Science.gov

Sample records for puti povysheniya nadezhnosti

  1. 'Can I put--I want a slippers to put on': young children's development of request forms in a code-switching environment.

    PubMed

    Youssef, V

    1991-10-01

    This paper concerns the development of semi-modal want/want to, and modals may, can and could in two Trinidadian children, whose Verb Phrase development was studied in naturalistic settings, between the ages of 2;3 and 4;1, and 2;4 and 4;9. The similarities and differences in development between the two are important for underlining a number of key factors in the acquisition process. Accepting the salience of requests/demands in early child language, the study draws attention to the child's propensity for using the means most readily available to him/her in the input, for expression of this function. Additionally, there is evidence of the child's ability to make stylistic discriminations at a very early age and of the propensity for making semantic distinctions among forms. The study indicates that work on the development of grammatical features is incomplete without consideration of sociolinguistic aspects of usage as integral to grammatical acquisition from the outset.

  2. The burden of comorbidity is associated with symptomatic polymicrobial urinary tract infection among institutionalized elderly.

    PubMed

    Laudisio, Alice; Marinosci, Felice; Fontana, Davide; Gemma, Antonella; Zizzo, Alessandro; Coppola, Anna; Rodano, Leonardo; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2015-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), often sustained by polymicrobial flora (p-UTIs), are a common finding among nursing home patients, and associated with adverse outcomes and increased healthcare costs. P-UTIs have been extensively studied with regard to microbiological aspects. However, little is known about the characteristics of the host. The aim of this study is to verify to which extent comorbidity characterizes elderly nursing home patients with p-UTIs. We enrolled 299 patients with culture-positive UTI consecutively admitted to the nursing home of the "Fondazione San Raffaele Cittadella della Carità", Taranto, Italy. P-UTI was diagnosed when two uropathogens were simultaneously isolated. The burden of comorbidity was quantified using the Charlson comorbidity score index. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted association of the variables of interest with the presence of p-UTI. P-UTIs were detected in 118/299 (39%) patients. According to logistic regression, the presence of p-UTIs was independently associated with the Charlson index (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.06-2.72; P = .026). This association remained also after excluding participants without urinary catheter (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.13-3.11; P = .015). The presence of P-UTIs is associated with the burden of comorbidity, but not with individual diseases. Older nursing home patients with comorbidity should be screened for the presence of p-UTIs; further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of early detection and treatment of p-UTIs on the development of comorbidity.

  3. The Nature of Mental Abilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    ACADEMIC CO M PUTI N G CENTER Commanding Office r U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY Na val Health Res earch ANNA POLiS , MD 211102 Center Attn : Library 1 Mr. Arnold...1 Dr. John B. Ca rroll Psycho metric Lab Univ. of No. C a roli n a Davie Hall 013A Chapel Hill , N C 275111 1 Dr. Willia m Chase • Department of P

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 6, June 1989.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    An American Drama]. Translated from English. Moscow, Progress, 1988, 496 pages. Denisov , V . I., "Koreyskaya problema: puti ureguliro- vaniya. 70-80...Historical-Ethnographic Hand- book]. Chief editor: Yu . V . Bromley. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya, 1988, 624 pages. "Noveyshaya istoriya arabskikh... Yu . P. Davydov. Moscow, Nauka, 1989, 158 pages. "Usoskin, V . M., " ’Denezhnyy mir’ Miltona Fridmena" [Milton Friedman’s ’Money World’"]. Moscow

  5. 9433 Design Pointing Anomaly. Volume II. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-30

    CALIFORNIA 90278 This final report was submitted by TRW Defense and Space t ) Systems Group, One Space Park, Redondo Beach, CA 90278, under Contract F04701-75...NTIS G:A&I FOR THE COMMANDER T J E . FREYTAG, C.. ’- em Program Dir tot, DSCS * puty for Space Comm Systems UNCLASSIFIED SICURI.YY CL ASSIFVICATION Of...90278__ ___________ 11I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND AORE’sS r a iz t jSpace and Missile Systems Ognzton 3 Jan~A&Fy-476 Air Force Systems CommandI Loas

  6. Genomic Analysis of Factors Associated with Low Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Sequence Type 95 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Sapper, Sheila; Sekhon, Manraj; Johnson, James R.; Riley, Lee W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States. The fully assembled genomes of antibiotic-resistant isolates carried resistance genes exclusively on large (>90-kb) IncFIB/IncFII plasmids. These replicons were common in the draft genomes as well, particularly in antibiotic-resistant isolates, but we also observed multiple instances of a smaller (8.3-kb) ampicillin resistance plasmid that had been previously identified in Salmonella enterica. Among ST95 isolates, pansusceptibility to antibiotics was significantly associated with the fimH6 lineage and the presence of homologs of the previously identified 114-kb IncFIB/IncFII plasmid pUTI89, both of which were also associated with reduced carriage of other plasmids. Potential mechanistic explanations for lineage- and plasmid-specific effects on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance within the ST95 group are discussed. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is a major public health concern. This work was motivated by the observation that only a small proportion of ST95 isolates, a major pandemic lineage of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, have acquired antibiotic resistance, in contrast to many other pandemic lineages. Understanding bacterial genetic factors that may prevent acquisition of resistance could contribute to the development of new biological, medical, or public health strategies to reduce antibiotic

  7. Diverse variation of reproductive barriers in three intraspecific rice crosses.

    PubMed Central

    Harushima, Yoshiaki; Nakagahra, Masahiro; Yano, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takuji; Kurata, Nori

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive barriers are thought to play an important role in the processes of speciation and differentiation. Asian rice cultivars, Oryza sativa, can be classified into two main types, Japonica and Indica, on the basis of several characteristics. The fertility of Japonica-Indica hybrids differs from one cross to another. Many genes involved in reproductive barriers (hybrid sterility, hybrid weakness, and gametophytic competition genes) have been reported in different Japonica-Indica crosses. To clarify the state of Japonica-Indica differentiation, all reproductive barriers causing deviation from Mendelian segregation ratios in F(2) populations were mapped and compared among three different Japonica-Indica crosses: Nipponbare/Kasalath (NK), Fl1084/Dao Ren Qiao (FD), and Fl1007/Kinandang puti (FK). Mapping of reproductive barriers was performed by regression analysis of allele frequencies of DNA markers covering the entire genome. Allele frequencies were explained by 33 reproductive barriers (15 gametophytic and 18 zygotic) in NK, 32 barriers (15 gametophytic and 17 zygotic) in FD, and 37 barriers (19 gametophytic and 18 zygotic) in FK. The number of reproductive barriers in the three crosses was similar; however, most of the barriers were mapped at different loci. Therefore, these reproductive barriers formed after Japonica-Indica differentiation. Considering the high genetic similarity within Japonica and Indica cultivars, the differences in the reproductive barriers of each cross were unexpectedly numerous. The reproductive barriers of Japonica-Indica hybrids likely evolved more rapidly than other genetic elements. One possible force responsible for such rapid evolution of the barriers may have been the domestication of rice. PMID:11805066

  8. Genomic Analysis of Factors Associated with Low Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance in Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Sequence Type 95 Strains.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Craig M; Adams-Sapper, Sheila; Sekhon, Manraj; Johnson, James R; Riley, Lee W

    2017-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains belonging to multilocus sequence type 95 (ST95) are globally distributed and a common cause of infections in humans and domestic fowl. ST95 isolates generally show a lower prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance than other pandemic ExPEC lineages. We took a genomic approach to identify factors that may underlie reduced resistance. We fully assembled genomes for four ST95 isolates representing the four major fimH-based lineages within ST95 and also analyzed draft-level genomes from another 82 ST95 isolates, largely from the western United States. The fully assembled genomes of antibiotic-resistant isolates carried resistance genes exclusively on large (>90-kb) IncFIB/IncFII plasmids. These replicons were common in the draft genomes as well, particularly in antibiotic-resistant isolates, but we also observed multiple instances of a smaller (8.3-kb) ampicillin resistance plasmid that had been previously identified in Salmonella enterica. Among ST95 isolates, pansusceptibility to antibiotics was significantly associated with the fimH6 lineage and the presence of homologs of the previously identified 114-kb IncFIB/IncFII plasmid pUTI89, both of which were also associated with reduced carriage of other plasmids. Potential mechanistic explanations for lineage- and plasmid-specific effects on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance within the ST95 group are discussed. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is a major public health concern. This work was motivated by the observation that only a small proportion of ST95 isolates, a major pandemic lineage of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, have acquired antibiotic resistance, in contrast to many other pandemic lineages. Understanding bacterial genetic factors that may prevent acquisition of resistance could contribute to the development of new biological, medical, or public health strategies to reduce antibiotic-resistant infections.

  9. A subjective dissatisfaction with body weight in young women: do eating behaviours play a role?

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Katarzyna Eufemia; Jesiołowska, Dorota; Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata; Antoniak, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Food less frequently used to provide the necessary nutrients for the survival and the body begins to play a role, which it is not able to cope with, leading to a dysfunctional its use. In an era of obesity, excessive interest in his appearance and lean silhouette assigning too much significance relates to a growing number of young women. Young women due to a period of their procreative years are particularly vulnerable to the consequences of abnormal eating habits that threaten the health of women and their offspring. In young women of reproductive age, to determine the emotional and habitual reasons behind binge eating and the effect that restriction diets can have for achieving desired body mass in relation to physical activity and the willingness to improve their weight. Subjects surveyed were 372 women aged 18 to 27 years (mean 20.6 ± 1.4) who answered a questionnaire on dietary behaviour devised by Ogińska-Bulik and Putyński [21] which had been extended to include body mass perception/image, adoption of slimming diets, levels of physical activity and place of residence. The women's actual body mass, height and body fat (adipose tissue content) were also measured. Most subjects (63.9%) were dissatisfied with their figures whilst 33.5% underwent slimming diets at least once. Those overweight, complained much more about their figures compared to normal weight women (97.9% vs. 65.1%, p<0.01), as well as being respectively more emotionally prone to overeating (4.5 ± 2.2 vs. 5.2 ± 2 points round, p<0.01), but less for adopting any dietary restriction (3.5 ± 2.7 vs. 4.8 ± 2.3, p<0.01). It seems necessary to create a prevention and educational programs on proper nutrition and the perception of one's own body as effective tools in reducing eating disorders in terms of the health of young women and multigenerational inheritance health of their offspring.

  10. Plasmidome-Analysis of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Using Conventional Typing and High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Brolund, Alma; Franzén, Oscar; Melefors, Öjar; Tegmark-Wisell, Karin; Sandegren, Linus

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli are an emerging global problem, threatening the effectiveness of the extensively used β-lactam antibiotics. ESBL dissemination is facilitated by plasmids, transposons, and other mobile elements. We have characterized the plasmid content of ESBL-producing E. coli from human urinary tract infections. Ten diverse isolates were selected; they had unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (<90% similarity), were from geographically dispersed locations and had diverging antibiotic resistance profiles. Three isolates belonged to the globally disseminated sequence type ST131. ESBL-genes of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 phylogroups were identified in all ten isolates. The plasmid content (plasmidome) of each strain was analyzed using a combination of molecular methods and high-throughput sequencing. Hidden Markov Model-based analysis of unassembled sequencing reads was used to analyze the genetic diversity of the plasmid samples and to detect resistance genes. Each isolate contained between two and eight distinct plasmids, and at least 22 large plasmids were identified overall. The plasmids were variants of pUTI89, pKF3-70, pEK499, pKF3-140, pKF3-70, p1ESCUM, pEK204, pHK17a, p083CORR, R64, pLF82, pSFO157, and R721. In addition, small cryptic high copy-number plasmids were frequent, containing one to seven open reading frames per plasmid. Three clustered groups of such small cryptic plasmids could be distinguished based on sequence similarity. Extrachromosomal prophages were found in three isolates. Two of them resembled the E. coli P1 phage and one was previously unknown. The present study confirms plasmid multiplicity in multi-resistant E. coli. We conclude that high-throughput sequencing successfully provides information on the extrachromosomal gene content and can be used to generate a genetic fingerprint of possible use in epidemiology. This could be a valuable tool for tracing

  11. Plasmidome-analysis of ESBL-producing escherichia coli using conventional typing and high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Brolund, Alma; Franzén, Oscar; Melefors, Ojar; Tegmark-Wisell, Karin; Sandegren, Linus

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli are an emerging global problem, threatening the effectiveness of the extensively used β-lactam antibiotics. ESBL dissemination is facilitated by plasmids, transposons, and other mobile elements. We have characterized the plasmid content of ESBL-producing E. coli from human urinary tract infections. Ten diverse isolates were selected; they had unrelated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (<90% similarity), were from geographically dispersed locations and had diverging antibiotic resistance profiles. Three isolates belonged to the globally disseminated sequence type ST131. ESBL-genes of the CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9 phylogroups were identified in all ten isolates. The plasmid content (plasmidome) of each strain was analyzed using a combination of molecular methods and high-throughput sequencing. Hidden Markov Model-based analysis of unassembled sequencing reads was used to analyze the genetic diversity of the plasmid samples and to detect resistance genes. Each isolate contained between two and eight distinct plasmids, and at least 22 large plasmids were identified overall. The plasmids were variants of pUTI89, pKF3-70, pEK499, pKF3-140, pKF3-70, p1ESCUM, pEK204, pHK17a, p083CORR, R64, pLF82, pSFO157, and R721. In addition, small cryptic high copy-number plasmids were frequent, containing one to seven open reading frames per plasmid. Three clustered groups of such small cryptic plasmids could be distinguished based on sequence similarity. Extrachromosomal prophages were found in three isolates. Two of them resembled the E. coli P1 phage and one was previously unknown. The present study confirms plasmid multiplicity in multi-resistant E. coli. We conclude that high-throughput sequencing successfully provides information on the extrachromosomal gene content and can be used to generate a genetic fingerprint of possible use in epidemiology. This could be a valuable tool for tracing