucleated binucleate lymphocytes in comparison with the referents. This finding agreed with three preliminary MN determinations (each comprising 27-32 shoe workers and 16-20 controls) performed in one of the plants 2-5 years earlier. The shoe factory workers also had a lower average level of blood hemoglobin than the referents. In contrast, no difference was found between the <span class="hlt">groups</span> in SCE analysis. Smokers showed significantly higher mean frequencies of SCEs per cell and high frequency cells (HFC) than nonsmokers. Aging was associated with increased MN rates and reduced cell proliferation. Polymorphism of the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1) did not affect the individual level of SCEs; but in smoking shoe workers an effect of the occupational exposure on the frequency of micronucleated cells could be seen only in GSTM1 null subjects. The low prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype precluded the evaluation of the influence of GSTT1 polymorphism. Our results show that the shoe factory workers have experienced genotoxic exposure, which is manifest as an increase in the frequency of MN, but not of SCEs, in peripheral lymphocytes. The exposures responsible for the MN induction could not be identified with certainty, but exposure to benzene in gasoline and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate may explain some of the findings. PMID:11940458</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201422','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201422"><span>Wider sampling reveals a non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique <span class="hlt">grouped</span> together, indicating a non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852491"><span>Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange evaluations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Micronucleus and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/<span class="hlt">group</span> for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433139"><span>Intrafamilial sexual abuse: brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest does not differ from father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cyr, Mireille; Wright, John; McDuff, Pierre; Perron, Alain</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>Three <span class="hlt">groups</span> of girls who were sexually abused (by either brothers, fathers, or stepfathers) were compared. The purpose was to identify the differing characteristics of the abuse, the family environments, and the psychosocial distress of these children. Seventy-two girls aged between 5 and 16 were assigned to one of the three <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Subjects were matched between <span class="hlt">groups</span> on the basis of their actual age. Children completed measures of traumatic stress; their mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist-Parent Report Form (CBCL) and other self-report questionnaires on family characteristics. Workers in child protective services completed information regarding the nature and severity of the abuse. Results suggested few differences in the characteristics of sexual abuse between the three <span class="hlt">groups</span>. However, penetration was much more frequent in the sibling incest <span class="hlt">group</span> (70.8%) than in the stepfather incest (27.3%) or father incest (34.8%) <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Ninety percent of the victims of fathers and brothers manifested clinically-significant distress on at least one measure, whereas 63.6% of stepfather victims did. Compared with father and stepfather perpetrators, brothers were raised in families with more children and more alcohol abuse. The authors conclude that the characteristics of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest and its associated psychosocial distress did not differ from the characteristics of father-daughter incest These findings suggest that theoretical models and clinical practices should be adjusted accordingly and that sibling incest should not necessarily be construed as less severe or harmful than father-daughter incest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title20-vol1-sec222-40.pdf"><span>20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... for parent, grandchild, brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 222.40 Section 222.40 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent, Grandchild, Brother or <span class="hlt">Sister</span> § 222.40 When determinations of relationship are made for parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25140559','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25140559"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph Nodules on 99mTc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Yingqiang; Li, Fang</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph nodule represents an umbilical metastasis, which is more commonly caused by a primary malignancy in gastrointestinal tract or from reproductive system. We report <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph nodules caused by neuroendocrine tumor and revealed on Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=families+AND+linguistics&pg=4&id=EJ997719','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=families+AND+linguistics&pg=4&id=EJ997719"><span>A Tale of Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Language Ideologies, Identities, and Negotiations in a Bilingual, Transnational Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>King, Kendall A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This longitudinal case study investigated how linguistic identity was constructed, constrained, and performed by three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, aged 1, 12, and 17, within one bilingual, transnational Ecuadorian-U.S. family. Data were collected over 14 months through weekly home visits that included participant observation, informal interviews, and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+shapes&pg=5&id=EJ997719','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learning+AND+shapes&pg=5&id=EJ997719"><span>A Tale of Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Language Ideologies, Identities, and Negotiations in a Bilingual, Transnational Family</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>King, Kendall A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This longitudinal case study investigated how linguistic identity was constructed, constrained, and performed by three <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, aged 1, 12, and 17, within one bilingual, transnational Ecuadorian-U.S. family. Data were collected over 14 months through weekly home visits that included participant observation, informal interviews, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3955356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3955356"><span>Spotlights on our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals: ChemistryOpen 1/2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>On these pages, we feature a selection of the excellent work that has recently been published in our <span class="hlt">sister</span> journals. If you are reading these pages on a computer, click on any of the items to read the full article. Otherwise please see the DOIs for easy online access through Wiley Online Library. PMID:24688888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2743075"><span>Catholic Nursing <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wall, Barbra Mann</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bearing witness,” a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic <span class="hlt">sister</span> and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few <span class="hlt">sister</span> nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19878537"><span>Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pongsavee, Malinee</p> <p>2009-10-30</p> <p>Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776007','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776007"><span>Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pongsavee, Malinee</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human. PMID:19878537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+treatments&id=EJ1011495','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychological+AND+treatments&id=EJ1011495"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dialogue+AND+groups+AND+interest&pg=3&id=EJ1003992','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dialogue+AND+groups+AND+interest&pg=3&id=EJ1003992"><span>Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Konecni, Vladimir J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "<span class="hlt">sister</span>" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=syndrome+AND+turner&pg=3&id=EJ579567','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=syndrome+AND+turner&pg=3&id=EJ579567"><span>Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chess&pg=3&id=EJ939604','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chess&pg=3&id=EJ939604"><span>Does High-Level Intellectual Performance Depend on Practice Alone? Debunking the Polgar <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Case</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howard, Robert W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The famous Polgar <span class="hlt">sisters</span> started chess very young, undertook extensive study, and two became grandmasters. This case often is cited as decisive evidence that practice alone is key in development of expertise, that innate talent is unimportant or non-existent, and that almost anyone can become a grandmaster. But on close examination these claims…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADDRESS+AND+PEOPLE&pg=6&id=EJ1088123','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADDRESS+AND+PEOPLE&pg=6&id=EJ1088123"><span>Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A <span class="hlt">Sister</span>'s Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19410348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19410348"><span>[Familial pulmonary fibrosis in 2 Mexican <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zamora, Ana C; Alonso-Martínez, Delfino; Barrera, Lourdes; Mendoza, Felipe; Gaxiola, Miguel; Carrillo, Guillermo</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder commonly found in individuals of Puerto Rican ancestry. We present 2 cases of familial pulmonary fibrosis in 2 Mexican <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Pulmonary fibrosis was biopsy-proven in 1 of the patients. This report shows that Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome may occur in individuals of Mexican ancestry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=articles+AND+networks&pg=7&id=EJ1078896','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=articles+AND+networks&pg=7&id=EJ1078896"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raftery, Deirdre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>..., or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.214 Section 410.214 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL... the pertinent time (see § 410.380); and (4) Files proof of support before June 1, 1974, or within 2... Administration that there is good cause for failure to file such proof within such period (see § 410.216). (b) In...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=adolescence+AND+life+AND+satisfaction&pg=4&id=EJ965819','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=adolescence+AND+life+AND+satisfaction&pg=4&id=EJ965819"><span>Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Children: Its Costs and Benefits for Youths' Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Reyes, Barbara T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how time spent caring for a teenage <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s child and experiences in providing care related to youths' young adult outcomes. Latino and African American youths (N = 108) were studied during middle and late adolescence. Results indicated that youths who provided many hours of child care were more stressed and had lower school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531"><span>Meanings of Sisterhood and Developmental Disability: Narratives from White Nondisabled <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGraw, Lori A.; Walker, Alexis J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Integrating thought from critical feminist and disability theorists via a strategic social constructionist perspective, the authors analyzed 10 in-depth qualitative interviews to begin to understand the dialogue between (a) how nondisabled <span class="hlt">sisters</span> understand themselves and their siblings with developmental disabilities and (b) wider systems of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1003992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=4&id=EJ1003992"><span>Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Konecni, Vladimir J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "<span class="hlt">sister</span>" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muhammad&pg=3&id=EJ449479','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=muhammad&pg=3&id=EJ449479"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Clara Muhammad Schools: Pioneers in the Development of Islamic Education in America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rashid, Hakim M.; Muhammad, Zakiyyah</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Traces the history of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Clara Muhammad schools from their beginnings in the early 1930s through their transformation into an orthodox Islamic educational system, and reviews the movement's role in the Council of Islamic Schools of North America. Muslim African Americans are increasingly identifying with the worldwide Islamic movement. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26728792"><span>Overlap microtubules link <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres and balance the forces on bi-oriented kinetochores.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; Novak, Maja; Polak, Bruno; Vukušić, Kruno; Rüdiger, Jonas; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Milas, Ana; Šumanovac Šestak, Ivana; Risteski, Patrik; Tavano, Federica; Klemm, Anna H; Roscioli, Emanuele; Welburn, Julie; Cimini, Daniela; Glunčić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Tolić, Iva M</p> <p>2016-01-05</p> <p>During metaphase, forces on kinetochores are exerted by k-fibres, bundles of microtubules that end at the kinetochore. Interestingly, non-kinetochore microtubules have been observed between <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores, but their function is unknown. Here we show by laser-cutting of a k-fibre in HeLa and PtK1 cells that a bundle of non-kinetochore microtubules, which we term 'bridging fibre', bridges <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres and balances the interkinetochore tension. We found PRC1 and EB3 in the bridging fibre, suggesting that it consists of antiparallel dynamic microtubules. By using a theoretical model that includes a bridging fibre, we show that the forces at the pole and at the kinetochore depend on the bridging fibre thickness. Moreover, our theory and experiments show larger relaxation of the interkinetochore distance for cuts closer to kinetochores. We conclude that the bridging fibre, by linking <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres, withstands the tension between <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores and enables the spindle to obtain a curved shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pastor%27s+AND+transition&id=ED530841','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pastor%27s+AND+transition&id=ED530841"><span>When the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Said Farewell: The Transition of Leadership in Catholic Elementary Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Caruso, Michael P., S.J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>"When the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Said Farewell" tells an important story of the contributions of Catholic elementary schools to the United States by chronicling the experiences and insights of religious women (nuns) who were the last members of their communities to serve in parish elementary schools, and of those lay men and women who were the first to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+space&pg=7&id=EJ830840','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+space&pg=7&id=EJ830840"><span>Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: A Source of Support for Children in School?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hadfield, Lucy; Edwards, Rosalind; Mauthner, Melanie</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Whilst UK schools move towards U.S "big brother" style mentoring systems for children, are actual brothers and <span class="hlt">sisters</span> becoming an invisible source of support to deal with bullying in everyday life? This paper reports on research with children aged 7-13 about their experiences and understandings of their relationships with their brothers…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-214.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.214 - Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother...; Duration of Entitlement; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.214 Conditions of entitlement; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. An individual is entitled to benefits if: (a) Such individual: (1) Is the parent,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254474','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28254474"><span>New insights on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of percomorph fishes with an anchored hybrid enrichment dataset.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dornburg, Alex; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Brooks, Willa; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Eytan, Ron I; Moore, Jon A; Wainwright, Peter C; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Near, Thomas J</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Percomorph fishes represent over 17,100 species, including several model organisms and species of economic importance. Despite continuous advances in the resolution of the percomorph Tree of Life, resolution of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to Percomorpha remains inconsistent but restricted to a small number of candidate lineages. Here we use an anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) dataset of 132 loci with over 99,000 base pairs to identify the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage of percomorph fishes. Initial analyses of this dataset failed to recover a strongly supported <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to Percomorpha, however, scrutiny of the AHE dataset revealed a bias towards high GC content at fast-evolving codon partitions (GC bias). By combining several existing approaches aimed at mitigating the impacts of convergence in GC bias, including RY coding and analyses of amino acids, we consistently recovered a strongly supported clade comprised of Holocentridae (squirrelfishes), Berycidae (Alfonsinos), Melamphaidae (bigscale fishes), Cetomimidae (flabby whalefishes), and Rondeletiidae (redmouth whalefishes) as the <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage to Percomorpha. Additionally, implementing phylogenetic informativeness (PI) based metrics as a filtration method yielded this same topology, suggesting PI based approaches will preferentially filter these fast-evolving regions and act in a manner consistent with other phylogenetic approaches aimed at mitigating GC bias. Our results provide a new perspective on a key issue for studies investigating the evolutionary history of more than one quarter of all living species of vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pierce&pg=6&id=EJ605384','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pierce&pg=6&id=EJ605384"><span>Prejudice and Educational Choice: 75th Anniversary of Pierce v. Society of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mizia, Robert Louis</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Recounts the landmark case of Pierce v. Society of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>. Reminds readers that parental choice of an appropriate education for their children is a constitutional right and liberty under law and must be sustained. Asserts that true choice will occur only when consensus on public funding issues of school choice (including private and Catholic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+Movement&pg=6&id=EJ1078896','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Women%27s+AND+Movement&pg=6&id=EJ1078896"><span>Teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Raftery, Deirdre</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=4&id=EJ797780','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Beans&pg=4&id=EJ797780"><span>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Lessons of Traditional Story Honored in Assessment and Accreditation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chenault, Venida S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> story is shared across many tribes. It explains the practice of planting corn, beans, and squash together. The corn stalks provide support for the bean vines; the beans provide nitrogen for the corn; and the squash prevents weed growth between the mounds. Such stories explain not only the science of agricultural methods in tribal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404313.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED404313.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools: An Experience in Culture Vision for Preservice Teachers and Elementary Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Black, Sharon J.; Cutler, Beverly R.</p> <p></p> <p>The School of Education at Brigham Young University (BYU) in Utah developed a <span class="hlt">sister</span> school program with teachers and children in Cuauhtemoc and Dublan (Mexico) to increase the culture vision of preservice teachers while simultaneously allowing elementary school children to develop culture awareness by participating in a cross-cultural learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=INCEST&id=EJ1011495','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=INCEST&id=EJ1011495"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">Sister</span> Incest: Data from Anonymous Computer-Assisted Self Interviews</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+enhancement&id=EJ755531"><span>Meanings of Sisterhood and Developmental Disability: Narratives from White Nondisabled <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGraw, Lori A.; Walker, Alexis J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Integrating thought from critical feminist and disability theorists via a strategic social constructionist perspective, the authors analyzed 10 in-depth qualitative interviews to begin to understand the dialogue between (a) how nondisabled <span class="hlt">sisters</span> understand themselves and their siblings with developmental disabilities and (b) wider systems of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-340.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.340 Section 410.340 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title20-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title20-vol2-sec410-380.pdf"><span>20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or <span class="hlt">sister</span>. 410.380 Section 410.380 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31714','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31714"><span>Linking Shorebird Conservation and Education Along Flyways: An Overview of the Shorebird <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Hillary Chapman; Heather Johnson</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Shorebird <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Schools Program (SSSP) is an internet-based environmental education program that provides a forum for students, biologists, and shorebird enthusiasts to track shorebird migration and share observations along flyways. The program?s vision is to engage public participation in the conservation of shorebirds and their wetland, grassland, and shoreline...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343486','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5343486"><span>Management of E. coli <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in response to genotoxic stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vickridge, Elise; Planchenault, Charlene; Cockram, Charlotte; Junceda, Isabel Garcia; Espéli, Olivier</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosomal rearrangements associated with pathological disorders. In bacteria, several different DNA lesions are repaired by homologous recombination, a process that involves <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid pairing. Previous work in Escherichia coli has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid interactions (SCIs) mediated by topological links termed precatenanes, are controlled by topoisomerase IV. In the present work, we demonstrate that during the repair of mitomycin C-induced lesions, topological links are rapidly substituted by an SOS-induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion process involving the RecN protein. The loss of SCIs and viability defects observed in the absence of RecN were compensated by alterations in topoisomerase IV, suggesting that the main role of RecN during DNA repair is to promote contacts between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. RecN also modulates whole chromosome organization and RecA dynamics suggesting that SCIs significantly contribute to the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). PMID:28262707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=corn&pg=2&id=EJ797780','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=corn&pg=2&id=EJ797780"><span>Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: Lessons of Traditional Story Honored in Assessment and Accreditation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chenault, Venida S.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> story is shared across many tribes. It explains the practice of planting corn, beans, and squash together. The corn stalks provide support for the bean vines; the beans provide nitrogen for the corn; and the squash prevents weed growth between the mounds. Such stories explain not only the science of agricultural methods in tribal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+memory&pg=3&id=ED266892','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+games+AND+memory&pg=3&id=ED266892"><span>Walking with Grandfather and Great Wolf and Little Mouse <span class="hlt">Sister</span>. Teacher's Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lethbridge Univ. (Alberta).</p> <p></p> <p>Written for use with videotaped versions of the stories "Walking with Grandfather" and "Great Wolf and Little Mouse <span class="hlt">Sister</span>," this guide presents 20 lessons that teachers can adapt for students of various ages and use in integrated units or other curriculum approaches. The introductory material describes the use and philosophy of the video stories,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514909.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514909.pdf"><span>Serving, Learning and Mentoring through the Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sivukamaran, Thillainatarajan; Holland, Glenda; Clark, Leonard J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study describes the collaborative partnership between a Big Brothers Big <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> organization, an elementary school and the College of Education at a public university. The partnership utilized a mentoring system consisting of elementary students, college students, elementary teachers and university faculty. Benefits of the various…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452094.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED452094.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science: Using Sports as a Vehicle for Science Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Green, Tina Sloan; Livingston, Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a project for upper elementary and middle school minority girl students called the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Sport Science (SISS). The SISS program addresses the needs of urban girls in gaining access to equal education in science and mathematics by using athletics as a vehicle for learning. The program provides a non-competitive and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068322.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1068322.pdf"><span>Project Exploration's <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>4Science: Involving Urban Girls of Color in Science Out of School</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lyon, Gabrielle; Jafri, Jameela</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Project Exploration's <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>4Science (S4S) is an afterschool program for middle and high school urban girls of color. Designed to "get" girls interested in science, "keep" girls interested in science, and "equip" girls with skills and experiences that enable them to pursue science, S4S creates a science-rich learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4728446','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4728446"><span>Overlap microtubules link <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres and balance the forces on bi-oriented kinetochores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kajtez, Janko; Solomatina, Anastasia; Novak, Maja; Polak, Bruno; Vukušić, Kruno; Rüdiger, Jonas; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Milas, Ana; Šumanovac Šestak, Ivana; Risteski, Patrik; Tavano, Federica; Klemm, Anna H.; Roscioli, Emanuele; Welburn, Julie; Cimini, Daniela; Glunčić, Matko; Pavin, Nenad; Tolić, Iva M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>During metaphase, forces on kinetochores are exerted by k-fibres, bundles of microtubules that end at the kinetochore. Interestingly, non-kinetochore microtubules have been observed between <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores, but their function is unknown. Here we show by laser-cutting of a k-fibre in HeLa and PtK1 cells that a bundle of non-kinetochore microtubules, which we term ‘bridging fibre', bridges <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres and balances the interkinetochore tension. We found PRC1 and EB3 in the bridging fibre, suggesting that it consists of antiparallel dynamic microtubules. By using a theoretical model that includes a bridging fibre, we show that the forces at the pole and at the kinetochore depend on the bridging fibre thickness. Moreover, our theory and experiments show larger relaxation of the interkinetochore distance for cuts closer to kinetochores. We conclude that the bridging fibre, by linking <span class="hlt">sister</span> k-fibres, withstands the tension between <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores and enables the spindle to obtain a curved shape. PMID:26728792</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=6&id=EJ903417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marquez&pg=6&id=EJ903417"><span>Transitioning from Doctoral Study to the Academy: Theorizing "Trenzas" of Identity for Latina <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Scholars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Espino, Michelle M.; Munoz, Susana M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article focuses on multiple truths pertaining to doctoral education as expressed by three Latina doctoral recipients. These scholars successfully navigated various educational processes with the support of one another, their families, faculty, and their chosen discipline. The authors, as <span class="hlt">sister</span> scholars, retell their educational journeys…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4764575"><span>Super-resolution kinetochore tracking reveals the mechanisms of human <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore directional switching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Burroughs, Nigel J; Harry, Edward F; McAinsh, Andrew D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The congression of chromosomes to the spindle equator involves the directed motility of bi-orientated <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochores bind bundles of dynamic microtubules and are physically connected through centromeric chromatin. A crucial question is to understand how <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores are coordinated to generate motility and directional switches. Here, we combine super-resolution tracking of kinetochores with automated switching-point detection to analyse <span class="hlt">sister</span> switching dynamics over thousands of events. We discover that switching is initiated by both the leading (microtubules depolymerising) or trailing (microtubules polymerising) kinetochore. Surprisingly, trail-driven switching generates an overstretch of the chromatin that relaxes over the following half-period. This rules out the involvement of a tension sensor, the central premise of the long-standing tension-model. Instead, our data support a model in which clocks set the intrinsic-switching time of the two kinetochore-attached microtubule fibres, with the centromeric spring tension operating as a feedback to slow or accelerate the clocks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09500.001 PMID:26460545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bebes&id=EJ604478','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bebes&id=EJ604478"><span>"Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bumpus, Minnette</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The novel "Brothers and <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27801743','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27801743"><span>99mTc-DMSA Uptake in a <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's Nodule From Ovarian Cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naddaf, Sleiman; Azzumeea, Fahad; Fahad Alzayed, Mohammed</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A 50-year-old woman with ovarian cancer underwent Tc-DMSA scan to evaluate the functional status of the right hydronephrotic kidney. The images incidentally revealed a well-defined focus of mild radiotracer uptake at the midanterior abdominal wall, which correlated with a metastatic <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule seen on CT performed a week earlier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+System&pg=4&id=EJ1048143','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+System&pg=4&id=EJ1048143"><span>They Came with a Purpose: Educational Journeys of Nineteenth-Century Irish Dominican <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, Jenny</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Irish Catholic teaching <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were major actors in the development of education systems in New World countries such as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants themselves, they faced a number of key challenges as they sought to adapt Old World cultural and educational ideas to the education of the immigrant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenage+AND+pregnancy&pg=5&id=EJ965819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teenage+AND+pregnancy&pg=5&id=EJ965819"><span>Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>' Children: Its Costs and Benefits for Youths' Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Reyes, Barbara T.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined how time spent caring for a teenage <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s child and experiences in providing care related to youths' young adult outcomes. Latino and African American youths (N = 108) were studied during middle and late adolescence. Results indicated that youths who provided many hours of child care were more stressed and had lower school…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+worlds&id=EJ1048143','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=New+AND+worlds&id=EJ1048143"><span>They Came with a Purpose: Educational Journeys of Nineteenth-Century Irish Dominican <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, Jenny</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Irish Catholic teaching <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were major actors in the development of education systems in New World countries such as the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Immigrants themselves, they faced a number of key challenges as they sought to adapt Old World cultural and educational ideas to the education of the immigrant…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440885.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED440885.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science Program: Building Girls' Interest and Achievement in Science and Mathematics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hammrich, Penny L.; Richardson, Greer M.; Livingston, Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science program seeks to increase elementary school girls' interest and achievement in science and mathematics, to create a more positive learning climate for minority school girls and their families on academic and community/social levels, and increase the knowledge base and understanding of parents with respect to their influence…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ579567','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=turner+AND+syndrome&pg=2&id=EJ579567"><span>Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25985782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25985782"><span>"If I only touch her cloak": the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans hospital, 1834-1860.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Hyejung Grace; Kim, Ock-Joo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>This study is about the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans' Charity Hospital during the years between 1834 and 1860. The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity of St. Joseph was founded in 1809 by Saint Elizabeth Ann Bailey Seton (first native-born North American canonized in 1975) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Seton's <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity was the first community for religious women to be established in the United States and was later incorporated with the French Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in 1850. A call to work in New Orleans' Charity Hospital in the 1830s meant a significant achievement for the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity, since it was the second oldest continuously operating public hospitals in the United States until 2005, bearing the same name over the decades. In 1834, <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Regina Smith and other <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were officially called to Charity Hospital, in order to supersede the existing "nurses, attendants, and servants," and take a complete charge of the internal management of Charity Hospital. The existing scholarship on the history of hospitals and Catholic nursing has not integrated the concrete stories of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity into the broader histories of institutionalized medicine, gender, and religion. Along with a variety of primary sources, this study primarily relies on the Charity Hospital History Folder stored at the Daughters of Charity West Center Province Archives. Located in the "Queen city of the South," Charity Hospital was the center of the southern medical profession and the world's fair of people and diseases. Charity Hospital provided the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with a unique situation that religion and medicine became intertwined. The <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, as nurses, constructed a new atmosphere of caring for patients and even their families inside and outside the hospital, and built their own separate space within the hospital walls. As hospital managers, the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Charity were put in complete charge of the hospital, which was never seen in other hospitals. By</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2932668','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2932668"><span>Ten <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Contributors to the Obesity Epidemic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McAllister, Emily J.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Keith, Scott W.; Aronne, Louis J.; Barger, Jamie; Baskin, Monica; Benca, Ruth M.; Biggio, Joseph; Boggiano, Mary M.; Eisenmann, Joe C.; Elobeid, Mai; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Gluckman, Peter; Hanlon, Erin C.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Redden, David T.; Ruden, Douglas M.; Wang, Chenxi; Waterland, Robert A.; Wright, Suzanne M.; Allison, David B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative <span class="hlt">putative</span> contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects, as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such <span class="hlt">putative</span> etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic. PMID:19960394</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335985&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=04/02/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=04/02/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335985&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=04/02/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=04/02/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span>Derivation and evaluation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is of concern in fish because COX inhibitors (e.g., ibuprofen) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems/fish tissues, and can disrupt synthesis of prostaglandins that modulate a variety of essential biological functions including reproduction. High content (transcriptomic) empirical data and publicly available high throughput toxicity data (actor.epa.gov) were utilized to develop <span class="hlt">putative</span> adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for molecular initiating event (MIE) of COX inhibition. Effects of a waterborne, 96h exposure to indomethacin (IN; 100 µg/L), ibuprofen (IB; 200 µg/L) and celecoxib (CX; 20 µg/L) on liver metabolome and ovarian gene expression (using oligonucleotide microarrays) in sexually mature fathead minnows (n=8) were examined. Metabolomic profiles of IN, IB and CX were not significantly different from control or one another. Exposure to IB and CX resulted in differential expression of comparable numbers of genes (IB = 433, CX= 545). In contrast, 2558 genes were differentially expressed in IN-treated fish. Functional analyses (canonical pathway and gene set enrichment) indicated extensive effects of IN on prostaglandin synthesis pathway, oocyte meiosis and several other processes consistent with physiological roles of prostaglandins. Transcriptomic data was congruent with apical endpoint data - IN reduced plasma prostaglandin F2 alpha concentrations, and ovarian COX activity, whereas IB and CX did not. <span class="hlt">Putative</span> AOPs pathways for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194162"><span><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> unbound is required for meiotic centromeric cohesion in Drosophila melanogaster.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krishnan, Badri; Thomas, Sharon E; Yan, Rihui; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Zhulin, Igor B; McKee, Bruce D</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Regular meiotic chromosome segregation requires <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres to mono-orient (orient to the same pole) during the first meiotic division (meiosis I) when homologous chromosomes segregate, and to bi-orient (orient to opposite poles) during the second meiotic division (meiosis II) when <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids segregate. Both orientation patterns require cohesion between <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres, which is established during meiotic DNA replication and persists until anaphase of meiosis II. Meiotic cohesion is mediated by a conserved four-protein complex called cohesin that includes two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits (SMC1 and SMC3) and two non-SMC subunits. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, the meiotic cohesion apparatus has not been fully characterized and the non-SMC subunits have not been identified. We have identified a novel Drosophila gene called <span class="hlt">sisters</span> unbound (sunn), which is required for stable <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion throughout meiosis. sunn mutations disrupt centromere cohesion during prophase I and cause high frequencies of non-disjunction (NDJ) at both meiotic divisions in both sexes. SUNN co-localizes at centromeres with the cohesion proteins SMC1 and SOLO in both sexes and is necessary for the recruitment of both proteins to centromeres. Although SUNN lacks sequence homology to cohesins, bioinformatic analysis indicates that SUNN may be a structural homolog of the non-SMC cohesin subunit stromalin (SA), suggesting that SUNN may serve as a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit. In conclusion, our data show that SUNN is an essential meiosis-specific Drosophila cohesion protein. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16080001"><span>Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B <span class="hlt">sister</span> (ABS) protein.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kaufmann, Kerstin; Anfang, Nicole; Saedler, Heinz; Theissen, Günter</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Recently, close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes, termed B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, have been identified in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. In contrast to the B genes themselves, B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes are exclusively expressed in female reproductive organs, especially in the envelopes or integuments surrounding the ovules. This suggests an important ancient function in ovule or seed development for B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes, which has been conserved for about 300 million years. However, investigation of the first loss-of-function mutant for a B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) gene (ABS/TT16 from Arabidopsis) revealed only a weak phenotype affecting endothelium formation. Here, we present an analysis of two additional mutant alleles, which corroborates this weak phenotype. Transgenic plants that ectopically express ABS show changes in the growth and identity of floral organs, suggesting that ABS can interact with floral homeotic proteins. Yeast-two-hybrid and three-hybrid analyses indicated that ABS can form dimers with SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2). These data suggest that the formation of multimeric transcription factor complexes might be a general phenomenon among MIKC-type MADS-domain proteins in angiosperms. Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays. Fusion proteins tagged with CFP (Cyan Fluorescent Protein) and YFP (Yellow Fluorescent Protein) in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that ABS is localized in the nucleus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a structurally deviant, but closely related, paralogue of ABS in the Arabidopsis genome. Thus the evolutionary developmental genetics of B(<span class="hlt">sister</span>) genes can probably only be understood as part of a complex and redundant gene network that may govern ovule formation in a conserved manner, which has yet to be fully explored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1325454','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1325454"><span>Experimental Test Plan for PWR <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Rods in the High Burnup Spent Fuel Data Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Rose; Scaglione, John M; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Hanson, Brady; Billone, Dr. Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The High Burnup Spent Fuel Data project pulled 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods (9 from the project assemblies and 16 from similar HBU assemblies) for characterization. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods are all high burnup and cover the range of modern domestic cladding alloys. The 25 <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods were shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in early 2016 for detailed non-destructive and destructive examination. Examinations are intended to provide baseline data on the initial physical state of the cladding and fuel prior to the loading, drying, and long-term dry storage process. Further examinations are focused on determining the effects of temperatures encountered during and following drying. Similar tests will be performed on rods taken from the project assemblies at the end of their long-term storage in a TN-32 dry storage cask (the cask rods ) to identify any significant changes in the fuel rods that may have occurred during the dry storage period. Additionally, some of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods will be used for separate effects testing to expand the applicability of the project data to the fleet, and to address some of the data-related gaps associated with extended storage and subsequent transportation of high burnup fuel. A draft test plan is being developed that describes the experimental work to be conducted on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> rods. This paper summarizes the draft test plan and necessary coordination activities for the multi-year experimental program to supply data relevant to the assessment of the safety of long-term storage followed by transportation of high burnup spent fuel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4456163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4456163"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Regulatory Factors Associated with Intramuscular Fat Content</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cesar, Aline S. M.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.; Koltes, James E.; Fritz-Waters, Eric R.; Lanna, Dante P. D.; Gasparin, Gustavo; Mourão, Gerson B.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Reecy, James M.; Coutinho, Luiz L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies) were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG), biological pathways and <span class="hlt">putative</span> regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT), regulatory impact factor (RIF) and phenotypic impact factor (PIF) were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both <span class="hlt">groups</span> (high (H) and low (L) GEBV) and 77 DEG (FDR 10%) were identified between the two <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L <span class="hlt">group</span> and detected <span class="hlt">putative</span> regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1), MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2) and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF). These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption. PMID:26042666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15731862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15731862"><span>Design and synthesis of inositolphosphoglycan <span class="hlt">putative</span> insulin mediators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>López-Prados, Javier; Cuevas, Félix; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; de Paz, José-Luis; Morales, Ezequiel Q; Martín-Lomas, Manuel</p> <p>2005-03-07</p> <p>The binding modes of a series of molecules, containing the glucosamine (1-->6) myo-inositol structural motif, into the ATP binding site of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have been analysed using molecular docking. These calculations predict that the presence of a phosphate <span class="hlt">group</span> at the non-reducing end in pseudodisaccharide and pseudotrisaccharide structures properly orientate the molecule into the binding site and that pseudotrisaccharide structures present the best shape complementarity. Therefore, pseudodisaccharides and pseudotrisaccharides have been synthesised from common intermediates using effective synthetic strategies. On the basis of this synthetic chemistry, the feasibility of constructing small pseudotrisaccharide libraries on solid-phase using the same intermediates has been explored. The results from the biological evaluation of these molecules provide additional support to an insulin-mediated signalling system which involves the intermediacy of inositolphosphoglycans as <span class="hlt">putative</span> insulin mediators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3678087','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3678087"><span>Motor abnormalities as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> endophenotype for Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Esposito, Gianluca; Paşca, Sergiu P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a complex <span class="hlt">group</span> of behaviorally defined conditions with core deficits in social communication and the presence of repetitive and restrictive behaviors. To date, neuropathological studies have failed to identify pathognomonic cellular features for ASDs and there remains a fundamental disconnection between the complex clinical aspects of ASDs and the underlying neurobiology. Although not listed among the core diagnostic domains of impairment in ASDs, motor abnormalities have been consistently reported across the spectrum. In this perspective article, we summarize the evidence that supports the use of motor abnormalities as a <span class="hlt">putative</span> endophenotype for ASDs. We argue that because these motor abnormalities do not directly depend on social or linguistic development, they may serve as an early disease indicator. Furthermore, we propose that stratifying patients based on motor development could be useful not only as an outcome predictor and in identifying more specific treatments for different ASDs categories, but also in exposing neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:23781177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310490','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=310490"><span>Purification and characterization pecan (Carya Illinoinensis) vicilin, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> food allergen (abstract)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The pecan seed storage protein vicilin, a <span class="hlt">putative</span> food allergen, was recombinantly expressed for and purified by a combination of metal affinity and gel filtration chromatography. The protein was crystallized and studied by crystallography. The obtained crystals belonged to space <span class="hlt">group</span> P212121 with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264940"><span>DNA barcode-based delineation of <span class="hlt">putative</span> species: efficient start for taxonomic workflows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kekkonen, Mari; Hebert, Paul D N</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of DNA barcode sequences with varying techniques for cluster recognition provides an efficient approach for recognizing <span class="hlt">putative</span> species (operational taxonomic units, OTUs). This approach accelerates and improves taxonomic workflows by exposing cryptic species and decreasing the risk of synonymy. This study tested the congruence of OTUs resulting from the application of three analytical methods (ABGD, BIN, GMYC) to sequence data for Australian hypertrophine moths. OTUs supported by all three approaches were viewed as robust, but 20% of the OTUs were only recognized by one or two of the methods. These OTUs were examined for three criteria to clarify their status. Monophyly and diagnostic nucleotides were both uninformative, but information on ranges was useful as sympatric <span class="hlt">sister</span> OTUs were viewed as distinct, while allopatric OTUs were merged. This approach revealed 124 OTUs of Hypertrophinae, a more than twofold increase from the currently recognized 51 species. Because this analytical protocol is both fast and repeatable, it provides a valuable tool for establishing a basic understanding of species boundaries that can be validated with subsequent studies. PMID:24479435</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6149080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6149080"><span>Comparative quantitative aspects of <span class="hlt">putative</span> neurotransmitters in the central nervous system of spiders (Arachnida: Araneida).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, W; Schlesinger, C; Poehling, H M; Ruge, W</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The amounts of eight <span class="hlt">putative</span> neurotransmitters or modulators (acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, GABA, taurine, glutamic acid, glycine) were determined from the CNS of 12 species of five different spider families (Theraphosidae, Agelenidae, Araneidae, Lycosidae, Salticidae). Comparatively high contents of acetylcholine and noradrenaline could be found in the CNS of hunting spiders, higher contents of GABA and taurine were visible in the web-building spider families, while extraordinarily high amounts of glutamic acid were confined to the Theraphosidae. The results obtained are compared with findings from other arthropod <span class="hlt">groups</span> and the role of <span class="hlt">putative</span> transmitters or modulators in the spider CNS is discussed in relation to behavioural differences within the families investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3279426"><span>Gastrotricha: A Marine <span class="hlt">Sister</span> for a Freshwater Puzzle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Todaro, M. Antonio; Dal Zotto, Matteo; Jondelius, Ulf; Hochberg, Rick; Hummon, William D.; Kånneby, Tobias; Rocha, Carlos E. F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Within an evolutionary framework of Gastrotricha Marinellina flagellata and Redudasys fornerise bear special interest, as they are the only Macrodasyida that inhabit freshwater ecosystems. Notwithstanding, these rare animals are poorly known; found only once (Austria and Brazil), they are currently systematised as incertae sedis. Here we report on the rediscovery of Redudasys fornerise, provide an account on morphological novelties and present a hypothesis on its phylogenetic relationship based on molecular data. Methodology/Principal Findings Specimens were surveyed using DIC microscopy and SEM, and used to obtain the 18 S rRNA gene sequence; molecular data was analyzed cladistically in conjunction with data from 42 additional species belonging to the near complete Macrodasyida taxonomic spectrum. Morphological analysis, while providing new information on taxonomically relevant traits (adhesive tubes, protonephridia and sensorial bristles), failed to detect elements of the male system, thus stressing the parthenogenetic nature of the Brazilian species. Phylogenetic analysis, carried out with ML, MP and Bayesian approaches, yielded topologies with strong nodal support and highly congruent with each other. Among the supported <span class="hlt">groups</span> is the previously undocumented clade showing the alliance between Redudasys fornerise and Dactylopodola agadasys; other strongly sustained clades include the densely sampled families Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae and most genera. Conclusions/Significance A reconsideration of the morphological traits of Dactylopodola agadasys in light of the new information on Redudasys fornerise makes the alliance between these two taxa very likely. As a result, we create Anandrodasys gen. nov. to contain members of the previously described D. agadasys and erect Redudasyidae fam. nov. to reflect this novel relationship between Anandrodasys and Redudasys. From an ecological perspective, the derived position of Redudasys, which is deeply</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348127','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22348127"><span>Gastrotricha: a marine <span class="hlt">sister</span> for a freshwater puzzle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Todaro, M Antonio; Dal Zotto, Matteo; Jondelius, Ulf; Hochberg, Rick; Hummon, William D; Kånneby, Tobias; Rocha, Carlos E F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Within an evolutionary framework of Gastrotricha Marinellina flagellata and Redudasys fornerise bear special interest, as they are the only Macrodasyida that inhabit freshwater ecosystems. Notwithstanding, these rare animals are poorly known; found only once (Austria and Brazil), they are currently systematised as incertae sedis. Here we report on the rediscovery of Redudasys fornerise, provide an account on morphological novelties and present a hypothesis on its phylogenetic relationship based on molecular data. Specimens were surveyed using DIC microscopy and SEM, and used to obtain the 18 S rRNA gene sequence; molecular data was analyzed cladistically in conjunction with data from 42 additional species belonging to the near complete Macrodasyida taxonomic spectrum. Morphological analysis, while providing new information on taxonomically relevant traits (adhesive tubes, protonephridia and sensorial bristles), failed to detect elements of the male system, thus stressing the parthenogenetic nature of the Brazilian species. Phylogenetic analysis, carried out with ML, MP and Bayesian approaches, yielded topologies with strong nodal support and highly congruent with each other. Among the supported <span class="hlt">groups</span> is the previously undocumented clade showing the alliance between Redudasys fornerise and Dactylopodola agadasys; other strongly sustained clades include the densely sampled families Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae and most genera. A reconsideration of the morphological traits of Dactylopodola agadasys in light of the new information on Redudasys fornerise makes the alliance between these two taxa very likely. As a result, we create Anandrodasys gen. nov. to contain members of the previously described D. agadasys and erect Redudasyidae fam. nov. to reflect this novel relationship between Anandrodasys and Redudasys. From an ecological perspective, the derived position of Redudasys, which is deeply nested within the Macrodasyida clade, unequivocally demonstrates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7510022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7510022"><span>Lymphocyte proliferation kinetics and <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges in individuals treated with metronidazole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Elizondo, G; Montero, R; Herrera, J E; Hong, E; Ostrosky-Wegman, P</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>Metronidazole, an effective agent for the treatment of protozoan infections, is frequently used in developing countries. However, the employment of this drug has been questioned in view of its mutagenicity in bacteria and carcinogenicity in mice. A genotoxic study was carried out in which cellular proliferation kinetics and the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges were determined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes from 12 individuals treated with therapeutic doses of metronidazole. No effect was observed on mitotic index with the treatment, although a significant increase was found in three individuals after treatment. No increase of <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid exchanges was detected. The rate of lymphocyte proliferation kinetics showed an increase after the metronidazole treatment in all patients, indicating a possible immunostimulatory action.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3913347"><span>[Egon Erwin Kisch and the Blazek <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. A contribution to the history of teratology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schierhorn, H</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A century ago, on April 29th 1885, the "Raving Reporter" Egon Erwin Kisch was born in Prague. On this occasion his news-reporting about the conjoined Bohemian twins Rosa and Josefa Blazek (born 1878) is appreciated and compared respectively contrasted with the observations and papers of contemporary physicians, among them the famous neuropathologist Richard Henneberg from Berlin and the important gynaecologists Breisky and Pitha from Prague and Schauta from Vienna. Kisch's report "The conjoined <span class="hlt">sisters</span>" was published in his book "Sensation fair" during his antifascistic exile firstly 1941 in New York in English, a year later in Mexico-City in the German language. In spite of his stunt-making style Kisch's declining opposite the capitalistic marketing and opposite the disgracing people's exhibition (in this case of the Bohemian pygopage <span class="hlt">sisters</span>) is articulated. Kisch, the founder of the socialistic literary report, died in 1948 in Prague, Czechoslovakia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1592785','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1592785"><span>Bloom Helicase and DNA Topoisomerase IIIα Are Involved in the Dissolution of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seki, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Seki, Takahiko; Kato, Genta; Tada, Shusuke; Takahashi, Yuriko; Yoshimura, Akari; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Aoki, Ayako; Otsuki, Makoto; Habermann, Felix A.; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Ishii, Yutaka; Enomoto, Takemi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal disorder characterized by predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. The gene product whose mutation leads to BS is the RecQ family helicase BLM, which forms a complex with DNA topoisomerase IIIα (Top3α). However, the physiological relevance of the interaction between BLM and Top3α within the cell remains unclear. We show here that Top3α depletion causes accumulation of cells in G2 phase, enlargement of nuclei, and chromosome gaps and breaks that occur at the same position in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. The transition from metaphase to anaphase is also inhibited. All of these phenomena except cell lethality are suppressed by BLM gene disruption. Taken together with the biochemical properties of BLM and Top3α, these data indicate that BLM and Top3α execute the dissolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. PMID:16880537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27791309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27791309"><span>A very human being: <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Marie Simone Roach, 1922-2016.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villeneuve, Michael J; Tschudin, Verena; Storch, Janet; Fowler, Marsha D M; Peter, Elizabeth</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> (Sr.) Marie Simone Roach, of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of St. Martha of Antigonish, Nova Scotia, died at the Motherhouse on 2 July 2016 at the age of 93, leaving behind a rich legacy of theoretical and practical work in the areas of care, caring and nursing ethics. She was a humble soul whose deep and scholarly thinking thrust her onto the global nursing stage where she will forever be tied to a central concept in nursing, caring, through her Six Cs of Caring model. In Canada, she was the lead architect of the Canadian Nurses Association's first code of ethics, and her influence on revisions to it is still profound more than 35 years later. In this paper, four global scholars in nursing and ethics are invited to reflect on Sr. Simone's contribution to nursing and health-care, and we link her work to nursing and health-care going forward. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19919691"><span>Self-healing photo-neuropathy and cervical spinal arthrosis in four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with brachioradial pruritus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wallengren, Joanna</p> <p>2009-11-17</p> <p>The cause of brachioradial pruritus (a localized itching on the arms or shoulders) is controversial. The role of sun and cervical spine disease has been discussed. This is a report on four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> suffering from brachioradial pruritus recurring every summer. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span> spent much time outdoors and exposed themselves extensively to the sun. They also had occupations requiring heavy lifting. Cervical radiographs indicated arthrosis. The density of sensory nerve fibers in the skin biopsies from the itchy skin of the arms, visualized by antibodies against a pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, was reduced compared with biopsies from the same skin region during the symptom-free period in the winter. This data exemplifies that brachioradial pruritus is a self healing photoneuropathy occurring in middle aged adults predisposed by cervical arthrosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789710','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2789710"><span>Self-healing photo-neuropathy and cervical spinal arthrosis in four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with brachioradial pruritus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The cause of brachioradial pruritus (a localized itching on the arms or shoulders) is controversial. The role of sun and cervical spine disease has been discussed. This is a report on four <span class="hlt">sisters</span> suffering from brachioradial pruritus recurring every summer. The <span class="hlt">sisters</span> spent much time outdoors and exposed themselves extensively to the sun. They also had occupations requiring heavy lifting. Cervical radiographs indicated arthrosis. The density of sensory nerve fibers in the skin biopsies from the itchy skin of the arms, visualized by antibodies against a pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, was reduced compared with biopsies from the same skin region during the symptom-free period in the winter. This data exemplifies that brachioradial pruritus is a self healing photoneuropathy occurring in middle aged adults predisposed by cervical arthrosis. PMID:19919691</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836524','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12836524"><span>[Triple malaria infection in twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from the Democratic Republic of Congo].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galeazzi, G; Ardoin, F; Petithory, J C; Laurent, C</p> <p>2003-05-01</p> <p>Infections with 3 species of malaria parasites are rarely encountered and observed in less than 0.05% of cases. We came across such an infection in four year-old, monozygote twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, coming from Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo). In both of them, parasitemia was low or very low for P. falciparum and P. ovale and of 0.1-0.2% for P. malariae. The twin <span class="hlt">sisters</span> presented with an iron deficiency anaemia, associated with an heterozygous sickle-cell anaemia and a moderate splenomegaly. The biological tests results were similar. They responded well to treatment. We point out the difficulty in recognizing the concomitant presence of several species of hematozoaire on blood smear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6885703','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6885703"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains a minimum of 191 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647488','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647488"><span>Alaninuria, Associated with Microcephaly, Dwarfism, Enamel Hypoplasia, and Diabetes Mellitus in Two <span class="hlt">Sisters</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stimmler, L.; Jensen, N.; Toseland, P.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, both microcephalic at birth and of low birthweight, are described. They are both severely mentally retarded and dwarfed, and have developed diabetes mellitus. Their teeth show enamel hypoplasia. Excessive quantities of alanine were found in their urine, which was associated with high levels of alanine pyruvate and lactate in the blood. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3aFIG. 3b PMID:5477682</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA157372"><span>Application of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange in Marine Polychaetes to Black Rock Harbor Sediment. Laboratory Documentation Phase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Continue on reverse eide if necomeay and Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological...necessary end Identify by block number) Marine pollution --Genetic effects (LC) Polychaeta (LC) Dredged material (WES) Biological assay (LC) <span class="hlt">Sister</span>...populations of marine organisms. 2. The importance of genetic effects in marine pollution studies has been recognized only recently. The International Council</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755749','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4755749"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> kinetochore splitting and precocious disintegration of bivalents could explain the maternal age effect</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zielinska, Agata P; Holubcova, Zuzana; Blayney, Martyn; Elder, Kay; Schuh, Melina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Aneuploidy in human eggs is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and Down’s syndrome. Aneuploid eggs result from chromosome segregation errors when an egg develops from a progenitor cell, called an oocyte. The mechanisms that lead to an increase in aneuploidy with advanced maternal age are largely unclear. Here, we show that many <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores in human oocytes are separated and do not behave as a single functional unit during the first meiotic division. Having separated <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochores allowed bivalents to rotate by 90 degrees on the spindle and increased the risk of merotelic kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Advanced maternal age led to an increase in <span class="hlt">sister</span> kinetochore separation, rotated bivalents and merotelic attachments. Chromosome arm cohesion was weakened, and the fraction of bivalents that precociously dissociated into univalents was increased. Together, our data reveal multiple age-related changes in chromosome architecture that could explain why oocyte aneuploidy increases with advanced maternal age. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11389.001 PMID:26670547</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162982"><span>A historical overview of bromo-substituted DNA and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid differentiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mezzanotte, Roberto; Nieddu, Mariella</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been widely used to make <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid differentiation (SCD) evident in metaphase chromosomes of cells grown for two cycles in BrdU and, thus, containing varying amounts of the thymidine analogue. A direct consequence was the possibility of making <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) evident without using autoradiographic procedures. The latter phenomenon was first discovered in 1953, and its frequency is considered a reliable marker of pathological cell situations, as well as an indicator of mutagenic compounds. Several experimental procedures were found which produced SCD, such as the use of fluorochromes like 33258 Hoechst or acridine orange, whose observation under fluorescence microscopy was directly recorded by photos or stained with Giemsa to make chromosome preparations permanent. Other treatments followed by Giemsa staining required the use of saline hot solutions, acid solutions, nuclease attack and specific monoclonal antibodies. Basically two molecular mechanisms were invoked to explain the different affinity of Giemsa stain for differential BrdU-substituted chromatid DNA. The first implied debromination of chromatid DNA, whose occurrence would be greater in chromatids containing an amount of BrdU greater than that present in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. The second mechanism, although not denying the importance of DNA debromination, postulated that chromatin structural organization, in terms of DNA-protein and/or protein-protein DNA interaction, is responsible for SCD production.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23590349"><span>Brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest: data from anonymous computer-assisted self interviews.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stroebel, Sandra S; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel; Stroupe, Walter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self interview. Forty were classified as victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest, 19 were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 232 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The other 1,230 served as controls. The victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest had significantly more problematic outcomes than controls on many measures (e.g., more likely than the controls to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse). However, victims of brother-<span class="hlt">sister</span> incest also had significantly less problematic outcomes than victims of father-daughter incest on some measures (e.g., significantly less likely than the father-daughter incest victims to endorse feeling like damaged goods, thinking that they had suffered psychological injury, and having undergone psychological treatment for childhood sexual abuse).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19017705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19017705"><span>Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their <span class="hlt">sisters</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Axmon, A; Rylander, L</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' <span class="hlt">sisters</span> were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20124417"><span>Human Timeless and Tipin stabilize replication forks and facilitate <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leman, Adam R; Noguchi, Chiaki; Lee, Candice Y; Noguchi, Eishi</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The Timeless-Tipin protein complex has been reported to be important for replication checkpoint and normal DNA replication processes. However, the precise mechanisms by which Timeless-Tipin preserves genomic integrity are largely unclear. Here, we describe the roles of Timeless-Tipin in replication fork stabilization and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion. We show in human cells that Timeless is recruited to replication origin regions and dissociate from them as replication proceeds. Cdc45, which is known to be required for replication fork progression, shows similar patterns of origin association to those of Timeless. Depletion of Timeless-Tipin causes chromosome fragmentation and defects in damage repair in response to fork collapse, suggesting that it is required for replication fork maintenance under stress. We also demonstrate that depletion of Timeless-Tipin impairs <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and causes a defect in mitotic progression. Consistently, Timeless-Tipin co-purifies with cohesin subunits and is required for their stable association with chromatin during S phase. Timeless associates with the cohesion-promoting DNA helicase ChlR1, which, when overexpressed, partially alleviates the cohesion defect of cells depleted of Timeless-Tipin. These results suggest that Timeless-Tipin functions as a replication fork stabilizer that couples DNA replication with <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion established at replication forks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257310','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257310"><span>Functional genomics identifies a requirement of pre-mRNA splicing factors for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sundaramoorthy, Sriramkumar; Vázquez-Novelle, María Dolores; Lekomtsev, Sergey; Howell, Michael; Petronczki, Mark</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation during cell division. Using functional genomic screening, we identify a set of 26 pre-mRNA splicing factors that are required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in human cells. Loss of spliceosome subunits increases the dissociation rate of cohesin from chromatin and abrogates cohesion after DNA replication, ultimately causing mitotic catastrophe. Depletion of splicing factors causes defective processing of the pre-mRNA encoding sororin, a factor required for the stable association of cohesin with chromatin, and an associated reduction of sororin protein level. Expression of an intronless version of sororin and depletion of the cohesin release protein WAPL suppress the cohesion defect in cells lacking splicing factors. We propose that spliceosome components contribute to <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and mitotic chromosome segregation through splicing of sororin pre-mRNA. Our results highlight the loss of cohesion as an early cellular consequence of compromised splicing. This may have clinical implications because SF3B1, a splicing factor that we identify to be essential for cohesion, is recurrently mutated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807"><span><span class="hlt">PUTATIVE</span> ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY FOR INHIBITON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a framework for organizing knowledge to define links between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and an adverse outcome (AO) occurring at a higher level of biological organization, such as the individual or population. The AOP framework proceeds from a general (e.g., not chemical specific) molecular mode of action, designated as a MIE, through stepwise changes in biological status, defined as key events (KEs), to a final AO that can be used in risk assessment. Because aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals are widely used to treat breast cancer patients, we explored the unintended consequences that might occur in fish exposed to these chemicals through wastewater discharge into the aquatic environment. Unlike mammals, fish have two isoforms of aromatase, one that predominates in the ovary (cyp19a1a) and a second (cyp19a1b) that prevails in the brain. Aromatase activity in fish brain can be 100 to 1000 times that in mammals and is associated with reproduction. We have developed a <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOP for inhibition of brain aromatase in fish leading to reproductive dysfunction based on review of relevant literature and reproductive experiments with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) exposed to aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals in the laboratory. The first KE in this AOP is a decrease in brain aromatase activity due to exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. KEs then progress through subsequent steps including decreas</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22461425"><span>Mechanosensory neurons, cutaneous mechanoreceptors, and <span class="hlt">putative</span> mechanoproteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Del Valle, M E; Cobo, T; Cobo, J L; Vega, J A</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The mammalian skin has developed sensory structures (mechanoreceptors) that are responsible for different modalities of mechanosensitivity like touch, vibration, and pressure sensation. These specialized sensory organs are anatomically and functionally connected to a special subset of sensory neurons called mechanosensory neurons, which electrophysiologically correspond with Aβ fibers. Although mechanosensory neurons and cutaneous mechanoreceptors are rather well known, the biology of the sense of touch still remains poorly understood. Basically, the process of mechanosensitivity requires the conversion of a mechanical stimulus into an electrical signal through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. These ion channels belong primarily to the family of the degenerin/epithelium sodium channels, especially the subfamily acid-sensing ion channels, and to the family of transient receptor potential channels. This review compiles the current knowledge on the occurrence of <span class="hlt">putative</span> mechanoproteins in mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors, as well as the involvement of these proteins on the biology of touch. Furthermore, we include a section about what the knock-out mice for mechanoproteins are teaching us. Finally, the possibilities for mechanotransduction in mechanoreceptors, and the common involvement of the ion channels, extracellular membrane, and cytoskeleton, are revisited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/13/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/13/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=335807&keyword=chemical%20safety&subject=chemical%20safety%20research&showcriteria=2&datebeginpublishedpresented=03/13/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=03/13/2017&sortby=pubdateyear&"><span><span class="hlt">PUTATIVE</span> ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY FOR INHIBITON ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) provides a framework for organizing knowledge to define links between a molecular initiating event (MIE) and an adverse outcome (AO) occurring at a higher level of biological organization, such as the individual or population. The AOP framework proceeds from a general (e.g., not chemical specific) molecular mode of action, designated as a MIE, through stepwise changes in biological status, defined as key events (KEs), to a final AO that can be used in risk assessment. Because aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals are widely used to treat breast cancer patients, we explored the unintended consequences that might occur in fish exposed to these chemicals through wastewater discharge into the aquatic environment. Unlike mammals, fish have two isoforms of aromatase, one that predominates in the ovary (cyp19a1a) and a second (cyp19a1b) that prevails in the brain. Aromatase activity in fish brain can be 100 to 1000 times that in mammals and is associated with reproduction. We have developed a <span class="hlt">putative</span> AOP for inhibition of brain aromatase in fish leading to reproductive dysfunction based on review of relevant literature and reproductive experiments with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) exposed to aromatase-inhibiting pharmaceuticals in the laboratory. The first KE in this AOP is a decrease in brain aromatase activity due to exposure to an aromatase inhibitor. KEs then progress through subsequent steps including decreas</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3996290','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3996290"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> Bronchopulmonary Flagellated Protozoa in Immunosuppressed Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Çelik, Pınar; Özbilgin, Ahmet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be “flagellated protozoa” have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these <span class="hlt">putative</span> protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells. PMID:24804259</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24804259','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24804259"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa in immunosuppressed patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kilimcioglu, Ali Ahmet; Havlucu, Yavuz; Girginkardesler, Nogay; Celik, Pınar; Yereli, Kor; Özbilgin, Ahmet</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Flagellated protozoa that cause bronchopulmonary symptoms in humans are commonly neglected. These protozoal forms which were presumed to be "flagellated protozoa" have been previously identified in immunosuppressed patients in a number of studies, but have not been certainly classified so far. Since no human cases of bronchopulmonary flagellated protozoa were reported from Turkey, we aimed to investigate these <span class="hlt">putative</span> protozoa in immunosuppressed patients who are particularly at risk of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples of 110 immunosuppressed adult patients who were admitted to the Department of Chest Diseases, Hafsa Sultan Hospital of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey, were examined in terms of parasites by light microscopy. Flagellated protozoal forms were detected in nine (8.2%) of 110 cases. Metronidazole (500 mg b.i.d. for 30 days) was given to all positive cases and a second bronchoscopy was performed at the end of the treatment, which revealed no parasites. In conclusion, immunosuppressed patients with bronchopulmonary symptoms should attentively be examined with regard to flagellated protozoa which can easily be misidentified as epithelial cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3389007','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3389007"><span>Cryptic Species in <span class="hlt">Putative</span> Ancient Asexual Darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schön, Isa; Pinto, Ricardo L.; Halse, Stuart; Smith, Alison J.; Martens, Koen; Birky, C. William</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Fully asexually reproducing taxa lack outcrossing. Hence, the classic Biological Species Concept cannot be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings We used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear ITS2 region to check species boundaries according to the evolutionary genetic (EG) species concept in five morphospecies in the <span class="hlt">putative</span> ancient asexual ostracod genera, Penthesilenula and Darwinula, from different continents. We applied two methods for detecting cryptic species, namely the K/θ method and the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC). We could confirm the existence of species in all five darwinulid morphospecies and additional cryptic diversity in three morphospecies, namely in Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Darwinula stevensoni and in P. aotearoa. The number of cryptic species within one morphospecies varied between seven (P. brasiliensis), five to six (D. stevensoni) and two (P. aotearoa), respectively, depending on the method used. Cryptic species mainly followed continental distributions. We also found evidence for coexistence at the local scale for Brazilian cryptic species of P. brasiliensis and P. aotearoa. Our ITS2 data confirmed that species exist in darwinulids but detected far less EG species, namely two to three cryptic species in P. brasiliensis and no cryptic species at all in the other darwinulid morphospecies. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly demonstrate that both species and cryptic diversity can be recognized in <span class="hlt">putative</span> ancient asexual ostracods using the EG species concept, and that COI data are more suitable than ITS2 for this purpose. The discovery of up to eight cryptic species within a single morphospecies will significantly increase estimates of biodiversity in this asexual ostracod <span class="hlt">group</span>. Which factors, other than long-term geographic isolation, are important for speciation processes in these ancient asexuals remains to be investigated. PMID:22802945</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17493680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17493680"><span>Genotoxic biomonitoring study of population residing in pesticide contaminated regions in Göksu Delta: micronucleus, chromosomal aberrations and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ergene, Serap; Celik, Ayla; Cavaş, Tolga; Kaya, Filiz</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Pesticides are widely used throughout the world in agriculture to protect crops and in public health to control diseases. Nevertheless, exposure to pesticides represents a potential risk to humans. This paper describes a study of possible genetic damage in the people living in regions contaminated with complex mixture of pesticides in Göksu Delta. In this study, used methods were chromosomal aberration (CA), <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis (SCE) in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, and micronucleus (MN) assay in the buccal epithelial cells. In the present investigation, 32 affected subjects consist of 16 smoking and 16 non-smokings and an equal number of control subjects were assessed for genome damage. Micronucleus (MN), Broken egg (BE), Karyorrhexis (KR), Karyolysis (KL) and Binucleus (BN) frequencies were higher in affected subjects than in controls. Smoking had a statistically significant effect on the Micronucleus, Karyorrhexis and Binucleus frequencies for both the control and the exposed <span class="hlt">group</span>. Also smoking and exposure affected the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberrations compared with control <span class="hlt">groups</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446266"><span>Getting SaaS-y. Why the <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of Mercy Health System opted for on-demand portfolio management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carter, Jay</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sisters</span> of Mercy Health System chose the SaaS model as a simpler way to plan, execute, and monitor strategic business initiatives. It also provided something that was easy to use and offered quick time to value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23122964"><span>Cyclin A2 is required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation, but not separase control, in mouse oocyte meiosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Touati, Sandra A; Cladière, Damien; Lister, Lisa M; Leontiou, Ioanna; Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Rattani, Ahmed; Böttger, Franziska; Stemmann, Olaf; Nasmyth, Kim; Herbert, Mary; Wassmann, Katja</p> <p>2012-11-29</p> <p>In meiosis, two specialized cell divisions allow the separation of paired chromosomes first, then of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. Separase removes the cohesin complex holding <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together in a stepwise manner from chromosome arms in meiosis I, then from the centromere region in meiosis II. Using mouse oocytes, our study reveals that cyclin A2 promotes entry into meiosis, as well as an additional unexpected role; namely, its requirement for separase-dependent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation in meiosis II. Untimely cyclin A2-associated kinase activity in meiosis I leads to precocious <span class="hlt">sister</span> separation, whereas inhibition of cyclin A2 in meiosis II prevents it. Accordingly, endogenous cyclin A is localized to kinetochores throughout meiosis II, but not in anaphase I. Additionally, we found that cyclin B1, but not cyclin A2, inhibits separase in meiosis I. These findings indicate that separase-dependent cohesin removal is differentially regulated by cyclin B1 and A2 in mammalian meiosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=312743','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=312743"><span>SWITCH1 (SWI1): a novel protein required for the establishment of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion and for bivalent formation at meiosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mercier, Raphaël; Vezon, Daniel; Bullier, Erika; Motamayor, Juan C.; Sellier, Aurélie; Lefèvre, François; Pelletier, Georges; Horlow, Christine</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>We have characterized a new gene, SWI1, involved in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion during both male and female meiosis in Arabidopsis thaliana. A first allele, swi1.1, was obtained as a T-DNA tagged mutant and was described previously as abnormal exclusively in female meiosis. We have isolated a new allele, swi1.2, which is defective for both male and female meiosis. In swi1.2 male meiosis, the classical steps of prophase were not observed, especially because homologs do not synapse. Chromatid arms and centromeres lost their cohesion in a stepwise manner before metaphase I, and 20 chromatids instead of five bivalents were seen at the metaphase plate, which was followed by an aberrant segregation. In contrast, swi1.2 female meiocytes performed a mitotic-like division instead of meiosis, indicating a distinct role for SWI1 or a different effect of the loss of SWI1 function in both processes. The SWI1 gene was cloned; the <span class="hlt">putative</span> SWI1 protein did not show strong similarity to any known protein. Plants transformed with a SWI1–GFP fusion indicated that SWI1 protein is present in meiocyte nuclei, before meiosis and at a very early stage of prophase. Thus, SWI1 appears to be a novel protein involved in chromatid cohesion establishment and in chromosome structure during meiosis, but with clear differences between male and female meiosis. PMID:11459834</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470669','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1470669"><span>Chl1p, a DNA helicase-like protein in budding yeast, functions in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Skibbens, Robert V</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>From the time of DNA replication until anaphase onset, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids remain tightly paired along their length. Ctf7p/Eco1p is essential to establish <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid pairing during S-phase and associates with DNA replication components. DNA helicases precede the DNA replication fork and thus will first encounter chromatin sites destined for cohesion. In this study, I provide the first evidence that a DNA helicase is required for proper <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Characterizations of chl1 mutant cells reveal that CHL1 interacts genetically with both CTF7/ECO1 and CTF18/CHL12, two genes that function in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Consistent with genetic interactions, Chl1p physically associates with Ctf7p/Eco1p both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, a functional assay reveals that Chl1p is critical for <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion. Within the budding yeast genome, Chl1p exhibits the highest degree of sequence similarity to human CHL1 isoforms and BACH1. Previous studies revealed that human CHLR1 exhibits DNA helicase-like activities and that BACH1 is a helicase-like protein that associates with the tumor suppressor BRCA1 to maintain genome integrity. Our findings document a novel role for Chl1p in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion and provide new insights into the possible mechanisms through which DNA helicases may contribute to cancer progression when mutated. PMID:15020404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6661008','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6661008"><span>Effects of radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberrations and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.; Moore, D.H.; Varela, M.</p> <p>1983-04-01</p> <p>Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects of low levels of radioactivity because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration (CA) and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation exposure regimes. <span class="hlt">Groups</span> of 100 larvae were exposed to either x rays delivered at high dose rates (0.7 Gy min/sup -1/) or to /sup 60/Co gamma rays delivered at low dose rates (4.8 X 10/sup -5/ to 1.2 X 10/sup -1/ Gy h/sup -1/). After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 X 10/sup -5/M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (/sup 60/Co-irradiated larvae). Slides of larval cells were prepared for observation of CAs and SCEs. Frequencies of CAs were determined in first division cells; frequencies of SCEs were determined in second division cells. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but an x-ray dose greater than or equal to 2 Gy was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving /sup 60/Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies; a significant increase in SCE frequency was observed at 0.6 Gy. 49 references, 2 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657871','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2657871"><span>Dietary behaviors and portion sizes of Black women who enrolled in <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk and variation by demographic characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objective To describe the dietary behaviors of Black women who enrolled in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk weight control study. Design Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting Boston, MA and surrounding areas. Participants A total of 461 Black women completed the baseline. Variables Measured Measured height and weight; self reported demographics, risk factors, and dietary variables including fat-related eating behaviors, food portion size, fruit, vegetable, and beverage intake. Analysis Descriptive analyses for demographic, risk factors and dietary variables; ANOVA models with Food Habits Questionnaire (FHQ) scores as the dependent variable and demographic categories as the independent variables; ANOVA models with individual FHQ item scores as the dependent variable, and ethnic identification as the independent variable. Results The data indicate a low prevalence of many fat lowering behaviors. More than 60% reported eating less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Self-reported portion sizes were large for most foods. Older age, being born outside the US, living without children and being retired were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of fat-lowering behaviors. The frequency of specific fat-lowering behaviors and portion size also differed by ethnic identification. Conclusions and Implications The findings support the need for culturally appropriate interventions to improve the dietary intake of Black Americans. Further studies should examine the dietary habits, food preparation methods and portion sizes of diverse <span class="hlt">groups</span> of Black women and how such habits may differ by demographics. PMID:19161918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6170651','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6170651"><span>Hypersensitivity to mutation and <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid-exchange induction in CHO cell mutants defective in incising DNA containing UV lesions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thompson, L.H.; Brookman, K.W.; Dillehay, L.E.; Mooney, C.L.; Carrano, A.V.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Five UV-sensitive mutant strains of CHO cells representing different genetic complementation <span class="hlt">groups</span> were analyzed for their ability to perform the incision step of nucleotide excision repair after UV exposure. The assay utilized inhibitors of DNA synthesis to accumulate the short-lived strand breaks resulting from repair incisions. After 6 J/m/sup 2/, each of the mutants showed < 10% of the incision rate of the parental AA8 cells. After 50 J/m/sup 2/, the rate in AA8 was similar to that at 6 J/m/sup 2/, but the rates in the mutants were significantly higher (approx. 20% of the rate of AA8). Thus by this incision assay the mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable. Each of the mutants were hypersensitive to mutation induction at both the hprt and aprt loci by a factor of 10, and in the one strain tested ouabain resistance was induced sevenfold more efficiently than in AA8 cells. <span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange was also induced with sevenfold increased efficiency in the two mutant strains examined. Thus, here CHO mutants resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells in terms of their incision defects and their hypersensitivity to DNA damage by UV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036940','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3036940"><span>Karyotype and genome size of Iberochondrostoma almacai (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) and comparison with the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-species I.lusitanicum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study aimed to define the karyotype of the recently described Iberian endemic Iberochondrostoma almacai, to revisit the previously documented chromosome polymorphisms of its <span class="hlt">sister</span> species I.lusitanicum using C-, Ag-/CMA3 and RE-banding, and to compare the two species genome sizes. A 2n = 50 karyotype (with the exception of a triploid I.lusitanicum specimen) and a corresponding haploid chromosome formula of 7M:15SM:3A (FN = 94) were found. Multiple NORs were observed in both species (in two submetacentric chromosome pairs, one of them clearly homologous) and a higher intra and interpopulational variability was evidenced in I.lusitanicum. Flow cytometry measurements of nuclear DNA content showed some significant differences in genome size both between and within species: the genome of I. almacai was smaller than that of I.lusitanicum (mean values 2.61 and 2.93 pg, respectively), which presented a clear interpopulational variability (mean values ranging from 2.72 to 3.00 pg). These data allowed the distinction of both taxa and confirmed the existence of two well differentiated <span class="hlt">groups</span> within I. lusitanicum: one that includes the populations from the right bank of the Tejo and Samarra drainages, and another that reunites the southern populations. The peculiar differences between the two species, presently listed as “Critically Endangered”, reinforced the importance of this study for future conservation plans. PMID:21637679</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484498','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1484498"><span>Metazoan Scc4 Homologs Link <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion to Cell and Axon Migration Guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seitan, Vlad C; Banks, Peter; Laval, Steve; Majid, Nazia A; Dorsett, Dale; Rana, Amer; Smith, Jim; Bateman, Alex; Krpic, Sanja; Hostert, Arnd; Rollins, Robert A; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Benard, Claire Y; Hekimi, Siegfried; Newbury, Sarah F</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Saccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside certain fungi. Some metazoan orthologs of Scc2 were initially identified as developmental gene regulators, such as Drosophila Nipped-B, a regulator of cut and Ultrabithorax, and delangin, a protein mutant in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. We show that delangin and Nipped-B bind previously unstudied human and fly orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans MAU-2, a non-axis-specific guidance factor for migrating cells and axons. PSI-BLAST shows that Scc4 is evolutionarily related to metazoan MAU-2 sequences, with the greatest homology evident in a short N-terminal domain, and protein–protein interaction studies map the site of interaction between delangin and human MAU-2 to the N-terminal regions of both proteins. Short interfering RNA knockdown of human MAU-2 in HeLa cells resulted in precocious <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and in impaired loading of cohesin onto chromatin, indicating that it is functionally related to Scc4, and RNAi analyses show that MAU-2 regulates chromosome segregation in C. elegans embryos. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knock down Xenopus tropicalis delangin or MAU-2 in early embryos produced similar patterns of retarded growth and developmental defects. Our data show that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in metazoans involves the formation of a complex similar to the Scc2-Scc4 interaction in the budding yeast. The very high degree of sequence conservation between Scc4 homologs in complex metazoans is consistent with increased selection pressure to conserve additional essential functions, such as regulation of cell and axon migration during development. PMID:16802858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5360625','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5360625"><span>A brother and <span class="hlt">sister</span> with breast cancer, BRCA2 mutations and bilateral supernumerary nipples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coad, Ryan</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We describe a 54-year-old man with breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation who was also found to have bilateral supernumerary nipples. His <span class="hlt">sister</span>, also with a BRCA2 mutation, was diagnosed with breast cancer in her late forties; she also had bilateral supernumerary nipples. We address the significance of breast cancer arising in breast tissue underlying supernumerary nipples; the known association between supernumerary nipples and genitourinary malignancies/malformations and the possible link between BRCA2 and supernumerary nipple development. We believe that this is the first described case of the latter. We then outline an approach to further management for supernumerary nipple cases. PMID:28361071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16737839','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16737839"><span>Three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with very-late-onset major depression and parkinsonism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sechi, GianPietro; Antonio Cocco, Giovanni; Errigo, Alessandra; Deiana, Luca; Rosati, Giulio; Agnetti, Virgilio; Stephen Paulus, Kay; Mario Pes, Giovanni</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Familiar Parkinson's disease has an age of onset from the second to the sixth decade, whereas Wilson's disease (WD) usually presents in the first decade of life. We studied three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with a form of very-late-onset major depression and parkinsonism with probable linkage to ATP7B gene. Molecular studies demonstrated a nucleotide deletion at the 5'UTR region in a single allele of ATP7B gene. They did not have a family history of WD, or markers indicative for copper deposition in peripheral tissues. We suggest that single allele mutations of ATP7B gene may confer a susceptibility for late-onset major depression and parkinsonism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/58452','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/58452"><span>Geologic map of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness, Deschutes, Lane, and Linn counties, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Taylor, E.M.; MacLeod, N.S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Walker, G.W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of a geologic survey of the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> Wilderness, Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Deschutes, Lane and Linn Counties, Oregon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401907"><span>Dark three-<span class="hlt">sister</span> rogue waves in normally dispersive optical fibers with random birefringence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Shihua; Soto-Crespo, Jose M; Grelu, Philippe</p> <p>2014-11-03</p> <p>We investigate dark rogue wave dynamics in normally dispersive birefringent optical fibers, based on the exact rational solutions of the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Analytical solutions are derived up to the second order via a nonrecursive Darboux transformation method. Vector dark "three-<span class="hlt">sister</span>" rogue waves as well as their existence conditions are demonstrated. The robustness against small perturbations is numerically confirmed in spite of the onset of modulational instability, offering the possibility to observe such extreme events in normal optical fibers with random birefringence, or in other Manakov-type vector nonlinear media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254004','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254004"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange analysis to monitor genotoxic chemicals. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-04-01</p> <p>The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis for toxicological studies. SCE analysis are very sensitive measures of genotoxic damage to chromosomes. SCE toxicological studies analyzing ionizing radiation, chromium compounds, styrene, paint thinner, mercury, cigarette smoke, coal dust, fuel oil, insecticides, ethylene oxide, diesel exhaust, and polychlorinated biphenyls are discussed. SCE studies using both human and animal tissue cultures are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261041','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3261041"><span>Resurrection of the genus Staphisagria J. Hill, <span class="hlt">sister</span> to all the other Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jabbour, Florian; Renner, Susanne S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Molecular sequence data show that the three species oDelphinium subg. Staphisagria (J. Hill) Peterm. form the <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to Aconitum L., Aconitella SpachConsolida (DC.) S.F. Gray, and all remaining species of Delphinium L. To account for this finding we resurrect Staphisagria J. Hill (1756). Names in Staphisagria are available for two of the species. We here make the required new combination for the third species, Staphisagria picta (Willd.) F. Jabbour, provide a key to the species, and illustrate one of them. PMID:22287922</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23395177"><span>Shigella strains are not clones of Escherichia coli but <span class="hlt">sister</span> species in the genus Escherichia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form <span class="hlt">sister</span> species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. In view of the overall success and high resolution power of the CVTree approach, this result should be taken seriously. We hope that the present report may promote further in-depth study of the Shigella-E. coli relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263285','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=263285"><span>Bacteriological study of periodontal lesions in two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with juvenile periodontitis and their mother.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Okuda, K; Naito, Y; Ohta, K; Fukumoto, Y; Kimura, Y; Ishikawa, I; Kinoshita, S; Takazoe, I</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A total of five bacteriological samples from the periodontal pockets of two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with localized juvenile periodontitis and their mother with advanced periodontitis was studied. Gram-negative anaerobic rods were predominant in the samples. Bacteroides intermedius and Bacteroides loescheii were the most predominant species. The antigenicity and bacteriocinogenicity of these isolates were quite similar. Serum immunoglobulin G antibody levels of the subjects to gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria were measured by using the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of antibodies to saccharolytic black-pigmented Bacteroides species were significantly higher than the levels in healthy young females. Images PMID:6429040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3442830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3442830"><span>Indirect intergenic suppression of a radiosensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora defective in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesiveness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huynh, A D; Leblon, G; Zickler, D</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Six ultra violet (UV) mutageneses were performed on the spo76 UV-sensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora. Spo76 shows an early centromere cleavage associated with an arrest at the first meiotic division and therefore does not form ascospores. Moreover, it exhibits altered pairing structure (synaptonemal complex), revealing a defect in the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesiveness. From 37 revertants which partially restored sporulation, 34 extragenic suppressors of spo76 were isolated. All suppressors are altered in chromosomal pairing but, unlike spo76, show a wild type centromere cleavage. The 34 suppressors were assigned to six different genes and mapped. Only one of the suppressor genes is involved in repair functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12516290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12516290"><span>[Partial lipodystrophy in two HLA identical <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with hypocomplementemia and nephropathy].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peces, R</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Partial lipodystrophy is a rare disorder with both autosomal recessive and familial forms. The cutaneous findings, which are often subtle, consist of gradual loss of subcutaneous fat from the face and upper body. Low levels of C3 and the presence of C3NeF help to identify these patients. Associated systemic abnormalities include the development of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, insulin resistance and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. We report here two HLA identical <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with the typical features of partial lipodystrophy associated with recurrent infections, low levels of C3, and nephropathy. Our data suggest an autosomal recessive transmission. We discuss the genetic and molecular basis of this rare association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/254378"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with clinical diagnosis of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: Is the condition in the family autosomal recessive?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kondoh, T.; Hayashi, K.; Matsumoto, T.</p> <p>1995-10-09</p> <p>We report two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> in a family representing manifestations of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), an X-linked immunodeficiency disorder. An elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> had suffered from recurrent infections, small thrombocytopenic petechiae, purpura, and eczema for 7 years. The younger <span class="hlt">sister</span> had the same manifestations as the elder <span class="hlt">sister`s</span> for a 2-year period, and died of intracranial bleeding at age 2 years. All the laboratory data of the two patients were compatible with WAS, although they were females. Sialophorin analysis with the selective radioactive labeling method of this protein revealed that in the elder <span class="hlt">sister</span> a 115-KD band that should be specific for sialophorin was reduced in quantity, and instead an additional 135-KD fragment was present as a main band. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the sialophorin gene and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the PCR product demonstrated that there were no detectable size-change nor electrophoretic mobility change in the DNA from both patients. The results indicated that their sialophorin gene structure might be normal. Studies on the mother-daughter transmission of X chromosome using a pERT84-MaeIII polymorphic marker mapped at Xp21 and HPRT gene polymorphism at Xq26 suggested that each <span class="hlt">sister</span> had inherited a different X chromosome from the mother. Two explanations are plausible for the occurrence of the WAS in our patients: the WAS in the patients is attributable to an autosomal gene mutation which may regulate the sialophorin gene expression through the WAS gene, or, alternatively, the condition in this family is an autosomal recessive disorder separated etiologically from the X-linked WAS. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25284666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25284666"><span>Comparison of the structure and musculature of male terminalia in the tribe Cidariini Duponchel (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) once again throws into doubt a <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship with the Xanthorhoini.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, Olga</p> <p>2014-08-25</p> <p>The structure and musculature of the male terminalia are described and illustrated in 11 genera of the tribe Cidariini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae) from the Holarctic and Oriental regions. Nine genital muscles were identified: m1, m2(10), m3(2), m4, m5(7), m6(5), m7(6), m8(3) and m21. Variation in the insertion of the muscles m1, m3(2), m4, m5(7), m6(5) and m8(3) on the sclerites in several generic <span class="hlt">groups</span> of the tribe Cidariini is discussed, revealing that the Thera species <span class="hlt">group</span> does not share some apparently cidariine characters. A comparative analysis of the musculature in the tribes Cidariini and Xanthorhoini questions the <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship of these tribes that was suggested by earlier studies. The application of the terms 'anellus lobes' and 'labides' is discussed. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908451','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4908451"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Little is known about herpesvirus and <span class="hlt">putative</span> periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between <span class="hlt">putative</span> periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six <span class="hlt">putative</span> periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two <span class="hlt">groups</span> (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two <span class="hlt">groups</span> (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case <span class="hlt">group</span> than in the control <span class="hlt">group</span> (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women. PMID:27301874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15299523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15299523"><span>Conformational study of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> HLTV-1 retroviral protease inhibitor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Llido, S; d'Estaintot, B L; Dautant, A; Geoffre, S; Picard, P; Precigoux, G</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p>The crystal structure of prolyl-glutaminyl-valyl-statyl-alanyl-leucine (Pro-Gln-Val-Sta-Ala-Leu, C(32)H(57)N(7)0(9).5H(2)0, M(r) = 683.9 + 90.1), a <span class="hlt">putative</span> HTLV-1 protease inhibitor based on one of the consensus retroviral protease cleavage sequences, and containing the statine residue [(4S,3S)-4-amino-3-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoic acid], has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The same molecule has been modelled in the active site of the HTLV-1 protease and both conformations have been compared. The peptide crystallizes as a pentahydrate in space <span class="hlt">group</span> P2(1) with a = 10.874(2), b = 9.501(2), c = 21.062(5) A, beta = 103.68 (1) degrees, Z = 2, V= 2114.3 A(3), D(x) = 1.21 g cm(-3), micro = 8.02 cm(-1), T= 293 K, lambda(Cu Kalpha) = 1.5418 A. The structure has been refined to an R value of 0.070 for 2152 observed reflections. The peptide main chain can be described as extended and adopts the usual zigzag conformation from the prolyl to the statyl residue. The main difference in conformation between the individual observed and modelled molecules is located on the Sta, Ala and Leu residues with the main chain of the modelled molecule rotated by about 180 degrees as compared to the observed conformation in the crystal state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27020162"><span>Phytophthora infestans specific phosphorylation patterns and new <span class="hlt">putative</span> control targets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frades, Itziar; Andreasson, Erik</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study we applied biomathematical searches of gene regulatory mechanisms to learn more about oomycete biology and to identify new <span class="hlt">putative</span> targets for pesticides or biological control against Phytophthora infestans. First, oomycete phylum-specific phosphorylation motifs were found by discriminative n-gram analysis. We found 11.600 P. infestans specific n-grams, mapping 642 phosphoproteins. The most abundant <span class="hlt">group</span> among these related to phosphatidylinositol metabolism. Due to the large number of possible targets found and our hypothesis that multi-level control is a sign of usefulness as targets for intervention, we identified overlapping targets with a second screen. This was performed to identify proteins dually regulated by small RNA and phosphorylation. We found 164 proteins to be regulated by both sRNA and phosphorylation and the dominating functions where phosphatidylinositol signalling/metabolism, endocytosis, and autophagy. Furthermore we performed a similar regulatory study and discriminative n-gram analysis of proteins with no clear orthologs in other species and proteins that are known to be unique to P. infestans such as the RxLR effectors, Crinkler (CRN) proteins and elicitins. We identified CRN proteins with specific phospho-motifs present in all life stages. PITG_12626, PITG_14042 and PITG_23175 are CRN proteins that have species-specific phosphorylation motifs and are subject to dual regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24971804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24971804"><span>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> corticosteroid hormone in Pacific lamprey, Entosphenus tridentatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rai, Satbir; Szeitz, András; Roberts, Brent W; Christie, Quill; Didier, Wesley; Eom, Junho; Yun, Sang-Seon; Close, David A</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Great efforts have been put forth to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress response in vertebrates and demonstrate the conserved response across different vertebrate <span class="hlt">groups</span>, ranging from similarities in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to the release and role of corticosteroids. There is however, still very little known about stress physiology in the Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), descendants of the earliest vertebrate lineage, the agnathans. In this paper we demonstrate that 11-deoxycortisol, a steroid precursor to cortisol in the steroidogenic pathway, may be a functional corticosteroid in Pacific lamprey. We identified the <span class="hlt">putative</span> hormone in Pacific lamprey plasma by employing an array of methods such as RIA, HPLC and mass spectrometry analysis. We demonstrated that plasma levels of 11-deoxycortisol significantly increased in Pacific lamprey 0.5 and 1 h after stress exposure and that lamprey corticotropin releasing hormone injections increased circulating levels of 11-deoxycortisol, suggesting that the stress response is under the control of the HPA/I axis as it is in higher vertebrates. A comprehensive understanding of vertebrate stress physiology may help shed light on the evolution of the corticosteroid signaling system within the vertebrate lineage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966462"><span>Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Paramyxovirus Representative of <span class="hlt">Putative</span> New Serotype 13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goraichuk, Iryna; Sharma, Poonam; Stegniy, Borys; Muzyka, Denys; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Gerilovych, Anton; Solodiankin, Olexii; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virus of a <span class="hlt">putative</span> new serotype of avian paramyxovirus (APMV). The virus was isolated from a white-fronted goose in Ukraine in 2011 and designated white-fronted goose/Ukraine/Askania-Nova/48-15-02/2011. The genomic characterization of the isolate suggests that it represents the novel avian paramyxovirus <span class="hlt">group</span> APMV 13. PMID:27469958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25469872"><span>Different parasite faunas in sympatric populations of <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species in a secondary contact zone.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pfäffle, Miriam; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Hulva, Pavel; Petney, Trevor</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5025379','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5025379"><span>Origins of dacite and rhyodacite of the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> magmatic system, central high Cascades, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, J.D.; Parker, D.F. )</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>A gap from 66 to 72 weight percent silica (48--62 ppm Rb) separates dacite from rhyodacite of the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> system. The authors results indicate that rhyodacite can not be produced by fractional crystallization from dacite. Variation among rhyodacite and associated rhyolite is, however, most likely the result of fractional crystallization, in agreement with previous studies. Dacite in the South <span class="hlt">Sister</span> system probably had multiple origins, as suggested by trace element plots for Y, Nb and Zr. Some dacite was produced by fractional crystallization from andesitic magmas, while others were largely the result of mixing between andesite and rhyodacite. Mafic enclaves occurring in dacite are compositional similar to Holocene basalt, and their mixing with dacitic magma may have triggered eruptions, but they are probably not directly related genetically to their host rocks. The rhyodacites are probably crustal melts. Previous workers have suggested high-level melting of hypabyssal silicic plutons or amphibolite sources for the rhyodacites. The authors suggest melting of granitic plutonic sources, similar to those exposed in the Klamath Mountains, for the origin of the rhyodacites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4254975','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4254975"><span>Different Parasite Faunas in Sympatric Populations of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Hedgehog Species in a Secondary Contact Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pfäffle, Miriam; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora; Hulva, Pavel; Petney, Trevor</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Providing descriptive data on parasite diversity and load in <span class="hlt">sister</span> species is a first step in addressing the role of host-parasite coevolution in the speciation process. In this study we compare the parasite faunas of the closely related hedgehog species Erinaceus europaeus and E. roumanicus from the Czech Republic where both occur in limited sympatry. We examined 109 hedgehogs from 21 localities within this secondary contact zone. Three species of ectoparasites and nine species of endoparasites were recorded. Significantly higher abundances and prevalences were found for Capillaria spp. and Brachylaemus erinacei in E. europaeus compared to E. roumanicus and higher mean infection rates and prevalences for Hymenolepis erinacei, Physaloptera clausa and Nephridiorhynchus major in E. roumanicus compared to E. europaeus. Divergence in the composition of the parasite fauna, except for Capillaria spp., which seem to be very unspecific, may be related to the complicated demography of their hosts connected with Pleistocene climate oscillations and consequent range dynamics. The fact that all parasite species with different abundances in E. europaeus and E. roumanicus belong to intestinal forms indicates a possible diversification of trophic niches between both <span class="hlt">sister</span> hedgehog species. PMID:25469872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22987150"><span>Understanding the origins of UV-induced recombination through manipulation of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Covo, Shay; Ma, Wenjian; Westmoreland, James W; Gordenin, Dmitry A; Resnick, Michael A</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet light (UV) can provoke genome instability, partly through its ability to induce homologous recombination (HR). However, the mechanism(s) of UV-induced recombination is poorly understood. Although double-strand breaks (DSBs) have been invoked, there is little evidence for their generation by UV. Alternatively, single-strand DNA lesions that stall replication forks could provoke recombination. Recent findings suggest efficient initiation of UV-induced recombination in G1 through processing of closely spaced single-strand lesions to DSBs. However, other scenarios are possible, since the recombination initiated in G1 can be completed in the following stages of the cell cycle. We developed a system that could address UV-induced recombination events that start and finish in G2 by manipulating the activity of the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion complex. Here we show that <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion suppresses UV-induced recombination events that are initiated and resolved in G2. By comparing recombination frequencies and survival between UV and ionizing radiation, we conclude that a substantial portion of UV-induced recombination occurs through DSBs. This notion is supported by a direct physical observation of UV-induced DSBs that are dependent on nucleotide excision repair. However, a significant role of nonDSB intermediates in UV-induced recombination cannot be excluded.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640518','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640518"><span>A novel <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to the enterobacteria microviruses (family Microviridae) identified in methane seep sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bryson, Samuel Joseph; Thurber, Andrew R; Correa, Adrienne M S; Orphan, Victoria J; Vega Thurber, Rebecca</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Methane seep microbial communities perform a key ecosystem service by consuming the greenhouse gas methane prior to its release into the hydrosphere, minimizing the impact of marine methane sources on our climate. Although previous studies have examined the ecology and biochemistry of these communities, none has examined viral assemblages associated with these habitats. We employed virus particle purification, genome amplification, pyrosequencing and gene/genome reconstruction and annotation on two metagenomic libraries, one prepared for ssDNA and the other for all DNA, to identify the viral community in a methane seep. Similarity analysis of these libraries (raw and assembled) revealed a community dominated by phages, with a significant proportion of similarities to the Microviridae family of ssDNA phages. We define these viruses as the Eel River Basin Microviridae (ERBM). Assembly and comparison of 21 ERBM closed circular genomes identified five as members of a novel <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade to the Microvirus genus of Enterobacteria phages. Comparisons among other metagenomes and these Microviridae major-capsid sequences indicated that this clade of phages is currently unique to the Eel River Basin sediments. Given this ERBM clade's relationship to the Microviridae genus Microvirus, we define this <span class="hlt">sister</span> clade as the candidate genus Pequeñovirus. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757227','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3757227"><span>Stress-induced Condensation of Bacterial Genomes Results in Re-pairing of <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromosomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shechter, Nelia; Zaltzman, Liron; Weiner, Allon; Brumfeld, Vlad; Shimoni, Eyal; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Minsky, Abraham</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Genome condensation is increasingly recognized as a generic stress response in bacteria. To better understand the physiological implications of this response, we used fluorescent markers to locate specific sites on Escherichia coli chromosomes following exposure to cytotoxic stress. We find that stress-induced condensation proceeds through a nonrandom, zipper-like convergence of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes, which is proposed to rely on the recently demonstrated intrinsic ability of identical double-stranded DNA molecules to specifically identify each other. We further show that this convergence culminates in spatial proximity of homologous sites throughout chromosome arms. We suggest that the resulting apposition of homologous sites can explain how repair of double strand DNA breaks might occur in a mechanism that is independent of the widely accepted yet physiologically improbable genome-wide search for homologous templates. We claim that by inducing genome condensation and orderly convergence of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromosomes, diverse stress conditions prime bacteria to effectively cope with severe DNA lesions such as double strand DNA breaks. PMID:23884460</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19112184"><span>Timeless Maintains Genomic Stability and Suppresses <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Exchange during Unperturbed DNA Replication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Urtishak, Karen A; Smith, Kevin D; Chanoux, Rebecca A; Greenberg, Roger A; Johnson, F Brad; Brown, Eric J</p> <p>2009-03-27</p> <p>Genome integrity is maintained during DNA replication by coordination of various replisome-regulated processes. Although it is known that Timeless (Tim) is a replisome component that participates in replication checkpoint responses to genotoxic stress, its importance for genome maintenance during normal DNA synthesis has not been reported. Here we demonstrate that Tim reduction leads to genomic instability during unperturbed DNA replication, culminating in increased chromatid breaks and translocations (triradials, quadriradials, and fusions). Tim deficiency led to increased H2AX phosphorylation and Rad51 and Rad52 foci formation selectively during DNA synthesis and caused a 3-4-fold increase in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange. The <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange events stimulated by Tim reduction were largely mediated via a Brca2/Rad51-dependent mechanism and were additively increased by deletion of the Blm helicase. Therefore, Tim deficiency leads to an increased reliance on homologous recombination for proper continuation of DNA synthesis. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Tim in maintaining genome stability throughout normal DNA replication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3685581','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3685581"><span>Genomic basis of ecological niche divergence among cryptic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species of non-biting midges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background There is a lack of understanding the evolutionary forces driving niche segregation of closely related organisms. In addition, pinpointing the genes driving ecological divergence is a key goal in molecular ecology. Here, larval transcriptome sequences obtained by next-generation-sequencing are used to address these issues in a morphologically cryptic <span class="hlt">sister</span> species pair of non-biting midges (Chironomus riparius and C. piger). Results More than eight thousand orthologous open reading frames were screened for interspecific divergence and intraspecific polymorphisms. Despite a small mean sequence divergence of 1.53% between the <span class="hlt">sister</span> species, 25.1% of 18,115 observed amino acid substitutions were inferred by α statistics to be driven by positive selection. Applying McDonald-Kreitman tests to 715 alignments of gene orthologues identified eleven (1.5%) genes driven by positive selection. Conclusions Three candidate genes were identified as potentially responsible for the observed niche segregation concerning nitrite concentration, habitat temperature and water conductivity. Additionally, signs of positive selection in the hydrogen sulfide detoxification pathway were detected, providing a new plausible hypothesis for the species’ ecological differentiation. Finally, a divergently selected, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ribosomal protein may contribute to reproductive isolation due to cytonuclear coevolution. PMID:23758757</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3101998"><span>Transcriptome asymmetry within mouse zygotes but not between early embryonic <span class="hlt">sister</span> blastomeres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>VerMilyea, Matthew D; Maneck, Matthias; Yoshida, Naoko; Blochberger, Isabell; Suzuki, Emi; Suzuki, Toru; Spang, Rainer; Klein, Christoph A; Perry, Anthony C F</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Transcriptome regionalization is an essential polarity determinant among metazoans, directing embryonic axis formation during normal development. Although conservation of this principle in mammals is assumed, recent evidence is conflicting and it is not known whether transcriptome asymmetries exist within unfertilized mammalian eggs or between the respective cleavage products of early embryonic divisions. We here address this by comparing transcriptome profiles of paired single cells and sub-cellular structures obtained microsurgically from mouse oocytes and totipotent embryos. Paired microsurgical spindle and remnant samples from unfertilized metaphase II oocytes possessed distinguishable profiles. Fertilization produces a totipotent 1-cell embryo (zygote) and associated spindle-enriched second polar body whose paired profiles also differed, reflecting spindle transcript enrichment. However, there was no programmed transcriptome asymmetry between <span class="hlt">sister</span> cells within 2- or 3-cell embryos. Accordingly, there is transcriptome asymmetry within mouse oocytes, but not between the <span class="hlt">sister</span> blastomeres of early embryos. This work places constraints on pre-patterning in mammals and provides documentation correlating potency changes and transcriptome partitioning at the single-cell level. PMID:21468028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25366522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25366522"><span>Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis: variable phenotypic expression in three affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> from Mexican ancestry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arteaga, María E; Hunziker, Walter; Teo, Audrey S M; Hillmer, Axel M; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal disease caused by mutations in genes for the tight junction transmembrane proteins Claudin-16 (CLDN16) and Claudin-19 (CLDN19). We present the first case report of a Mexican family with three affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> carrying a p.Gly20Asp mutation in CLDN19 whose heterozygous mother showed evident hypercalciuria and normal low magnesemia without any other clinical, laboratory, and radiological symptoms of renal disease making of her an unsuitable donor. The affected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> showed variable phenotypic expression including age of first symptoms, renal urinary tract infections, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and eye symptoms consisting in retinochoroiditis, strabismus, macular scars, bilateral anisocoria, and severe myopia and astigmatism. End stage renal disease due to renal failure needed kidney transplantation in the three of them. Interesting findings were a heterozygous mother with asymptomatic hypercalciuria warning on the need of carefully explore clinical, laboratory, kidney ultrasonograpy, and mutation status in first degree asymptomatic relatives to avoid inappropriate kidney donors; an evident variable phenotypic expression among patients; the identification of a mutation almost confined to Spanish cases and a 3.5 Mb block of genomic homozygosis strongly suggesting a common remote parental ancestor for the gene mutation reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10373565"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchanges are mediated by homologous recombination in vertebrate cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sonoda, E; Sasaki, M S; Morrison, C; Yamaguchi-Iwai, Y; Takata, M; Takeda, S</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency is a commonly used index of chromosomal stability in response to environmental or genetic mutagens. However, the mechanism generating cytologically detectable SCEs and, therefore, their prognostic value for chromosomal stability in mitotic cells remain unclear. We examined the role of the highly conserved homologous recombination (HR) pathway in SCE by measuring SCE levels in HR-defective vertebrate cells. Spontaneous and mitomycin C-induced SCE levels were significantly reduced for chicken DT40 B cells lacking the key HR genes RAD51 and RAD54 but not for nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ)-defective KU70(-/-) cells. As measured by targeted integration efficiency, reconstitution of HR activity by expression of a human RAD51 transgene restored SCE levels to normal, confirming that HR is the mechanism responsible for SCE. Our findings show that HR uses the nascent <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid to repair potentially lethal DNA lesions accompanying replication, which might explain the lethality or tumorigenic potential associated with defects in HR or HR-associated proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402064','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11402064"><span>HCP-4, a CENP-C-like protein in Caenorhabditis elegans, is required for resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, L L; Roth, M B</p> <p>2001-06-11</p> <p>The centromere plays a critical role in the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In mammals, <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres are resolved from one another in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. During prophase, chromosomes condense with <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres oriented in a back to back configuration enabling only one chromatid to be captured by each half spindle. To study this process, we identified a centromere protein (CENP)-C-like protein, holocentric protein (HCP)-4, in Caenorhabditis elegans based on sequence identity, loss of function phenotype, and centromeric localization. HCP-4 is found in the cytoplasm during interphase, but is nuclear localized in mitosis, where it localizes specifically to the centromere. The localization of HCP-4 to the centromere is dependent on the centromeric histone HCP-3; in addition, HCP-3 and HCP-4 are both required for localization of a CENP-F-like protein, HCP-1, indicating an ordered assembly pathway. Loss of HCP-4 expression by RNA-mediated interference resulted in a failure to generate resolution of <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres on chromosomes, suggesting that HCP-4 is required for <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromere resolution. These chromosomes also failed to form a functional kinetochore. Thus, the CENP-C-like protein HCP-4 is essential for both resolution <span class="hlt">sister</span> centromeres and attachment to the mitotic spindle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24851802','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24851802"><span>Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and healthy controls: a retrospective study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy <span class="hlt">sisters</span> and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected <span class="hlt">sisters</span> emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23434280"><span>The PP2A inhibitor I2PP2A is essential for <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation in oocyte meiosis II.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chambon, Jean-Philippe; Touati, Sandra A; Berneau, Stéphane; Cladière, Damien; Hebras, Céline; Groeme, Rachel; McDougall, Alex; Wassmann, Katja</p> <p>2013-03-18</p> <p>Haploid gametes are generated through two consecutive meiotic divisions, with the segregation of chromosome pairs in meiosis I and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids in meiosis II. Separase-mediated stepwise removal of cohesion, first from chromosome arms and later from the centromere region, is a prerequisite for maintaining <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together until their separation in meiosis II [1]. In all model organisms, centromeric cohesin is protected from separase-dependent removal in meiosis I through the activity of PP2A-B56 phosphatase, which is recruited to centromeres by shugoshin/MEI-S332 (Sgo) [2-5]. How this protection of centromeric cohesin is removed in meiosis II is not entirely clear; we find that all the PP2A subunits remain colocalized with the cohesin subunit Rec8 at the centromere of metaphase II chromosomes. Here, we show that <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation in oocytes depends on a PP2A inhibitor, namely I2PP2A. I2PP2A colocalizes with the PP2A enzyme at centromeres at metaphase II, independently of bipolar attachment. When I2PP2A is depleted, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids fail to segregate during meiosis II. Our findings demonstrate that in oocytes I2PP2A is essential for faithful <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid segregation by mediating deprotection of centromeric cohesin in meiosis II.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27422821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27422821"><span>Opposing Functions of the N-terminal Acetyltransferases Naa50 and NatA in <span class="hlt">Sister</span>-chromatid Cohesion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rong, Ziye; Ouyang, Zhuqing; Magin, Robert S; Marmorstein, Ronen; Yu, Hongtao</p> <p>2016-09-02</p> <p>During the cell cycle, <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion tethers <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids together from S phase to the metaphase-anaphase transition and ensures accurate segregation of chromatids into daughter cells. N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent protein covalent modifications in eukaryotes and is mediated by a family of N-terminal acetyltransferases (NAT). Naa50 (also called San) has previously been shown to play a role in <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion in metazoans. The mechanism by which Naa50 contributes to cohesion is not understood however. Here, we show that depletion of Naa50 in HeLa cells weakens the interaction between cohesin and its positive regulator sororin and causes cohesion defects in S phase, consistent with a role of Naa50 in cohesion establishment. Strikingly, co-depletion of NatA, a heterodimeric NAT complex that physically interacts with Naa50, rescues the <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion defects and the resulting mitotic arrest caused by Naa50 depletion, indicating that NatA and Naa50 play antagonistic roles in cohesion. Purified recombinant NatA and Naa50 do not affect each other's NAT activity in vitro Because NatA and Naa50 exhibit distinct substrate specificity, we propose that they modify different effectors and regulate <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid cohesion in opposing ways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225848"><span>Novel HPS6 mutations identified by whole-exome sequencing in two Japanese <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with suspected ocular albinism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miyamichi, Daisuke; Asahina, Miki; Nakajima, Junya; Sato, Miho; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Nomura, Takahito; Negishi, Takashi; Miyake, Noriko; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Ogata, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Naomichi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, platelet dysfunction and ceroid deposition. We report suspected ocular albinism in two Japanese <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, caused by mutations in the HPS6 (Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6) gene. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in HPS6 (c.1898delC: mother origin and c.2038C>T: father origin) in the two <span class="hlt">sisters</span>. To date, 10 associated mutations have been detected in HPS6. Although we detected no general manifestations, including platelet dysfunction, in the <span class="hlt">sisters</span>, even in long-term follow-up, we established a diagnosis of HPS type 6 based on the HPS6 mutations and absence of dense bodies in the platelets, indicating that WES can identify cases of HPS type 6. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HPS6 mutations in Japanese patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4493748"><span>Smc5–Smc6 mediate DNA double-strand-break repair by promoting <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cortes-Ledesma, Felipe; Ira, Gregory; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Uhle, Stefan; Farmer, Sarah; Hwang, Ji-Young; Machin, Felix; Ceschia, Audrey; McAleenan, Alexandra; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta; Clemente-Blanco, Andrés; Vilella-Mitjana, Felip; Ullal, Pranav; Jarmuz, Adam; Leitao, Beatriz; Bressan, Debra; Dotiwala, Farokh; Papusha, Alma; Zhao, Xiaolan; Myung, Kyungjae; Haber, James E.; Aguilera, Andrés; Aragón, Luis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) can arise during DNA replication, or after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, and their correct repair is fundamental for cell survival and genomic stability. Here, we show that the Smc5–Smc6 complex is recruited to DSBs de novo to support their repair by homologous recombination between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids. In addition, we demonstrate that Smc5–Smc6 is necessary to suppress gross chromosomal rearrangements. Our findings show that the Smc5–Smc6 complex is essential for genome stability as it promotes repair of DSBs by error-free <span class="hlt">sister</span>-chromatid recombination (SCR), thereby suppressing inappropriate non-<span class="hlt">sister</span> recombination events. PMID:16892052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260031"><span>Siblings' experiences of their brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s cancer death: a nationwide follow-up 2-9 years later.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lövgren, Malin; Jalmsell, Li; Eilegård Wallin, Alexandra; Steineck, Gunnar; Kreicbergs, Ulrika</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to examine siblings' experiences of their brother's or <span class="hlt">sister</span>'s cancer death and if these experiences influenced levels of anxiety 2-9 years later. This nationwide survey was conducted in Sweden in 2009. All siblings who had a brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> who was diagnosed with cancer before the age of 17 years and who died before the age of 25 years during 2000-2007 were invited. Of those, 174 siblings participated (participation rate: 73%). Mixed data from the survey about the siblings' experiences of death were included as well as data from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. To examine the experiences, descriptive statistics and content analysis were used. Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to investigate if the experiences influenced anxiety 2-9 years later. The siblings reported poor knowledge and experienced a lack of communication about their brother's/<span class="hlt">sister</span>'s death, for example, about the time frame, bodily changes near death, and about their own experiences. Siblings who reported that no one talked with them about what to expect when their brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> was going to die reported higher levels of anxiety 2-9 years after the loss. Seventy percent reported that they witnessed their brother/<span class="hlt">sister</span> suffering in the last hours in life. Many of those who were not present during the illness period and at the time of death expressed regret. It is important to prepare siblings for their brother's/<span class="hlt">sister</span>'s illness and death as it may decrease anxiety and regrets later on. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JWMSE...9c..80R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JWMSE...9c..80R"><span>Improving Elementary School Girls' Attitudes, Perceptions, and Achievement in Science and Mathematics: Hindsights and New Visions of the <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science Program as AN Equity Reform Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Richardson, Greer M.; Hammrich, Penny L.; Livingston, Beverly D.</p> <p></p> <p>This article reports on the student outcomes of the 3-year <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> in Science program in its efforts to increase the achievement, attitudes, and perceptions of fourth and fifth grade girls in science and mathematics. Through a multifaceted, 2-year intervention cycle, students were exposed to gender-sensitive, constructivist, integrated mathematics and science instruction in school, after school, and during the summer months. Teachers and preservice teachers were trained in the delivery of this "prescribed" model of instruction. Science and science-related professionals mentored students as part of the after-school and Saturday academy programs. In addition, families were exposed to a variety of science- and mathematics-based experiences. Two cohort <span class="hlt">groups</span> cycled through the program during its 3 years of implementation. The participants showed increases in achievement, perceptions, and attitudes. Limitations of the program design and implementation are noted. Implications for future science and mathematics reform are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5448855"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in culture treated with 8-methoxypsoralen and long-wave UV radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>West, M.R.; Johansen, M.; Faed, M.J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The effects of 8-methoxypsoralen with long-wave ultraviolet radiation on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in culture was investigated. With a constant amount of radiation the number of exchanges increased in an approximately linear manner with increasing concentrations of 8-methoxypsoralen up to 0.3 micrograms/ml. Above this concentration there were fewer dividing cells and an apparent departure from linearity in the dose-response curve. These results show that 8-methoxypsoralen concentrations equivalent to those found in the serum of patients undergoing photochemotherapy, in conjunction with UVA radiation, cause striking increases in <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human epidermal cells in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590742','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4590742"><span>Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and Blood Pressure in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Stephanie H.; Van Hee, Victor C.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; London, Stephanie J.; Marshall, Julian D.; Sandler, Dale P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Exposure to air pollution has been consistently associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but mechanisms remain uncertain. Associations with blood pressure (BP) may help to explain the cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Objective We examined the cross-sectional relationship between long-term (annual average) residential air pollution exposure and BP in the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences’ <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study, a large U.S. cohort study investigating risk factors for breast cancer and other outcomes. Methods This analysis included 43,629 women 35–76 years of age, enrolled 2003–2009, who had a <span class="hlt">sister</span> with breast cancer. Geographic information systems contributed to satellite-based nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) predictions at participant residences at study entry. Generalized additive models were used to examine the relationship between pollutants and measured BP at study entry, adjusting for cardiovascular disease risk factors and including thin plate splines for potential spatial confounding. Results A 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 1.4-mmHg higher systolic BP (95% CI: 0.6, 2.3; p < 0.001), 1.0-mmHg higher pulse pressure (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7; p = 0.001), 0.8-mmHg higher mean arterial pressure (95% CI: 0.2, 1.4; p = 0.01), and no significant association with diastolic BP. A 10-ppb increase in NO2 was associated with a 0.4-mmHg (95% CI: 0.2, 0.6; p < 0.001) higher pulse pressure. Conclusions Long-term PM2.5 and NO2 exposures were associated with higher blood pressure. On a population scale, such air pollution–related increases in blood pressure could, in part, account for the increases in cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality seen in prior studies. Citation Chan SH, Van Hee VC, Bergen S, Szpiro AA, DeRoo LA, London SJ, Marshall JD, Kaufman JD, Sandler DP. 2015. Long-term air pollution exposure and blood pressure in the <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Study. Environ Health</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3880004','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3880004"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Methods A five <span class="hlt">group</span> design included a comparison <span class="hlt">group</span> and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. Results At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison <span class="hlt">group</span>. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention <span class="hlt">group</span>, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Conclusions Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373253','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373253"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M</p> <p>2013-12-27</p> <p>Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of <span class="hlt">Sister</span>Talk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. A five <span class="hlt">group</span> design included a comparison <span class="hlt">group</span> and a 2 × 2 factorial comparison of a) interactive vs. passive programming and b) telephone social support vs no telephone support, with 12 weekly initial cable TV programs followed by 4 monthly booster videos. At baseline, 3, 8, and 12 months post randomization, telephone and in person surveys were administered on diet, physical activity, and physical measurements of height and weight were taken to calculate body mass index (BMI). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences over time, and between treatment and comparison <span class="hlt">groups</span>. Dose variables reflecting use of the TV/video and written materials were also assessed. At 3 months, BMI, weight, and dietary fat were significantly lower and physical activity significantly higher among women exposed to the Cable TV intervention compared to the wait-list comparison <span class="hlt">group</span>. Significant dietary fat differences were still observed at 8 and 12 month evaluations, but not BMI or physical activity differences. Main effects were not observed for interactive programming or enhanced social support at any time point. Within the intervention <span class="hlt">group</span>, higher watching of the TV series and higher reading of educational materials were both (separately) associated with significantly lower dietary fat. Cable TV was an effective delivery channel to assist Black women with weight control, increasing physical activity and decreasing dietary fat during an initial intervention period, but only dietary</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23757350"><span><span class="hlt">Putative</span> risk factors in developmental dyslexia: a case-control study of Italian children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although dyslexia runs in families, several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several <span class="hlt">putative</span> risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted a case-control study of 403 Italian children, 155 with dyslexia, by implementing a stepwise logistic regression applied to the entire sample, and then to boys and girls separately. Younger parental age at child's birth, lower parental education, and risk of miscarriage significantly increased the odds of belonging to the dyslexia <span class="hlt">group</span> (19.5% of the variation). These associations were confirmed in the analyses conducted separately by sex, except for parental education, which significantly affected only males. These findings support reading disabilities as a multifactorial disorder and may bear some importance for the prevention and/or early detection of children at heightened risk for dyslexia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872193','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872193"><span>Chromosome Segregation in Budding Yeast: <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Chromatid Cohesion and Related Mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Studies on budding yeast have exposed the highly conserved mechanisms by which duplicated chromosomes are evenly distributed to daughter cells at the metaphase–anaphase transition. The establishment of proteinaceous bridges between <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatids, a function provided by a ring-shaped complex known as cohesin, is central to accurate segregation. It is the destruction of this cohesin that triggers the segregation of chromosomes following their proper attachment to microtubules. Since it is irreversible, this process must be tightly controlled and driven to completion. Furthermore, during meiosis, modifications must be put in place to allow the segregation of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the first division for gamete formation. Here, I review the pioneering work from budding yeast that has led to a molecular understanding of the establishment and destruction of cohesion. PMID:24395824</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059761"><span>Evolutionary interplay between <span class="hlt">sister</span> cytochrome P450 genes shapes plasticity in plant metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Zhenhua; Tavares, Raquel; Forsythe, Evan S.; André, François; Lugan, Raphaël; Jonasson, Gabriella; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Tohge, Takayuki; Beilstein, Mark A.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Expansion of the cytochrome P450 gene family is often proposed to have a critical role in the evolution of metabolic complexity, in particular in microorganisms, insects and plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this complexity are poorly understood. Here we describe the evolutionary history of a plant P450 retrogene, which emerged and underwent fixation in the common ancestor of Brassicales, before undergoing tandem duplication in the ancestor of Brassicaceae. Duplication leads first to gain of dual functions in one of the copies. Both <span class="hlt">sister</span> genes are retained through subsequent speciation but eventually return to a single copy in two of three diverging lineages. In the lineage in which both copies are maintained, the ancestral functions are split between paralogs and a novel function arises in the copy under relaxed selection. Our work illustrates how retrotransposition and gene duplication can favour the emergence of novel metabolic functions. PMID:27713409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181503','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6181503"><span>Normal <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequencies during growth of a transplantable murine myeloid leukemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Au, W.W.; Goldenthal, K.L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Frequencies of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) were analyzed in normal and coexisting leukemic cells harvested from the bone marrow of mice 10, 15, 18, and 21 days after transplantation of myeloid leukemic cells. These posttransplantation stages correspond to no abnormal physical or clinical symptoms (day 10) through the terminal stage of leukemia (day 21). The data indicate that the SCE frequencies in normal cells of leukemic mice did not differ from those in normal cells of normal mice. Furthermore, the frequencies in the coexisting normal and leukemic cells remained statistically constant throughout the posttransplantation period. It is concluded from this study that spontaneous cellular SCE frequencies may not be altered by the presence or growth of leukemic cells. 15 references, 1 figure, 1 table.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=548138','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=548138"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Joseph's nodule in a liver transplant recipient: Case report and mini-review of literature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Panaro, Fabrizio; Andorno, Enzo; Di Domenico, Stefano; Morelli, Nicola; Bottino, Giuliano; Mondello, Rosalia; Miggino, Marco; Jarzembowski, Tomasz M; Ravazzoni, Ferruccio; Casaccia, Marco; Valente, Umberto</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Background Umbilical metastasis is one of the main characteristic signs of extensive neoplastic disease and is universally referred to as <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule. Case presentation A 59-years-old Caucasian female underwent liver transplant for end stage liver disease due to hepatitis C with whole graft from cadaveric donor in 2003. After transplantation the patient developed multiple subcutaneous nodules in the umbilical region and bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. The excision biopsy of the umbilical mass showed the features of a poorly differentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma. Computed tomographic scan and transvaginal ultrasonography were unable to demonstrate any primary lesion. Chemotherapy was start and the dosage of the immunosuppressive drugs was reduced. To date the patient is doing well and liver function is normal. Conclusions The umbilical metastasis can arise from many sites. In some cases, primary tumor may be not identified; nonetheless chemotherapy must be administrated based on patient's history, anatomical and histological findings. PMID:15651984</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024793','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024793"><span>Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Thatcher, Wayne R.; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9491390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9491390"><span>Antimutagenic effect of crown ethers on heavy metal-induced <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, M Y; Arenaz, P</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) are a family of compounds that possess the ability to complex with and transport metal ions across membranes. Because of their unique ionophoric characteristic, they have wide application in industry and research, chemistry and biology. In the current investigation the relationship between heavy metal mutagenesis and crown ether co-mutagenicity and/or antimutagenicity in mammalian cells has been examined using <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE) as the cytogenetic end point. Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with lead or cadmium, with and without selected crown ethers. Several genotoxic end points, including SCEs were scored and statistically compared. We report here that most of the crown ethers studied had little or no influence on lead- or cadmium-induced SCEs or chromosome aberrations. On the other hand, the substituted crown ether dicyclohexyl 21-crown-7 significantly decreased both spontaneous and metal-induced SCE frequencies, suggesting that this crown ether may possess antimutagenic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24999817"><span>Characterization of thermolide biosynthetic genes and a new thermolide from <span class="hlt">sister</span> thermophilic fungi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niu, Xuemei; Chen, Li; Yue, Qun; Wang, Baile; Zhang, Junxian; Zhu, Chunyan; Zhang, Keqin; Bills, Gerald F; An, Zhiqiang</p> <p>2014-07-18</p> <p>Prior chemical analysis of obligate thermophilic fungus Talaromyces thermophilus led to the discovery of thermolides A-F, six previously undescribed members of the lactam-bearing macrolactone class. A combination of chemical screening, genome analyses, and genetic manipulation led to the identification of the thermolide biosynthetic genes from <span class="hlt">sister</span> thermophilic fungi T. thermophilus and Thermomyces lanuginosus and a new thermolide. The biosynthetic locus for the thermolides' mixed polyketide/amino acid structure encodes a hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS). Our results reveal the first fungal hybrid iterative PKS-NRPS genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacterial-like hybrid macrolactones instead of typical fungal tetramic acids-containing metabolites. The finding provides an insight into the convergent biosynthetic end products that bridge the gap between the modular and iterative PKS-NRPS hybrids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24094759"><span>[Congenital insensitivity to pain: clinical and neurophysiological study in three <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of a Moroccan family].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kissani, N; Krrati, H; Alarcon, G; Belaaidi, H; Ouazzani, R</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). This disorder is an autosomal recessive condition: since 1996, mutations attributed to this entity have been found in the neurotrophin tyrosine-kinase gene receptor on chromosome 1. The authors report 3 cases of congenital insensitivity to pain. In these 3 <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of consanguineous parents, the clinical investigation showed total absence of pain and temperature sensations with preservation of all other sensory modalities, mental retardation, but in contrast to HSAN type IV, there was no anhidrosis. The neurophysiological investigation revealed an isolated axonal sensory polyneuropathy in the 3 patients. The clinical and neurophysiological investigations were normal in both parents and the brother. The physiopathology of this entity is discussed. We suggest a particular form of HSAN type IV with preservation of transpiration or a new entity of congenital insensitivity to pain, which should be analyzed genetically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23974389"><span>Circle of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>: raising awareness of Native American women to breast cancer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chilton, Janice A; Downing, Cheryl; Lofton, Melissa; Hernandez, Mike; Allen, Beth W; Hajek, Richard A; Gor, Beverly</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>The Circle of <span class="hlt">Sisters</span> is a breast cancer education initiative that incorporates free mammography for American Indian women. In two separate but similar initiative-sponsored one-day events, 37 American Indian women underwent screening mammography and experienced a full day of culturally tailored educational activities. Women observed a cooking demonstration, participated in moderate exercise activity, strung beads to learn about the dimensions of breast tumors, and listened to an American Indian breast cancer survivor recount her story of diagnosis and treatment. Significant shifts in opinion included an increase in the understanding that a woman's chances of being diagnosed with breast cancer increase with age (p=.015) and with never bearing children (p <.001) and that breast cancer can be detected early (p=.043). The percentage of those expressing an intention to get a mammogram every year grew from 81.1% to 94.6%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917595','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917595"><span>Mouse oocytes differentiate through organelle enrichment from <span class="hlt">sister</span> cyst germ cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lei, Lei; Spradling, Allan C</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from <span class="hlt">sister</span> germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors. Membrane breakdown within the cyst and an apoptosis-like process are associated with organelle transfer into the oocyte, events reminiscent of nurse cell dumping in Drosophila We propose that cytoplasmic and organelle transport plays an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important role in mammalian oocyte differentiation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2289485','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2289485"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid separation in frog egg extracts requires DNA topoisomerase II activity during anaphase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We have produced metaphase spindles and induced them to enter anaphase in vitro. Sperm nuclei were added to frog egg extracts, allowed to replicate their DNA, and driven into metaphase by the addition of cytoplasm containing active maturation promoting factor (MPF) and cytostatic factor (CSF), an activity that stabilizes MPF. Addition of calcium induces the inactivation of MPF, <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid separation and anaphase chromosome movement. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors prevent chromosome segregation at anaphase, demonstrating that the chromatids are catenated at metaphase and that decatenation occurs at the start of anaphase. Topoisomerase II activity towards exogenous substrates does not increase at the metaphase to anaphase transition, showing that chromosome separation at anaphase is not triggered by a bulk activation of topoisomerase II. PMID:1315785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26643143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26643143"><span>PICH promotes <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid disjunction and co-operates with topoisomerase II in mitosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nielsen, Christian F; Huttner, Diana; Bizard, Anna H; Hirano, Seiki; Li, Tian-Neng; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Bjerregaard, Victoria A; Liu, Ying; Nigg, Erich A; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Hickson, Ian D</p> <p>2015-12-08</p> <p>PICH is a SNF2 family DNA translocase that binds to ultra-fine DNA bridges (UFBs) in mitosis. Numerous roles for PICH have been proposed from protein depletion experiments, but a consensus has failed to emerge. Here, we report that deletion of PICH in avian cells causes chromosome structural abnormalities, and hypersensitivity to an inhibitor of Topoisomerase II (Topo II), ICRF-193. ICRF-193-treated PICH(-/-) cells undergo <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid non-disjunction in anaphase, and frequently abort cytokinesis. PICH co-localizes with Topo IIα on UFBs and at the ribosomal DNA locus, and the timely resolution of both structures depends on the ATPase activity of PICH. Purified PICH protein strongly stimulates the catalytic activity of Topo II in vitro. Consistent with this, a human PICH(-/-) cell line exhibits chromosome instability and chromosome condensation and decatenation defects similar to those of ICRF-193-treated cells. We propose that PICH and Topo II cooperate to prevent chromosome missegregation events in mitosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542671','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542671"><span><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph nodule as the presenting sign of disseminated prostate carcinoma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deb, Prabal; Rai, Radhey Shyam; Rai, Rahul; Gupta, Ekawali; Chander, Yogesh</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> Mary Joseph's nodule is referred to as metastasis of visceral malignancy to the umbilicus. Most common primaries are in the gastrointestinal or genital tract, while other locations are rare. We recently encountered a 76-year-old male who was referred to the surgery clinic with an erythematous nodule in the umbilicus measuring 6 cm in diameter with complaints of painless profuse hematuria. History revealed severe obstructive voiding symptoms of 2-year duration, along with significant loss of weight and difficulty in walking. A detailed examination showed hard nodular hepatomegaly, along with grade IV prostatomegaly. Serum prostate-specific antigen was 3069 ng/ml. A pelvic radiograph displayed multiple osteolytic lesions, while ultrasonography showed multiple iso- and hypoechoic lesions in both lobes of the liver, suggestive of metastasis. Histopathology of a Tru-cut biopsy of the prostate confirmed an adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 9) with umbilical metastasis. The patient was on regular follow-up and died 3 months later.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26072558"><span>Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vivona, Jeanine M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the <span class="hlt">sister</span> relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5927847"><span>Absence of an ultrasound effect on in vitro lymphocyte <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brulfert, A.; Ciaravino, V.; Miller, M.W.; Carstensen, E.L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human lymphocytes cultured in vitro was not affected by a 30 min exposure to 2.25 MHz focused ultrasound beam (from a clinical diagnostic unit with a pulse repetition rate of 1000 Hz, a 1 ..mu.. sec burst duration, and a 2-200 W/cm/sup 2/ maximum intensity. A 30 sec exposure to CW 1 MHz 2 W/cm/sup 2/ (SP) ultrasound from an experimental device lysed 10-15% of the lymphocytes; there was no increase in SCEs in the survivors relative to unexposed controls. Treatment of lymphocytes with 0.033 ..mu..g/ml mitomycin-C, a known SCE inducer, increased the frequency of SCEs about 4 times above control levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393136','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=393136"><span>Tumor promoter induces <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges: relevance to mechanisms of carcinogenesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kinsella, A R; Radman, M</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a powerful tumor promoter, is shown to induce <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchanges (SCEs), whereas the nonpromoting derivative 4-O-methyl-TPA does not. Inhibitors of tumor promotion--antipain, leupeptin, and fluocinolone acetonide--inhibit formation of such TPA-induced SCEs. TPA is a unique agent in its induction of SCEs in the absence of DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, or significant toxicity. Because TPA is known to induce several gene functions, we speculate that it might also induce enzymes involved in genetic recombination. Thus, the irreversible step in tumor promotion might be the result of an aberrant mitotic segregation event leading to the expression of carcinogen/mutagen-induced recessive genetic or epigenetic chromosomal changes. Images PMID:282631</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092791','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092791"><span>Sororin pre-mRNA splicing is required for proper <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid cohesion in human cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watrin, Erwan; Demidova, Maria; Watrin, Tanguy; Hu, Zheng; Prigent, Claude</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sister</span> chromatid cohesion, which depends on cohesin, is essential for the faithful segregation of replicated chromosomes. Here, we report that splicing complex Prp19 is essential for cohesion in both G2 and mitosis, and consequently for the proper progression of the cell through mitosis. Inactivation of splicing factors SF3a120 and U2AF65 induces similar cohesion defects to Prp19 complex inactivation. Our data indicate that these splicing factors are all required for the accumulation of cohesion factor Sororin, by facilitating the proper splicing of its pre-mRNA. Finally, we show that ectopic expression of Sororin corrects defective cohesion caused by Prp19 complex inactivation. We propose that the Prp19 complex and the splicing machinery contribute to the establishment of cohesion by promoting Sororin accumulation during S phase, and are, therefore, essential to the maintenance of genome stability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26897329"><span>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> with macular dystrophy caused by the 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Gutiérrez, V; García-Montesinos, J; Pardo-Muñoz, A</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Two <span class="hlt">sisters</span> of 54 and 60years old, with a history of diabetes and deafness, consulted for decreased visual acuity (VA). Funduscopic examination revealed patchy areas of chorioretinal atrophy with annular arrangement around the fovea. Genetic study identified the heteroplasmic mutation 3243A>G in mitochondrial DNA, which supports syndrome maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) or Ballinger-Wallace disease. The finding of such macular disorders, especially in the presence of diabetes mellitus and deafness, should suggest the performing of a mitochondrial genome screening to identify this unusual syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027126','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027126"><span>A <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrid swarm within Oonopsis foliosa (Asteraceae: Astereae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hughes, J.F.; Brown, G.K.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Oo??nopsis foliosa var. foliosa and var. monocephala are endemic to short-grass steppe of southeastern Colorado and until recently were considered geographically disjunct. The only known qualitative feature separating these 2 varieties is floral head type; var. foliosa has radiate heads, whereas var. monocephala heads are discoid. Sympatry between these varieties is restricted to a small area in which a range of parental types and intermediate head morphologies is observed. We used distribution mapping, morphometric analyses, chromosome cytology, and pollen stainability to characterize the sympatric zone. Morphometrics confirms that the only discrete difference between var. foliosa and var. monocephala is radiate versus discoid heads, respectively. The outer florets of <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrid individuals ranged from conspicuously elongated yet radially symmetric disc-floret corollas, to elongated radially asymmetric bilabiate- or deeply cleft corollas, to stunted ray florets with appendages remnant of corolla lobes. Chromosome cytology of pollen mother cells from both <span class="hlt">putative</span> parental varieties and a series of intermediate morphological types collected at the sympatric zone reveal evidence of translocation heterozygosity. Pollen stainability shows no significant differences in viability between the parental varieties and <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrids. The restricted distribution of <span class="hlt">putative</span> hybrids to a narrow zone of sympatry between the parental types and the presence of meiotic chromosome-pairing anomalies in these intermediate plants are consistent with a hybrid origin. The high stainability of <span class="hlt">putative</span>-hybrid pollen adds to a growing body of evidence that hybrids are not universally unfit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534693','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534693"><span>Historical Biogeography and Diversification of Truffles in the Tuberaceae and Their Newly Identified Southern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">Sister</span> Lineage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E.; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A.; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R.; Domínguez, Laura S.; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H.; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M.; Vilgalys, Rytas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae – the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (∼156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300990"><span>Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> lineage.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere <span class="hlt">sister</span> <span class="hlt">group</span> of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7560401','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7560401"><span>Long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water and <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange frequency in human blood lymphocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Y; Liang, C K; Katz, B P; Brizendine, E J; Stookey, G K</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>The genetic toxicity of fluoride has been investigated extensively by various test systems. However, results obtained have been inconsistent. Fluoride has been reported to be non-genotoxic, genotoxic, and synergistic or antagonistic with certain mutagens. To date, there are no published human studies on the genotoxicity of fluoride. The purpose of this investigation was to determine genotoxic risks of long-term exposure to various concentrations of fluoride in drinking water in humans with normal or inadequate nutrition. Six <span class="hlt">groups</span> of subjects with either normal or inadequate nutritional intakes were selected from areas of approximately 0.2, 1.0, or 4.8 ppm (10.5, 52.6, or 252.6 mumol/L) fluoride in water. The subjects had been continuous residents in the area for at least 35 years. Samples of drinking water, plasma, and urine were analyzed for fluoride content. Blood lymphocytes were examined to determine the frequency of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (SCE). Blood chemistry and electrolytes were also analyzed. The results showed that average daily fluoride intake as well as urine and plasma fluoride levels increased with increase in the fluoride content of the drinking water. The blood chemistry and electrolyte values were within the normal range for all populations, but several parameters were significantly different. While the numerical differences were small, the subjects with low fluoride in the water (0.11 and 0.23 ppm or 5.8 and 12.1 mumol/L) had significantly higher SCE frequencies than those with higher fluoride exposures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/978251"><span>An increase in telomere <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange in murine embryonic stem cells possessing critically shortened telomeres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Yisong; Giannone, Richard J; Wu, Jun; Gomez, Marla V; Liu, Yie</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Telomerase deficiency leads to a progressive loss of telomeric DNA that eventually triggers cell apoptosis in human primary cells during prolonged growth in culture. Rare survivors can maintain telomere length through either activation of telomerase or recombination-based telomere lengthening, and thus proliferate indefinitely. We have explored the possibility that telomeres may be maintained through telomere <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange (T-SCE) in murine telomere reverse transcriptase-deficient (mTert -/-) splenocytes and ES cells. Because telomerase deficiency leads to gradual loss of telomeric DNA in mTert -/- splenocytes and ES cells and eventually to chromosomes with telomere signal-free ends (SFEs), we examined these cell types for evidence of <span class="hlt">sister</span> chromatid exchange at telomeres, and observed an increase in T-SCEs only in a subset of mTert -/- splenocytes or ES cells that possessed multiple SFEs. Furthermore, T-SCEs were more often detected in ES cells than in splenocytes that harbored a similar frequency of SFEs. In mTert heterozygous (mTert +/-) ES cells or splenocytes, which are known to exhibit a decrease in average telomere length but no SFEs, no increase in T-SCE was observed. In addition to T-SCE, other genomic rearrangements (i.e., SCE) were also significantly increased in mTert -/- ES cells possessing critically short telomeres, but not in splenocytes. Our results suggest that animals and cell culture differ in their ability to carry out genomic rearrangements as a means of maintaining telomere integrity when telomeres become critically shortened.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1365/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1365/report.pdf"><span>Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, and Mount Shasta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three <span class="hlt">Sisters</span>, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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