Science.gov

Sample records for puzzles pdf file

  1. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    targeted, opportunistic attacks [2]. Figures from F -Secure for 2008–2010 indicate that anywhere from 28–61% of targeted attacks involved PDF exploits...digit byte offset into the file, a five-digit generation number, and either the character ‘ f ’ or ‘n’, indicating whether the object defined on that line...Walk through a path, extracting n-grams from files and associating # them with the directory that contains them. E.g., the file # ./my_docs/ foo

  2. An easy and effective approach to manage radiologic portable document format (PDF) files using iTunes.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li Jun; Zhou, Mi; Xu, Jian Rong

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this article is to explain an easy and effective approach for managing radiologic files in portable document format (PDF) using iTunes. PDF files are widely used as a standard file format for electronic publications as well as for medical online documents. Unfortunately, there is a lack of powerful software to manage numerous PDF documents. In this article, we explain how to use the hidden function of iTunes (Apple Computer) to manage PDF documents as easily as managing music files.

  3. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  4. New Powder Diffraction File (PDF-4) in relational database format: advantages and data-mining capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kabekkodu, Soorya N; Faber, John; Fawcett, Tim

    2002-06-01

    The International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD) is responding to the changing needs in powder diffraction and materials analysis by developing the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) in a very flexible relational database (RDB) format. The PDF now contains 136,895 powder diffraction patterns. In this paper, an attempt is made to give an overview of the PDF-4, search/match methods and the advantages of having the PDF-4 in RDB format. Some case studies have been carried out to search for crystallization trends, properties, frequencies of space groups and prototype structures. These studies give a good understanding of the basic structural aspects of classes of compounds present in the database. The present paper also reports data-mining techniques and demonstrates the power of a relational database over the traditional (flat-file) database structures.

  5. Web Standard: PDF - When to Use, Document Metadata, PDF Sections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PDF files provide some benefits when used appropriately. PDF files should not be used for short documents ( 5 pages) unless retaining the format for printing is important. PDFs should have internal file metadata and meet section 508 standards.

  6. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  7. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  8. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benignmore » and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features

  9. Files in /noaa/dhs

    Science.gov Websites

    noaa_20110510_wbg.gif 10-May-2011 20:58 31K generic file noaa_20110510_wbg.pdf 10-May-2011 20:58 128K generic file noaa_20110513_wbg.gif 13-May-2011 20:10 27K generic file noaa_20110513_wbg.pdf 13-May-2011 20:10 122K generic file noaa_20110518_wbg.gif 18-May-2011 21:10 33K generic file noaa_20110518_wbg.pdf 18-May-2011 21:10 128K generic file

  10. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-01-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL. PMID:9681165

  11. Desktop document delivery using portable document format (PDF) files and the Web.

    PubMed

    Shipman, J P; Gembala, W L; Reeder, J M; Zick, B A; Rainwater, M J

    1998-07-01

    Desktop access to electronic full-text literature was rated one of the most desirable services in a client survey conducted by the University of Washington Libraries. The University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries (UW HSL) conducted a ten-month pilot test from August 1996 to May 1997 to determine the feasibility of delivering electronic journal articles via the Internet to remote faculty. Articles were scanned into Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) files and delivered to individuals using Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) standard e-mail attachments and the Web. Participants retrieved scanned articles and used the Adobe Acrobat Reader software to view and print files. The pilot test required a special programming effort to automate the client notification and file deletion processes. Test participants were satisfied with the pilot test despite some technical difficulties. Desktop delivery is now offered as a routine delivery method from the UW HSL.

  12. Implementation of Super-Encryption with Trithemius Algorithm and Double Transposition Cipher in Securing PDF Files on Android Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, M. A.; Rachmawati, D.; Jessica

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to combine the trithemus algorithm and double transposition cipher in file security that will be implemented to be an Android-based application. The parameters being examined are the real running time, and the complexity value. The type of file to be used is a file in PDF format. The overall result shows that the complexity of the two algorithms with duper encryption method is reported as Θ (n 2). However, the processing time required in the encryption process uses the Trithemius algorithm much faster than using the Double Transposition Cipher. With the length of plaintext and password linearly proportional to the processing time.

  13. 5 CFR 1201.14 - Electronic filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (PDF), and image files (files created by scanning). A list of formats allowed can be found at e-Appeal..., or by uploading the supporting documents in the form of one or more PDF files in which each...

  14. Simplified generation of biomedical 3D surface model data for embedding into 3D portable document format (PDF) files for publication and education.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Ganslandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The usefulness of the 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) for clinical, educational, and research purposes has recently been shown. However, the lack of a simple tool for converting biomedical data into the model data in the necessary Universal 3D (U3D) file format is a drawback for the broad acceptance of this new technology. A new module for the image processing and rapid prototyping framework MeVisLab does not only provide a platform-independent possibility to create surface meshes out of biomedical/DICOM and other data and to export them into U3D--it also lets the user add meta data to these meshes to predefine colors and names that can be processed by a PDF authoring software while generating 3D PDF files. Furthermore, the source code of the respective module is available and well documented so that it can easily be modified for own purposes.

  15. Design and application of PDF model for extracting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In order to change the steps of contributions in editorial department system from two steps to one, this paper advocates that the technology of extracting the information of PDF files should be transplanted from PDF reader into IEEE Xplore contribution system and that it should be combined with uploading in batch skillfully to enable editors to upload PDF files about 1GB in batch for once. Computers will extract the information of the title, author, address, mailbox, abstract and key words of thesis voluntarily for later retrieval so as to save plenty of labor, material and finance for editorial department.

  16. Puzzling Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deventer, M. Oskar

    2009-01-01

    The basis of a good mechanical puzzle is often a puzzling mechanism. This article will introduce some new puzzling mechanisms, like two knots that engage like gears, a chain whose links can be interchanged, and flat gears that do not come apart. It illustrates how puzzling mechanisms can be transformed into real mechanical puzzles, e.g., by…

  17. Portable document format file showing the surface models of cadaver whole body.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyung Seon; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Young Lae; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2012-08-01

    In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.

  18. 77 FR 38831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on June 4, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... research project. Membership in this group research project remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file...

  19. 78 FR 27431 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on April 19, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... project remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes...

  20. 78 FR 72713 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on October 31, 2013, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  1. Do puzzle pieces and autism puzzle piece logos evoke negative associations?

    PubMed

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R; Stevenson, Jennifer L; Boston, Jilana S; Harp, Bev

    2018-02-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public. Participants' ( N = 400) implicit negative associations were measured with an Implicit Association Task, which is a speeded categorization task, and participants' explicit associations were measured with an Explicit Association Task, which is a standard task for assessing consumers' explicit associations with brands (and images of those brands). Puzzle pieces, both those used as autism logos and those used more generically, evoked negative implicit associations ( t(399) = -5.357, p < 0.001) and negative explicit associations ( z = 4.693, p < 0.001, d = 0.491). Participants explicitly associated puzzle pieces, even generic puzzle pieces, with incompleteness, imperfection, and oddity. Our results bear public policy implications. If an organization's intention for using puzzle-piece imagery is to evoke negative associations, our results suggest the organization's use of puzzle-piece imagery is apt. However, if the organization's intention is to evoke positive associations, our results suggest that puzzle-piece imagery should probably be avoided.

  2. Do Puzzle Pieces and Autism Puzzle Piece Logos Evoke Negative Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Raimond, Adam R.; Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Boston, Jilana S.; Harp, Bev

    2018-01-01

    Puzzle pieces have become ubiquitous symbols for autism. However, puzzle-piece imagery stirs debate between those who support and those who object to its use because they believe puzzle-piece imagery evokes negative associations. Our study empirically investigated whether puzzle pieces evoke negative associations in the general public.…

  3. 77 FR 71831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on November 8, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  4. 77 FR 56861 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3d PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Production Act of 1993--3d PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 20, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with the... remains open, and 3D PDF intends to file additional written notifications disclosing all changes in...

  5. Viewing Files | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    In addition to standard HTML webpages, our website contains files in other formats. You may need additional software or browser plug-ins to view some of these files. The following list shows each format along with links to the corresponding freely available plug-ins or viewers. Documents  Adobe Acrobat Reader (.pdf)

  6. Puzzles, Pastimes, Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eperson, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    Presents five puzzles or problems that may be used for mathematics enrichment. Ideas include magic squares, tests for divisibility, geometry, palindromic numbers, and a jigsaw puzzle. Solutions are included. (PK)

  7. Puzzles, Pastimes, Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eperson, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Presents six mathematical problems (with answers) which focus on: (1) chess moves; (2) patterned numbers; (3) quadratics with rational roots; (4) number puzzles; (5) Euclidean geometry; and (6) Carrollian word puzzles. (JN)

  8. 78 FR 13050 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... be considered, but intervention is necessary to become a party to the proceeding. Filings in Existing Proceedings Docket Numbers: RP13-106-002. Applicants: Young Gas Storage Company, Ltd. Description: Young NAESB..., protests, and service can be found at: http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling/filing-req.pdf . For other...

  9. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines. PMID:25780759

  10. Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines.

  11. 5 CFR 1201.14 - Electronic filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-Appeal Online, in which case service is governed by paragraph (j) of this section, or by non-electronic... (PDF), and image files (files created by scanning). A list of formats allowed can be found at e-Appeal... representatives of the appeals in which they were filed. (j) Service of electronic pleadings and MSPB documents...

  12. 5 CFR 1201.14 - Electronic filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-Appeal Online, in which case service is governed by paragraph (j) of this section, or by non-electronic... (PDF), and image files (files created by scanning). A list of formats allowed can be found at e-Appeal... representatives of the appeals in which they were filed. (j) Service of electronic pleadings and MSPB documents...

  13. 5 CFR 1201.14 - Electronic filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-Appeal Online, in which case service is governed by paragraph (j) of this section, or by non-electronic... (PDF), and image files (files created by scanning). A list of formats allowed can be found at e-Appeal... representatives of the appeals in which they were filed. (j) Service of electronic pleadings and MSPB documents...

  14. 5 CFR 1201.14 - Electronic filing procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-Appeal Online, in which case service is governed by paragraph (j) of this section, or by non-electronic... (PDF), and image files (files created by scanning). A list of formats allowed can be found at e-Appeal... representatives of the appeals in which they were filed. (j) Service of electronic pleadings and MSPB documents...

  15. Lockean Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In analytic moral philosophy it is standard to use unrealistic puzzles to set up moral dilemmas of a sort that I will call Lockean Puzzles. This paper will try to pinpoint just what is and what is not problematic about their use as a teaching tool or component part of philosophical arguments. I will try to flesh out the claim that what may be lost…

  16. Publications - PDF 87-2 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 87-2 Publication Details Title: Alaska's mineral industry 1986: Executive summary Authors : Executive summary: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Public Data File 87-2, 5 p. http

  17. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool 'Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)', which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system's output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format.

  18. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  19. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss

  20. Sleep for Kids: Games and Puzzles

    MedlinePlus

    Games and Puzzles These games and puzzles can help you learn more about sleep! Learn about sleep with this fun crossword puzzle! Test your memory ... can't sleep? • dreams • • bring out the stars • games and puzzles • pj bear booklet • • home • about us • ...

  1. Extra dimensions: 3d and time in pdf documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2008-07-01

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.

  2. Pebble Puzzles. A Source Book of Simple Puzzles and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William M.

    This booklet is a collection of puzzles, games, and investigations. All that children need are some stones or shells, on some of which they must write numerals. For playing with the whole class, the game or puzzles may be marked out on the floor or in sand; in that case, larger objects such as small rocks and empty tins may be used. Children are…

  3. PDF-ECG in clinical practice: A model for long-term preservation of digital 12-lead ECG data.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Roberto; Bond, Raymond R; Cairns, Andrew; Finlay, Dewar D; Guldenring, Daniel; Libretti, Guido; Isola, Lamberto; Vaglio, Martino; Poeta, Roberto; Campana, Marco; Cuccia, Claudio; Badilini, Fabio

    In clinical practice, data archiving of resting 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) is mainly achieved by storing a PDF report in the hospital electronic health record (EHR). When available, digital ECG source data (raw samples) are only retained within the ECG management system. The widespread availability of the ECG source data would undoubtedly permit successive analysis and facilitate longitudinal studies, with both scientific and diagnostic benefits. PDF-ECG is a hybrid archival format which allows to store in the same file both the standard graphical report of an ECG together with its source ECG data (waveforms). Using PDF-ECG as a model to address the challenge of ECG data portability, long-term archiving and documentation, a real-world proof-of-concept test was conducted in a northern Italy hospital. A set of volunteers undertook a basic ECG using routine hospital equipment and the source data captured. Using dedicated web services, PDF-ECG documents were then generated and seamlessly uploaded in the hospital EHR, replacing the standard PDF reports automatically generated at the time of acquisition. Finally, the PDF-ECG files could be successfully retrieved and re-analyzed. Adding PDF-ECG to an existing EHR had a minimal impact on the hospital's workflow, while preserving the ECG digital data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MSL: Facilitating automatic and physical analysis of published scientific literature in PDF format

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Dandekar, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Published scientific literature contains millions of figures, including information about the results obtained from different scientific experiments e.g. PCR-ELISA data, microarray analysis, gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry data, DNA/RNA sequencing, diagnostic imaging (CT/MRI and ultrasound scans), and medicinal imaging like electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), echocardiography  (ECG), positron-emission tomography (PET) images. The importance of biomedical figures has been widely recognized in scientific and medicine communities, as they play a vital role in providing major original data, experimental and computational results in concise form. One major challenge for implementing a system for scientific literature analysis is extracting and analyzing text and figures from published PDF files by physical and logical document analysis. Here we present a product line architecture based bioinformatics tool ‘Mining Scientific Literature (MSL)’, which supports the extraction of text and images by interpreting all kinds of published PDF files using advanced data mining and image processing techniques. It provides modules for the marginalization of extracted text based on different coordinates and keywords, visualization of extracted figures and extraction of embedded text from all kinds of biological and biomedical figures using applied Optimal Character Recognition (OCR). Moreover, for further analysis and usage, it generates the system’s output in different formats including text, PDF, XML and images files. Hence, MSL is an easy to install and use analysis tool to interpret published scientific literature in PDF format. PMID:29721305

  5. 77 FR 23754 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-3D PDF Consortium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Production Act of 1993--3D PDF Consortium, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 27, 2012, pursuant to.... (``the Act''), 3D PDF Consortium, Inc. (``3D PDF'') has filed written notifications simultaneously with... Corporation, Boulder, CO; Aras Corporation, Andover, MA; Tetra 4D, LLC, Seattle, WA; Tech Soft 3D, Berkeley...

  6. Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.

  7. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Norman A.; /SLAC

    2011-11-10

    High energy physics is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standardmore » Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide audience. In this talk, we present examples of HEP applications which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input. Using this technique, higher dimensional data, such as LEGO plots or time-dependent information can be included in PDF files. In principle, a complete event display, with full interactivity, can be incorporated into a PDF file. This would allow the end user not only to customize the view and representation of the data, but to access the underlying data itself.« less

  8. A new technique for solving puzzles.

    PubMed

    Makridis, Michael; Papamarkos, Nikos

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a new technique for solving jigsaw puzzles. The novelty of the proposed technique is that it provides an automatic jigsaw puzzle solution without any initial restriction about the shape of pieces, the number of neighbor pieces, etc. The proposed technique uses both curve- and color-matching similarity features. A recurrent procedure is applied, which compares and merges puzzle pieces in pairs, until the original puzzle image is reformed. Geometrical and color features are extracted on the characteristic points (CPs) of the puzzle pieces. CPs, which can be considered as high curvature points, are detected by a rotationally invariant corner detection algorithm. The features which are associated with color are provided by applying a color reduction technique using the Kohonen self-organized feature map. Finally, a postprocessing stage checks and corrects the relative position between puzzle pieces to improve the quality of the resulting image. Experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed technique, which can be further extended to deal with even more complex jigsaw puzzle problems.

  9. Using Interactive 3D PDF for Exploring Complex Biomedical Data: Experiences and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for the exchange of electronic documents. A lesser-known feature of PDF is the possibility to embed three-dimensional models and to display these models interactively with a qualified reader. This technology is well suited to present, to explore and to communicate complex biomedical data. This applies in particular for data which would suffer from a loss of information if it was reduced to a static two-dimensional projection. In this article, we present applications of 3D PDF for selected scholarly and clinical use cases in the biomedical domain. Furthermore, we present a sophisticated tool for the generation of respective PDF documents.

  10. Interactive 3D-PDF Presentations for the Simulation and Quantification of Extended Endoscopic Endonasal Surgical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Méndez, Juan A Juanes; Puigdelívoll-Sánchez, Anna; de Notaris, Matteo

    2015-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of the skull base was reconstructed from the pre- and post-dissection head CT images and embedded in a Portable Document Format (PDF) file, which can be opened by freely available software and used offline. The CT images were segmented using a specific 3D software platform for biomedical data, and the resulting 3D geometrical models of anatomical structures were used for dual purpose: to simulate the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches and to perform the quantitative analysis of the procedures. The analysis consisted of bone removal quantification and the calculation of quantitative parameters (surgical freedom and exposure area) of each procedure. The results are presented in three PDF documents containing JavaScript-based functions. The 3D-PDF files include reconstructions of the nasal structures (nasal septum, vomer, middle turbinates), the bony structures of the anterior skull base and maxillofacial region and partial reconstructions of the optic nerve, the hypoglossal and vidian canals and the internal carotid arteries. Alongside the anatomical model, axial, sagittal and coronal CT images are shown. Interactive 3D presentations were created to explain the surgery and the associated quantification methods step-by-step. The resulting 3D-PDF files allow the user to interact with the model through easily available software, free of charge and in an intuitive manner. The files are available for offline use on a personal computer and no previous specialized knowledge in informatics is required. The documents can be downloaded at http://hdl.handle.net/2445/55224 .

  11. Sudoku Puzzles as Chemistry Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crute, Thomas D.; Myers, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    A sudoku puzzle was designed that incorporated lists of chemistry terms like polyatomic ions, organic functional groups or strong nucleophiles that students need to learn. It was found that students enjoyed solving such puzzles and also such puzzles made the boring tasks of memorizing basic chemical terms an exciting one.

  12. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  13. Tangrams: Puzzles of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fee, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Challenging one's brain is the beginning of making great art. Tangrams are a great way to keep students thinking about their latest art project long after leaving the classroom. A tangram is a Chinese puzzle. The earliest known reference to tangrams appears in a Chinese book dated 1813, but the puzzles existed long before that date. The puzzle…

  14. The Powder Diffraction File: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Deane K.; Jenkins, Ron

    1996-01-01

    The Powder Diffraction file has been the primary reference for Powder Diffraction Data for more than half a century. The file is a collection of about 65 000 reduced powder patterns stored as sets of d/I data along with the appropriate crystallographic, physical and experimental information. This paper reviews the development and growth of the PDF and discusses the role of the ICDD in the maintenance and dissemination of the file. PMID:27805163

  15. 47 CFR 1.913 - Application and notification forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... notifications whenever possible. The files, other than the ASCII table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat... possible. The attachment should be uploaded via ULS in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF... the table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever possible...

  16. Data files from the Grays Harbor Sediment Transport Experiment Spring 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landerman, Laura A.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Lacy, Jessica; Ruggiero, Peter; Wilson, Douglas; Chisholm, Tom; Kurrus, Keith

    2005-01-01

    This publication consists of two DVD-ROMs, both of which are presented here. This report describes data collected during the Spring 2001 Grays Harbor Sediment Transport Experiment, and provides additional information needed to interpret the data. Two DVDs accompany this report; both contain documentation in html format that assist the user in navigating through the data. DVD-ROM-1 contains a digital version of this report in .pdf format, raw Aquatec acoustic backscatter (ABS) data in .zip format, Sonar data files in .avi format, and coastal processes and morphology data in ASCII format. ASCII data files are provided in .zip format; bundled coastal processes ASCII files are separated by deployment and instrument; bundled morphology ASCII files are separated into monthly data collection efforts containing the beach profiles collected (or extracted from the surface map) at that time; weekly surface maps are also bundled together. DVD-ROM-2 contains a digital version of this report in .pdf format, the binary data files collected by the SonTek instrumentation, calibration files for the pressure sensors, and Matlab m-files for loading the ABS data into Matlab and cleaning-up the optical backscatter (OBS) burst time-series data.

  17. New Tools to Convert PDF Math Contents into Accessible e-Books Efficiently.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masakazu; Terada, Yugo; Kanahori, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsuhito

    2015-01-01

    New features in our math-OCR software to convert PDF math contents into accessible e-books are shown. A method for recognizing PDF is thoroughly improved. In addition, contents in any selected area including math formulas in a PDF file can be cut and pasted into a document in various accessible formats, which is automatically recognized and converted into texts and accessible math formulas through this process. Combining it with our authoring tool for a technical document, one can easily produce accessible e-books in various formats such as DAISY, accessible EPUB3, DAISY-like HTML5, Microsoft Word with math objects and so on. Those contents are useful for various print-disabled students ranging from the blind to the dyslexic.

  18. 46 CFR 67.218 - Optional filing of instruments in portable document format as attachments to electronic mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... recording under § 67.200 may be submitted in portable document format (.pdf) as an attachment to electronic... submitted for filing in .pdf format pertains to a vessel that is not a currently documented vessel, a... with the National Vessel Documentation Center or must be submitted in .pdf format with the instrument...

  19. Musings on the puzzle piece.

    PubMed

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P

    2016-02-01

    Following is a brief musing on Roy Grinker's discussion of what the puzzle piece symbolizes for autism during his presentation at the 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research. In his words, "The puzzle piece is ubiquitous." It likely holds a different meaning for each of us, and this is how one autism researcher sees it. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. PDF Lecture Materials for Online and ``Flipped'' Format Astronomy Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kary, D. M.; Eisberg, J.

    2013-04-01

    Online astronomy courses typically rely on students reading the textbook and/or a set of text-based lecture notes to replace the “lecture” material. However, many of our students report that this is much less engaging than in-person lectures, especially given the amount of interactive work such as “think-pair-share” problems done in many astronomy classes. Students have similarly criticized direct lecture-capture. To address this, we have developed a set of PowerPoint-style presentations with embedded lecture audio combined with prompts for student interaction including think-pair-share questions. These are formatted PDF packages that can be used on a range of different computers using free software. The presentations are first developed using Microsoft PowerPoint software. Audio recordings of scripted lectures are then synchronized with the presentations and the entire package is converted to PDF using Adobe Presenter. This approach combines the ease of editing that PowerPoint provides along with the platform-independence of PDF. It's easy to add, remove, or edit individual slides as needed, and PowerPoint supports internal links so that think-pair-share questions can be inserted with links to feedback based on the answers selected. Modern PDF files support animated visuals with synchronized audio and they can be read using widely available free software. Using these files students in an online course can get many of the benefits of seeing and hearing the course material presented in an in-person lecture format. Students needing extra help in traditional lecture classes can use these presentations to help review the materials covered in lecture. Finally, the presentations can be used in a “flipped” format in which students work through the presentations outside of class time while spending the “lecture” time on in-class interaction.

  1. Application and evaluation of interactive 3D PDF for presenting and sharing planning results for liver surgery in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file ("PDF App"). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a wider use of this new technology, since the basic idea

  2. Satisfiability modulo theory and binary puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Putranto

    2017-06-01

    The binary puzzle is a sudoku-like puzzle with values in each cell taken from the set {0, 1}. We look at the mathematical theory behind it. A solved binary puzzle is an n × n binary array where n is even that satisfies the following conditions: (1) No three consecutive ones and no three consecutive zeros in each row and each column, (2) Every row and column is balanced, that is the number of ones and zeros must be equal in each row and in each column, (3) Every two rows and every two columns must be distinct. The binary puzzle had been proven to be an NP-complete problem [5]. Research concerning the satisfiability of formulas with respect to some background theory is called satisfiability modulo theory (SMT). An SMT solver is an extension of a satisfiability (SAT) solver. The notion of SMT can be used for solving various problem in mathematics and industries such as formula verification and operation research [1, 7]. In this paper we apply SMT to solve binary puzzles. In addition, we do an experiment in solving different sizes and different number of blanks. We also made comparison with two other approaches, namely by a SAT solver and exhaustive search.

  3. PSQP: Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming.

    PubMed

    Andalo, Fernanda A; Taubin, Gabriel; Goldenstein, Siome

    2017-02-01

    In this article we present the first effective method based on global optimization for the reconstruction of image puzzles comprising rectangle pieces-Puzzle Solving by Quadratic Programming (PSQP). The proposed novel mathematical formulation reduces the problem to the maximization of a constrained quadratic function, which is solved via a gradient ascent approach. The proposed method is deterministic and can deal with arbitrary identical rectangular pieces. We provide experimental results showing its effectiveness when compared to state-of-the-art approaches. Although the method was developed to solve image puzzles, we also show how to apply it to the reconstruction of simulated strip-shredded documents, broadening its applicability.

  4. A puzzle used to teach the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Fernanda K; Moura, Maria J C S; Sanches, Andrea; Costa, Rafaela; de Lima, Patricia Oliveira; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Amaral, Maria E C; Zeni, Paula; Gaviao, Kelly Cristina; Montrezor, Luís H

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present article is to describe a puzzle developed for use in teaching cardiac physiology classes. The puzzle presents figures of phases of the cardiac cycle and a table with five columns: phases of cardiac cycle, atrial state, ventricular state, state of atrioventricular valves, and pulmonary and aortic valves. Chips are provided for use to complete the table. Students are requested to discuss which is the correct sequence of figures indicating the phases of cardiac cycle. Afterward, they should complete the table with the chips. Students of biology, dentistry, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing graduation courses from seven institutions performed the puzzle evaluation. They were invited to indicate whether the puzzle had been useful for learning about the subject by filling one of four alternatives. Of the students, 4.6% answered that it was not necessary but helped them to confirm what they had learned, 64.5% reported that although they had previously understood the cardiac cycle, the puzzle helped them to solve doubts and promoted a better understanding of it, and 30.9% said that they needed the puzzle to understand the cardiac cycle, without differences among courses, institutions, and course semesters. The results of the present study suggest that a simple and inexpensive puzzle may be useful as an active learning methodology applied after the theoretical lecture, as a complementary tool for studying cardiac cycle physiology. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  5. Chemistry of Art and Color Sudoku Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle format was used to teach light science and chemistry terms to students of Chemistry of Art and Color. The puzzles were used to motivate and encourage students to learn chemistry in an easier and in friendly fashion.

  6. 78 FR 17233 - Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    .... Any commonly-used word processing format or PDF format is acceptable; text formats are preferable to image formats. Briefs may also be filed with the Office of the Clerk of the Board, Merit Systems...

  7. Puzzling practice: a strategy for working with clinical practice issues.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Moss, Cheryle; Lawless, Jane; McKelvie, Rhonda; Duncan, Lindsay

    2008-04-01

    In this paper we aim to share the evolution of innovative ways to explore, 'unpack' and reframe clinical issues that exist in everyday practice. The elements of these processes, which we call 'puzzling practice', and the techniques associated with them, were delineated over a two year period by the four authors using action theory based processes. The authors have evolved several different frameworks for 'puzzling practice' which we draw on and use in our practice development work and in our research practice. This paper pays attention to a particular form of puzzling practice that we have found to be useful in assisting individual clinicians and teams to explore and find workable solutions to practice issues. The paper uses a semi-fictitious example of 'Puzzling Practice' gleaned from our experience as practice development facilitators. In this example 'puzzling practice' uses seven different elements; naming the issue; puzzling the issue; testing the puzzle exploring the heart of out practice; formulating the puzzle question; visualizing the future; and generating new strategies for action. Each of the elements is illustrated by the story and the key foundations and ideas behind each element is explored.

  8. Early Puzzle Play: A predictor of preschoolers’ spatial transformation skill

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S.C.; Ratliff, K.R.; Huttenlocher, J.; Cannon, J.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examines the relation between children’s early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 minutes every four months (six times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2D shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PMID:22040312

  9. Early puzzle play: a predictor of preschoolers' spatial transformation skill.

    PubMed

    Levine, Susan C; Ratliff, Kristin R; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Cannon, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    Individual differences in spatial skill emerge prior to kindergarten entry. However, little is known about the early experiences that may contribute to these differences. The current study examined the relation between children's early puzzle play and their spatial skill. Children and parents (n = 53) were observed at home for 90 min every 4 months (6 times) between 2 and 4 years of age (26 to 46 months). When children were 4 years 6 months old, they completed a spatial task involving mental transformations of 2-dimensional shapes. Children who were observed playing with puzzles performed better on this task than those who did not, controlling for parent education, income, and overall parent word types. Moreover, among those children who played with puzzles, frequency of puzzle play predicted performance on the spatial transformation task. Although the frequency of puzzle play did not differ for boys and girls, the quality of puzzle play (a composite of puzzle difficulty, parent engagement, and parent spatial language) was higher for boys than for girls. In addition, variation in puzzle play quality predicted performance on the spatial transformation task for girls but not for boys. Implications of these findings as well as future directions for research on the role of puzzle play in the development of spatial skill are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Application and Evaluation of Interactive 3D PDF for Presenting and Sharing Planning Results for Liver Surgery in Clinical Routine

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Becker, Linda; Schenk, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the de-facto standard for the exchange of electronic documents. It is platform-independent, suitable for the exchange of medical data, and allows for the embedding of three-dimensional (3D) surface mesh models. In this article, we present the first clinical routine application of interactive 3D surface mesh models which have been integrated into PDF files for the presentation and the exchange of Computer Assisted Surgery Planning (CASP) results in liver surgery. We aimed to prove the feasibility of applying 3D PDF in medical reporting and investigated the user experience with this new technology. Methods We developed an interactive 3D PDF report document format and implemented a software tool to create these reports automatically. After more than 1000 liver CASP cases that have been reported in clinical routine using our 3D PDF report, an international user survey was carried out online to evaluate the user experience. Results Our solution enables the user to interactively explore the anatomical configuration and to have different analyses and various resection proposals displayed within a 3D PDF document covering only a single page that acts more like a software application than like a typical PDF file (“PDF App”). The new 3D PDF report offers many advantages over the previous solutions. According to the results of the online survey, the users have assessed the pragmatic quality (functionality, usability, perspicuity, efficiency) as well as the hedonic quality (attractiveness, novelty) very positively. Conclusion The usage of 3D PDF for reporting and sharing CASP results is feasible and well accepted by the target audience. Using interactive PDF with embedded 3D models is an enabler for presenting and exchanging complex medical information in an easy and platform-independent way. Medical staff as well as patients can benefit from the possibilities provided by 3D PDF. Our results open the door for a

  11. Deductive Puzzling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    To help fifth- through eighth-grade students develop their deductive reasoning skills, the author used a ten-week supplementary curriculum so that students could answer logic questions. The curriculum, a series of lessons built around language-independent logic puzzles, has been used in classrooms of fifth through eighth grades. In most cases,…

  12. Puzzle Pedagogy: A Use of Riddles in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnell, Elin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I present a collection of puzzles appropriate for use in a variety of undergraduate courses, along with suggestions for relevant discussion. Logic puzzles and riddles have long been sources of amusement for mathematicians and the general public alike. I describe the use of puzzles in a classroom setting, and argue for their use as…

  13. Extract and visualize geolocation from any text file

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustani, M.

    2015-12-01

    There are variety of text file formats such as PDF, HTML and more which contains words about locations(countries, cities, regions and more). GeoParser developed as one of sub-projects under DARPA Memex to help finding any geolocation information crawled website data. It is a web application benefiting from Apache Tika to extract locations from any text file format and visualize geolocations on the map. https://github.com/MBoustani/GeoParserhttps://github.com/chrismattmann/tika-pythonhttp://www.darpa.mil/program/memex

  14. 19 CFR 351.303 - Filing, document identification, format, translation, service, and certification of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit a public version of a database in pdf format. The public version of the database must be publicly... interested party that files with the Department a request for an expedited antidumping review, an..., whichever is later. If the interested party that files the request is unable to locate a particular exporter...

  15. Economics - A Puzzle: The People Power Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Glenda; Price, Marlene H.

    A third-grade class and fifth-grade remedial reading students gained a positive attitude toward contemporary economic problems by studying economics as a puzzle in this award-winning project. The following concepts were each approached as pieces of the puzzle to be solved: money, wants and needs, income, goods and services, scarcity, consumption…

  16. Solar System Puzzle Kit: An Activity for Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    This Solar System Puzzle Kit for grades 5-8, allows students to create an eight-cube paper puzzle of the solar system and may be duplicated for classroom use or used as a take home activity for children and parents. By assembling the puzzle, hand-coloring the bodies of the solar system, and viewing the puzzle's 12 sides, students can reinforce…

  17. Puzzling Ways to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Shop, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Four authors present crossword and wordfind puzzles developed for students in the areas of electricity, principles of hydraulics, finishing, construction, thermoplastic materials, patternmaking, wood, occupations, and drafting. (BP)

  18. Algorithmic Puzzles: History, Taxonomies, and Applications in Human Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitin, Anany

    2017-01-01

    The paper concerns an important but underappreciated genre of algorithmic puzzles, explaining what these puzzles are, reviewing milestones in their long history, and giving two different ways to classify them. Also covered are major applications of algorithmic puzzles in cognitive science research, with an emphasis on insight problem solving, and…

  19. The B → π K puzzle revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudry, Nicolas Boisvert; Datta, Alakabha; London, David; Rashed, Ahmed; Roux, Jean-Samuel

    2018-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been a certain inconsistency among the measurements of the branching ratios and CP asymmetries of the four B → π K decays ( B + → π+ K 0, B + → π0 K +, B d 0 → π - K +, B d 0 → π 0 K 0). In this paper, we re-examine this B → π K puzzle. We find that the key unknown parameter is | C ' /T '|, the ratio of color-suppressed and color-allowed tree amplitudes. If this ratio is large, | C ' /T '| = 0 .5, the SM can explain the data. But if it is small, | C ' /T '| = 0 .2, the SM cannot explain the B → π K puzzle —new physics (NP) is needed. The two types of NP that can contribute to B → π K at tree level are Z ' bosons and diquarks. Z ' models can explain the puzzle if the Z ' couples to right-handed uū and/or d\\overline{d} , with g R dd ≠ g R uu . Interestingly, half of the many Z ' models proposed to explain the present anomalies in b → sμ + μ - decays have the required Z ' couplings to uū and/or d\\overline{d} . Such models could potentially explain both the b → sμ + μ - anomalies and the B → π K puzzle. The addition of a color sextet diquark that couples to ud can also explain the puzzle.

  20. An Analysis of Instructor-Created Crossword Puzzles for Student Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This article evaluates the use of instructor-created crossword puzzles as a means of reviewing course material. Students completed one crossword puzzle in class to prepare for an exam, and then they had the opportunity to complete a second crossword puzzle outside of class to prepare for the second exam. Students generally rated the crossword…

  1. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design. PMID:28004842

  2. Sudoku Puzzles for First-Year Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Alice L.; Lamoureux, G.

    2007-01-01

    Sudoku puzzle was designed to teach about amino acids and functional groups to the students of undergraduate organic chemistry students. The puzzles focus on helping the student learn the name, 3-letter code and 1-letter code of common amino acids and functional groups.

  3. Teaching the Blue-Eyed Islanders Puzzle in a Liberal Arts Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The blue-eyed islanders puzzle is an old and challenging logic puzzle. This is a narrative of an experience introducing a variation of this puzzle on the first day of classes in a liberal arts mathematics course for non-majors. I describe an exercise that was used to facilitate the class's understanding of the puzzle.

  4. A Comparative Study of PDF Generation Methods: Measuring Loss of Fidelity When Converting Arabic and Persian MS Word Files to PDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-17

    document objects, on one or more electronic document pages. These commands have their roots in typography , so, to understand the PDF Language, one...must have at least a rudimentary understanding of typography . Only a few of the typographic commands, called text showing operators, can hold strings

  5. More Pebble Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William M.

    This booklet is a collection of puzzles, investigations, and games. They are designed to be used with large objects such as tins or stones and diagrams marked on the ground. The children are to be encouraged to use an experimental, trial-and-error approach at first, and then develop methods of solution. (MNS)

  6. Three Modes of Hydrogeophysical Investigation: Puzzles, Mysteries, and Conundrums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    In an article in the New Yorker in 2007, Malcolm Gladwell discussed the distinction that national security expert Gregory Treverton has made between puzzles and mysteries. Specifically, puzzles are problems that we understand and that will eventually be solved when we amass enough information. (Think crossword puzzles.) Mysteries are problems for which we have the necessary information, but it is often overwhelmed by irrelevant or misleading input. To solve a mystery, we require improved analysis. (Think find-a-word.) Gladwell goes on to explain that, in the national security realm, the Cold War was a puzzle while the current national security condition is a mystery. I will discuss the past, current, and future trajectories of hydrogeophysics in terms of puzzles and mysteries. I will also add a third class of problem: conundrums - those for which we lack sufficient information about their structure to know how to solve them. A conundrum is a mystery with an unexpected twist. I hope to make the case that the future growth of hydrogeophysics lies in our ability to address this more challenging and more interesting class of problem.

  7. GAMES AND PUZZLES FOR THE MORE ABLE STUDENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDSMITH, JOHN

    SUCH MATHEMATICAL GAMES AS DOMINOES FOR PRIMARY NUMBER RECOGNITION AND AS MILK BOTTLE TOPS FOR ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION ARE LISTED. A LIST OF SEVERAL MATH PROBLEMS, PUZZLES AND BRAIN TEASERS FOLLOW. QUIET GAMES OF PAPER CUTTING AND CROSS WORD PUZZLES FOR MATH VOCABULARY ARE INCLUDED. THE NEXT SECTION OF GAMES CONCERNS LANGUAGE. THESE INCLUDE…

  8. A Puzzle Used to Teach the Cardiac Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Fernanda K.; Moura, Maria J. C. S.; Sanches, Andrea; Costa, Rafaela; Oliveira de Lima, Patricia; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Amaral, Maria E. C.; Zeni, Paula; Gaviao, Kelly Cristina; Montrezor, Luís H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to describe a puzzle developed for use in teaching cardiac physiology classes. The puzzle presents figures of phases of the cardiac cycle and a table with five columns: phases of cardiac cycle, atrial state, ventricular state, state of atrioventricular valves, and pulmonary and aortic valves. Chips are provided…

  9. Decoding Codewords: Statistical Analysis of a Newspaper Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacock, Susan; Meacock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In recent years English newspapers have started featuring a number of puzzles other than the ubiquitous crossword. Many of the puzzles are of Japanese origin such as Sudoku, Kakuro or Hidato. However, one recent one is very English and is called variously Cross-code, Alphapuzzle or some other name. In this article, it will be known as Codeword.…

  10. Making Peer-Assisted Content Distribution Robust to Collusion Using Bandwidth Puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Michael K.; Sekar, Vyas; Spensky, Chad; Zhang, Zhenghao

    Many peer-assisted content-distribution systems reward a peer based on the amount of data that this peer serves to others. However, validating that a peer did so is, to our knowledge, an open problem; e.g., a group of colluding attackers can earn rewards by claiming to have served content to one another, when they have not. We propose a puzzle mechanism to make contribution-aware peer-assisted content distribution robust to such collusion. Our construction ties solving the puzzle to possession of specific content and, by issuing puzzle challenges simultaneously to all parties claiming to have that content, our mechanism prevents one content-holder from solving many others' puzzles. We prove (in the random oracle model) the security of our scheme, describe our integration of bandwidth puzzles into a media streaming system, and demonstrate the resulting attack resilience via simulations.

  11. SU-E-T-142: Automatic Linac Log File: Analysis and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Gainey, M; Rothe, T

    Purpose: End to end QA for IMRT/VMAT is time consuming. Automated linac log file analysis and recalculation of daily recorded fluence, and hence dose, distribution bring this closer. Methods: Matlab (R2014b, Mathworks) software was written to read in and analyse IMRT/VMAT trajectory log files (TrueBeam 1.5, Varian Medical Systems) overnight, and are archived on a backed-up network drive (figure). A summary report (PDF) is sent by email to the duty linac physicist. A structured summary report (PDF) for each patient is automatically updated for embedding into the R&V system (Mosaiq 2.5, Elekta AG). The report contains cross-referenced hyperlinks to easemore » navigation between treatment fractions. Gamma analysis can be performed on planned (DICOM RTPlan) and treated (trajectory log) fluence distributions. Trajectory log files can be converted into RTPlan files for dose distribution calculation (Eclipse, AAA10.0.28, VMS). Results: All leaf positions are within +/−0.10mm: 57% within +/−0.01mm; 89% within 0.05mm. Mean leaf position deviation is 0.02mm. Gantry angle variations lie in the range −0.1 to 0.3 degrees, mean 0.04 degrees. Fluence verification shows excellent agreement between planned and treated fluence. Agreement between planned and treated dose distribution, the derived from log files, is very good. Conclusion: Automated log file analysis is a valuable tool for the busy physicist, enabling potential treated fluence distribution errors to be quickly identified. In the near future we will correlate trajectory log analysis with routine IMRT/VMAT QA analysis. This has the potential to reduce, but not eliminate, the QA workload.« less

  12. Incomplete Puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a mid-summer view of a portion of the south polar residual cap of Mars. The large, relatively flat-lying, puzzle-like pieces in this scene are mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.5oS, 76.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  13. Crossword Puzzles as Learning Tools in Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Students in introductory courses generally respond favorably to novel approaches to learning. To this end, I developed and used three crossword puzzles in spring and fall 2009 semesters in Introductory Soil Science Laboratory at Colorado State University. The first hypothesis was that crossword puzzles would improve introductory soil science…

  14. Teaching Proofs and Algorithms in Discrete Mathematics with Online Visual Logic Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cigas, John; Hsin, Wen-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Visual logic puzzles provide a fertile environment for teaching multiple topics in discrete mathematics. Many puzzles can be solved by the repeated application of a small, finite set of strategies. Explicitly reasoning from a strategy to a new puzzle state illustrates theorems, proofs, and logic principles. These provide valuable, concrete…

  15. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  16. The Clock Is Ticking: Library Orientation as Puzzle Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reade, Tripp

    2017-01-01

    Tripp Reade is the school librarian at Cardinal Gibbons High School in Raleigh, North Carolina. This article describes how he redesigned his school's library orientation program after learning about escape rooms and a variant known as puzzle rooms. Puzzle rooms present players with a set of challenges to solve; they require "teamwork,…

  17. Puzzle-Based Learning in Engineering Mathematics: Students' Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2017-01-01

    The article reports on the results of two case studies on the impact of the regular use of puzzles as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching and learning of engineering mathematics. The intention of using puzzles is to engage students' emotions, creativity and curiosity and also to enhance their generic thinking skills and lateral thinking…

  18. Robust Sex Differences in Jigsaw Puzzle Solving—Are Boys Really Better in Most Visuospatial Tasks?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijan, Vid; Horvat, Marina; Majdic, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences are consistently reported in different visuospatial tasks with men usually performing better in mental rotation tests while women are better on tests for memory of object locations. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in solving jigsaw puzzles in children. In total 22 boys and 24 girls were tested using custom build tablet application representing a jigsaw puzzle consisting of 25 pieces and featuring three different pictures. Girls outperformed boys in solving jigsaw puzzles regardless of the picture. Girls were faster than boys in solving the puzzle, made less incorrect moves with the pieces of the puzzle, and spent less time moving the pieces around the tablet. It appears that the strategy of solving the jigsaw puzzle was the main factor affecting differences in success, as girls tend to solve the puzzle more systematically while boys performed more trial and error attempts, thus having more incorrect moves with the puzzle pieces. Results of this study suggest a very robust sex difference in solving the jigsaw puzzle with girls outperforming boys by a large margin. PMID:29109682

  19. Robust Sex Differences in Jigsaw Puzzle Solving-Are Boys Really Better in Most Visuospatial Tasks?

    PubMed

    Kocijan, Vid; Horvat, Marina; Majdic, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences are consistently reported in different visuospatial tasks with men usually performing better in mental rotation tests while women are better on tests for memory of object locations. In the present study, we investigated sex differences in solving jigsaw puzzles in children. In total 22 boys and 24 girls were tested using custom build tablet application representing a jigsaw puzzle consisting of 25 pieces and featuring three different pictures. Girls outperformed boys in solving jigsaw puzzles regardless of the picture. Girls were faster than boys in solving the puzzle, made less incorrect moves with the pieces of the puzzle, and spent less time moving the pieces around the tablet. It appears that the strategy of solving the jigsaw puzzle was the main factor affecting differences in success, as girls tend to solve the puzzle more systematically while boys performed more trial and error attempts, thus having more incorrect moves with the puzzle pieces. Results of this study suggest a very robust sex difference in solving the jigsaw puzzle with girls outperforming boys by a large margin.

  20. International trade network: fractal properties and globalization puzzle.

    PubMed

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-12

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  1. International Trade Network: Fractal Properties and Globalization Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiarz, Mariusz; Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata

    2014-12-01

    Globalization is one of the central concepts of our age. The common perception of the process is that, due to declining communication and transport costs, distance becomes less and less important. However, the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade, which grows in time, indicates that the role of distance increases rather than decreases. This, in essence, captures the notion of the globalization puzzle. Here, we show that the fractality of the international trade system (ITS) provides a simple solution for the puzzle. We argue that the distance coefficient corresponds to the fractal dimension of ITS. We provide two independent methods, the box counting method and spatial choice model, which confirm this statement. Our results allow us to conclude that the previous approaches to solving the puzzle misinterpreted the meaning of the distance coefficient in the gravity model of trade.

  2. Puzzling History--The Personal File in Residential Care: A Source for Life History and Historical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wilde, Lieselot; Vanobbergen, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the century large groups of former institutionalised children have exercised their right to see their "personal files", and this has drawn widespread attention to these documents and their potential in scholarly research. This article explores the meanings of personal files from the period 1945-1984 as sources for both…

  3. Accelerating Student Learning of Technology Terms: "The Crossword Puzzle Exercise"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenand, Thomas G.; Dunphy, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors suggest using an alternative teaching methodology to impart knowledge regarding information systems phraseology and vocabulary. Specifically, a series of crossword puzzles or scrabbles are used to present information system (IS) terminology to students in an introductory business information systems course. The puzzle terms and answers…

  4. Enumerating Small Sudoku Puzzles in a First Abstract Algebra Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Crystal; Lorch, John

    2008-01-01

    Two methods are presented for counting small "essentially different" sudoku puzzles using elementary group theory: one method (due to Jarvis and Russell) uses Burnside's counting formula, while the other employs an invariant property of sudoku puzzles. Ideas are included for incorporating this material into an introductory abstract algebra course.…

  5. Association of Crossword Puzzle Participation with Memory Decline in Persons Who Develop Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Jagan A.; Hall, Charles B.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Buschke, Herman; Lipton, Richard B.; Verghese, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Participation in cognitively stimulating leisure activities such as crossword puzzles may delay onset of the memory decline in the preclinical stages of dementia, possibly via its effect on improving cognitive reserve. We followed 488 initially cognitively intact community residing individuals with clinical and cognitive assessments every 12–18 months in the Bronx Aging Study. We assessed the influence of crossword puzzle participation on the onset of accelerated memory decline as measured by the Buschke Selective Reminding Test in 101 individuals who developed incident dementia using a change point model. Crossword puzzle participation at baseline delayed onset of accelerated memory decline by 2.54 years. Inclusion of education or participation in other cognitively stimulating activities did not significantly add to the fit of the model beyond the effect of puzzles. Our findings show that late life crossword puzzle participation, independent of education, was associated with delayed onset of memory decline in persons who developed dementia. Given the wide availability and accessibility of crossword puzzles, their role in preventing cognitive decline should be validated in future clinical trials. PMID:22040899

  6. Nature's Greatest Puzzles

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2005-02-01

    It is a pleasure to be part of the SLAC Summer Institute again, not simply because it is one of the great traditions in our field, but because this is a moment of great promise for particle physics. I look forward to exploring many opportunities with you over the course of our two weeks together. My first task in talking about Nature's Greatest Puzzles, the title of this year's Summer Institute, is to deconstruct the premise a little bit.

  7. Construction-Paper Puzzle Masterpieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    Creating an appreciation of art history in her junior-high students has always been one of the author's greatest challenges as an art teacher. In this article, the author describes how her eighth-grade students re-created a famous work of art--piece by piece, like a puzzle or a stained-glass window--out of construction paper. (Contains 1 resource.)

  8. An Alternative Evaluation: Online Puzzle as a Course-End Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genç, Zülfü; Aydemir, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of online puzzles in the instructional process has an effect on student achievement and learning retention. This study examined students ' perception and experiences on use of puzzle as an alternative evaluation tool. To achieve this aim, the following hypotheses were tested: using…

  9. The Puzzle of Science; Making Sense of Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, B. U.

    2015-12-01

    There are many topics within Earth science including evolution, historical geology, and climate change, which have gained the status of theory becuse they have overwhelming evidence, yet there is still fragmentary information which can frustrate a student from coming to solid conclusions. Using a jigsaw puzzle whose image has been hidden, and the pieces only given out sparingly, students go though the process of getting more information. How does one get more puzzle pieces and what is the interpretive process? Experience with this exercise demonstrates how students can sketch out an incredibly accurate conception of the "big picture", despite not having all the puzzle pieces. The goal of this talk is to give a complete tool kit to perform as a comprehensive lesson plan. Guiding questions and copies of lesson plans and materials are supplied for this exercise.

  10. Conservational PDF Equations of Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have revisited the traditional probability density function (PDF) equations for the velocity and species in turbulent incompressible flows. They are all unclosed due to the appearance of various conditional means which are modeled empirically. However, we have observed that it is possible to establish a closed velocity PDF equation and a closed joint velocity and species PDF equation through conditions derived from the integral form of the Navier-Stokes equations. Although, in theory, the resulted PDF equations are neither general nor unique, they nevertheless lead to the exact transport equations for the first moment as well as all higher order moments. We refer these PDF equations as the conservational PDF equations. This observation is worth further exploration for its validity and CFD application

  11. Puzzle-based learning in engineering mathematics: students' attitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2017-11-01

    The article reports on the results of two case studies on the impact of the regular use of puzzles as a pedagogical strategy in the teaching and learning of engineering mathematics. The intention of using puzzles is to engage students' emotions, creativity and curiosity and also to enhance their generic thinking skills and lateral thinking 'outside the box'. Students' attitudes towards this pedagogical strategy are evaluated via short questionnaires with two groups of university students taking a second-year engineering mathematics course. Students' responses to the questionnaire are presented and analyzed in the paper.

  12. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  13. A G protein-coupled receptor, groom-of-PDF, is required for PDF neuron action in circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Lear, Bridget C; Merrill, C Elaine; Lin, Jui-Ming; Schroeder, Analyne; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2005-10-20

    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) plays a critical role in mediating circadian control of behavior in Drosophila. Here we identify mutants (groom-of-PDF; gop) that display phase-advanced evening activity and poor free-running rhythmicity, phenocopying pdf mutants. In gop mutants, a spontaneous retrotransposon disrupts a coding exon of a G protein-coupled receptor, CG13758. Disruption of the receptor is accompanied by phase-advanced oscillations of the core clock protein PERIOD. Moreover, effects on circadian timing induced by perturbation of PDF neurons require gop. Yet PDF oscillations themselves remain robust in gop mutants, suggesting that GOP acts downstream of PDF. gop is expressed most strongly in the dorsal brain in regions that lie in proximity to PDF-containing nerve terminals. Taken together, these studies implicate GOP as a PDF receptor in Drosophila.

  14. Two-Dimensional Parson's Puzzles: The Concept, Tools, and First Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihantola, Petri; Karavirta, Ville

    2011-01-01

    Parson's programming puzzles are a family of code construction assignments where lines of code are given, and the task is to form the solution by sorting and possibly selecting the correct code lines. We introduce a novel family of Parson's puzzles where the lines of code need to be sorted in two dimensions. The vertical dimension is used to order…

  15. The impact of memory load and perceptual cues on puzzle learning by 24-month olds.

    PubMed

    Barr, Rachel; Moser, Alecia; Rusnak, Sylvia; Zimmermann, Laura; Dickerson, Kelly; Lee, Herietta; Gerhardstein, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments. Memory load was manipulated in Exp. 1 by adding pieces to the puzzle, increasing sequence length from 2 to 3 items, and to 3 items plus a distractor. Although memory load did not influence how toddlers learned to manipulate the puzzle pieces, it did influence toddlers' achievement of the goal-constructing the fish. Overall, girls were better at constructing the puzzle than boys. In Exp. 2, the perceptual features of the puzzle were altered by changing shape boundaries to create a two-piece horizontally cut puzzle (displaying bilateral symmetry), and by adding a semantically supportive context to the vertically cut puzzle (iconic). Toddlers were able to achieve the goal of building the fish equally well across the 2-item puzzle types (bilateral symmetry, vertical, iconic), but how they learned to manipulate the puzzle pieces varied as a function of the perceptual features. Here, as in Exp. 1, girls showed a different pattern of performance from the boys. This study demonstrates that changes in memory capacity and perceptual processing influence both goal-directed imitation learning and motoric performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Computational Complexity of the Kakuro Puzzle, Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruepp, Oliver; Holzer, Markus

    We present a new proof of NP-completeness for the problem of solving instances of the Japanese pencil puzzle Kakuro (also known as Cross-Sum). While the NP-completeness of Kakuro puzzles has been shown before [T. Seta. The complexity of CROSS SUM. IPSJ SIG Notes, AL-84:51-58, 2002], there are still two interesting aspects to our proof: we show NP-completeness for a new variant of Kakuro that has not been investigated before and thus improves the aforementioned result. Moreover some parts of the proof have been generated automatically, using an interesting technique involving SAT solvers.

  17. Digital version of "Open-File Report 92-179: Geologic map of the Cow Cove Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, Howard G.; Bedford, David R.; Coleman, Teresa

    2002-01-01

    3. Plottable map representations of the database at 1:24,000 scale in PostScript and Adobe PDF formats. The plottable files consist of a color geologic map derived from the spatial database, composited with a topographic base map in the form of the USGS Digital Raster Graphic for the map area. Color symbology from each of these datasets is maintained, which can cause plot file sizes to be large.

  18. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  19. Puzzle Imaging: Using Large-Scale Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms for Localization.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Joshua I; Zamft, Bradley M; Church, George M; Kording, Konrad P

    2015-01-01

    Current high-resolution imaging techniques require an intact sample that preserves spatial relationships. We here present a novel approach, "puzzle imaging," that allows imaging a spatially scrambled sample. This technique takes many spatially disordered samples, and then pieces them back together using local properties embedded within the sample. We show that puzzle imaging can efficiently produce high-resolution images using dimensionality reduction algorithms. We demonstrate the theoretical capabilities of puzzle imaging in three biological scenarios, showing that (1) relatively precise 3-dimensional brain imaging is possible; (2) the physical structure of a neural network can often be recovered based only on the neural connectivity matrix; and (3) a chemical map could be reproduced using bacteria with chemosensitive DNA and conjugative transfer. The ability to reconstruct scrambled images promises to enable imaging based on DNA sequencing of homogenized tissue samples.

  20. Puzzle Imaging: Using Large-Scale Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms for Localization

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Joshua I.; Zamft, Bradley M.; Church, George M.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    Current high-resolution imaging techniques require an intact sample that preserves spatial relationships. We here present a novel approach, “puzzle imaging,” that allows imaging a spatially scrambled sample. This technique takes many spatially disordered samples, and then pieces them back together using local properties embedded within the sample. We show that puzzle imaging can efficiently produce high-resolution images using dimensionality reduction algorithms. We demonstrate the theoretical capabilities of puzzle imaging in three biological scenarios, showing that (1) relatively precise 3-dimensional brain imaging is possible; (2) the physical structure of a neural network can often be recovered based only on the neural connectivity matrix; and (3) a chemical map could be reproduced using bacteria with chemosensitive DNA and conjugative transfer. The ability to reconstruct scrambled images promises to enable imaging based on DNA sequencing of homogenized tissue samples. PMID:26192446

  1. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-13

    Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 +/- 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 +/- 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 +/- 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 +/- 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale.

  2. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  3. Sensitivity to Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) Is Cell-Type Specific among PDF-Expressing Circadian Clock Neurons in the Madeira Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Gestrich, Julia; Giese, Maria; Shen, Wen; Zhang, Yi; Voss, Alexandra; Popov, Cyril; Stengl, Monika; Wei, HongYing

    2018-02-01

    Transplantation studies have pinpointed the circadian clock of the Madeira cockroach to the accessory medulla (AME) of the brain's optic lobes. The AME is innervated by approximately 240 adjacent neuropeptidergic neurons, including 12 pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing neurons anterior to the AME (aPDFMEs). Four of the aPDFMEs project contralaterally, controlling locomotor activity rhythms of the night-active cockroach. The present in vitro Ca 2+ imaging analysis focuses on contralaterally projecting AME neurons and their responses to PDF, GABA, and acetylcholine (ACh). First, rhodamine-dextran backfills from the contralateral optic stalk identified contralaterally projecting AME neurons, which were then dispersed in primary cell cultures. After characterization of PDF, GABA, and ACh responses, PDF immunocytochemistry identified ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting PDFMEs. All PDF-sensitive clock neurons, PDF-immunoreactive clock neurons, and the majority of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting cells were excited by ACh. GABA inhibited all PDF-expressing clock neurons, and about half of other ipsilaterally projecting and most contralaterally projecting clock neurons. For the first time, we identified PDF autoreceptors in PDF-secreting cockroach circadian pacemakers. The medium-sized aPDFMEs and all other contralaterally projecting PDF-sensitive clock cells were inhibited by PDF. The ipsilaterally remaining small PDF-sensitive clock cells were activated by PDF. Only the largest aPDFME did not express PDF autoreceptors. We hypothesize that opposing PDF signaling generates 2 different ensembles of clock cells with antiphasic activity, regulating and maintaining a constant phase relationship between rest and activity cycles of the night-active cockroach.

  4. Usefulness of Crossword Puzzles in Helping First-Year BVSc Students Learn Veterinary Terminology.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, Angel; Castillo, Cristina; May, Stephen A

    Appropriate terminology is essential for successful communication among health professionals. However, students have traditionally been encouraged to learn terminology by rote memorization and recall, strategies that students try to avoid. The use of crossword puzzles as a learning tool has been evaluated in other education disciplines, but not for terminology related to veterinary science. Hence, the objective of this study was to test whether crossword puzzles might be an effective aid to learning veterinary terminology. Forty-two first-year students enrolled in a Bachelor of Veterinary Science program were randomly divided into two groups and their previous knowledge of veterinary terms tested. One group received a list of 30 terms with their definitions. The other group received the same list plus six specially designed puzzles incorporating these 30 terms. After 50 minutes, both groups completed a post-intervention test and the results were compared statistically. The results showed that the students using the crossword puzzles performed better in the post-intervention test, correctly retaining more terms than the students using only rote learning. In addition, qualitative data, gathered through an electronic survey and focus group discussions, revealed a positive attitude among students toward the use of crossword puzzles.

  5. Crossword Puzzle Makes It Fun: Introduce Green Manufacturing in Wood Technology Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John L.; Hague, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable, or "green," manufacturing and its practices are becoming more and more a part of today's industry, including wood product manufacturing. This article provides introductory information on green manufacturing in wood technology and a crossword puzzle based on green manufacturing terms. The authors use the puzzle at the college level to…

  6. What Puzzles Teachers in Rio de janeiro, and What Keeps Them Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyra, Isolina; Fish, Solange; Braga, Walewska Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the key mechanism of "puzzling" in Exploratory Practice (EP), a form of practitioner research, and the critical issue of sustainability in the context of volunteer teacher development work in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Investigated puzzles (concerns) of language teachers and grouped them into six categories; motivation, anxiety,…

  7. An Empirical Evaluation of Puzzle-Based Learning as an Interest Approach for Teaching Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrick, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence describes an adaptation of puzzle-based learning to teaching an introductory computer programming course. Students from two offerings of the course--with and without the puzzle-based learning--were surveyed over a two-year period. Empirical results show that the synthesis of puzzle-based learning concepts with existing course…

  8. A Puzzling Alcohol Dehydration Reaction Solved by GC-MS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelter, Michael W.; Macudzinski, Rebecca M.

    1999-06-01

    We have adapted the dehydration of 2-methyl-2-propanol to a "puzzle" approach for use in our second-semester chemistry major organic laboratory. The reaction of 2-methyl-2-propanol with ~50% sulfuric acid at 100 °C yields isobutylene, which reacts further by a "puzzling" reaction. By coupling the GC/MS analysis of the product mixture with their knowledge of the mechanism of alcohol dehydration and alkene reactivity, students are able to identify the major products of this reaction.

  9. Dissolving the Puzzle of Resultant Moral Luck.

    PubMed

    Levy, Neil

    The puzzle of resultant moral luck arises when we are disposed to think that an agent who caused a harm deserves to be blamed more than an otherwise identical agent who did not. One popular (but controversial) perspective on resultant moral luck explains our dispositions to produce different judgments with regard to the agents who feature in these cases as a product not of what they genuinely deserve but of our epistemic situation. On this account, there is no genuine resultant moral luck; there is only luck in what evidence becomes available to observers. In this paper, I develop an evolutionary account of our inclination to take the results of actions as evidence for the mental states of agents, thereby explaining why the resulting intuitions are recalcitrant to correction. The account explains why the puzzle of resultant moral luck arises: because our disposition to take the harms agents cause as evidence of their mental states can produce intuitions which conflict with those that arise when we examine agents' mental states without reference to the results of their actions. The account also helps to solve the puzzle of resultant moral luck, by providing a strong reason to ignore the intuitions caused by our disposition to regard actual harms as evidence of mental states. Since these intuitions arise using an unreliable proxy for agents' mental states, they ought to be trumped by more reliable evidence.

  10. [Educational Therapy Using Games and Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locker, Chava

    Ways in which games can be used as tools in observing, diagnosing, and providing educational therapy for learning dysfunctions are listed and described in a series of four related papers: (a) "Educational Therapy for Learning Dysfunctions"; (2) "Educational Therapy and Puzzles"; (3) "Educational Therapy and Reading Fluency"; and (4) "Spelling…

  11. IceCube

    Science.gov Websites

    . PDF file High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers with IceCube. PDF file IceCube Performance with Artificial Light Sources: the road to a Cascade Analyses + Energy scale calibration for EHE. PDF file , 2006. PDF file Thorsten Stetzelberger "IceCube DAQ Design & Performance" Nov 2005 PPT

  12. Jigsaw Puzzles As Cognitive Enrichment (PACE) - the effect of solving jigsaw puzzles on global visuospatial cognition in adults 50 years of age and older: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fissler, Patrick; Küster, Olivia C; Loy, Laura S; Laptinskaya, Daria; Rosenfelder, Martin J; von Arnim, Christine A F; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2017-09-06

    Neurocognitive disorders are an important societal challenge and the need for early prevention is increasingly recognized. Meta-analyses show beneficial effects of cognitive activities on cognition. However, high financial costs, low intrinsic motivation, logistic challenges of group-based activities, or the need to operate digital devices prevent their widespread application in clinical practice. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a cognitive activity without these hindering characteristics, but cognitive effects have not been investigated yet. With this study, we aim to evaluate the effect of solving jigsaw puzzles on visuospatial cognition, daily functioning, and psychological outcomes. The pre-posttest, assessor-blinded study will include 100 cognitively healthy adults 50 years of age or older, who will be randomly assigned to a jigsaw puzzle group or a cognitive health counseling group. Within the 5-week intervention period, participants in the jigsaw puzzle group will engage in 30 days of solving jigsaw puzzles for at least 1 h per day and additionally receive cognitive health counseling. The cognitive health counseling group will receive the same counseling intervention but no jigsaw puzzles. The primary outcome, global visuospatial cognition, will depict the average of the z-standardized performance scores in visuospatial tests of perception, constructional praxis, mental rotation, processing speed, flexibility, working memory, reasoning, and episodic memory. As secondary outcomes, we will assess the eight cognitive abilities, objective and subjective visuospatial daily functioning, psychological well-being, general self-efficacy, and perceived stress. The primary data analysis will be based on mixed-effects models in an intention-to-treat approach. Solving jigsaw puzzles is a low-cost, intrinsically motivating, cognitive leisure activity, which can be executed alone or with others and without the need to operate a digital device. In the case of positive results

  13. Track Reconstruction and the Proton Radius Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Steven; Cline, Ethan; Gilman, Ron; MUSE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Pohl et al. measured the proton charge radius to be 0.84184(67) fm using muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. This value differs about 5 σ from the CODATA proton radius from measurements with electrons. Other experiments with muons and electrons have confirmed the difference and the discrepancy has been termed the `Proton Radius Puzzle.' Currently there are no explanations for the puzzle. The MUon proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will make a significant measurement of the proton radius with muon scattering for the first time. The experiment tracks elastic scattering of electrons and muons off of liquid hydrogen. Particle tracks are reconstructed with track fitting software GenFit. Using a simulation of MUSE, GenFit has been determined to be proficient at track reconstruction. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1560077.

  14. Effect of a puzzle on the process of students' learning about cardiac physiology.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Lais Tono; Miranda, Aline Soares; Moura, Maria José Costa Sampaio; Marcondes, Fernanda Klein

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of using a puzzle to learn about cardiac physiology. Students were divided into control and game groups. In class 1, the control group had a 2-h theoretical class about cardiac physiology, including a detailed description of the phases of the cardiac cycle, whereas the game group had a 50-min theoretical class without the description of the cardiac cycle. In class 2, the control group did an assessment exercise before an activity with the cardiac puzzle and the game group answered questions after the above-mentioned activity. While solving the puzzle, the students had to describe the cardiac cycle by relating the concepts of heart morphology and physiology. To evaluate short-term learning, the number of wrong answers and grades in the assessment exercise were compared between the control and game groups. To evaluate medium-term learning, we compared the grades obtained by students of the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology that formed part of the academic exam. In the assessment exercise, the game group presented a lower number of errors and higher score compared with the control group. In the academic exam, applied after both groups had used the puzzle, there was no difference in the scores obtained by the control and game groups in questions about cardiac physiology. These results showed a positive effect of the puzzle on students' learning about cardiac physiology compared with those not using the puzzle. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. Puzzle based teaching versus traditional instruction in electrocardiogram interpretation for medical students – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Jack; Dhoble, Abhijeet; Ferenchick, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background Most medical professionals are expected to possess basic electrocardiogram (EKG) interpretation skills. But, published data suggests that residents' and physicians' EKG interpretation skills are suboptimal. Learning styles differ among medical students; individualization of teaching methods has been shown to be viable and may result in improved learning. Puzzles have been shown to facilitate learning in a relaxed environment. The objective of this study was to assess efficacy of teaching puzzle in EKG interpretation skills among medical students. Methods This is a reader blinded crossover trial. Third year medical students from College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University participated in this study. Two groups (n = 9) received two traditional EKG interpretation skills lectures followed by a standardized exam and two extra sessions with the teaching puzzle and a different exam. Two other groups (n = 6) received identical courses and exams with the puzzle session first followed by the traditional teaching. EKG interpretation scores on final test were used as main outcome measure. Results The average score after only traditional teaching was 4.07 ± 2.08 while after only the puzzle session was 4.04 ± 2.36 (p = 0.97). The average improvement after the traditional session was followed up with a puzzle session was 2.53 ± 1.94 while the average improvement after the puzzle session was followed with the traditional session was 2.08 ± 1.73 (p = 0.67). The final EKG exam score for this cohort (n = 15) was 84.1 compared to 86.6 (p = 0.22) for a comparable sample of medical students (n = 15) at a different campus. Conclusion Teaching EKG interpretation with puzzles is comparable to traditional teaching and may be particularly useful for certain subgroups of students. Puzzle session are more interactive and relaxing, and warrant further investigations on larger scale. PMID:19144134

  16. Economics, human biology and inequality: A review of "puzzles" and recent contributions from a Deatonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Baten, Joerg

    2017-05-01

    The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth. This article reviews these "puzzles" and the main insights that Deaton derived from their discussion insofar as they pertain to the biological aspects of human development. I will focus on the field of this journal, Economics and Human Biology, in which Deaton has been very active over the last two decades. I will also document some of the responses by other scholars and their contributions to these puzzles, as they relate to the field of economics and human biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical silencing of PDF neurons advances the phase of non-PDF clock neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Cao, Guan; Nitabach, Michael N

    2008-04-01

    Drosophila clock neurons exhibit self-sustaining cellular oscillations that rely in part on rhythmic transcriptional feedback loops. We have previously determined that electrical silencing of the pigment dispersing factor (PDF)-expressing lateral-ventral (LN(V)) pacemaker subset of fly clock neurons via expression of an inward-rectifier K(+) channel (Kir2.1) severely disrupts free-running rhythms of locomotor activity-most flies are arrhythmic and those that are not exhibit weak short-period rhythms-and abolishes LN(V) molecular oscillation in constant darkness. PDF is known to be an important LN(V) output signal. Here we examine the effects of electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers on molecular rhythms in other, nonsilenced, subsets of clock neurons. In contrast to previously described cell-autonomous abolition of free-running molecular rhythms, we find that electrical silencing of the LN(V) pacemakers via Kir2.1 expression does not impair molecular rhythms in LN(D), DN1, and DN2 subsets of clock neurons. However, free-running molecular rhythms in these non-LN(V) clock neurons occur with advanced phase. Electrical silencing of LN(V)s phenocopies PDF null mutation (pdf (01) ) at both behavioral and molecular levels except for the complete abolition of free-running cellular oscillation in the LN(V)s themselves. LN(V) electrically silenced or pdf 01 flies exhibit weak free-running behavioral rhythms with short period, and the molecular oscillation in non-LN(V) neurons phase advances in constant darkness. That LN( V) electrical silencing leads to the same behavioral and non-LN( V) molecular phenotypes as pdf 01 suggests that persistence of LN(V) molecular oscillation in pdf 01 flies has no functional effect, either on behavioral rhythms or on non-LN(V) molecular rhythms. We thus conclude that functionally relevant signals from LN(V)s to non-LN(V) clock neurons and other downstream targets rely both on PDF signaling and LN(V) electrical activity, and that LN( V

  18. Free-style puzzle flap: the concept of recycling a perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuan-Ming; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Jeng, Seng-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Theoretically, a flap can be supplied by any perforator based on the angiosome theory. In this study, the technique of free-style perforator flap dissection was used to harvest a pedicled or free skin flap from a previous free flap for a second difficult reconstruction. The authors call this a free-style puzzle flap. For the past 3 years, the authors treated 13 patients in whom 12 pedicled free-style puzzle flaps were harvested from previous redundant free flaps and recycled to reconstruct soft-tissue defects at various anatomical locations. One free-style free puzzle flap was harvested from a previous anterolateral thigh flap for buccal cancer to reconstruct a foot defect. Total flap survival was attained in 12 of 13 flaps. One transferred flap failed completely. This patient had received postoperative radiotherapy after the initial cancer ablation and free anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction. Another free flap was used to close and reconstruct the wound. All the donor sites could be closed primarily. The free-style puzzle flap, harvested from a previous redundant free flap and used as a perforator flap to reconstruct a new defect, has proven to be versatile and reliable. When indicated, it is an alternative donor site for further reconstruction of soft-tissue defects.

  19. Family caregivers of palliative cancer patients at home: the puzzle of pain management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anita; Cohen, S Robin; Carnevale, Franco A; Ezer, Hélène; Ducharme, Francine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand the processes used by family caregivers to manage the pain of cancer patients at home. A total of 24 family caregivers participated. They were recruited using purposeful then theoretical sampling. The data sources were taped, transcribed (semi-structured) interviews and field notes. Data analysis was based on Strauss and Corbin's (1998) requirements for open, axial, and selective coding. The result was an explanatory model titled "the puzzle of pain management," which includes four main processes: "drawing on past experiences"; "strategizing a game plan"; "striving to respond to pain"; and "gauging the best fit," a decision-making process that joins the puzzle pieces. Understanding how family caregivers assemble their puzzle pieces can help health care professionals make decisions related to the care plans they create for pain control and help them to recognize the importance of providing information as part of resolving the puzzle of pain management.

  20. Neutron star news and puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  1. 3D satellite puzzles for young and old kids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Galoforo, Germana

    2017-04-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) is active in outreach willing to increase the interest of young generations and general public toward the space activities. ASI proposes educational programmes for supporting and encouraging the development of European society based on knowledge, inspiring and motivating the young generations. One of the initiatives promoted by ASI on this regards is the 3D satellite puzzles. The idea was born in 2007 from the will to conceive an educational product for promoting and explaining to students the small all-Italian mission AGILE (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Immagini ultra Leggero) thought as a tool for students aged 8-13. Working with this slot of students is very productive in terms of the imprints left on the kids, in fact it is useful to produce things they can use, touch and play with, with an active approach instead of a passive one. Therefore it was decided to produce something that kids could build and use at home with their parents or friends, or all together at school with teachers and mates. Other puzzles followed AGILE, one about the COSMO-SkyMED satellites about Earth Observation and also a broader one of the International Space Station. During these 10 years the puzzles were mostly used as outreach tools for school children, but they surprisingly received a great success also within older generations. So far the 3D puzzles have been printed in more than 10 thousand copies and distributed for free to students of hundreds of schools in Italy, and to the general public through science associations, planetaria and museums. Recently they have been used also during special events such as the international Geoscience Communication School (as best practice outreach tool), the EXPO 2015 and the European Researcheŕs Night at the Parlamentarium in Brussels 2016. While the students are building the puzzles, the tutor explains them the different components that they are assembling, what the importance of the satellite is and how it works

  2. Reinforcing Geometric Properties with Shapedoku Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.; Nickell, Jennifer V.

    2013-01-01

    Shapedoku is a new type of puzzle that combines logic and spatial reasoning with understanding of basic geometric concepts such as slope, parallelism, perpendicularity, and properties of shapes. Shapedoku can be solved by individuals and, as demonstrated here, can form the basis of a review for geometry students as they create their own. In this…

  3. Lorentz violation in the gravity sector: The t puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    Lorentz violation is a candidate quantum-gravity signal, and the Standard-Model Extension (SME) is a widely used parametrization of such a violation. In the gravitational SME sector, there is an elusive coefficient for which no effects have been found. This is known as the t puzzle and, to date, it has no compelling explanation. This paper analyzes whether there is a fundamental explanation for the t puzzle. To tackle this question, several approaches are followed. Mainly, redefinitions of the dynamical fields are studied, showing that other SME coefficients can be moved to nongravitational sectors. It is also found that the gravity SME sector can be consistently treated à la Palatini, and that, in the presence of spacetime boundaries, it is possible to correct its action to get the desired equations of motion. Moreover, through a reformulation as a Lanczos-type tensor, some problematic features of the t term, which should arise at the phenomenological level, are revealed. The most important conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence of a fundamental explanation for the t puzzle, suggesting that it may be linked to the approximations taken at the phenomenological level.

  4. Children with Prader-Willi syndrome vs. Williams syndrome: indirect effects on parents during a jigsaw puzzle task.

    PubMed

    Ly, T M; Hodapp, R M

    2005-12-01

    Genetic disorders predispose individuals to exhibit characteristic behaviours, which in turn elicit particular behaviours from others. In response to the strength of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and weakness of Williams syndrome (WS) in visual-spatial tasks such as jigsaw puzzles, parents' behaviours can be affected by their child's level of puzzle ability or syndrome diagnosis. Children were asked to complete two jigsaw puzzles (one with the experimenter and the other with the parent) for 5 min each. Frequencies of parental helping and reinforcement behaviours, along with ratings of parental directiveness, were examined as parents interacted with their children on a jigsaw puzzle task. Within each aetiological group, correlates of parental behaviours with child characteristics were also examined. Compared to parents of children with PWS, parents of children with WS engaged in a more directive style of interaction, and provided more help and reinforcement. Relative to parents of children with higher puzzle abilities (from both aetiologies), parents of children with lower abilities also showed the same pattern. Both the child's aetiology and puzzle abilities were important in predicting parents' directiveness and helping and reinforcement behaviours. Within the PWS group, parents' behaviours correlated negatively with the child's puzzle abilities and general cognitive functioning; no such relations occurred in the WS group. Parents' behaviours were affected by both the child's diagnosis and actual puzzle abilities, suggesting important implications for understanding and intervening with parents and children with different genetic syndromes.

  5. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  6. Exploring Organic Mechanistic Puzzles with Molecular Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail; Schwartz, Gary

    2004-01-01

    The molecular modeling was used to reinforce more general skills such as deducing and drawing reaction mechanisms, analyzing reaction kinetics and thermodynamics and drawing reaction coordinate energy diagrams. This modeling was done through the design of mechanistic puzzles, involving reactions not familiar to the students.

  7. Formative Assessment Probes: Mountaintop Fossil: A Puzzling Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    This column focuses on promoting learning through assessment. This month's issue describes using formative assessment probes to uncover several ways of thinking about the puzzling discovery of a marine fossil on top of a mountain.

  8. Three-dimensional reconstructions come to life--interactive 3D PDF animations in functional morphology.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering.

  9. Particle Filter with State Permutations for Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingwei; Adluru, Nagesh; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2016-01-01

    We deal with an image jigsaw puzzle problem, which is defined as reconstructing an image from a set of square and non-overlapping image patches. It is known that a general instance of this problem is NP-complete, and it is also challenging for humans, since in the considered setting the original image is not given. Recently a graphical model has been proposed to solve this and related problems. The target label probability function is then maximized using loopy belief propagation. We also formulate the problem as maximizing a label probability function and use exactly the same pairwise potentials. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach in the sampling framework of Particle Filter (PF). Usually in the PF framework it is assumed that the observations arrive sequentially, e.g., the observations are naturally ordered by their time stamps in the tracking scenario. Based on this assumption, the posterior density over the corresponding hidden states is estimated. In the jigsaw puzzle problem all observations (puzzle pieces) are given at once without any particular order. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations and extend the PF framework to estimate the posterior density by exploring different orders of observations and selecting the most informative permutations of observations. This significantly broadens the scope of applications of the PF inference. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms the loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, the extended PF inference triples the accuracy of the label assignment compared to that using loopy belief propagation. PMID:27795660

  10. The odd-even effect in Sudoku puzzles: effects of working memory, aging, and experience.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sang; Gibson, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    The odd-even effect in numerical processing has been explained as the easier processing of even numbers compared with odd numbers. We investigated this effect in Sudoku puzzles, a reasoning problem that uses numbers but does not require arithmetic operations. Specifically, we asked whether the odd-even effect occurred with Sudoku puzzles and whether individual differences in working memory (WM), aging, and experience with Sudoku modulated this effect. We manipulated the presence of odd and even numbers in Sudoku puzzles, measured WM with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and backward digit span task, tested older and younger adults, and collected Sudoku experience frequency. Performance on Sudoku was more accurate for even puzzles than odd ones. Younger, experienced, and higher-WM participants were more accurate on Sudoku, but these individual difference variables did not interact with the odd-even effect. Odd numbers may impose more cognitive load than even numbers, but future research is needed to examine how age, experience, or WM may influence the odd-even effect.

  11. Piecing It Together: The Effect of Background Music on Children's Puzzle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Koolidge, Louis; Holmes, Robyn M

    2018-04-01

    This study explored the effects of background music on cognitive (puzzle assembly) task performance in young children. Participants were 87 primarily European-American children (38 boys, 49 girls; mean age = 4.77 years) enrolled in early childhood classes in the northeastern United States. Children were given one minute to complete a 12-piece puzzle task in one of three background music conditions: music with lyrics, music without lyrics, and no music. The music selection was "You're Welcome" from the Disney movie "Moana." Results revealed that children who heard the music without lyrics completed more puzzle pieces than children in either the music with lyrics or no music condition. Background music without distracting lyrics may be beneficial and superior to background music with lyrics for young children's cognitive performance even when they are engaged independently in a nonverbal task.

  12. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  13. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  14. Variation on the similar-size disk tower of hanoi puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuchri, S.

    2017-02-01

    The famous Tower of Hanoi puzzle was invented by Edouard Lucas in 1883. This puzzle proposed three pegs, and the number of disks with different size. The puzzle starts with the disks in a neat stack in ascending order of size on one peg, the smallest at the top. The objective of the puzzle is to move the entire stack to another peg, by following these simple rules: (1) only one disk can be moved at a time; (2) Each move consists of taking the upper disk from one of the stacks and placing it on top of another stack; (2) No disk is placed on the top of a smaller disk and the minimum number of move is the goal of this puzzle. Many variations have been proposed as exercises and challenges. Some have more than three pegs and some with colours. This paper poses a new variation. There are two or more disks with similar size. The goal is to move each stack of the disk from its initial location to its final location. As usual, disk must be moved one at a time and a disk can never sit above a disk of smaller. Let n be a number of disks and there are p similar size disks. The disks are labelled from 1 to n - p + 1 in increasing order of size so the disk with similar size has the same label. If m is the label of the similar disks, so Mp(n; m) is the minimum number moves needed to move all the disks in original peg to destination peg. We have, M2(n; m) = 2n-1 + 2n-m-1 - 1 M3(n; m) = 2n-2 + 2n-m-1 - 1 The number moves needed to move if there are p1 similar size disks m1 and p2 similar size disks m2 is Mp1,p2 (n; m1, m2) = 2n-p1-p2 + 2[(p12-m1 + p22-m2 ) - (2-m1 + 2-m2 + 1] - 1

  15. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures?

    PubMed

    Deponte, Marcel

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It is supposed to comprise (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids, and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics, and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids, and iron-sulfur clusters. In addition, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I try to provide an overview on the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data. Recent Advances: Intracellular redox measurements reveal that the cytosol, the nucleus, and mitochondria contain very little glutathione disulfide and that oxidative challenges are rapidly counterbalanced. Genetic approaches suggest that iron metabolism is the centerpiece of the glutathione puzzle in yeast. Furthermore, recent biochemical studies provide novel insights on glutathione transport processes and uncoupling mechanisms. Which parts of the glutathione puzzle are most relevant? Does this explain the high intracellular concentrations of reduced glutathione? How can iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, oxidative protein folding, or redox signaling occur at high glutathione concentrations? Answers to these questions not only seem to depend on the organism, cell type, and subcellular compartment but also on different ideologies among researchers. A rational approach to compare the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways is to combine genetic and quantitative kinetic data. However, there are still many missing pieces and too little is known about the compartment-specific repertoire and concentration of numerous metabolites, substrates, enzymes, and transporters as well as rate constants and enzyme kinetic patterns. Gathering this information might require the development of novel tools but is crucial to address potential kinetic competitions and to decipher uncoupling mechanisms to solve the glutathione puzzle. Antioxid. Redox Signal

  16. Food puzzles for cats: Feeding for physical and emotional wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Leticia Ms; Delgado, Mikel M; Johnson, Ingrid; Buffington, Ca Tony

    2016-09-01

    Many pet cats are kept indoors for a variety of reasons (eg, safety, health, avoidance of wildlife predation) in conditions that are perhaps the least natural to them. Indoor housing has been associated with health issues, such as chronic lower urinary tract signs, and development of problem behaviors, which can cause weakening of the human-animal bond and lead to euthanasia of the cat. Environmental enrichment may mitigate the effects of these problems and one approach is to take advantage of cats' natural instinct to work for their food. In this article we aim to equip veterinary professionals with the tools to assist clients in the use of food puzzles for their cats as a way to support feline physical health and emotional wellbeing. We outline different types of food puzzles, and explain how to introduce them to cats and how to troubleshoot challenges with their use. The effect of food puzzles on cats is a relatively new area of study, so as well as reviewing the existing empirical evidence, we provide case studies from our veterinary and behavioral practices showing health and behavioral benefits resulting from their use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The Crossword Puzzle as a Teaching Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossman, Edward K.

    1983-01-01

    In courses such as the history of psychology, it is necessary to learn a variety of relationships, events, and sequences, in addition to the task of having to pair certain key concepts with related names, e.g., phrenology--Hall. One tool useful in this type of learning is the crossword puzzle. (RM)

  18. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... HEADS UP Resources Training Custom PDFs Mobile Apps Videos Graphics Podcasts Social Media File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint ... file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file ...

  19. Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering. PMID:25029366

  20. The King and Prisoner Puzzle: A Way of Introducing the Components of Logical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Kyeong Hah; Lee, Yong Hah; Tanner, Austin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide issues related to student understanding of logical components that arise when solving word problems. We designed a logic problem called the King and Prisoner Puzzle--a linguistically simple, yet logically challenging problem. In this paper, we describe various student solutions to the puzzle and discuss the…

  1. Decodoku: Quantum error rorrection as a simple puzzle game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, James

    To build quantum computers, we need to detect and manage any noise that occurs. This will be done using quantum error correction. At the hardware level, QEC is a multipartite system that stores information non-locally. Certain measurements are made which do not disturb the stored information, but which do allow signatures of errors to be detected. Then there is a software problem. How to take these measurement outcomes and determine: a) The errors that caused them, and (b) how to remove their effects. For qubit error correction, the algorithms required to do this are well known. For qudits, however, current methods are far from optimal. We consider the error correction problem of qubit surface codes. At the most basic level, this is a problem that can be expressed in terms of a grid of numbers. Using this fact, we take the inherent problem at the heart of quantum error correction, remove it from its quantum context, and presented in terms of simple grid based puzzle games. We have developed three versions of these puzzle games, focussing on different aspects of the required algorithms. These have been presented and iOS and Android apps, allowing the public to try their hand at developing good algorithms to solve the puzzles. For more information, see www.decodoku.com. Funding from the NCCR QSIT.

  2. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-01-01

    Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form. PMID:18671882

  3. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  4. 76 FR 17413 - Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies; Notice of Technical Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... the PDF or XML version of Form No. 549D as a method to eFile quarterly data and whether they intend on... fillable Form No. 549D PDF and XML to file data \\2\\ pursuant to Order Nos. 735 and 735-A.\\3\\ [[Page 17414... PDF ( http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/forms/form-549d/form-549d.pdf ) or XML ( http://www.ferc.gov...

  5. Recent progress in the joint velocity-scalar PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses joint velocity-scalar PDF method; turbulent combustion modeling issues for gas turbine combustors; PDF calculations for a recirculating flow; stochastic dissipation model; joint PDF calculations for swirling flows; spray calculations; reduced kinetics/manifold methods; parallel processing; and joint PDF focus areas.

  6. A computer simulated phantom study of tomotherapy dose optimization based on probability density functions (PDF) and potential errors caused by low reproducibility of PDF.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ke; Cai, Jing; Brookeman, James; Molloy, Janelle; Christopher, John; Read, Paul

    2006-09-01

    Lung tumor motion trajectories measured by four-dimensional CT or dynamic MRI can be converted to a probability density function (PDF), which describes the probability of the tumor at a certain position, for PDF based treatment planning. Using this method in simulated sequential tomotherapy, we study the dose reduction of normal tissues and more important, the effect of PDF reproducibility on the accuracy of dosimetry. For these purposes, realistic PDFs were obtained from two dynamic MRI scans of a healthy volunteer within a 2 week interval. The first PDF was accumulated from a 300 s scan and the second PDF was calculated from variable scan times from 5 s (one breathing cycle) to 300 s. Optimized beam fluences based on the second PDF were delivered to the hypothetical gross target volume (GTV) of a lung phantom that moved following the first PDF The reproducibility between two PDFs varied from low (78%) to high (94.8%) when the second scan time increased from 5 s to 300 s. When a highly reproducible PDF was used in optimization, the dose coverage of GTV was maintained; phantom lung receiving 10%-20% prescription dose was reduced by 40%-50% and the mean phantom lung dose was reduced by 9.6%. However, optimization based on PDF with low reproducibility resulted in a 50% underdosed GTV. The dosimetric error increased nearly exponentially as the PDF error increased. Therefore, although the dose of the tumor surrounding tissue can be theoretically reduced by PDF based treatment planning, the reliability and applicability of this method highly depend on if a reproducible PDF exists and is measurable. By correlating the dosimetric error and PDF error together, a useful guideline for PDF data acquisition and patient qualification for PDF based planning can be derived.

  7. A computer simulated phantom study of tomotherapy dose optimization based on probability density functions (PDF) and potential errors caused by low reproducibility of PDF

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Ke; Cai Jing; Brookeman, James

    2006-09-15

    Lung tumor motion trajectories measured by four-dimensional CT or dynamic MRI can be converted to a probability density function (PDF), which describes the probability of the tumor at a certain position, for PDF based treatment planning. Using this method in simulated sequential tomotherapy, we study the dose reduction of normal tissues and more important, the effect of PDF reproducibility on the accuracy of dosimetry. For these purposes, realistic PDFs were obtained from two dynamic MRI scans of a healthy volunteer within a 2 week interval. The first PDF was accumulated from a 300 s scan and the second PDF wasmore » calculated from variable scan times from 5 s (one breathing cycle) to 300 s. Optimized beam fluences based on the second PDF were delivered to the hypothetical gross target volume (GTV) of a lung phantom that moved following the first PDF. The reproducibility between two PDFs varied from low (78%) to high (94.8%) when the second scan time increased from 5 s to 300 s. When a highly reproducible PDF was used in optimization, the dose coverage of GTV was maintained; phantom lung receiving 10%-20% prescription dose was reduced by 40%-50% and the mean phantom lung dose was reduced by 9.6%. However, optimization based on PDF with low reproducibility resulted in a 50% underdosed GTV. The dosimetric error increased nearly exponentially as the PDF error increased. Therefore, although the dose of the tumor surrounding tissue can be theoretically reduced by PDF based treatment planning, the reliability and applicability of this method highly depend on if a reproducible PDF exists and is measurable. By correlating the dosimetric error and PDF error together, a useful guideline for PDF data acquisition and patient qualification for PDF based planning can be derived.« less

  8. Mathematical History: Activities, Puzzles, Stories, and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Merle

    Based on the history of mathematics, these materials have been planned to enrich the teaching of mathematics in grades four, five, and six. Puzzles and games are based on stories about topics such as famous mathematicians, numerals of ancient peoples, and numerology. The sheets are arranged by grade level and are designed for easy duplication.…

  9. (Mis)perception of sleep in insomnia: a puzzle and a resolution.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Tang, Nicole K Y

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not universal). Resolving this puzzle has clinical, theoretical, and public health importance. There are implications for assessment, definition, and treatment. Moreover, solving the puzzle creates an opportunity for real-world applications of theories from clinical, perceptual, and social psychology as well as neuroscience. Herein we evaluate 13 possible resolutions to the puzzle. Specifically, we consider the possible contribution, to misperception, of (1) features inherent to the context of sleep (e.g., darkness); (2) the definition of sleep onset, which may lack sensitivity for insomnia patients; (3) insomnia being an exaggerated sleep complaint; (4) psychological distress causing magnification; (5) a deficit in time estimation ability; (6) sleep being misperceived as wake; (7) worry and selective attention toward sleep-related threats; (8) a memory bias influenced by current symptoms and emotions, a confirmation bias/belief bias, or a recall bias linked to the intensity/recency of symptoms; (9) heightened physiological arousal; (10) elevated cortical arousal; (11) the presence of brief awakenings; (12) a fault in neuronal circuitry; and (13) there being 2 insomnia subtypes (one with and one without misperception). The best supported resolutions were misperception of sleep as wake, worry, and brief awakenings. A deficit in time estimation ability was not supported. We conclude by proposing several integrative solutions.

  10. (Mis)Perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A puzzle and a resolution

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not universal). Resolving this puzzle has clinical, theoretical, and public health importance. There are implications for assessment, definition, and treatment. Moreover, solving the puzzle creates an opportunity for "real world" applications of theories from clinical, perceptual, and social psychology as well as neuroscience. Herein we evaluate thirteen possible resolutions to the puzzle. Specifically, we consider the possible contribution, to misperception, of: (1) features inherent to the context of sleep (e.g., darkness); (2) the definition of sleep onset which may lack sensitivity for insomnia patients; (3) insomnia being an exaggerated sleep complaint; (4) psychological distress causing magnification; (5) a deficit in time estimation ability; (6) sleep being misperceived as wake; (7) worry and selective attention toward sleep-related threats; (8) a memory bias influenced by current symptoms and emotions, a confirmation bias/belief bias or a recall bias linked to the intensity/recency of symptoms; (9) heightened physiological arousal; (10) elevated cortical arousal; (11) the presence of brief awakenings; (12) a fault in neuronal circuitry; and (13) there being two insomnia subtypes (one with and one without misperception). The best supported resolutions were misperception of sleep as wake, worry, and brief awakenings. A deficit in time estimation ability was not supported. We conclude by proposing several integrative solutions. PMID:21967449

  11. Spectroscopy of muonic atoms and the proton radius puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognini, Aldo

    2017-09-01

    We have measured several 2 S -2 P transitions in muonic hydrogen (μp), muonic deuterium (μd) and muonic helium ions (μ3He, μ4He). From muonic hydrogen we extracted a proton charge radius 20 times more precise than obtained from electron-proton scattering and hydrogen high-precision laser spectroscopy but at a variance of 7 σ from these values. This discrepancy is nowadays referred to as the proton radius puzzle. New insight has been recently provided by the first determination of the deuteron charge radius from laser spectroscopy of μd. The status of the proton charge radius puzzle including the new insights obtained by μd spectroscopy will be discussed. Work supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation SNF-200021-165854 and the ERC CoG. #725039.

  12. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Glutathione metabolism is comparable to a jigsaw puzzle with too many pieces. It is supposed to comprise (i) the reduction of disulfides, hydroperoxides, sulfenic acids, and nitrosothiols, (ii) the detoxification of aldehydes, xenobiotics, and heavy metals, and (iii) the synthesis of eicosanoids, steroids, and iron–sulfur clusters. In addition, glutathione affects oxidative protein folding and redox signaling. Here, I try to provide an overview on the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways with an emphasis on quantitative data. Recent Advances: Intracellular redox measurements reveal that the cytosol, the nucleus, and mitochondria contain very little glutathione disulfide and that oxidative challenges are rapidly counterbalanced. Genetic approaches suggest that iron metabolism is the centerpiece of the glutathione puzzle in yeast. Furthermore, recent biochemical studies provide novel insights on glutathione transport processes and uncoupling mechanisms. Critical Issues: Which parts of the glutathione puzzle are most relevant? Does this explain the high intracellular concentrations of reduced glutathione? How can iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis, oxidative protein folding, or redox signaling occur at high glutathione concentrations? Answers to these questions not only seem to depend on the organism, cell type, and subcellular compartment but also on different ideologies among researchers. Future Directions: A rational approach to compare the relevance of glutathione-dependent pathways is to combine genetic and quantitative kinetic data. However, there are still many missing pieces and too little is known about the compartment-specific repertoire and concentration of numerous metabolites, substrates, enzymes, and transporters as well as rate constants and enzyme kinetic patterns. Gathering this information might require the development of novel tools but is crucial to address potential kinetic competitions and to decipher uncoupling

  13. School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) 2000 Public-Use Data Files, User's Manual, and Detailed Data Documentation. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains the raw, public-use data from the 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) along with a User's Manual and Detailed Data Documentation. The data are provided in SAS, SPSS, STATA, and ASCII formats. The User's Manual and the Detailed Data Documentation are provided as .pdf files. (Author)

  14. Geoscience Data Puzzles: Developing Students' Ability to Make Meaning from Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastens, K. A.; Turrin, M.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most fundamental aspects of geoscience expertise is the ability to extract insights from observational earth data. Where an expert might see trends, patterns, processes, and candidate causal relationships, a novice could look at the same data representation and see dots, wiggles and blotches of color. The problem is compounded when the student was not personally involved in collecting the data or samples and thus has no experiential knowledge of the Earth setting that the data represent. In other words, the problem is especially severe when students tap into the vast archives of professionally-collected data that the geoscience community has worked so hard to make available for instructional use over the internet. Moreover, most high school and middle school teachers did not themselves learn Earth Science through analyzing data, and they may lack skills and/or confidence needed to scaffold students through the process of learning to interpret realistically-complex data sets. We have developed “Geoscience Data Puzzles” with the paired goals of (a) helping students learn about the earth from data, and (b) helping teachers learn to teach with data. Geoscience Data Puzzles are data-using activities that purposefully present a low barrier-to-entry for teachers and a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses authentic geoscience data, but the data are carefully pre-selected in order to illuminate a fundamental Earth process within tractable snippets of data. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" moments, when the connection between data and process comes clear in a rewarding burst of insight. Every Puzzle is accompanied by a Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) guide, which explicates the chain of reasoning by which the puzzle-solver can use the evidence provided by the data to construct scientific claims. Four types of reasoning are stressed: spatial reasoning, in which students make inferences from observations about location, orientation, shape

  15. RNA-Puzzles Round III: 3D RNA structure prediction of five riboswitches and one ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Biesiada, Marcin; Boniecki, Michał J.; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Das, Rhiju; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanisław; Geniesse, Caleb; Kappel, Kalli; Kladwang, Wipapat; Krokhotin, Andrey; Łach, Grzegorz E.; Major, François; Mann, Thomas H.; Pachulska-Wieczorek, Katarzyna; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.; Popenda, Mariusz; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Ren, Aiming; Rice, Greggory M.; Santalucia, John; Tandon, Arpit; Trausch, Jeremiah J.; Wang, Jian; Weeks, Kevin M.; Williams, Benfeard; Xiao, Yi; Zhang, Dong; Zok, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    RNA-Puzzles is a collective experiment in blind 3D RNA structure prediction. We report here a third round of RNA-Puzzles. Five puzzles, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, all structures of riboswitch aptamers and puzzle 7, a ribozyme structure, are included in this round of the experiment. The riboswitch structures include biological binding sites for small molecules (S-adenosyl methionine, cyclic diadenosine monophosphate, 5-amino 4-imidazole carboxamide riboside 5′-triphosphate, glutamine) and proteins (YbxF), and one set describes large conformational changes between ligand-free and ligand-bound states. The Varkud satellite ribozyme is the most recently solved structure of a known large ribozyme. All puzzles have established biological functions and require structural understanding to appreciate their molecular mechanisms. Through the use of fast-track experimental data, including multidimensional chemical mapping, and accurate prediction of RNA secondary structure, a large portion of the contacts in 3D have been predicted correctly leading to similar topologies for the top ranking predictions. Template-based and homology-derived predictions could predict structures to particularly high accuracies. However, achieving biological insights from de novo prediction of RNA 3D structures still depends on the size and complexity of the RNA. Blind computational predictions of RNA structures already appear to provide useful structural information in many cases. Similar to the previous RNA-Puzzles Round II experiment, the prediction of non-Watson–Crick interactions and the observed high atomic clash scores reveal a notable need for an algorithm of improvement. All prediction models and assessment results are available at http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rnapuzzles/. PMID:28138060

  16. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF

    PubMed Central

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep. PMID:23678016

  17. Daily rhythms in locomotor circuits in Drosophila involve PDF.

    PubMed

    Pírez, Nicolás; Christmann, Bethany L; Griffith, Leslie C

    2013-08-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has been studied extensively in Drosophila, and its role in circadian time-keeping has been firmly established. The role of PDF outside of the clock circuit, however, is poorly understood. A recent study suggested that PDF may act on the ellipsoid body (EB) to link the clock and sleep/activity circuits. We performed whole brain optical imaging with the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP sensor Epac1-camps expressed under control of the pdfR promoter to address how the clock and sleep deprivation affect the physiology of these cells. Basal cAMP levels in EB were regulated both by PDF and synaptic inputs that are controlled by the circadian clock. Acute application of PDF to the brain caused a significant, and PDF-receptor-dependent, increase in cAMP in EB cells. Application of TTX to block circuit-mediated effects of PDF increased the morning response but not the response at night, implying the existence of a temporally regulated, PDF-stimulated input that blocks cAMP generation. ACh produced both direct (TTX-insensitive) and indirect (TTX-sensitive) increases in cAMP during the day but was totally TTX-insensitive at night, indicating that ACh-stimulated inputs to the EB are suppressed at night. Sleep deprivation did not affect the cAMP responses of these cells to either PDF or ACh. These results suggest a novel role for PDF as a modulator of activity outside of the clock circuit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which the neuropeptide PDF act on its target cells, our work contributes to our understating of how the central clock coordinates activity and sleep.

  18. Strategies and Correlates of Jigsaw Puzzle and Visuospatial Performance by Persons with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdine, Brian N.; Troseth, Georgene L.; Hodapp, Robert M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Some individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome exhibit strengths in solving jigsaw puzzles. We compared visuospatial ability and jigsaw puzzle performance and strategies of 26 persons with Prader-Willi syndrome and 26 MA-matched typically developing controls. Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome relied on piece shape. Those in the control group…

  19. Pedagogy Corner: The Architect's Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovitt, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Some years back, the author found the following problem in a spatial puzzle book: how many ways can you put four blocks together, face to face (with no vertical rotation symmetry)? He gave each student just four blocks and they collectively tried combinations to eventually agree on the answer of 15. He used to think it was a halfway decent task,…

  20. Using the Tower of Hanoi Puzzle to Infuse Your Mathematics Classroom with Computer Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-01-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi…

  1. PDF receptor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans modulates locomotion and egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Meelkop, Ellen; Temmerman, Liesbet; Janssen, Tom; Suetens, Nick; Beets, Isabel; Van Rompay, Liesbeth; Shanmugam, Nilesh; Husson, Steven J; Schoofs, Liliane

    2012-09-25

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, pdfr-1 encodes three receptors of the secretin receptor family. These G protein-coupled receptors are activated by three neuropeptides, pigment dispersing factors 1a, 1b and 2, which are encoded by pdf-1 and pdf-2. We isolated a PDF receptor loss-of-function allele (lst34) by means of a mutagenesis screen and show that the PDF signaling system is involved in locomotion and egg-laying. We demonstrate that the pdfr-1 mutant phenocopies the defective locomotor behavior of the pdf-1 mutant and that pdf-1 and pdf-2 behave antagonistically. All three PDF receptor splice variants are involved in the regulation of locomotor behavior. Cell specific rescue experiments show that this pdf mediated behavior is regulated by neurons rather than body wall muscles. We also show that egg-laying patterns of pdf-1 and pdf-2 mutants are affected, but not those of pdfr-1 mutants, pointing to a novel role for the PDF-system in the regulation of egg-laying. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A compression algorithm for the combination of PDF sets.

    PubMed

    Carrazza, Stefano; Latorre, José I; Rojo, Juan; Watt, Graeme

    The current PDF4LHC recommendation to estimate uncertainties due to parton distribution functions (PDFs) in theoretical predictions for LHC processes involves the combination of separate predictions computed using PDF sets from different groups, each of which comprises a relatively large number of either Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo (MC) replicas. While many fixed-order and parton shower programs allow the evaluation of PDF uncertainties for a single PDF set at no additional CPU cost, this feature is not universal, and, moreover, the a posteriori combination of the predictions using at least three different PDF sets is still required. In this work, we present a strategy for the statistical combination of individual PDF sets, based on the MC representation of Hessian sets, followed by a compression algorithm for the reduction of the number of MC replicas. We illustrate our strategy with the combination and compression of the recent NNPDF3.0, CT14 and MMHT14 NNLO PDF sets. The resulting compressed Monte Carlo PDF sets are validated at the level of parton luminosities and LHC inclusive cross sections and differential distributions. We determine that around 100 replicas provide an adequate representation of the probability distribution for the original combined PDF set, suitable for general applications to LHC phenomenology.

  3. The pdf approach to turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed discussion of the theory and application of probability density function (pdf) methods, which provide a complete statistical description of turbulent flow fields at a single point or a finite number of points. The basic laws governing the flow of Newtonian fluids are set up in the Eulerian and the Lagrangian frame, and the exact and linear equations for the characteristic functionals in those frames are discussed. Pdf equations in both frames are derived as Fourier transforms of the equations of the characteristic functions. Possible formulations for the nonclosed terms in the pdf equation are discussed, their properties are assessed, and closure modes for the molecular-transport and the fluctuating pressure-gradient terms are reviewed. The application of pdf methods to turbulent combustion flows, supersonic flows, and the interaction of turbulence with shock waves is discussed.

  4. Comments on PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the following topics: the grand challenge of combustion engineering; research of probability density function (PDF) methods at Sandia; experiments of turbulent jet flames (Masri and Dibble, 1988); departures from chemical equilibrium; modeling turbulent reacting flows; superequilibrium OH radical; pdf modeling of turbulent jet flames; scatter plot for CH4 (methane) and O2 (oxygen); methanol turbulent jet flames; comparisons between predictions and experimental data; and turbulent C2H4 jet flames.

  5. PDF for Healthcare and Child Health Data Forms.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan E; Schneider, Joseph H; Miller, Ken

    2008-11-06

    PDF-H is a new best practices standard that uses XFA forms and embedded JavaScript to combine PDF forms with XML data. Preliminary experience with AAP child health forms shows that the combination of PDF with XML is a more effective method to visualize familiar data on paper and the web than the traditional use of XML and XSLT. Both PDF-H and HL7 Clinical Document Architecture can co-exist using the same data for different display formats.

  6. Puzzle maker in SmB6: accompany-type valence fluctuation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi; Sun, Liling

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, studying the Kondo insulator SmB6, a strongly correlated electron material that has been puzzling the community for decades, has again become an attractive topic due to the discovery of its unusual metallic surface state coexisting with the bulk insulating state. Many efforts have been made to understand the microphysics in SmB6, but some puzzles that have been hotly debated and argued have not been solved. In this article, based on the latest progress made in our high-pressure studies on SmB6 and the accumulating results reported by other groups, we propose a notion named the ‘accompany-type valence fluctuation state’, which possibly coexists with the bulk Kondo insulating ground state of SmB6. We expect that this notion could be taken as a common starting point for understanding in a unified way most of the low-temperature phenomena observed by different experimental investigations on SmB6, thus promoting the deciphering of the puzzles. We also expect that this notion could attract rigorous theoretical interpretation and further experimental investigation, or stimulate better thinking on the physics in SmB6.

  7. Using the Tower of Hanoi puzzle to infuse your mathematics classroom with computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Alison S.

    2016-07-01

    This article suggests that logic puzzles, such as the well-known Tower of Hanoi puzzle, can be used to introduce computer science concepts to mathematics students of all ages. Mathematics teachers introduce their students to computer science concepts that are enacted spontaneously and subconsciously throughout the solution to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle. These concepts include, but are not limited to, conditionals, iteration, and recursion. Lessons, such as the one proposed in this article, are easily implementable in mathematics classrooms and extracurricular programmes as they are good candidates for 'drop in' lessons that do not need to fit into any particular place in the typical curriculum sequence. As an example for readers, the author describes how she used the puzzle in her own Number Sense and Logic course during the federally funded Upward Bound Math/Science summer programme for college-intending low-income high school students. The article explains each computer science term with real-life and mathematical examples, applies each term to the Tower of Hanoi puzzle solution, and describes how students connected the terms to their own solutions of the puzzle. It is timely and important to expose mathematics students to computer science concepts. Given the rate at which technology is currently advancing, and our increased dependence on technology in our daily lives, it has become more important than ever for children to be exposed to computer science. Yet, despite the importance of exposing today's children to computer science, many children are not given adequate opportunity to learn computer science in schools. In the United States, for example, most students finish high school without ever taking a computing course. Mathematics lessons, such as the one described in this article, can help to make computer science more accessible to students who may have otherwise had little opportunity to be introduced to these increasingly important concepts.

  8. A Heuristic Bioinspired for 8-Piece Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. O.; Fabres, P. A.; Melo, J. C. L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates a mathematical model inspired by nature, and presents a Meta-Heuristic that is efficient in improving the performance of an informed search, when using strategy A * using a General Search Tree as data structure. The work hypothesis suggests that the investigated meta-heuristic is optimal in nature and may be promising in minimizing the computational resources required by an objective-based agent in solving high computational complexity problems (n-part puzzle) as well as In the optimization of objective functions for local search agents. The objective of this work is to describe qualitatively the characteristics and properties of the mathematical model investigated, correlating the main concepts of the A * function with the significant variables of the metaheuristic used. The article shows that the amount of memory required to perform this search when using the metaheuristic is less than using the A * function to evaluate the nodes of a general search tree for the eight-piece puzzle. It is concluded that the meta-heuristic must be parameterized according to the chosen heuristic and the level of the tree that contains the possible solutions to the chosen problem.

  9. Methylation of zebularine: a quantum mechanical study incorporating interactive 3D pdf graphs.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Lalitha; Vasilyev, Vladislav; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-20

    Methylation of a cytidine deaminase inhibitor, 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyrimidone (i.e., zebularine (zeb)), which produces 1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone (d5), has been investigated using density functional theory models. The optimized structures of zeb and d5 and the valence orbitals primarily responsible for the methylation in d5 are presented using state-of-the-art interactive (on a computer or online) three-dimensional (3D) graphics in a portable document format (pdf) file, 3D-PDF (http://www.web3d.org/x3d/vrml/ ). The facility to embed 3D molecular structures into pdf documents has been developed jointly at Swinburne University of Technology and the National Computational Infrastructure, the Australian National University. The methyl fragment in the base moiety shows little effect on the sugar puckering but apparently affects anisotropic properties, such as condensed Fukui functions. Binding energy spectra, both valence space and core space, are noticeably affected; in particular, in the outer-valence space (e.g., IP < 20 eV). The methyl fragment delocalizes and diffuses into almost all valence space, but orbitals 8 (57a, IP = 12.57 eV), 18 (47a, IP = 14.70 eV), and 37 (28a, IP = 22.15 eV) are identified as fingerprint for the methyl fragment. In the inner shell, however, the impact of the methyl can be localized and identified by chemical shift. A small, global, red shift is found for the O-K, N-K and sugar C-K spectra, whereas the base C-K spectrum exhibits apparent methyl-related changes.

  10. Magic star puzzle for educational mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yee Siang; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2013-04-01

    One of the interesting fields in recreational mathematics is the magic number arrangement. There are different kinds of arrays in the arrangement for a group of numbers. In particular, one of the arrays in magic number arrangement is called magic star. In fact, magic star involves combinatorics that contributes to geometrical analysis and number theory. Hence, magic star is suitable to be introduced as educational mathematics to cultivate interest in different area of mathematics. To obtain the solutions of normal magic stars of order six, the possible sets of numbers for every line in a magic star have been considered. Previously, the calculation for obtaining the solutions has been done manually which is time-consuming. Therefore, a programming code to generate all the fundamental solutions for normal magic star of order six without including the properties of rotation and reflection has been done. In this puzzle, a magic star puzzle is created by using Matlab software, which enables a user to verify the entries for the cells of magic star of order six. Moreover, it is also user-friendly as it provides interactive commands on the inputs given by the user, which enables the user to detect the incorrect inputs. In addition, user can also choose to view all the fundamental solutions as generated by the programming code.

  11. A solution to B → ππ puzzle and B → KK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwon

    2008-01-01

    The large ratio of color-suppressed tree amplitude to color-allowed one in B → ππ decays is difficult to understand within the Standard Model, which is known as the " B → ππ puzzle". The two tree diagrams contain the up- and charm-quark component of penguin amplitude, Puc, which cannot be separated by measuring B → ππ decays alone. We show that the measurements of the branching ratio and direct CP asymmetry of B+ →K+K0 bar decay enable one to disentangle the Puc with two-fold ambiguity. One of the two degenerate solutions of the Puc can solve the B → ππ puzzle by giving | C / T | ∼ 0.3 which is consistent with the expectation in the Standard Model. We also show that the two solutions can be discriminated by the measurement of the indirect CP asymmetry of B0 →K0K0 bar. We point out that the corresponding puzzle in B → πK decays is not solved in this way.

  12. A Geometric Puzzle That Leads To Fibonacci Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulf, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how mathematicians work and do mathematical research through the use of a puzzle. Demonstrates how general rules, then theorems develop from special cases. This approach may be used as a research project in high school classrooms or math club settings with the teacher helping to formulate questions, set goals, and avoid becoming…

  13. Jouer avec les Mots Fleches (Playing with Word Puzzles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Roger Rodriguez

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on how to work crossword puzzles, such as those published in magazines or specialized publications. The article emphasizes the importance of the dictionary for this activity, which can be a pleasant cultural exercise in vocabulary development and spelling instruction. (Author/CK)

  14. Jigsaw puzzle metasurface for multiple functions: polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Cao, Xiangyu; Gao, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Li, Sijia

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate a simple reconfigurable metasurface with multiple functions. Anisotropic tiles are investigated and manufactured as fundamental elements. Then, the tiles are combined in a certain sequence to construct a metasurface. Each of the tiles can be adjusted independently which is like a jigsaw puzzle and the whole metasurface can achieve diverse functions by different layouts. For demonstration purposes, we realize polarization conversion, anomalous reflection and diffusion by a jigsaw puzzle metasurface with 6 × 6 pieces of anisotropic tile. Simulated and measured results prove that our method offers a simple and effective strategy for metasurface design.

  15. PDF4LHC recommendations for LHC Run II

    DOE PAGES

    Butterworth, Jon; Carrazza, Stefano; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; ...

    2016-01-06

    We provide an updated recommendation for the usage of sets of parton distribution functions (PDFs) and the assessment of PDF and PDF+αs uncertainties suitable for applications at the LHC Run II. We review developments since the previous PDF4LHC recommendation, and discuss and compare the new generation of PDFs, which include substantial information from experimental data from the Run I of the LHC. We then propose a new prescription for the combination of a suitable subset of the available PDF sets, which is presented in terms of a single combined PDF set. Lastly, we finally discuss tools which allow for themore » delivery of this combined set in terms of optimized sets of Hessian eigenvectors or Monte Carlo replicas, and their usage, and provide some examples of their application to LHC phenomenology.« less

  16. High-mass twins & resolution of the reconfinement, masquerade and hyperon puzzles of compact star interiors

    SciTech Connect

    Blaschke, David; Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, 50-204 Wroclaw; Alvarez-Castillo, David E.

    2016-01-22

    We aim at contributing to the resolution of three of the fundamental puzzles related to the still unsolved problem of the structure of the dense core of compact stars (CS): (i) the hyperon puzzle: how to reconcile pulsar masses of 2 M{sub ⊙} with the hyperon softening of the equation of state (EoS); (ii) the masquerade problem: modern EoS for cold, high density hadronic and quark matter are almost identical; and (iii) the reconfinement puzzle: what to do when after a deconfinement transition the hadronic EoS becomes favorable again? We show that taking into account the compositeness of baryons (bymore » excluded volume and/or quark Pauli blocking) on the hadronic side and confining and stiffening effects on the quark matter side results in an early phase transition to quark matter with sufficient stiffening at high densities which removes all three present-day puzzles of CS interiors. Moreover, in this new class of EoS for hybrid CS falls the interesting case of a strong first order phase transition which results in the observable high mass twin star phenomenon, an astrophysical observation of a critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram.« less

  17. Toward a virtual reconstruction of an antique three-dimensional marble puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamar, Fatima Zahra; Fauvet, Eric; Hostein, Antony; Laligant, Olivier; Truchetet, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The reconstruction of broken objects is an important field of research for many applications, such as art restoration, surgery, forensics, and solving puzzles. In archaeology, the reconstruction of broken artifacts is a very time-consuming task due to the handling of fractured objects, which are generally fragile. However, it can now be supported by three-dimensional (3-D) data acquisition devices and computer processing. Those techniques are very useful in this domain because they allow the remote handling of very accurate models of fragile parts, they permit the extensive testing of reconstruction solutions, and they provide access to the parts for the entire research community. An interesting problem has recently been proposed by archaeologists in the form of a huge puzzle composed of a thousand fragments of Pentelic marble of different sizes found in Autun (France), and all attempts to reconstruct the puzzle during the last two centuries have failed. Archaeologists are sure that some fragments are missing and that some of the ones we have come from different slabs. We propose an inexpensive transportable system for 3-D acquisition setup and a 3-D reconstruction method that is applied to this Roman inscription but is also relevant to other applications.

  18. An Easy & Fun Way to Teach about How Science "Works": Popularizing Haack's Crossword-Puzzle Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Iglika V.; Lewis, Kayla C.

    2013-01-01

    Science is a complex process, and we must not teach our students overly simplified versions of "the" scientific method. We propose that students can uncover the complex realities of scientific thinking by exploring the similarities and differences between solving the familiar crossword puzzles and scientific "puzzles."…

  19. Betty Petersen Memorial Library - NCWCP Publications - NWS

    Science.gov Websites

    . Polger P. Comparative Analysis of a New Integration Method With Certain Standard Methods (.PDF file) 52 file) 169 1978 Gerrity J. Elemental-Filter Design Considerations (.PDF file) 170 1978 Shuman F. G

  20. 76 FR 6311 - Regulations Affecting Publication of the United States Government Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... as a single PDF file that includes bookmarks. Finally, he asked if any smart phone applications... an annual online edition of the Manual in both text-only files and PDF files. It is now possible to...

  1. A puzzle assembly strategy for fabrication of large engineered cartilage tissue constructs.

    PubMed

    Nover, Adam B; Jones, Brian K; Yu, William T; Donovan, Daniel S; Podolnick, Jeremy D; Cook, James L; Ateshian, Gerard A; Hung, Clark T

    2016-03-21

    Engineering of large articular cartilage tissue constructs remains a challenge as tissue growth is limited by nutrient diffusion. Here, a novel strategy is investigated, generating large constructs through the assembly of individually cultured, interlocking, smaller puzzle-shaped subunits. These constructs can be engineered consistently with more desirable mechanical and biochemical properties than larger constructs (~4-fold greater Young׳s modulus). A failure testing technique was developed to evaluate the physiologic functionality of constructs, which were cultured as individual subunits for 28 days, then assembled and cultured for an additional 21-35 days. Assembled puzzle constructs withstood large deformations (40-50% compressive strain) prior to failure. Their ability to withstand physiologic loads may be enhanced by increases in subunit strength and assembled culture time. A nude mouse model was utilized to show biocompatibility and fusion of assembled puzzle pieces in vivo. Overall, the technique offers a novel, effective approach to scaling up engineered tissues and may be combined with other techniques and/or applied to the engineering of other tissues. Future studies will aim to optimize this system in an effort to engineer and integrate robust subunits to fill large defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Puzzle Assembly Strategy for Fabrication of Large Engineered Cartilage Tissue Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Nover, Adam B.; Jones, Brian K.; Yu, William T.; Donovan, Daniel S.; Podolnick, Jeremy D.; Cook, James L.; Ateshian, Gerard A.; Hung, Clark T.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering of large articular cartilage tissue constructs remains a challenge as tissue growth is limited by nutrient diffusion. Here, a novel strategy is investigated, generating large constructs through the assembly of individually cultured, interlocking, smaller puzzle-shaped subunits. These constructs can be engineered consistently with more desirable mechanical and biochemical properties than larger constructs (~4-fold greater Young's modulus). A failure testing technique was developed to evaluate the physiologic functionality of constructs, which were cultured as individual subunits for 28 days, then assembled and cultured for an additional 21-35 days. Assembled puzzle constructs withstood large deformations (40-50% compressive strain) prior to failure. Their ability to withstand physiologic loads may be enhanced by increases in subunit strength and assembled culture time. A nude mouse model was utilized to show biocompatibility and fusion of assembled puzzle pieces in vivo. Overall, the technique offers a novel, effective approach to scaling up engineered tissues and may be combined with other techniques and/or applied to the engineering of other tissues. Future studies will aim to optimize this system in an effort to engineer and integrate robust subunits to fill large defects. PMID:26895780

  3. Crossword Puzzles as a Learning Tool for Vocabulary Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Since vocabulary is a key basis on which reading achievement depends, various vocabulary acquisition techniques have become pivotal. Among the many teaching approaches, traditional or otherwise, the use of crossword puzzles seems to offer potential and a solution for the problem of learning vocabulary. Method: This study was…

  4. Recent advances in PDF modeling of turbulent reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Andrew D.; Dai, F.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation concludes that a Monte Carlo probability density function (PDF) solution successfully couples with an existing finite volume code; PDF solution method applied to turbulent reacting flows shows good agreement with data; and PDF methods must be run on parallel machines for practical use.

  5. Action and puzzle video games prime different speed/accuracy tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Rolf A; Strachan, Ian

    2009-01-01

    To understand the way in which video-game play affects subsequent perception and cognitive strategy, two experiments were performed in which participants played either a fast-action game or a puzzle-solving game. Before and after video-game play, participants performed a task in which both speed and accuracy were emphasized. In experiment 1 participants engaged in a location task in which they clicked a mouse on the spot where a target had appeared, and in experiment 2 they were asked to judge which of four shapes was most similar to a target shape. In both experiments, participants were much faster but less accurate after playing the action game, while they were slower but more accurate after playing the puzzle game. Results are discussed in terms of a taxonomy of video games by their cognitive and perceptual demands.

  6. Sequential Monte Carlo for Maximum Weight Subgraphs with Application to Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles.

    PubMed

    Adluru, Nagesh; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2015-05-01

    We consider a problem of finding maximum weight subgraphs (MWS) that satisfy hard constraints in a weighted graph. The constraints specify the graph nodes that must belong to the solution as well as mutual exclusions of graph nodes, i.e., pairs of nodes that cannot belong to the same solution. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach for solving this problem in a sequential monte carlo (SMC) sampling framework. Usually in an SMC framework there is a natural ordering of the states of the samples. The order typically depends on observations about the states or on the annealing setup used. In many applications (e.g., image jigsaw puzzle problems), all observations (e.g., puzzle pieces) are given at once and it is hard to define a natural ordering. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations about states and propose a novel SMC algorithm for obtaining maximum a posteriori estimate of a high-dimensional posterior distribution. This is achieved by exploring different orders of states and selecting the most informative permutations in each step of the sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, our inference quadruples the accuracy of the puzzle assembly compared to that of loopy belief propagation.

  7. Sequential Monte Carlo for Maximum Weight Subgraphs with Application to Solving Image Jigsaw Puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Adluru, Nagesh; Yang, Xingwei; Latecki, Longin Jan

    2015-01-01

    We consider a problem of finding maximum weight subgraphs (MWS) that satisfy hard constraints in a weighted graph. The constraints specify the graph nodes that must belong to the solution as well as mutual exclusions of graph nodes, i.e., pairs of nodes that cannot belong to the same solution. Our main contribution is a novel inference approach for solving this problem in a sequential monte carlo (SMC) sampling framework. Usually in an SMC framework there is a natural ordering of the states of the samples. The order typically depends on observations about the states or on the annealing setup used. In many applications (e.g., image jigsaw puzzle problems), all observations (e.g., puzzle pieces) are given at once and it is hard to define a natural ordering. Therefore, we relax the assumption of having ordered observations about states and propose a novel SMC algorithm for obtaining maximum a posteriori estimate of a high-dimensional posterior distribution. This is achieved by exploring different orders of states and selecting the most informative permutations in each step of the sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed inference framework significantly outperforms loopy belief propagation in solving the image jigsaw puzzle problem. In particular, our inference quadruples the accuracy of the puzzle assembly compared to that of loopy belief propagation. PMID:26052182

  8. Manchester's Magiscope: An Interesting Optics Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2017-02-01

    The Magiscope was an attraction at Manchester's department store in Madison, WI, in 1939 that allowed children to peek into Santa's workshop (as shown in Fig. 1). The "magiscope" was a telescope-like device that gave children the illusion they were looking at a distant Santa, when in fact they were looking at a fabricated workshop on an upper level of the department store. In this article, we describe how we used the puzzle of the magiscope as a final assessment for our optics unit in an introductory physics course.

  9. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  10. Jigsaw: Because Reading Your Math Book Shouldn't Be a Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Roni Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes a jigsaw puzzle activity, a two-part cooperative learning activity useful at any level of mathematics instruction, intended to teach students to become "strategic readers" of their mathematics textbooks. (SR)

  11. EBooks as PDF Files, in EPub Format or as Interactive IBooks? Digital Books in Physics Lessons of Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the different capabilities of ebooks in the pdf, epub and ibook format in science teaching evaluated at the BG/BRG Schwechat. Over the recent years the school equipped with 100 personal computers and 28 iPads has become one of the leading e-learning schools in Austria. iPads show their advantages in the context of blended…

  12. Children's Task Engagement during Challenging Puzzle Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feihong; Algina, James; Snyder, Patricia; Cox, Martha

    2017-01-01

    We examined children's task engagement during a challenging puzzle task in the presence of their primary caregivers by using a representative sample of rural children from six high-poverty counties across two states. Weighted longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to identify a task engagement factor…

  13. Transcriptional regulation of the human mitochondrial peptide deformylase (PDF).

    PubMed

    Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Costa, Luís Teixeira da; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

    2012-05-18

    The last years of research have been particularly dynamic in establishing the importance of peptide deformylase (PDF), a protein of the N-terminal methionine excision (NME) pathway that removes formyl-methionine from mitochondrial-encoded proteins. The genomic sequence of the human PDF gene is shared with the COG8 gene, which encodes a component of the oligomeric golgi complex, a very unusual case in Eukaryotic genomes. Since PDF is crucial in maintaining mitochondrial function and given the atypical short distance between the end of COG8 coding sequence and the PDF initiation codon, we investigated whether the regulation of the human PDF is affected by the COG8 overlapping partner. Our data reveals that PDF has several transcription start sites, the most important of which only 18 bp from the initiation codon. Furthermore, luciferase-activation assays using differently-sized fragments defined a 97 bp minimal promoter region for human PDF, which is capable of very strong transcriptional activity. This fragment contains a potential Sp1 binding site highly conserved in mammalian species. We show that this binding site, whose mutation significantly reduces transcription activation, is a target for the Sp1 transcription factor, and possibly of other members of the Sp family. Importantly, the entire minimal promoter region is located after the end of COG8's coding region, strongly suggesting that the human PDF preserves an independent regulation from its overlapping partner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What Is the Difference between a Puzzle and a Maths Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastaway, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the differences between puzzles and mathematics questions. Argues that mathematics teachers need to be thoroughly grounded in the well-documented recreational side of mathematics and be encouraged to use it. (JRH)

  15. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  16. Signaling of Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) in the Madeira Cockroach Rhyparobia maderae

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Nico W.; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca2+ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca2+ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca2+ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca2+ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1–4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K+ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K+ and Na+ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance. PMID:25269074

  17. PDF modeling of near-wall turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreeben, Thomas David

    1997-06-01

    Pdf methods are extended to include modeling of wall- bounded turbulent flows. For flows in which resolution of the viscous sublayer is desired, a Pdf near-wall model is developed in which the Generalized Langevin model is combined with an exact model for viscous transport. Durbin's method of elliptic relaxation is used to incorporate the wall effects into the governing equations without the use of wall functions or damping functions. Close to the wall, the Generalized Langevin model provides an analogy to the effect of the fluctuating continuity equation. This enables accurate modeling of the near-wall turbulent statistics. Demonstrated accuracy for fully-developed channel flow is achieved with a Pdf/Monte Carlo simulation, and with its related Reynolds-stress closure. For flows in which the details of the viscous sublayer are not important, a Pdf wall- function method is developed with the Simplified Langevin model.

  18. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf01 (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light–dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene perS ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the perS protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf01 circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF. PMID:24707054

  19. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf(01) (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light-dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene per(S) ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the per(S) protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf(01) circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF.

  20. The RPA Atomization Energy Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Perdew, John P; Csonka, Gábor I

    2010-01-12

    There is current interest in the random phase approximation (RPA), a "fifth-rung" density functional for the exchange-correlation energy. RPA has full exact exchange and constructs the correlation with the help of the unoccupied Kohn-Sham orbitals. In many cases (uniform electron gas, jellium surface, and free atom), the correction to RPA is a short-ranged effect that is captured by a local spin density approximation (LSDA) or a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Nonempirical density functionals for the correction to RPA were constructed earlier at the LSDA and GGA levels (RPA+), but they are constructed here at the fully nonlocal level (RPA++), using the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Langreth, Lundqvist, and collaborators. While they make important and helpful corrections to RPA total and ionization energies of free atoms, they correct the RPA atomization energies of molecules by only about 1 kcal/mol. Thus, it is puzzling that RPA atomization energies are, on average, about 10 kcal/mol lower than those of accurate values from experiment. We find here that a hybrid of 50% Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof GGA with 50% RPA+ yields atomization energies much more accurate than either one does alone. This suggests a solution to the puzzle: While the proper correction to RPA is short-ranged in some systems, its contribution to the correlation hole can spread out in a molecule with multiple atomic centers, canceling part of the spread of the exact exchange hole (more so than in RPA or RPA+), making the true exchange-correlation hole more localized than in RPA or RPA+. This effect is not captured even by the vdW-DF nonlocality, but it requires the different kind of full nonlocality present in a hybrid functional.

  1. Publications - PDF 96-18 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 96-18 Publication Details Title: Major and trace element analyses of Cretaceous plutonic Bibliographic Reference Newberry, R.J., 1996, Major and trace element analyses of Cretaceous plutonic rocks in pdf1996_018.pdf (571.0 K) Keywords Geochemistry; Geology; Igneous Rocks; Major Oxides; Plutonic Rocks

  2. Conditional probability distribution function of "energy transfer rate" (PDF(ɛ|PVI)) as compared with its counterpart of temperature (PDF(T|PVI)) at the same condition of fluctuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiansen; Wang, Yin; Pei, Zhongtian; Zhang, Lei; Tu, Chuanyi

    2017-04-01

    Energy transfer rate of turbulence is not uniform everywhere but suggested to follow a certain distribution, e.g., lognormal distribution (Kolmogorov 1962). The inhomogeneous transfer rate leads to emergence of intermittency, which may be identified with some parameter, e.g., normalized partial variance increments (PVI) (Greco et al., 2009). Large PVI of magnetic field fluctuations are found to have a temperature distribution with the median and mean values higher than that for small PVI level (Osman et al., 2012). However, there is a large proportion of overlap between temperature distributions associated with the smaller and larger PVIs. So it is recognized that only PVI cannot fully determine the temperature, since the one-to-one mapping relationship does not exist. One may be curious about the reason responsible for the considerable overlap of conditional temperature distribution for different levels of PVI. Usually the hotter plasma with higher temperature is speculated to be heated more with more dissipation of turbulence energy corresponding to more energy cascading rate, if the temperature fluctuation of the eigen wave mode is not taken into account. To explore the statistical relationship between turbulence cascading and plasma thermal state, we aim to study and reveal, for the first time, the conditional probability function of "energy transfer rate" under different levels of PVI condition (PDF(ɛ|PVI)), and compare it with the conditional probability function of temperature. The conditional probability distribution function, PDF(ɛ|PVI), is derived from PDF(PVI|ɛ)·PDF(ɛ)/PDF(PVI) according to the Bayesian theorem. PDF(PVI) can be obtained directly from the data. PDF(ɛ) is derived from the conjugate-gradient inversion of PDF(PVI) by assuming reasonably that PDF(δB|σ) is a Gaussian distribution, where PVI=|δB|/ σ and σ ( ɛι)1/3. PDF(ɛ) can also be acquired from fitting PDF(δB) with an integral function ∫PDF(δB|σ)PDF(σ)d σ. As a result

  3. Exfoliation syndrome: assembling the puzzle pieces.

    PubMed

    Pasquale, Louis R; Borrás, Terete; Fingert, John H; Wiggs, Janey L; Ritch, Robert

    2016-09-01

    To summarize various topics and the cutting edge approaches to refine XFS pathogenesis that were discussed at the 21st annual Glaucoma Foundation Think Tank meeting in New York City, Sept. 19-20, 2014. The highlights of three categories of talks on cutting edge research in the field were summarized. Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is a systemic disorder with a substantial ocular burden, including high rates of cataract, cataract surgery complications, glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion. New information about XFS is akin to puzzle pieces that do not quite join together to reveal a clear picture regarding how exfoliation material (XFM) forms. Meeting participants concluded that it is unclear how the mild homocysteinemia seen in XFS might contribute to the disarrayed extracellular aggregates characteristic of this syndrome. Lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) variants are unequivocally genetic risk factors for XFS but exactly how these variants contribute to the assembly of exfoliation material (XFM) remains unclear. Variants in a new genomic region, CACNA1A associated with XFS, may alter calcium concentrations at the cell surface and facilitate XFM formation but much more work is needed before we can place this new finding in proper context. It is hoped that various animal model and ex vivo systems will emerge that will allow for proper assembly of the puzzle pieces into a coherent picture of XFS pathogenesis. A clear understanding of XFS pathogenesis may lead to 'upstream solutions' to reduce the ocular morbidity produced by XFS. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 77 FR 12273 - Public Availability of Department of Energy FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .../sites/default/files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf . On.../files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventory-guidance.pdf . Except for minor changes to...

  5. To Txt or Not to Txt: That's the Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tiong-Thye; Hooper, Val

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the potential use of a mobile phone Short Message Service (SMS) crossword puzzle system to promote interaction through learning activities in a large classroom environment. While personal response systems (PRS) have been used in the classroom environment to foster interaction, it is not an ideal tool with respect to cost and…

  6. Utility of Self-Made Crossword Puzzles as an Active Learning Method to Study Biochemistry in Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coticone, Sulekha Rao

    2013-01-01

    To incorporate an active learning component in a one-semester biochemistry course, students were asked to create crossword puzzles using key concepts. Student observations on the use of self-made crossword puzzles as an active-learning instructional tool were collected using a 5-point Likert survey at the end of the semester. A majority of the…

  7. Cyclic AMP imaging sheds light on PDF signaling in circadian clock neurons.

    PubMed

    Tomchik, Seth M; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-04-24

    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide PDF is required for circadian rhythmicity, but it is unclear where PDF acts. In this issue of Neuron, Shafer et al. use a novel bioimaging methodology to demonstrate that PDF elevates cAMP in nearly all clock neurons. Thus, PDF apparently exerts more widespread effects on the circadian clock network than suggested by previous studies of PDF receptor expression.

  8. An Overview of the NCC Spray/Monte-Carlo-PDF Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.; Liu, Nan-Suey (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper advances the state-of-the-art in spray computations with some of our recent contributions involving scalar Monte Carlo PDF (Probability Density Function), unstructured grids and parallel computing. It provides a complete overview of the scalar Monte Carlo PDF and Lagrangian spray computer codes developed for application with unstructured grids and parallel computing. Detailed comparisons for the case of a reacting non-swirling spray clearly highlight the important role that chemistry/turbulence interactions play in the modeling of reacting sprays. The results from the PDF and non-PDF methods were found to be markedly different and the PDF solution is closer to the reported experimental data. The PDF computations predict that some of the combustion occurs in a predominantly premixed-flame environment and the rest in a predominantly diffusion-flame environment. However, the non-PDF solution predicts wrongly for the combustion to occur in a vaporization-controlled regime. Near the premixed flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows two distinct peaks: one centered around the flame temperature and the other around the surrounding-gas temperature. Near the diffusion flame, the Monte Carlo particle temperature distribution shows a single peak. In both cases, the computed PDF's shape and strength are found to vary substantially depending upon the proximity to the flame surface. The results bring to the fore some of the deficiencies associated with the use of assumed-shape PDF methods in spray computations. Finally, we end the paper by demonstrating the computational viability of the present solution procedure for its use in 3D combustor calculations by summarizing the results of a 3D test case with periodic boundary conditions. For the 3D case, the parallel performance of all the three solvers (CFD, PDF, and spray) has been found to be good when the computations were performed on a 24-processor SGI Origin work-station.

  9. The puzzling unsolved mysteries of liquid water: Some recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Kumar, P.; Xu, L.; Yan, Z.; Mazza, M. G.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Chen, S.-H.; Mallamace, F.

    2007-12-01

    Water is perhaps the most ubiquitous, and the most essential, of any molecule on earth. Indeed, it defies the imagination of even the most creative science fiction writer to picture what life would be like without water. Despite decades of research, however, water's puzzling properties are not understood and 63 anomalies that distinguish water from other liquids remain unsolved. We introduce some of these unsolved mysteries, and demonstrate recent progress in solving them. We present evidence from experiments and computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water displays a special transition point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell). The general idea is that when the liquid is near this “tipping point,” it suddenly separates into two distinct liquid phases. This concept of a new critical point is finding application to other liquids as well as water, such as silicon and silica. We also discuss related puzzles, such as the mysterious behavior of water near a protein.

  10. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-10-06

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element 'draft-tube' that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700-1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences.

  11. Solving the BM Camelopardalis puzzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teke, Mathias; Busby, Michael R.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1989-01-01

    BM Camelopardalis (=12 Cam) is a chromospherically active binary star with a relatively large orbital eccentricity. Systems with large eccentricities usually rotate pseudosynchronously. However, BM Cam has been a puzzle since its observed rotation rate is virtually equal to its orbital period indicating synchronization. All available photometry data for BM Cam have been collected and analyzed. Two models of modulated ellipticity effect are proposed, one based on equilibrium tidal deformation of the primary star and the other on a dynamical tidal effect. When the starspot variability is removed from the data, the dynamical tidal model was the better approximation to the real physical situation. The analysis indicates that BM Cam is not rotating pseudosynchronously but rotating in virtual synchronism after all.

  12. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.

    2017-08-01

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La-Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s-process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La-Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba II relative to La-Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba II lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba II lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba II lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La-Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  13. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measuredmore » the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.« less

  14. The Potential of Crossword Puzzles in Aiding English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel, Warren

    2016-01-01

    In an academic environment, teachers utilize crossword puzzles to help students learn or remember terminology. Outside the classroom, typically in daily newspapers, crosswords aid in vocabulary development, used as a learning tool, a leisure activity, or both. However, both the content and the grid structure of the crosswords in these two…

  15. 78 FR 4766 - Adoption of Updated EDGAR Filer Manual

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... primarily to introduce the new EDGARLink Online submission type IRANNOTICE; and support PDF as an official... Portable Document Format (PDF) as an official filing format. EDGAR will continue to accept ASCII and HTML...) and 101 (17 CFR 232.101) of Regulation S-T and the EDGAR Filer Manual relating to the use of PDF files...

  16. A Play on Words: Using Cognitive Computing as a Basis for AI Solvers in Word Puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, Thomas; Ellis, Simon; Hendler, James

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we offer a model, drawing inspiration from human cognition and based upon the pipeline developed for IBM's Watson, which solves clues in a type of word puzzle called syllacrostics. We briefly discuss its situation with respect to the greater field of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and how this process and model might be applied to other types of word puzzles. We present an overview of a system that has been developed to solve syllacrostics.

  17. Applicability, Indispensability, and Underdetermination: Puzzling Over Wigner's `Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    In his influential 1960 paper `The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences', Eugene P. Wigner raises the question of why something that was developed without concern for empirical facts—mathematics—should turn out to be so powerful in explaining facts about the natural world. Recent philosophy of science has developed `Wigner's puzzle' in two different directions: First, in relation to the supposed indispensability of mathematical facts to particular scientific explanations and, secondly, in connection with the idea that aesthetic criteria track theoretical desiderata such as empirical success. An important aspect of Wigner's article has, however, been overlooked in these debates: his worries about the underdetermination of physical theories by mathematical frameworks. The present paper argues that, by restoring this aspect of Wigner's argument to its proper place, Wigner's puzzle may become an instructive case study for the teaching of core issues in the philosophy of science and its history.

  18. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  19. Alliteration in medicine: a puzzling profusion of p's

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Gregory F

    1999-01-01

    Problem Puzzling, progressive profusion of alliterative “p's” in published papers. Purpose To depict this particular “p” predominance with pinpoint precision. Plan Periodic, painstaking perusal of periodicals by a professor of paediatrics. Proposal The “p” plethora is positively perplexing and potentially perturbing. Alliteration is a literary device consisting of repetition of the same starting sound in several words in a sentence.1 Consider, for example, Shakespeare's playful parody of alliteration in Peter Quince's prologue in A Midsummer Night's Dream: “Whereat with blade, with bloody blameful blade, He bravely broach'd his boiling bloody breast.” Alliteration has appeared frequently in the medical literature—for example: “Respiratory syncytial virus—from chimps with colds to conundrums and cures;”2 “The choreas: of faints, fevers, and families;”3 “Coronary artery stents—gauging, gorging, and gouging;”4 “Moschcowitz, multimers, and metalloprotease;”5 “Alagille syndrome: a nutritional niche for Notch;”6 “Theodor Billroth: success with sutures and strings.”7 Perusing the medical literature with alliteration in mind, I have become perplexed by a peculiar propensity for the letter “p” to be placed in prominent positions. Consider for a moment the alliterative content of the BMJ, a prestigious periodical also published in Pakistani, Polish, and Portuguese. Perhaps the prime example is a piece entitled “A potpourri of parasites in poetry and proverb,”8 but the journal has presented articles addressing such topics as paracetamol poisoning,9 practitioners' pressure to prescribe,10 physicians' partnerships with patients,11 partnerships for prevention in public playgrounds,12 and pregnancy outcomes which have been persistently poor.13 Other topics have included patients' priorities,14 the political process of puzzling out private versus public priorities,15 and the ponderous problem of whether the priorities in

  20. AsteriX: a Web server to automatically extract ligand coordinates from figures in PDF articles.

    PubMed

    Lounnas, V; Vriend, G

    2012-02-27

    Coordinates describing the chemical structures of small molecules that are potential ligands for pharmaceutical targets are used at many stages of the drug design process. The coordinates of the vast majority of ligands can be obtained from either publicly accessible or commercial databases. However, interesting ligands sometimes are only available from the scientific literature, in which case their coordinates need to be reconstructed manually--a process that consists of a series of time-consuming steps. We present a Web server that helps reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of ligands for which a two-dimensional (2D) picture is available in a PDF file. The software, called AsteriX, analyses every picture contained in the PDF file and attempts to determine automatically whether or not it contains ligands. Areas in pictures that may contain molecular structures are processed to extract connectivity and atom type information that allow coordinates to be subsequently reconstructed. The AsteriX Web server was tested on a series of articles containing a large diversity in graphical representations. In total, 88% of 3249 ligand structures present in the test set were identified as chemical diagrams. Of these, about half were interpreted correctly as 3D structures, and a further one-third required only minor manual corrections. It is principally impossible to always correctly reconstruct 3D coordinates from pictures because there are many different protocols for drawing a 2D image of a ligand, but more importantly a wide variety of semantic annotations are possible. The AsteriX Web server therefore includes facilities that allow the users to augment partial or partially correct 3D reconstructions. All 3D reconstructions are submitted, checked, and corrected by the users domain at the server and are freely available for everybody. The coordinates of the reconstructed ligands are made available in a series of formats commonly used in drug design research. The

  1. Improvements and new features in the PDF module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses what models are used in this package and what their advantages and disadvantages are, how the probability density function (PDF) model is implemented and the features of the program, and what can be expected in the future from the NASA Lewis PDF code.

  2. The Retrofit Puzzle Extended: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior over Multiple Time Periods

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-04

    In "The Retrofit Puzzle: Optimal Fleet Owner Behavior in the Context of Diesel Retrofit Incentive Programs" (1) an integer program was developed to model profit-maximizing diesel fleet owner behavior when selecting pollution reduction retrofits. Flee...

  3. Unraveling "Braid": Puzzle Games and Storytelling in the Imperative Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Luke

    2012-01-01

    "Unraveling Braid" analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow's 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec's 1978 novel "Life A User's Manual," as well as…

  4. Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrig, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

  5. Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF) and change in well-being in older persons.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Angèle A; Comijs, Hannie C; Knipscheer, Kees C; Deeg, Dorly J

    2008-10-01

    It is often assumed that aging is accompanied by diverse and constant functional and cognitive decline, and it is therefore surprising that the well-being of older persons does not appear to decline in the same way. This study investigates longitudinally whether well-being in older persons changes due to Persistent Deterioration of Functioning (PDF). Data were collected in the context of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). Conditions of PDF are persistent decline in cognitive functioning, physical functioning and increase in chronic diseases. Measurements of well-being included life satisfaction, positive affect, and valuation of life. T-tests were used to analyse mean difference scores for well-being, and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine changes in three well-being outcomes in relation to PDF. Cross-sectional analyses showed significant differences and associations between the two PDF subgroups and non- PDF for well-being at T3. In longitudinal analyses, we found significant decreases in and associations with wellbeing over time in respondents fulfilling one PDF condition (mild PDF). For respondents fulfilling two or more PDF conditions (severe PDF), longitudinally no significant associations were found. Cognitive aspects of well-being (life satisfaction and valuation of life) and the affective element (positive affect) of well-being appear to be influenced negatively by mild PDF, whereas well-being does not seem to be diminished in persons with more severe PDF. This may be due to the ability to accept finally the inevitable situation of severe PDF.

  6. Eta Carinae: A Box of Puzzles...Some Solved, Others Await

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    In the l840's, Eta Carinae brightened to rival Sirius, then faded. Today we see a marginally naked-eye binary with an expanding, very dusty bipolar Homunculus. The energetics of the ejected mass (>l2 to 40 solar masses at 500-700 km/s plus outer bullets/strings up to 3000 km/s} approach that of a supernova. Extragalactic SN surveys detect near-supernovae thought to be like the Great Eruption of the 1840's. Eta Carinae presents an abundance of puzzles: rich in N, but 1/100th the solar C and O abundances; Ti, V, Sr, Sc persist in atomic states.... yet an abundance of molecules and dust exists in the Homunculus. How did molecules and dust form with low C and O? A near supernova occurred in the l840m, yet both binary companions, with total mass > 120 solar masses, survive in a very eccentric orbit. What is the near future of this system: a GRB? a SN? or just two WR stars that ultimately become two SNs? These and other puzzles will be presented

  7. A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Broderick; Paredes, Fernando; Norero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a n 2 × n 2 grid, composed of n columns, n rows, and n subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to n 2. Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods. PMID:26078751

  8. A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Paredes, Fernando; Norero, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a n(2) × n(2) grid, composed of n columns, n rows, and n subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to n(2). Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods.

  9. Tiny bubbles challenge giant turbines: Three Gorges puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengcai

    2015-01-01

    Since the birth of the first prototype of the modern reaction turbine, cavitation as conjectured by Euler in 1754 always presents as a challenge. Following his theory, the evolution of modern reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbines has been completed by adding the final piece of the element ‘draft-tube’ that enables turbines to explore water energy at efficiencies of almost 100%. However, during the last two and a half centuries, with increasing unit capacity and specific speed, the problem of cavitation has been manifested and complicated by the draft-tube surges rather than being solved. Particularly, during the last 20 years, the fierce competition in the international market for extremely large turbines with compact design has encouraged the development of giant Francis turbines of 700–1000 MW. The first group (24 units) of such giant turbines of 700 MW each was installed in the Three Gorges project. Immediately after commission, a strange erosion phenomenon appeared on the guide vane of the machines that has puzzled professionals. From a multi-disciplinary analysis, this Three Gorges puzzle could reflect an unknown type of cavitation inception presumably triggered by turbulence production from the boundary-layer streak transitional process. It thus presents a fresh challenge not only to this old turbine industry, but also to the fundamental sciences. PMID:26442144

  10. A GPU accelerated PDF transparency engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recker, John; Lin, I.-Jong; Tastl, Ingeborg

    2011-01-01

    As commercial printing presses become faster, cheaper and more efficient, so too must the Raster Image Processors (RIP) that prepare data for them to print. Digital press RIPs, however, have been challenged to on the one hand meet the ever increasing print performance of the latest digital presses, and on the other hand process increasingly complex documents with transparent layers and embedded ICC profiles. This paper explores the challenges encountered when implementing a GPU accelerated driver for the open source Ghostscript Adobe PostScript and PDF language interpreter targeted at accelerating PDF transparency for high speed commercial presses. It further describes our solution, including an image memory manager for tiling input and output images and documents, a PDF compatible multiple image layer blending engine, and a GPU accelerated ICC v4 compatible color transformation engine. The result, we believe, is the foundation for a scalable, efficient, distributed RIP system that can meet current and future RIP requirements for a wide range of commercial digital presses.

  11. Application of PDF methods to compressible turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarue, B. J.; Pope, S. B.

    1997-09-01

    A particle method applying the probability density function (PDF) approach to turbulent compressible flows is presented. The method is applied to several turbulent flows, including the compressible mixing layer, and good agreement is obtained with experimental data. The PDF equation is solved using a Lagrangian/Monte Carlo method. To accurately account for the effects of compressibility on the flow, the velocity PDF formulation is extended to include thermodynamic variables such as the pressure and the internal energy. The mean pressure, the determination of which has been the object of active research over the last few years, is obtained directly from the particle properties. It is therefore not necessary to link the PDF solver with a finite-volume type solver. The stochastic differential equations (SDE) which model the evolution of particle properties are based on existing second-order closures for compressible turbulence, limited in application to low turbulent Mach number flows. Tests are conducted in decaying isotropic turbulence to compare the performances of the PDF method with the Reynolds-stress closures from which it is derived, and in homogeneous shear flows, at which stage comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is conducted. The model is then applied to the plane compressible mixing layer, reproducing the well-known decrease in the spreading rate with increasing compressibility. It must be emphasized that the goal of this paper is not as much to assess the performance of models of compressibility effects, as it is to present an innovative and consistent PDF formulation designed for turbulent inhomogeneous compressible flows, with the aim of extending it further to deal with supersonic reacting flows.

  12. (Mis)perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A Puzzle and a Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not…

  13. Comparative analysis of Pdf-mediated circadian behaviors between Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2009-03-01

    A group of small ventrolateral neurons (s-LN(v)'s) are the principal pacemaker for circadian locomotor rhythmicity of Drosophila melanogaster, and the pigment-dispersing factor (Pdf) neuropeptide plays an essential role as a clock messenger within these neurons. In our comparative studies on Pdf-associated circadian rhythms, we found that daily locomotor activity patterns of D. virilis were significantly different from those of D. melanogaster. Activities of D. virilis adults were mainly restricted to the photophase under light:dark cycles and subsequently became arrhythmic or weakly rhythmic in constant conditions. Such activity patterns resemble those of Pdf(01) mutant of D. melanogaster. Intriguingly, endogenous D. virilis Pdf (DvPdf) expression was not detected in the s-LN(v)-like neurons in the adult brains, implying that the Pdf(01)-like behavioral phenotypes of D. virilis are attributed in part to the lack of DvPdf in the s-LN(v)-like neurons. Heterologous transgenic analysis showed that cis-regulatory elements of the DvPdf transgene are capable of directing their expression in all endogenous Pdf neurons including s-LN(v)'s, as well as in non-Pdf clock neurons (LN(d)'s and fifth s-LN(v)) in a D. melanogaster host. Together these findings suggest a significant difference in the regulatory mechanisms of Pdf transcription between the two species and such a difference is causally associated with species-specific establishment of daily locomotor activity patterns.

  14. Solving the Puzzle of Metastasis: The Evolution of Cell Migration in Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Sprouffske, Kathleen; Huang, Qihong; Maley, Carlo C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Metastasis represents one of the most clinically important transitions in neoplastic progression. The evolution of metastasis is a puzzle because a metastatic clone is at a disadvantage in competition for space and resources with non-metastatic clones in the primary tumor. Metastatic clones waste some of their reproductive potential on emigrating cells with little chance of establishing metastases. We suggest that resource heterogeneity within primary tumors selects for cell migration, and that cell emigration is a by-product of that selection. Methods and Findings We developed an agent-based model to simulate the evolution of neoplastic cell migration. We simulated the essential dynamics of neoangiogenesis and blood vessel occlusion that lead to resource heterogeneity in neoplasms. We observed the probability and speed of cell migration that evolves with changes in parameters that control the degree of spatial and temporal resource heterogeneity. Across a broad range of realistic parameter values, increasing degrees of spatial and temporal heterogeneity select for the evolution of increased cell migration and emigration. Conclusions We showed that variability in resources within a neoplasm (e.g. oxygen and nutrients provided by angiogenesis) is sufficient to select for cells with high motility. These cells are also more likely to emigrate from the tumor, which is the first step in metastasis and the key to the puzzle of metastasis. Thus, we have identified a novel potential solution to the puzzle of metastasis. PMID:21556134

  15. Adding a Piece to the Leaf Epidermal Cell Shape Puzzle.

    PubMed

    von Wangenheim, Daniel; Wells, Darren M; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2017-11-06

    The jigsaw puzzle-shaped pavement cells in the leaf epidermis collectively function as a load-bearing tissue that controls organ growth. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Majda et al. (2017) shed light on how the jigsaw shape can arise from localized variations in wall stiffness between adjacent epidermal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear clustering and the electron screening puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C.

    2018-01-01

    Electron screening changes appreciably the magnitude of astrophysical nuclear reactions within stars. This effect is also observed in laboratory experiments on Earth, where atomic electrons are present in the nuclear targets. Theoretical models were developed over the past 30 years and experimental measurements have been carried out to study electron screening in thermonuclear reactions. None of the theoretical models were able to explain the high values of the experimentally determined screening potentials. We explore the possibility that the "electron screening puzzle" is due to nuclear clusterization and polarization e_ects in the fusion reactions. We will discuss the supporting arguments for this scenario.

  17. PoroTomo Subtask 3.2 Data files from the Distributed Acoustic Sensing experiment at Garner Valley, California

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chelsea Lancelle

    2013-09-11

    In September 2013, an experiment using Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) was conducted at Garner Valley, a test site of the University of California Santa Barbara (Lancelle et al., 2014). This submission includes all DAS data recorded during the experiment. The sampling rate for all files is 1000 samples per second. Any files with the same filename but ending in _01, _02, etc. represent sequential files from the same test. Locations of the sources are plotted on the basemap in GDR submission 481, titled: "PoroTomo Subtask 3.2 Sample data from a Distributed Acoustic Sensing experiment at Garner Valley, California (PoroTomo Subtask 3.2)." Lancelle, C., N. Lord, H. Wang, D. Fratta, R. Nigbor, A. Chalari, R. Karaulanov, J. Baldwin, and E. Castongia (2014), Directivity and Sensitivity of Fiber-Optic Cable Measuring Ground Motion using a Distributed Acoustic Sensing Array (abstract # NS31C-3935), AGU Fall Meeting. 
https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm1/meetingapp.cgi#Paper/19828 The e-poster is available at: https://agu.confex.com/data/handout/agu/fm14/Paper_19828_handout_696_0.pdf

  18. TES Validation Reports

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-06-30

    ... Reports: TES Data Versions: TES Validation Report Version 6.0 (PDF) R13 processing version; F07_10 file versions TES Validation Report Version 5.0 (PDF) R12 processing version; F06_08, F06_09 file ...

  19. MySQL/PHP web database applications for IPAC proposal submission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) is NASA's multi-mission center of expertise for long-wavelength astrophysics. Proposals for various IPAC missions and programs are ingested via MySQL/PHP web database applications. Proposers use web forms to enter coversheet information and upload PDF files related to the proposal. Upon proposal submission, a unique directory is created on the webserver into which all of the uploaded files are placed. The coversheet information is converted into a PDF file using a PHP extension called FPDF. The files are concatenated into one PDF file using the command-line tool pdftk and then forwarded to the review committee. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Math Puzzlers: 25 Reproducible Puzzles, Games, and Activities that Boost the Math Skills and Up the Fun! Grades 2-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimble-Ellis, Sonya

    Puzzles, games, and activities provide perfect opportunities for students to work in groups, interact, communicate with each other, and discuss strategies. The activities, games, and puzzles contained in this book are designed to help students learn mathematics in a fun yet challenging way. The activities are designed to encourage students to…

  1. Pressure algorithm for elliptic flow calculations with the PDF method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anand, M. S.; Pope, S. B.; Mongia, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    An algorithm to determine the mean pressure field for elliptic flow calculations with the probability density function (PDF) method is developed and applied. The PDF method is a most promising approach for the computation of turbulent reacting flows. Previous computations of elliptic flows with the method were in conjunction with conventional finite volume based calculations that provided the mean pressure field. The algorithm developed and described here permits the mean pressure field to be determined within the PDF calculations. The PDF method incorporating the pressure algorithm is applied to the flow past a backward-facing step. The results are in good agreement with data for the reattachment length, mean velocities, and turbulence quantities including triple correlations.

  2. A multi-scalar PDF approach for LES of turbulent spray combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Venkat; Heye, Colin

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive joint-scalar probability density function (PDF) approach is proposed for large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion and tests are conducted to analyze the validity and modeling requirements. The PDF method has the advantage that the chemical source term appears closed but requires models for the small scale mixing process. A stable and consistent numerical algorithm for the LES/PDF approach is presented. To understand the modeling issues in the PDF method, direct numerical simulation of a spray flame at three different fuel droplet Stokes numbers and an equivalent gaseous flame are carried out. Assumptions in closing the subfilter conditional diffusion term in the filtered PDF transport equation are evaluated for various model forms. In addition, the validity of evaporation rate models in high Stokes number flows is analyzed.

  3. [Practical experience about the compatibility of PDF converter in ECG information system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Lu, Weishi; Zhou, Jiacheng

    2009-11-01

    To find a way to view ECG from different manufacturers in electrocardiogram information system. Different format ECG data were transmitted to ECG center by different ways. Corresponding analysis software was used to make the diagnosis reports in the center. Then we use PDF convert to change all ECG reports into PDF format. The electrocardiogram information system manage these PDF format ECG data for clinic user. The ECG reports form several major ECG manufacturers were transformed to PDF format successfully. In the electrocardiogram information system it is freely to view the ECG figure. PDF format ECG report is a practicable way to solve the compatibility problem in electrocardiogram information system.

  4. Digital geologic map of the Butler Peak 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Brown, Howard J.; digital preparation by Cossette, P. M.

    2000-01-01

    Open-File Report 00-145, is a digital geologic map database of the Butler Peak 7.5' quadrangle that includes (1) ARC/INFO (Environmental Systems Research Institute) version 7.2.1 Patch 1 coverages, and associated tables, (2) a Portable Document Format (.pdf) file of the Description of Map Units, Correlation of Map Units chart, and an explanation of symbols used on the map, btlrpk_dcmu.pdf, (3) a Portable Document Format file of this Readme, btlrpk_rme.pdf (the Readme is also included as an ascii file in the data package), and (4) a PostScript plot file of the map, Correlation of Map Units, and Description of Map Units on a single sheet, btlrpk.ps. No paper map is included in the Open-File report, but the PostScript plot file (number 4 above) can be used to produce one. The PostScript plot file generates a map, peripheral text, and diagrams in the editorial format of USGS Geologic Investigation Series (I-series) maps.

  5. Having Fun and Accepting Challenges Are Natural Instincts: Jigsaw Puzzles to Challenge Students and Test Their Abilities While Having Fun!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodenbaugh, Hanna R.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Rodenbaugh, David W.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Because jigsaw puzzles are fun, and challenging, students will endure and discover that persistence and grit are rewarded. Importantly, play and fun have a biological place just like sleep and dreams. Students also feel a sense of accomplishment when they have completed a puzzle. Importantly, the reward of mastering a challenge builds confidence…

  6. "Pieces of a Puzzle": Seeing the Light in a Darkened Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Frederick K.

    The film "Pieces of a Puzzle" (part of the series "Writers Writing" that was coproduced by WNET and Learning Designs and televised by WNET in 1985), helped students become better writers and facilitated the discovery of material and techniques appropriate to academic writing. First, students were introduced to reader response…

  7. General intelligence is an emerging property, not an evolutionary puzzle.

    PubMed

    Ramus, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Burkart et al. contend that general intelligence poses a major evolutionary puzzle. This assertion presupposes a reification of general intelligence - that is, assuming that it is one "thing" that must have been selected as such. However, viewing general intelligence as an emerging property of multiple cognitive abilities (each with their own selective advantage) requires no additional evolutionary explanation.

  8. The road to successful ITS software acquisition. Volume 1, Overview and themes

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of an 8-page printed summary proceedings and 14 PDF files that contain 14 papers presented at the International Workshop on ITS Benefits, held in Turin, Italy, November 9, 2000. The summary proceedings and PDF files are availab...

  9. Right frontal gamma and beta band enhancement while solving a spatial puzzle with insight.

    PubMed

    Rosen, A; Reiner, M

    2017-12-01

    Solving a problem with an "a-ha" effect is known as insight. Unlike incremental problem solving, insight is sudden and unique, and the question about its distinct brain activity, intrigues many researchers. In this study, electroencephalogram signals were recorded from 12 right handed, human participants before (baseline) and while they solved a spatial puzzle known as the '10 coin puzzle' that could be solved incrementally or by insight. Participants responded as soon as they reached a solution and reported whether the process was incremental or by sudden insight. EEG activity was recorded from 19 scalp locations. We found significant differences between insight and incremental solvers in the Gamma and Beta 2 bands in frontal areas (F8) and in the alpha band in right temporal areas (T6). The right-frontal gamma indicates a process of restructuring which leads to an insight solution, in spatial problems, further suggesting a universal role of gamma in restructuring. These results further suggest that solving a spatial puzzle via insight requires exclusive brain areas and neurological-cognitive processes which may be important for meta-cognitive components of insight solutions, including attention and monitoring of the solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New Light on Autism and Other Puzzling Disorders of Childhood. Science Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahraes, Herbert

    The pamphlet discusses several puzzling disorders of childhood, including autism, atypical personality development (childhood psychosis), psychosocial dwarfism, and Tourette's syndrome. Psychosocial dwarfism is said to be characterized by a marked reduction in physical development and by immaturity in behavior, while Tourette's syndrome involves…

  11. Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): a short term study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Hyouk-Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Sang-Joon; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2008-10-01

    The majority of newly acquired nonhuman primates encounter serious problems adapting themselves to new environments or facilities. In particular, loss of appetite and abnormal behavior can occur in response to environmental stresses. These adaptation abnormalities can ultimately have an affect on the animal's growth and well-being. In this study, we evaluated the affects of a puzzle feeder on the food intake and abnormal behavior of newly acquired rhesus monkeys for a short period. The puzzle feeder was applied to 47- to 58-month-old animals that had never previously encountered one. We found that there was no difference in the change of food intake between the bucket condition and the puzzle feeder condition. In contrast, the time spent for consumption of food was three times longer in the puzzle feeder condition than in the bucket condition. Two monkeys initially exhibited stereotypic behavior. One showed a decreasing, and the other an increasing pattern of abnormal behavior after introduction of the puzzle feeder. In conclusion, this result suggests that over a short period, the puzzle feeder can only affect the time for food consumption since it failed to affect the food intake and did not consistently influence stereotypic behaviors in newly acquired rhesus monkeys.

  12. Historical files from Federal government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Congress enacted the Defense Production Act in 1950 to provide funding and support for the exploration and development of critical mineral resources. From 1950 to 1974, three Department of the Interior agencies carried out this mission. Contracts with mine owners provided financial assistance for mineral exploration on a joint-participation basis. These contracts are documented in more than 5,000 'dockets' now archived online by the U.S. Geological Survey. This archive provides access to unique and difficult to recreate information, such as drill logs, assay results, and underground geologic maps, that is invaluable to land and resource management organizations and the minerals industry. An effort to preserve the data began in 2009, and the entire collection of dockets was electronically scanned. The scanning process used optical character recognition (OCR) when possible, and files were converted into Portable Document Format (.pdf) files, which require Adobe Reader or similar software for viewing. In 2010, the scans were placed online (http://minerals.usgs.gov/dockets/) and are available to download free of charge.

  13. Health inequalities and welfare state regimes: theoretical insights on a public health 'puzzle'.

    PubMed

    Bambra, Clare

    2011-09-01

    Welfare states are important determinants of health. Comparative social epidemiology has almost invariably concluded that population health is enhanced by the relatively generous and universal welfare provision of the Scandinavian countries. However, most international studies of socioeconomic inequalities in health have thrown up something of a public health 'puzzle' as the Scandinavian welfare states do not, as would generally be expected, have the smallest health inequalities. This essay outlines and interrogates this puzzle by drawing upon existing theories of health inequalities--artefact, selection, cultural--behavioural, materialist, psychosocial and life course--to generate some theoretical insights. It discusses the limits of these theories in respect to cross-national research; it questions the focus and normative paradigm underpinning contemporary comparative health inequalities research; and it considers the future of comparative social epidemiology.

  14. PDF-modulated visual inputs and cryptochrome define diurnal behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Paola; Klarsfeld, André; Chélot, Elisabeth; Picot, Marie; Richier, Benjamin; Rouyer, François

    2009-11-01

    Morning and evening circadian oscillators control the bimodal activity of Drosophila in light-dark cycles. The lateral neurons evening oscillator (LN-EO) is important for promoting diurnal activity at dusk. We found that the LN-EO autonomously synchronized to light-dark cycles through either the cryptochrome (CRY) that it expressed or the visual system. In conditions in which CRY was not activated, flies depleted for pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) or its receptor lost the evening activity and displayed reversed PER oscillations in the LN-EO. Rescue experiments indicated that normal PER cycling and the presence of evening activity relied on PDF secretion from the large ventral lateral neurons and PDF receptor function in the LN-EO. The LN-EO thus integrates light inputs and PDF signaling to control Drosophila diurnal behavior, revealing a new clock-independent function for PDF.

  15. PDF Receptor Expression Reveals Direct Interactions between Circadian Oscillators in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Im, Seol Hee; Taghert, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Daily rhythms of behavior are controlled by a circuit of circadian pacemaking neurons. In Drosophila, 150 pacemakers participate in this network, and recent observations suggest the network is divisible into M and E oscillators which normally interact and synchronize. Sixteen oscillator neurons (the small and large LNvs) express a neuropeptide called pigment dispersing factor (PDF) whose signaling is often equated with M oscillator output. Given the significance of PDF signaling to numerous aspects of behavioral and molecular rhythms, determining precisely where and how signaling via the PDF receptor (PDFR) occurs is now a central question in the field. Here we show that GAL4-mediated rescue of pdfr phenotypes using a UAS-PDFR transgene is insufficient to provide complete behavioral rescue. In contrast, we describe a ~70 kB PDF receptor (pdfr) transgene which does rescue the entire pdfr circadian behavioral phenotype. The transgene is widely but heterogeneously expressed among pacemakers, and also among a limited number of non-pacemakers. Our results support an important hypothesis: the small LNv cells directly target a subset of the other crucial pacemaker neurons cells. Furthermore, expression of the transgene confirms an autocrine feedback signaling by PDF back to PDF-expressing cells. Finally, the results present an unexpected PDF receptor site: the large LNv cells appear to target a population of non-neuronal cells that resides at the base of the eye. PMID:20394051

  16. Statistical Analysis of PDF's for Na Released by Photons from Solid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamborino, D.; Wurz, P.

    2018-05-01

    We analyse the adequacy of three model speed PDF's previously used to describe the desorption of Na from a solid surface either by ESD or PSD. We found that the Maxwell PDF is too wide compared to measurements and non-thermal PDF's are better suited.

  17. Freestyle multiple propeller flap reconstruction (jigsaw puzzle approach) for complicated back defects.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Eom, Jin Sup; Sun, Yoon Chi; Suh, Hyun Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2015-05-01

    The reconstruction of the posterior trunk remains to be a challenge as defects can be extensive, with deep dead space, and fixation devices exposed. Our goal was to achieve a tension-free closure for complex defects on the posterior trunk. From August 2006 to May 2013, 18 cases were reconstructed with multiple flaps combining perforator(s) and local skin flaps. The reconstructions were performed using freestyle approach. Starting with propeller flap(s) in single or multilobed design and sequentially in conjunction with adjacent random pattern flaps such as fitting puzzle. All defects achieved tensionless primary closure. The final appearance resembled a jigsaw puzzle-like appearance. The average size of defect was 139.6 cm(2) (range, 36-345 cm(2)). A total of 26 perforator flaps were used in addition to 19 random pattern flaps for 18 cases. In all cases, a single perforator was used for each propeller flap. The defect and the donor site all achieved tension-free closure. The reconstruction was 100% successful without flap loss. One case of late infection was noted at 12 months after surgery. Using multiple lobe designed propeller flaps in conjunction with random pattern flaps in a freestyle approach, resembling putting a jigsaw puzzle together, we can achieve a tension-free closure by distributing the tension to multiple flaps, supplying sufficient volume to obliterate dead space, and have reliable vascularity as the flaps do not need to be oversized. This can be a viable approach to reconstruct extensive defects on the posterior trunk. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The proton radius puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesini, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The FAMU (Fisica degli Atomi Muonici) experiment has the goal to measure precisely the proton Zemach radius, thus contributing to the solution of the so-called proton radius "puzzle". To this aim, it makes use of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam at RIKEN-RAL impinging on a cryogenic hydrogen target with an high-Z gas admixture and a tunable mid-IR high power laser, to measure the hyperfine (HFS) splitting of the 1S state of the muonic hydrogen. From the value of the exciting laser frequency, the energy of the HFS transition may be derived with high precision ( 10-5) and thus, via QED calculations, the Zemach radius of the proton. The experimental apparatus includes a precise fiber-SiPMT beam hodoscope and a crown of eight LaBr3 crystals and a few HPGe detectors for detection of the emitted characteristic X-rays. Preliminary runs to optimize the gas target filling and its operating conditions have been taken in 2014 and 2015-2016. The final run, with the pump laser to drive the HFS transition, is expected in 2018.

  19. Extra dimensions: 3D in PDF documentation

    DOE PAGES

    Graf, Norman A.

    2011-01-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  20. Plan for DoD Wide Demonstrations of a DoD Improved Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    all the MS Word files into FrameMaker + SGML format and use the FrameMaker application to SGML tag all of the data in accordance with the Army TM...Document Type Definitions (DTDs) in MIL-STD- 2361. The edited SGML tagged files are saved as PDF files for delivery to the field. The FrameMaker ...as TIFF files and being imported into FrameMaker prior to saving the TMs as PDF files. Since the hardware to be used by the AN/PPS-5 technician is

  1. Accessible and informative sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the ear.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seok; Chung, Min Suk; Shin, Dong Sun; Jung, Yong Wook; Park, Jin Seo

    2013-08-01

    In our previous research, we created state-of-the-art sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the human ear. Our ear data would be more beneficial and informative if they were more easily accessible. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to distribute the browsing software and the PDF file in which ear images are to be readily obtainable and freely explored. Another goal was to inform other researchers of our methods for establishing the browsing software and the PDF file. To achieve this, sectioned images and color-coded images of ear were prepared (voxel size 0.1 mm). In the color-coded images, structures related to hearing, equilibrium, and structures originated from the first and second pharyngeal arches were segmented supplementarily. The sectioned and color-coded images of right ear were added to the browsing software, which displayed the images serially along with structure names. The surface models were reconstructed to be combined into the PDF file where they could be freely manipulated. Using the browsing software and PDF file, sectional and three-dimensional shapes of ear structures could be comprehended in detail. Furthermore, using the PDF file, clinical knowledge could be identified through virtual otoscopy. Therefore, the presented educational tools will be helpful to medical students and otologists by improving their knowledge of ear anatomy. The browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded without charge and registration at our homepage (http://anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/ear/). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. To Arm or Not to Arm: The Case Against Arming Vietnam and the Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    23 Bouchat, 103. 24 Freedom House, “Freedom in the World 2014: The Democratic Leadership Gap,” https://freedomhouse. org/sites/default...files/publications- pdf/CNAS_TailoredCoercion_report.pdf (accessed Sep 21, 2014). 49 Freedom House. “Freedom in the World 2014: The Democratic ... Leadership Gap.” https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FIW%202014%20Scores%20- %20Countries%20and%20Territories.pdf (accessed Nov 24, 2014

  3. Evaluation of the reproducibility of lung motion probability distribution function (PDF) using dynamic MRI.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Altes, Talissa A; Molloy, Janelle A; Brookeman, James R; Sheng, Ke

    2007-01-21

    Treatment planning based on probability distribution function (PDF) of patient geometries has been shown a potential off-line strategy to incorporate organ motion, but the application of such approach highly depends upon the reproducibility of the PDF. In this paper, we investigated the dependences of the PDF reproducibility on the imaging acquisition parameters, specifically the scan time and the frame rate. Three healthy subjects underwent a continuous 5 min magnetic resonance (MR) scan in the sagittal plane with a frame rate of approximately 10 f s-1, and the experiments were repeated with an interval of 2 to 3 weeks. A total of nine pulmonary vessels from different lung regions (upper, middle and lower) were tracked and the dependences of their displacement PDF reproducibility were evaluated as a function of scan time and frame rate. As results, the PDF reproducibility error decreased with prolonged scans and appeared to approach equilibrium state in subjects 2 and 3 within the 5 min scan. The PDF accuracy increased in the power function with the increase of frame rate; however, the PDF reproducibility showed less sensitivity to frame rate presumably due to the randomness of breathing which dominates the effects. As the key component of the PDF-based treatment planning, the reproducibility of the PDF affects the dosimetric accuracy substantially. This study provides a reference for acquiring MR-based PDF of structures in the lung.

  4. PDF receptor expression reveals direct interactions between circadian oscillators in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Im, Seol Hee; Taghert, Paul H

    2010-06-01

    Daily rhythms of behavior are controlled by a circuit of circadian pacemaking neurons. In Drosophila, 150 pacemakers participate in this network, and recent observations suggest that the network is divisible into M and E oscillators, which normally interact and synchronize. Sixteen oscillator neurons (the small and large lateral neurons [LNvs]) express a neuropeptide called pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) whose signaling is often equated with M oscillator output. Given the significance of PDF signaling to numerous aspects of behavioral and molecular rhythms, determining precisely where and how signaling via the PDF receptor (PDFR) occurs is now a central question in the field. Here we show that GAL4-mediated rescue of pdfr phenotypes using a UAS-PDFR transgene is insufficient to provide complete behavioral rescue. In contrast, we describe a approximately 70-kB PDF receptor (pdfr) transgene that does rescue the entire pdfr circadian behavioral phenotype. The transgene is widely but heterogeneously expressed among pacemakers, and also among a limited number of non-pacemakers. Our results support an important hypothesis: the small LNv cells directly target a subset of the other crucial pacemaker neurons cells. Furthermore, expression of the transgene confirms an autocrine feedback signaling by PDF back to PDF-expressing cells. Finally, the results present an unexpected PDF receptor site: the large LNv cells appear to target a population of non-neuronal cells that resides at the base of the eye. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. A Document-Based EHR System That Controls the Disclosure of Clinical Documents Using an Access Control List File Based on the HL7 CDA Header.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Ueda, Kanayo; Nakagawa, Akito; Manabe, Shirou; Okada, Katsuki; Mihara, Naoki; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) systems are necessary for the sharing of medical information between care delivery organizations (CDOs). We developed a document-based EHR system in which all of the PDF documents that are stored in our electronic medical record system can be disclosed to selected target CDOs. An access control list (ACL) file was designed based on the HL7 CDA header to manage the information that is disclosed.

  6. What you see is not what you get in the PDF document format.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Mads R; Simonsen, Eivind O; Høyer, Christian B

    2011-03-01

    The sharing and storage of scientific knowledge, information and data are today mainly in digitized form, which will become the predominant means of communicating scientific work in the future. One of the best-established formats is the open standard of PDF (Portable Document Format), which is renowned for its flexibility and stability. In this article, we expose a major flaw in the format with respect to the security of confidential information, such that even organizations responsible for safeguarding and setting the standards for data management were unintentionally revealing confidential patient data. By collecting and analysing a random sample of files from a health informatics organization, we demonstrate the extent of the problem and determine its cause by code analysis of an example. In conclusion, we suggest the development of a knowledge-sharing format that does not demand expert skills for safe usage: WYSIWYS (What You See Is What You Store). © The Author(s) 2011.

  7. Digital data for preliminary geologic map of the Mount Hood 30- by 60-minute quadrangle, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lina Ma,; Sherrod, David R.; Scott, William E.

    2014-01-01

    This geodatabase contains information derived from legacy mapping that was published in 1995 as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 95-219. The main component of this publication is a geologic map database prepared using geographic information system (GIS) applications. Included are pdf files to view or print the map sheet, the accompanying pamphlet from Open-File Report 95-219, and links to the original publication, which is available as scanned files in pdf format.

  8. PDF approach for turbulent scalar field: Some recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Feng

    1993-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) method has been proven a very useful approach in turbulence research. It has been particularly effective in simulating turbulent reacting flows and in studying some detailed statistical properties generated by a turbulent field There are, however, some important questions that have yet to be answered in PDF studies. Our efforts in the past year have been focused on two areas. First, a simple mixing model suitable for Monte Carlo simulations has been developed based on the mapping closure. Secondly, the mechanism of turbulent transport has been analyzed in order to understand the recently observed abnormal PDF's of turbulent temperature fields generated by linear heat sources.

  9. Mmp1 processing of the PDF neuropeptide regulates circadian structural plasticity of pacemaker neurons.

    PubMed

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Agata; Gorostiza, E Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2014-10-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior.

  10. Mmp1 Processing of the PDF Neuropeptide Regulates Circadian Structural Plasticity of Pacemaker Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Depetris-Chauvin, Ana; Fernández-Gamba, Ágata; Gorostiza, E. Axel; Herrero, Anastasia; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Ceriani, M. Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior. PMID:25356918

  11. Dual PDF signaling pathways reset clocks via TIMELESS and acutely excite target neurons to control circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(-) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(-) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per⁰¹ mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per⁰¹ flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output.

  12. Dual PDF Signaling Pathways Reset Clocks Via TIMELESS and Acutely Excite Target Neurons to Control Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Seluzicki, Adam; Flourakis, Matthieu; Kula-Eversole, Elzbieta; Zhang, Luoying; Kilman, Valerie; Allada, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular circadian clocks are interconnected via neural networks. In Drosophila, PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) acts as a master network regulator with dual functions in synchronizing molecular oscillations between disparate PDF(+) and PDF(−) circadian pacemaker neurons and controlling pacemaker neuron output. Yet the mechanisms by which PDF functions are not clear. We demonstrate that genetic inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) in PDF(−) clock neurons can phenocopy PDF mutants while activated PKA can partially rescue PDF receptor mutants. PKA subunit transcripts are also under clock control in non-PDF DN1p neurons. To address the core clock target of PDF, we rescued per in PDF neurons of arrhythmic per01 mutants. PDF neuron rescue induced high amplitude rhythms in the clock component TIMELESS (TIM) in per-less DN1p neurons. Complete loss of PDF or PKA inhibition also results in reduced TIM levels in non-PDF neurons of per01 flies. To address how PDF impacts pacemaker neuron output, we focally applied PDF to DN1p neurons and found that it acutely depolarizes and increases firing rates of DN1p neurons. Surprisingly, these effects are reduced in the presence of an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, yet persist in the presence of PKA inhibition. We have provided evidence for a signaling mechanism (PKA) and a molecular target (TIM) by which PDF resets and synchronizes clocks and demonstrates an acute direct excitatory effect of PDF on target neurons to control neuronal output. The identification of TIM as a target of PDF signaling suggests it is a multimodal integrator of cell autonomous clock, environmental light, and neural network signaling. Moreover, these data reveal a bifurcation of PKA-dependent clock effects and PKA-independent output effects. Taken together, our results provide a molecular and cellular basis for the dual functions of PDF in clock resetting and pacemaker output. PMID:24643294

  13. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    PubMed

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  14. A Personal Intelligent Mentor for Promoting Metacognition in Solving Logic Word Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.; Kozbe, Barcin

    This paper describes a Personal Intelligent Mentor (PIM) that facilitates metacognitive development in the domain of solving logic word puzzles. Metacognition is an important aspect for critical thinking skills. High school students must develop logical and critical thinking abilities as a prerequisite for higher-level math and computer…

  15. E AND M CIRCADIAN PACEMAKER NEURONS USE DIFFERENT PDF RECEPTOR SIGNALOSOME COMPONENTS IN DROSOPHILA

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Laura B.

    2014-01-01

    We used real-time imaging to detect cAMP levels in neurons of intact fly brains to study mechanisms of circadian pacemaker synchronization by the neuropeptide PDF in Drosophila. PDF receptor (PDF-R) is expressed by both M (sLNv) and E (LNd) pacemaker sub-classes and is coupled to Gsα in both cases. We previously reported that PDF-R in M pacemakers elevates cAMP levels by activating the ortholog of mammalian Adenylate Cyclase 3 (AC3), but that AC3 disruptions had no effect on E pacemaker sensitivity to PDF. Here we show that PDF-R in E pacemakers activates a different AC isoform, AC78C, an ortholog of mammalian AC8. Knockdown of AC78C by transgenic RNAi substantially reduces, but does not completely abrogate, PDF responses in these E pacemakers. The knockdown effect is intact when restricted to mature stages, suggesting a physiological and not a development role for AC78C in E pacemakers. The AC78C phenotype is rescued by over-expression of AC78C, but not by over-expression of the rutabaga AC. AC78C over-expression does not disrupt PDF responses in these E pacemakers, and neither AC78C knockdown nor its over-expression disrupted locomotor rhythms. Finally, knockdown of two AKAPs, nervy and AKAP 200 partially reduces LNd PDF responses. These findings begin to identify the components of E pacemaker PDF-R signalosomes and indicate they are distinct from PDF-R signalosomes in M pacemakers: we propose they contain AC78C and at least one other AC. PMID:23929551

  16. E and M circadian pacemaker neurons use different PDF receptor signalosome components in drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Laura B; Taghert, Paul H

    2013-08-01

    We used real-time imaging to detect cAMP levels in neurons of intact fly brains to study the mechanisms of circadian pacemaker synchronization by the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) in Drosophila. PDF receptor (PDF-R) is expressed by both M (sLNv) and E (LNd) pacemaker subclasses and is coupled to G(sα) in both cases. We previously reported that PDF-R in M pacemakers elevates cAMP levels by activating the ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) but that AC3 disruptions had no effect on E pacemaker sensitivity to PDF. Here, we show that PDF-R in E pacemakers activates a different AC isoform, AC78C, an ortholog of mammalian AC8. Knockdown of AC78C by transgenic RNAi substantially reduces, but does not completely abrogate, PDF responses in these E pacemakers. The knockdown effect is intact when restricted to mature stages, suggesting a physiological and not a development role for AC78C in E pacemakers. The AC78C phenotype is rescued by the overexpression of AC78C but not by overexpression of the rutabaga AC. AC78C overexpression does not disrupt PDF responses in these E pacemakers, and neither AC78C knockdown nor its overexpression disrupted locomotor rhythms. Finally, knockdown of 2 AKAPs, nervy and AKAP200, partially reduces LNd PDF responses. These findings begin to identify the components of E pacemaker PDF-R signalosomes and indicate that they are distinct from PDF-R signalosomes in M pacemakers: we propose they contain AC78C and at least 1 other AC.

  17. The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Puzzle of a Marble in a Spinning Pipe 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT What trajectory does a marble follow if it is held...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Physics Education 50 (3) 279 1. Problem statement A marble is placed one-third of the length along a

  18. Generating Sudoku puzzles and its applications in teaching mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ryan; Lindner, Brett; Shi, Yixun

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a few methods for generating Sudoku puzzles. These methods are developed based on the concepts of matrix, permutation, and modular functions, and therefore can be used to form application examples or student projects when teaching various mathematics courses. Mathematical properties of these methods are studied, connections between the methods are investigated, and student projects are suggested. Since most students tend to enjoy games, studies like this may help raising students' interests and enhance their problem-solving skills.

  19. The Puzzle of Male Chronophilias.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I return to the idea that pedophilia, a sexual interest in prepubescent children, can be considered a sexual orientation for age, in conjunction with the much more widely acknowledged and discussed sexual orientation for gender. Here, I broaden the scope to consider other chronophilias, referring to paraphilias for age/maturity categories other than young sexually mature adults. The puzzle of chronophilias includes questions about etiology and course, how chronophilias are related to each other, and what they can tell us about how human (male) sexuality is organized. In this article, I briefly review research on nepiophilia (infant/toddlers), pedophilia (prepubescent children), hebephilia (pubescent children), ephebophilia (postpubescent, sexually maturing adolescents), teleiophilia (young sexually mature adults, typically 20s and 30s), mesophilia (middle-aged adults, typically 40s and 50s), and gerontophilia (elderly adults, typically 60s and older) in the context of a multidimensional sexual orientations framework. Relevant research, limitations, and testable hypotheses for future work are identified.

  20. Effects of age and type of picture on visuospatial working memory assessed with a computerized jigsaw-puzzle task.

    PubMed

    Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M; Mayas, Julia; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the effect of age and color in a computerized version of the jigsaw-puzzle task. In Experiment 1, young and older adults were presented with puzzles in color and black-and-white line drawings, varying in difficulty from 4 to 9 pieces. Older adults performed the task better with the black-and-white stimuli and younger adults performed better with the color ones. In Experiment 2, new older and young adults identified the same fragmented pictures as fast and accurately as possible. The older group identified the black-and-white stimuli faster than those presented in color, while the younger adults identified both similarly. In Experiment 3A, new older and young groups performed the puzzle task with the same color pictures and their monochrome versions. In Experiment 3B, participants performed a speeded identification task with the two sets. The findings of these experiments showed that older adults have a memory not a perceptual difficulty.

  1. PDF receptor signaling in Drosophila contributes to both circadian and geotactic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Inge; Vandingenen, Anick; Johnson, Erik C; Shafer, Orie T; Li, W; Trigg, J S; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Taghert, Paul H

    2005-10-20

    The neuropeptide Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) is a principle transmitter regulating circadian locomotor rhythms in Drosophila. We have identified a Class II (secretin-related) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is specifically responsive to PDF and also to calcitonin-like peptides and to PACAP. In response to PDF, the PDF receptor (PDFR) elevates cAMP levels when expressed in HEK293 cells. As predicted by in vivo studies, cotransfection of Neurofibromatosis Factor 1 significantly improves coupling of PDFR to adenylate cyclase. pdfr mutant flies display increased circadian arrhythmicity, and also display altered geotaxis that is epistatic to that of pdf mutants. PDFR immunosignals are expressed by diverse neurons, but only by a small subset of circadian pacemakers. These data establish the first synapse within the Drosophila circadian neural circuit and underscore the importance of Class II peptide GPCR signaling in circadian neural systems.

  2. PDF text classification to leverage information extraction from publication reports.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-06-01

    Data extraction from original study reports is a time-consuming, error-prone process in systematic review development. Information extraction (IE) systems have the potential to assist humans in the extraction task, however majority of IE systems were not designed to work on Portable Document Format (PDF) document, an important and common extraction source for systematic review. In a PDF document, narrative content is often mixed with publication metadata or semi-structured text, which add challenges to the underlining natural language processing algorithm. Our goal is to categorize PDF texts for strategic use by IE systems. We used an open-source tool to extract raw texts from a PDF document and developed a text classification algorithm that follows a multi-pass sieve framework to automatically classify PDF text snippets (for brevity, texts) into TITLE, ABSTRACT, BODYTEXT, SEMISTRUCTURE, and METADATA categories. To validate the algorithm, we developed a gold standard of PDF reports that were included in the development of previous systematic reviews by the Cochrane Collaboration. In a two-step procedure, we evaluated (1) classification performance, and compared it with machine learning classifier, and (2) the effects of the algorithm on an IE system that extracts clinical outcome mentions. The multi-pass sieve algorithm achieved an accuracy of 92.6%, which was 9.7% (p<0.001) higher than the best performing machine learning classifier that used a logistic regression algorithm. F-measure improvements were observed in the classification of TITLE (+15.6%), ABSTRACT (+54.2%), BODYTEXT (+3.7%), SEMISTRUCTURE (+34%), and MEDADATA (+14.2%). In addition, use of the algorithm to filter semi-structured texts and publication metadata improved performance of the outcome extraction system (F-measure +4.1%, p=0.002). It also reduced of number of sentences to be processed by 44.9% (p<0.001), which corresponds to a processing time reduction of 50% (p=0.005). The rule-based multi

  3. Tetsuo Nozoe's Autograph Books: poems, puzzles and playfulness.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2015-02-01

    The Nozoe Autograph Books contain entries from, literally, around the world of organic chemistry. Many of the inscriptions showed the poetic or even musical side of their signees. This Essay presents a diverse selection of the poetic entries of the autograph books, starting with a musical puzzle. This Essay and the interactive website that accompanies the Nozoe Autograph Book project are available free-access for at least a three-year period at http://www.tcr.wiley-vch.de/nozoe. Copyright © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An assumed joint-Beta PDF approach for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Alexopoulos, G. A.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent experiment, Cheng et al. (1991) used ultraviolet spontaneous vibrational Raman scattering and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence techniques for simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentrations of O2, H2, H2O, OH, and N2 (and their rms) in supersonic turbulent reacting shear layers. Because present computational techniques are not suited for prediction of all of the above measurements, a new approach has been developed and is being used to predict all relevant flow properties and their rms (where appropriate). The approach explores the use of a joint-Beta PDF for concentrations. It was found that the general expression of this PDF was impractical because of decoding problems resulting from determining the various parameters of the PDF. Thus, a special case of this general expression was considered. Calculations using this simplified version of the joint-Beta PDF were not consistent with the available data from the experiment.

  5. Jigsaw Puzzles and River Banks: Two Ways of Picturing Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The papers presented at the 2004 Academy meetings can be thought of as pieces from jigsaw puzzles. While the employment of this metaphor over the years has been useful, we may be ready for a new image, one that is both more accurate and inspiring. We can picture ourselves working at different locations along a river bank. Some of us work upstream,…

  6. Engaging Students in a Large Lecture: An Experiment Using Sudoku Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Caroline; Hahn, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an in-class experiment that is easy to implement with large groups of students. The experiment takes approximately 15-20 minutes to run and involves each student completing one of four types of Sudoku puzzles and recording the time it takes to completion. The resulting data set can be used as a teaching tool at an…

  7. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: July 19, 2013 Page last updated: July 19, 2013 Content source: ...

  8. FastStats: Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: February 18, 2013 Page last updated: March 30, 2017 Content source: ...

  9. FastStats: Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: May 30, 2013 Page last updated: October 6, 2016 Content source: ...

  10. Blocking endocytosis in Drosophila's circadian pacemaker neurons interferes with the endogenous clock in a PDF-dependent way.

    PubMed

    Wülbeck, Corinna; Grieshaber, Eva; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2009-10-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) plays an essential role in the circadian clock of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, but many details of PDF signaling in the clock network are still unknown. We tried to interfere with PDF signaling by blocking the GTPase Shibire in PDF neurons. Shibire is an ortholog of the mammalian Dynamins and is essential for endocytosis of clathrin-coated vesicles at the plasma membrane. Such endocytosis is used for neurotransmitter reuptake by presynaptic neurons, which is a prerequisite of synaptic vesicle recycling, and receptor-mediated endocytosis in the postsynaptic neuron, which leads to signal termination. By blocking Shibire function via overexpression of a dominant negative mutant form of Shibire in PDF neurons, we slowed down the behavioral rhythm by 3 h. This effect was absent in PDF receptor null mutants, indicating that we interfered with PDF receptor-mediated endocytosis. Because we obtained similar behavioral phenotypes by increasing the PDF level in regions close to PDF neurons, we conclude that blocking Shibire did prolong PDF signaling in the neurons that respond to PDF. Obviously, terminating the PDF signaling via receptor-mediated endocytosis is a crucial step in determining the period of behavioral rhythms.

  11. Comments on the present state and future directions of PDF methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, E. E.

    1992-01-01

    The one point probability density function (PDF) method is examined in light of its use in actual engineering problems. The PDF method, although relatively complicated, appears to be the only format available to handle the nonlinear stochastic difficulties caused by typical reaction kinetics. Turbulence modeling, if it is to play a central role in combustion modeling, has to be integrated with the chemistry in a way which produces accurate numerical solutions to combustion problems. It is questionable whether the development of turbulent models in isolation from the peculiar statistics of reactant concentrations is a fruitful line of development as far as propulsion is concerned. There are three issues for which additional viewgraphs are prepared: the one point pdf method; the amplitude mapping closure; and a hybrid strategy for replacing a full two point pdf treatment of reacting flows by a single point pdf and correlation functions. An appeal is made for the establishment of an adequate data base for compressible flow with reactions for Mach numbers of unity or higher.

  12. The birth order puzzle.

    PubMed

    Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B

    1979-08-01

    Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.

  13. Metabolic inactivation of the circadian transmitter, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), by neprilysin-like peptidases in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Johnson, Erik C; Audsley, Neil; Shirras, Alan D

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies have firmly established pigment dispersing factor (PDF), a C-terminally amidated octodecapeptide, as a key neurotransmitter regulating rhythmic circadian locomotory behaviours in adult Drosophila melanogaster. The mechanisms by which PDF functions as a circadian peptide transmitter are not fully understood, however; in particular, nothing is known about the role of extracellular peptidases in terminating PDF signalling at synapses. In this study we show that PDF is susceptible to hydrolysis by neprilysin, an endopeptidase that is enriched in synaptic membranes of mammals and insects. Neprilysin cleaves PDF at the internal Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond to generate PDF1-7 and PDF8-18. Neither of these fragments were able to increase intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells cotransfected with the Drosophila PDF receptor cDNA and a firefly luciferase reporter gene, confirming that such cleavage results in PDF inactivation. The Ser7-Leu8 peptide bond was also the principal cleavage site when PDF was incubated with membranes prepared from heads of adult Drosophila. This endopeptidase activity was inhibited by the neprilysin inhibitors phosphoramidon (IC(50,) 0.15 micromol l(-1)) and thiorphan (IC(50,) 1.2 micromol l(-1)). We propose that cleavage by a member of the Drosophila neprilysin family of endopeptidases is the most likely mechanism for inactivating synaptic PDF and that neprilysin might have an important role in regulating PDF signals within circadian neural circuits.

  14. Cross-reference identification within a PDF document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sida; Gao, Liangcai; Tang, Zhi; Yu, Yinyan

    2015-01-01

    Cross-references, such like footnotes, endnotes, figure/table captions, references, are a common and useful type of page elements to further explain their corresponding entities in the target document. In this paper, we focus on cross-reference identification in a PDF document, and present a robust method as a case study of identifying footnotes and figure references. The proposed method first extracts footnotes and figure captions, and then matches them with their corresponding references within a document. A number of novel features within a PDF document, i.e., page layout, font information, lexical and linguistic features of cross-references, are utilized for the task. Clustering is adopted to handle the features that are stable in one document but varied in different kinds of documents so that the process of identification is adaptive with document types. In addition, this method leverages results from the matching process to provide feedback to the identification process and further improve the algorithm accuracy. The primary experiments in real document sets show that the proposed method is promising to identify cross-reference in a PDF document.

  15. A time dependent mixing model to close PDF equations for transport in heterogeneous aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, L.; Suciu, N.; Knabner, P.; Attinger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, used in moment methods. The mixing model, describing the transport of the PDF in concentration space, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling.

  16. Improved biocompatibility of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF is not related to pH.

    PubMed

    Zareie, Mohammad; Keuning, Eelco D; ter Wee, Piet M; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Beelen, Robert H J; van den Born, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Chronic exposure to conventional peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) is associated with functional and structural alterations of the peritoneal membrane. The bioincompatibility of conventional PDF can be due to hypertonicity, high glucose concentration, lactate buffering system, presence of glucose degradation products (GDPs) and/or acidic pH. Although various investigators have studied the sole effects of hyperosmolarity, high glucose, GDPs and lactate buffer in experimental PD, less attention has been paid to the chronic impact of low pH in vivo. Rats received daily 10 ml of either conventional lactate-buffered PDF (pH 5.2; n=7), a standard bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF with physiological pH (n=8), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF with acidic pH (adjusted to pH 5.2 with 1 N hydrochloride, n=5), or bicarbonate/lactate buffer, without glucose, pH 7.4 (n=7). Fluids were instilled via peritoneal catheters connected to implanted subcutaneous mini vascular access ports for 8 weeks. Control animals with or without peritoneal catheters served as control groups (n=8/group). Various functional (2 h PET) and morphological/cellular parameters were analyzed. Compared with control groups and the buffer group, conventional lactate-buffered PDF induced a number of morphological/cellular changes, including angiogenesis and fibrosis in various peritoneal tissues (all parameters P<0.05), accompanied by increased glucose absorption and reduced ultrafiltration capacity. Daily exposure to standard or acidified bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF improved the performance of the peritoneal membrane, evidenced by reduced new vessel formation in omentum (P<0.02) and parietal peritoneum (P<0.008), reduced fibrosis (P<0.02) and improved ultrafiltration capacity. No significant differences were found between standard and acidified bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF. During PET, acidic PDF was neutralized within 15 to 20 min. The bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDF, acidity per se did not contribute

  17. Hubble Gazes Into a Black Hole of Puzzling Light

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    The beautiful spiral galaxy visible in the center of the image is known as RX J1140.1+0307, a galaxy in the Virgo constellation imaged by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and it presents an interesting puzzle. At first glance, this galaxy appears to be a normal spiral galaxy, much like the Milky Way, but first appearances can be deceptive! The Milky Way galaxy, like most large galaxies, has a supermassive black hole at its center, but some galaxies are centered on lighter, intermediate-mass black holes. RX J1140.1+0307 is such a galaxy — in fact, it is centered on one of the lowest black hole masses known in any luminous galactic core. What puzzles scientists about this particular galaxy is that the calculations don’t add up. With such a relatively low mass for the central black hole, models for the emission from the object cannot explain the observed spectrum. There must be other mechanisms at play in the interactions between the inner and outer parts of the accretion disk surrounding the black hole. Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Studies in Mathematics, Volume XVIII: Puzzle Problems and Games Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, R. P.; And Others

    This is a self-contained manual for use by teachers in preparation for classroom presentations. One of the goals of the report is to show how games and puzzles can provide effective means for developing mathematical understanding and skills. The authors indicate that this type of activity is well adapted for discovery teaching techniques. The…

  19. The Retention Puzzle Reconsidered: Second Year Student Attitudes and Experiences with Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Michael Edward

    2013-01-01

    College student retention has been described as a puzzle because retention rates have stagnated, and in some cases declined, despite over seventy years of research into the problem. The magnitude of the problem is that 50 percent of college students will leave their institution before obtaining a degree (Braxton, Hirschy, & McClendon, 2011).…

  20. New Nuclear Magnetic Moment of ^{209}Bi: Resolving the Bismuth Hyperfine Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Skripnikov, Leonid V; Schmidt, Stefan; Ullmann, Johannes; Geppert, Christopher; Kraus, Florian; Kresse, Benjamin; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Privalov, Alexei F; Scheibe, Benjamin; Shabaev, Vladimir M; Vogel, Michael; Volotka, Andrey V

    2018-03-02

    A recent measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of Li-like ^{208}Bi^{80+} has established a "hyperfine puzzle"-the experimental result exhibits a 7σ deviation from the theoretical prediction [J. Ullmann et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 15484 (2017)NCAOBW2041-172310.1038/ncomms15484; J. P. Karr, Nat. Phys. 13, 533 (2017)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys4159]. We provide evidence that the discrepancy is caused by an inaccurate value of the tabulated nuclear magnetic moment (μ_{I}) of ^{209}Bi. We perform relativistic density functional theory and relativistic coupled cluster calculations of the shielding constant that should be used to extract the value of μ_{I}(^{209}Bi) and combine it with nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of Bi(NO_{3})_{3} in nitric acid solutions and of the hexafluoridobismuthate(V) BiF_{6}^{-} ion in acetonitrile. The result clearly reveals that μ_{I}(^{209}Bi) is much smaller than the tabulated value used previously. Applying the new magnetic moment shifts the theoretical prediction into agreement with experiment and resolves the hyperfine puzzle.

  1. New Nuclear Magnetic Moment of 209Bi: Resolving the Bismuth Hyperfine Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnikov, Leonid V.; Schmidt, Stefan; Ullmann, Johannes; Geppert, Christopher; Kraus, Florian; Kresse, Benjamin; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried; Privalov, Alexei F.; Scheibe, Benjamin; Shabaev, Vladimir M.; Vogel, Michael; Volotka, Andrey V.

    2018-03-01

    A recent measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of Li-like 80+208Bi has established a "hyperfine puzzle"—the experimental result exhibits a 7 σ deviation from the theoretical prediction [J. Ullmann et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 15484 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms15484; J. P. Karr, Nat. Phys. 13, 533 (2017), 10.1038/nphys4159]. We provide evidence that the discrepancy is caused by an inaccurate value of the tabulated nuclear magnetic moment (μI) of 209Bi. We perform relativistic density functional theory and relativistic coupled cluster calculations of the shielding constant that should be used to extract the value of μI(209ipts>) and combine it with nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of Bi (NO3 )3 in nitric acid solutions and of the hexafluoridobismuthate(V) BiF6- ion in acetonitrile. The result clearly reveals that μI(209Bi) is much smaller than the tabulated value used previously. Applying the new magnetic moment shifts the theoretical prediction into agreement with experiment and resolves the hyperfine puzzle.

  2. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  3. Puzzle of magnetic moments of Ni clusters revisited using quantum Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hung-Wen; Chang, Chun-Ming; Hsing, Cheng-Rong

    2017-02-28

    The puzzle of the magnetic moments of small nickel clusters arises from the discrepancy between values predicted using density functional theory (DFT) and experimental measurements. Traditional DFT approaches underestimate the magnetic moments of nickel clusters. Two fundamental problems are associated with this puzzle, namely, calculating the exchange-correlation interaction accurately and determining the global minimum structures of the clusters. Theoretically, the two problems can be solved using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations and the ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) method correspondingly. Therefore, we combined the fixed-moment AIRSS and QMC methods to investigate the magnetic properties of Ni n (n = 5-9) clusters. The spin moments of the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) ground states are higher than those of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof ground states and, in the case of Ni 8-9 , two new ground-state structures have been discovered using the DMC calculations. The predicted results are closer to the experimental findings, unlike the results predicted in previous standard DFT studies.

  4. Heavy flavor puzzle at LHC: a serendipitous interplay of jet suppression and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2014-01-31

    Both charged hadrons and D mesons are considered to be excellent probes of QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Surprisingly, recent experimental observations at LHC show the same jet suppression for these two probes, which--contrary to pQCD expectations--may suggest similar energy losses for light quarks and gluons in the QCD medium. We here use our recently developed energy loss formalism in a finite-size dynamical QCD medium to analyze this phenomenon that we denote as the "heavy flavor puzzle at LHC." We show that this puzzle is a consequence of an unusual combination of the suppression and fragmentation patterns and, in fact, does not require invoking the same energy loss for light partons. Furthermore, we show that this combination leads to a simple relationship between the suppressions of charged hadrons and D mesons and the corresponding bare quark suppressions. Consequently, a coincidental matching of jet suppression and fragmentation allows considerably simplifying the interpretation of the corresponding experimental data.

  5. 17 CFR 232.11 - Definition of terms used in part 232.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., PDF, and static graphic files. Such code may be in binary (machine language) or in script form... Act means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. Unofficial PDF copy. The term unofficial PDF copy means an...

  6. A Lagrangian mixing frequency model for transported PDF modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeri, Hasret; Zhao, Xinyu

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a Lagrangian mixing frequency model is proposed for molecular mixing models within the framework of transported probability density function (PDF) methods. The model is based on the dissipations of mixture fraction and progress variables obtained from Lagrangian particles in PDF methods. The new model is proposed as a remedy to the difficulty in choosing the optimal model constant parameters when using conventional mixing frequency models. The model is implemented in combination with the Interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) mixing model. The performance of the new model is examined by performing simulations of Sandia Flame D and the turbulent premixed flame from the Cambridge stratified flame series. The simulations are performed using the pdfFOAM solver which is a LES/PDF solver developed entirely in OpenFOAM. A 16-species reduced mechanism is used to represent methane/air combustion, and in situ adaptive tabulation is employed to accelerate the finite-rate chemistry calculations. The results are compared with experimental measurements as well as with the results obtained using conventional mixing frequency models. Dynamic mixing frequencies are predicted using the new model without solving additional transport equations, and good agreement with experimental data is observed.

  7. Constraints on the gluon PDF from top quark pair production at hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Michal; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mitov, Alexander; Rojo, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Using the recently derived NNLO cross sections [1], we provide NNLO+NNLL theoretical predictions for top quark pair production based on all the available NNLO PDF sets, and compare them with the most precise LHC and Tevatron data. In this comparison we study in detail the PDF uncertainty and the scale, m t and α s dependence of the theoretical predictions for each PDF set. Next, we observe that top quark pair production provides a powerful direct constraint on the gluon PDF at large x, and include Tevatron and LHC top pair data consistently into a global NNLO PDF fit. We then explore the phenomenological consequences of the reduced gluon PDF uncertainties, by showing how they can improve predictions for Beyond the Standard Model processes at the LHC. Finally, we update to full NNLO+NNLL the theoretical predictions for the ratio of top quark cross sections between different LHC center of mass energies, as well as the cross sections for hypothetical heavy fourth-generation quark production at the LHC.

  8. Photos of MRSA Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Team Healthcare Providers Prevention Information and Advice Posters for the Athletic Community General MRSA Information and ... site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  9. Erratum: Erratum to: Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 71, No. 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Hee; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Im, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Rena; Kim, Kyubo; Cho, Samju; Lim, Sangwook; Lee, Suk; Shim, Jang Bo; Huh, Hyun Do; Lee, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Sohyun; Nobi, Ashadun; Lee, Jae Woo; Lim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Hunwoo; Cho, Hyosung; Seo, Changwoo; Je, Uikyu; Park, Chulkyu; Kim, Kyuseok; Kim, Guna; Park, Soyoung; Lee, Dongyeon; Kang, Seokyoon; Lee, Minsik; Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Li, Zhaokun; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun; Kang, In Ho; Na, Moon Kyong; Seok, Ogyun; Moon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, H. W.; Kim, Sang Cheol; Bahng, Wook; Kim, Nam Kyun; Park, Him-Chan; Yang, Chang Heon; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Youngman; Lee, Kang Seog; Hong, Yoo-Seung; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Hyun, June-Won; Kim, Gang Bae; Lee, Ju Ho; Kim, Yeon Jung; Hwang, Seungjin; Jeong, Jihoon; Cho, Seryeyohan; Lee, Jongmin; Yu, Tae Jun; Lee, Kang Il; Lee, Geon Joon; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Jeong, Jun-Seok; Eom, Su-Keun; Lee, Jae-Gil; Seo, Kwang-Seok; Cha, Ho-Young; Ko, Young Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Jung, Jong Hoon; Jeong, Inho; Song, Hyunwook; Lee, B. C.; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Byongju; Koo, Sangmo; Park, Seran; Ko, Dae-Hong; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Cho, Sungwan; Kim, Sang Goon; Hong, Kimin; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jo, Myunglae; Cho, Sung Un; Park, Yun Daniel; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Kim, Seok

    2017-12-01

    Regrettably, due to a technical error during the production process, there were discrepancies in DOI of the mentioned articles between HTML and PDF files. The DOIs are correct in the PDF files but were incorrect in HTML. The original articles have been corrected. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience and confusion caused.

  10. 78 FR 51192 - Secure Supply Chain Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... (PDF) and using the Electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) format and the Electronic Submissions.... The PDF file name should contain ``3676'' as part of the file name, and the eCTD leaf title should.... For further information regarding eCTD, please refer to the Web site at http://www.fda.gov/Drugs...

  11. PDF file encryption on mobile phone using super-encryption of Variably Modified Permutation Composition (VMPC) and two square cipher algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmawati, D.; Budiman, M. A.; Atika, F.

    2018-03-01

    Data security is becoming one of the most significant challenges in the digital world. Retrieval of data by unauthorized parties will result in harm to the owner of the data. PDF data are also susceptible to data security disorder. These things affect the security of the information. To solve the security problem, it needs a method to maintain the protection of the data, such as cryptography. In cryptography, several algorithms can encode data, one of them is Two Square Cipher algorithm which is a symmetric algorithm. At this research, Two Square Cipher algorithm has already developed into a 16 x 16 key aims to enter the various plaintexts. However, for more enhancement security it will be combined with the VMPC algorithm which is a symmetric algorithm. The combination of the two algorithms is called with the super-encryption. At this point, the data already can be stored on a mobile phone allowing users to secure data flexibly and can be accessed anywhere. The application of PDF document security on this research built by Android-platform. At this study will also calculate the complexity of algorithms and process time. Based on the test results the complexity of the algorithm is θ (n) for Two Square Cipher and θ (n) for VMPC algorithm, so the complexity of the super-encryption is also θ (n). VMPC algorithm processing time results quicker than on Two Square Cipher. And the processing time is directly proportional to the length of the plaintext and passwords.

  12. Resolution to the B→πK puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hsiang-Nan; Mishima, Satoshi; Sanda, A. I.

    2005-12-01

    We calculate the important next-to-leading-order contributions to the B→πK, ππ decays from the vertex corrections, the quark loops, and the magnetic penguins in the perturbative QCD approach. It is found that the latter two reduce the leading-order penguin amplitudes by about 10% and modify only the B→πK branching ratios. The main effect of the vertex corrections is to increase the small color-suppressed tree amplitude by a factor of 3, which then resolves the large difference between the direct CP asymmetries of the B0→π∓K± and B±→π0K± modes. The puzzle from the large B0→π0π0 branching ratio still remains.

  13. Lyme Disease Data

    MedlinePlus

    ... County-level Lyme disease data from 2000-2016 Microsoft Excel file [Excel CSV – 209KB] ––Right–click the link ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer ...

  14. PDF methods for turbulent reactive flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on computation of turbulent combustion, governing equations, closure problem, PDF modeling of turbulent reactive flows, validation cases, current projects, and collaboration with industry and technology transfer.

  15. Functional PDF Signaling in the Drosophila Circadian Neural Circuit Is Gated by Ral A-Dependent Modulation.

    PubMed

    Klose, Markus; Duvall, Laura; Li, Weihua; Liang, Xitong; Ren, Chi; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Taghert, Paul H

    2016-05-18

    The neuropeptide PDF promotes the normal sequencing of circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We report daily rhythmicity in responsiveness to PDF in critical pacemakers called small LNvs. There is a daily change in potency, as great as 10-fold higher, around dawn. The rhythm persists in constant darkness and does not require endogenous ligand (PDF) signaling or rhythmic receptor gene transcription. Furthermore, rhythmic responsiveness reflects the properties of the pacemaker cell type, not the receptor. Dopamine responsiveness also cycles, in phase with that of PDF, in the same pacemakers, but does not cycle in large LNv. The activity of RalA GTPase in s-LNv regulates PDF responsiveness and behavioral locomotor rhythms. Additionally, cell-autonomous PDF signaling reversed the circadian behavioral effects of lowered RalA activity. Thus, RalA activity confers high PDF responsiveness, providing a daily gate around the dawn hours to promote functional PDF signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional PDF Signaling in the Drosophila Circadian Neural Circuit is Gated by Ral A-Dependent Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xitong; Ren, Chi; Steinbach, Joe Henry; Taghert, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF promotes the normal sequencing of circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We report daily rhythmicity in responsiveness to PDF in critical pacemakers called small LNvs. There is a daily change in potency, as great as 10-fold higher, around dawn. The rhythm persists in constant darkness, does not require endogenous ligand (PDF) signaling, or rhythmic receptor gene transcription. Furthermore, rhythmic responsiveness reflects the properties of the pacemaker cell type, not the receptor. Dopamine responsiveness also cycles, in phase with that of PDF, in the same pacemakers, but does not cycle in large LNv. The activity of RalA GTPase in s-LNv regulates PDF responsiveness and behavioral locomotor rhythms. Additional, cell autonomous PDF signaling reversed the circadian behavioral effects of lowered RalA activity. Thus RalA activity confers high PDF responsiveness, providing a daily gate around the dawn hours to promote functional PDF signaling. PMID:27161526

  17. A hybrid Reynolds averaged/PDF closure model for supersonic turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankel, Steven H.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. Philip

    1990-01-01

    A hybrid Reynolds averaged/assumed pdf approach has been developed and applied to the study of turbulent combustion in a supersonic mixing layer. This approach is used to address the 'laminar-like' treatment of the thermochemical terms that appear in the conservation equations. Calculations were carried out for two experiments involving H2-air supersonic turbulent mixing. Two different forms of the pdf were implemented. In general, the results show modest improvement from previous calculations. Moreover, the results appear to be somewhat independent of the form of the assumed pdf.

  18. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment -- San Joaquin Basin (5010): Chapter 28 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin Basin Province, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the assessment process. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the portable document format (.pdf) files of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  19. "It's like a puzzle": Pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care.

    PubMed

    Bäckström, Caroline A; Mårtensson, Lena B; Golsäter, Marie H; Thorstensson, Stina A

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant women are not always satisfied with the professional support they receive during their midwifery care. More knowledge is needed to understand what professional support pregnant women need for childbirth and parenting. Childbearing and the transition to becoming a parent is a sensitive period in one's life during which one should have the opportunity to receive professional support. Professional support does not always correspond to pregnant women's needs. To understand pregnant women's needs for professional support within midwifery care, it is crucial to further illuminate women's experiences of this support. To explore pregnant women's perceptions of professional support in midwifery care. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Fifteen women were interviewed during gestational weeks 36-38. Data was analysed using phenomenography. The women perceived professional support in midwifery care to be reassuring and emotional, to consist of reliable information, and to be mediated with pedagogical creativity. The professional support facilitated new social contacts, partner involvement and contributed to mental preparedness. The findings of the study were presented in six categories and the category Professional support contributes to mental preparedness was influenced by the five other categories. Pregnant women prepare for childbirth and parenting by using several different types of professional support in midwifery care: a strategy that could be described as piecing together a puzzle. When the women put the puzzle together, each type of professional support works as a valuable piece in the whole puzzle. Through this, professional support could contribute to women's mental preparedness for childbirth and parenting. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The CRYPTOCHROME photoreceptor gates PDF neuropeptide signaling to set circadian network hierarchy in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luoying; Lear, Bridget C; Seluzicki, Adam; Allada, Ravi

    2009-12-15

    Circadian clocks in the brain are organized as coupled oscillators that integrate seasonal cues such as light and temperature to time daily behaviors. In Drosophila, the PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) neuropeptide-expressing morning (M) and non-PDF evening (E) cells are coupled cell groups important for morning and evening behavior, respectively. Depending on day length, either M cells (short days) or E cells (long days) dictate both the morning and the evening phase, a phenomenon that we term network hierarchy. To examine the role of PDF in light-dark conditions, we examined flies lacking both the PDF receptor (PDFR) and the circadian photoreceptor CRYPTOCHROME (CRY). We found that subsets of E cells exhibit molecular oscillations antiphase to those of wild-type flies, single cry mutants, or single Pdfr mutants, demonstrating a potent role for PDF in light-mediated entrainment, specifically in the absence of CRY. Moreover, we find that the evening behavioral phase is more strongly reset by PDF(+) M cells in the absence of CRY. On the basis of our findings, we propose that CRY can gate PDF signaling to determine behavioral phase and network hierarchy.

  1. A resolution of the inclusive flavor-breaking τ |Vus| puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim; Zanotti, James

    2018-06-01

    We revisit the puzzle of |Vus | values obtained from the conventional implementation of hadronic-τ- decay-based flavor-breaking finite-energy sum rules lying > 3 σ below the expectations of three-family unitarity. Significant unphysical dependences of |Vus | on the choice of weight, w, and upper limit, s0, of the experimental spectral integrals entering the analysis are confirmed, and a breakdown of assumptions made in estimating higher dimension, D > 4, OPE contributions identified as the main source of these problems. A combination of continuum and lattice results is shown to suggest a new implementation of the flavor-breaking sum rule approach in which not only |Vus |, but also D > 4 effective condensates, are fit to data. Lattice results are also used to clarify how to reliably treat the slowly converging D = 2 OPE series. The new sum rule implementation is shown to cure the problems of the unphysical w- and s0-dependence of |Vus | and to produce results ∼0.0020 higher than those of the conventional implementation employing the same data. With B-factory input, and using, in addition, dispersively constrained results for the Kπ branching fractions, we find |Vus | = 0.2231(27)exp(4)th, in excellent agreement with the result from Kℓ3, and compatible within errors with the expectations of three-family unitarity, thus resolving the long-standing inclusive τ |Vus | puzzle.

  2. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Emery, Patrick

    2013-04-10

    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling. Indeed, GW182 downregulation results in phenotypes similar to those of Pdf and Pdf-receptor (Pdfr) mutants. gw182 genetically interacts with Pdfr and cAMP signaling, which is essential for PDFR function. GW182 mediates miRNA-dependent gene silencing through its interaction with AGO1. Consistently, GW182's AGO1 interaction domain is required for GW182's circadian function. Moreover, our results indicate that GW182 modulates PDFR signaling by silencing the expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase DUNCE. Importantly, this repression is under photic control, and GW182 activity level--which is limiting in circadian neurons--influences the responses of the circadian neural network to light. We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GW182 controls Drosophila circadian behavior and PDF-Receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Emery, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is crucial for Drosophila circadian behavior: it keeps circadian neurons synchronized. Here, we identify GW182 as a key regulator of PDF signaling. Indeed, GW182 downregulation results in phenotypes similar to those of Pdf and Pdf-receptor (Pdfr) mutants. gw182 genetically interacts with Pdfr and cAMP signaling, which is essential for PDFR function. GW182 mediates miRNA-dependent gene silencing through its interaction with AGO1. Consistently, GW182's AGO1 interaction domain is required for GW182's circadian function. Moreover, our results indicate that GW182 modulates PDFR signaling by silencing the expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase DUNCE. Importantly, this repression is under photic control, and GW182 activity level - which is limiting in circadian neurons - influences the responses of the circadian neural network to light. We propose that GW182's gene silencing activity functions as a rheostat for PDFR signaling, and thus profoundly impacts the circadian neural network and its response to environmental inputs. PMID:23583112

  4. The ABCs of PDFs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Explains the use of Adobe Acrobat's Portable Document Format (PDF) for school Web sites and Intranets. Explains the PDF workflow; components for Web-based PDF delivery, including the Web server, preparing content of the PDF files, and the browser; incorporating PDFs into the Web site; incorporating multimedia; and software. (LRW)

  5. Graph-based layout analysis for PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Canhui; Tang, Zhi; Tao, Xin; Li, Yun; Shi, Cao

    2013-03-01

    To increase the flexibility and enrich the reading experience of e-book on small portable screens, a graph based method is proposed to perform layout analysis on Portable Document Format (PDF) documents. Digital born document has its inherent advantages like representing texts and fractional images in explicit form, which can be straightforwardly exploited. To integrate traditional image-based document analysis and the inherent meta-data provided by PDF parser, the page primitives including text, image and path elements are processed to produce text and non text layer for respective analysis. Graph-based method is developed in superpixel representation level, and page text elements corresponding to vertices are used to construct an undirected graph. Euclidean distance between adjacent vertices is applied in a top-down manner to cut the graph tree formed by Kruskal's algorithm. And edge orientation is then used in a bottom-up manner to extract text lines from each sub tree. On the other hand, non-textual objects are segmented by connected component analysis. For each segmented text and non-text composite, a 13-dimensional feature vector is extracted for labelling purpose. The experimental results on selected pages from PDF books are presented.

  6. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma; ...

    2018-06-09

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data in themore » NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. Here, we also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  7. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data in themore » NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. Here, we also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  8. Direct photon production and PDF fits reloaded

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John M.; Rojo, Juan; Slade, Emma

    2018-02-08

    Direct photon production in hadronic collisions provides a handle on the gluon PDF by means of the QCD Compton scattering process. In this work we revisit the impact of direct photon production on a global PDF analysis, motivated by the recent availability of the next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculation for this process. We demonstrate that the inclusion of NNLO QCD and leading-logarithmic electroweak corrections leads to a good quantitative agreement with the ATLAS measurements at 8 TeV and 13 TeV, except for the most forward rapidity region in the former case. By including the ATLAS 8 TeV direct photon production data inmore » the NNPDF3.1 NNLO global analysis, we assess its impact on the medium-x gluon. We also study the constraining power of the direct photon production measurements on PDF fits based on different datasets, in particular on the NNPDF3.1 no-LHC and collider-only fits. We also present updated NNLO theoretical predictions for direct photon production at 13 TeV that include the constraints from the 8 TeV measurements.« less

  9. Modeling of turbulent supersonic H2-air combustion with a multivariate beta PDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baurle, R. A.; Hassan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent calculations of turbulent supersonic reacting shear flows using an assumed multivariate beta PDF (probability density function) resulted in reduced production rates and a delay in the onset of combustion. This result is not consistent with available measurements. The present research explores two possible reasons for this behavior: use of PDF's that do not yield Favre averaged quantities, and the gradient diffusion assumption. A new multivariate beta PDF involving species densities is introduced which makes it possible to compute Favre averaged mass fractions. However, using this PDF did not improve comparisons with experiment. A countergradient diffusion model is then introduced. Preliminary calculations suggest this to be the cause of the discrepancy.

  10. A New LES/PDF Method for Computational Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkeri, Hasret; Muradoglu, Metin; Pope, Stephen B.

    2013-11-01

    A new LES/PDF method is developed for computational modeling of turbulent reacting flows. The open source package, OpenFOAM, is adopted as the LES solver and combined with the particle-based Monte Carlo method to solve the LES/PDF model equations. The dynamic Smagorinsky model is employed to account for the subgrid-scale motions. The LES solver is first validated for the Sandia Flame D using a steady flamelet method in which the chemical compositions, density and temperature fields are parameterized by the mean mixture fraction and its variance. In this approach, the modeled transport equations for the mean mixture fraction and the square of the mixture fraction are solved and the variance is then computed from its definition. The results are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental data. Then the LES solver is combined with the particle-based Monte Carlo algorithm to form a complete solver for the LES/PDF model equations. The in situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) algorithm is incorporated into the LES/PDF method for efficient implementation of detailed chemical kinetics. The LES/PDF method is also applied to the Sandia Flame D using the GRI-Mech 3.0 chemical mechanism and the results are compared with the experimental data and the earlier PDF simulations. The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Grant No. 111M067.

  11. The GABAA Receptor RDL Acts in Peptidergic PDF Neurons to Promote Sleep in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Brian Y.; Kilman, Valerie L.; Keath, J. Russel; Pitman, Jena L.; Allada, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that largely times sleep and wake to occur at specific times of day and a sleep homeostat that drives sleep as a function of duration of prior wakefulness[1]. To better understand the role of the circadian clock in sleep regulation, we have been using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster[2]. Fruit flies display all of the core behavioral features of sleep including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds and homeostatic regulation[2, 3]. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of 20 circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that PDF neuron ablation, loss of pdf or its receptor pdfr results in increased sleep during the late night in light:dark (LD) conditions and more prominent increases on the first subjective day of constant darkness (DD). Flies deploy similar genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep as their mammalian counterparts, including GABA[4]. We find that RNAi-mediated knockdown of the GABAA receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons, reduced sleep consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo. PMID:19230663

  12. A light Z' for the R K puzzle and nonstandard neutrino interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Datta, Alakabha; Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny

    2017-03-01

    We show that the R K puzzle in LHCb data and the discrepancy in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon can be simultaneously explained if a 10 MeV mass Z' boson couples to the muon but not the electron, and that clear evidence of the nonstandard matter interactions of neutrinos induced by this coupling may be found at DUNE.

  13. 75 FR 71625 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... processing software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format, and not in a scanned... (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (D.C. Cir. 2009). 6. On March 16, 2007, the... electronically using word processing software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format, and...

  14. 76 FR 23222 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... applications or print-to-PDF format, and not in a scanned format, at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/efiling....3d 1342 (DC Cir. 2009). \\5\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693... applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Commenters filing electronically do not need...

  15. 78 FR 30245 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Specific Requirements of the Disturbance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Mail/Hand Delivery: Commenters unable to file comments.... FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (DC Cir. 2009). 3. In March 2007, the Commission issued Order No. 693, evaluating... should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Commenters...

  16. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--San Juan Basin Province (5022): Chapter 7 in Total petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the San Juan Basin Province, exclusive of Paleozoic rocks, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD–ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  17. Chapter 3: Tabular Data and Graphical Images in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment - Western Gulf Province, Smackover-Austin-Eagle Ford Composite Total Petroleum System (504702)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  18. Chapter 6. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment-East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces, Jurassic Smackover interior salt basins total petroleum system (504902), Travis Peak and Hosston formations.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on the CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  19. Chapter 2: Tabular Data and Graphical Images in Support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment - The Wind River Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on this CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files) because of the number and variety of platforms and software available.

  20. Chapter 3. Tabular data and graphical images in support of the U.S. Geological Survey National Oil and Gas Assessment--East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces, Jurassic Smackover Interior salt basins total petroleum system (504902), Cotton Valley group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.; Le, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes data used in support of the process being applied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment (NOGA) project. Digital tabular data used in this report and archival data that permit the user to perform further analyses are available elsewhere on the CD-ROM. Computers and software may import the data without transcription from the Portable Document Format files (.pdf files) of the text by the reader. Because of the number and variety of platforms and software available, graphical images are provided as .pdf files and tabular data are provided in a raw form as tab-delimited text files (.tab files).

  1. The Puzzles of the Vela Pulsar-Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, G. G.

    2008-03-01

    Very few pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) can be studied at the level of detail comparable to that achieved for the Crab PWN. The nearby Vela PWN is the best candidate for such an in-depth study. Using Chandra ACIS observations of 2000-2002, we produced a "movie" which shows that not only the NW outer jet, reported by Pavlov et al. (2003), but also the entire bright Vela PWN is remarkably variable. The most dramatic changes occur in the outer arc, the SE inner jet, and the bright knots in the SE part of the inner PWN. On a time scale of 1-3 weeks, the outer arc changes its brightness, shape, and spectrum, the knots move, disappear and appear again, while the SE inner jet changes its brightness and size. In contrast with the Crab PWN, we see no moving "wisps". The observed changes can be attributed to instabilities in the pulsar wind and to varying density/pressure in the ambient medium. Deep combined images show that the inner arc is part of a ring, but the pulsar is offset from its plane. The large width of the SE outer "jet" suggests either an intrinsic asymmetry of the SE and NW polar outflows or that the SE jet broadens in a low-pressure cavity behind the moving pulsar. We also found a puzzling "bar" at the base of the inner SE jet, possibly a shock in a polar outflow. An adaptively binned spectral map demonstrates that the inner PWN elements have extremely hard spectra (significantly harder than those of the Crab inner PWN), incompatible with those predicted by the shock acceleration models. Overall, the Vela PWN shows a wealth of puzzling features, different from the Crab; their nature can be understood in a specially designed series of Chandra ACIS observations.

  2. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-06-17

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY.

  3. [Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for the implementation and the support of standard operating procedures: From PDF files to an app- and webbased SOP management system].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Riech, S; Brandes, I; Waeschle, R M

    2015-11-01

    The quality assurance of care and patient safety, with increasing cost pressure and performance levels is of major importance in the high-risk and high cost area of the operating room (OR). Standard operating procedures (SOP) are an established tool for structuring and standardization of the clinical treatment pathways and show multiple benefits for quality assurance and process optimization. An internal project was initiated in the department of anesthesiology and a continuous improvement process was carried out to build up a comprehensive SOP library. In the first step the spectrum of procedures in anesthesiology was transferred to PDF-based SOPs. The further development to an app-based SOP library (Aesculapp) was due to the high resource expenditure for the administration and maintenance of the large PDF-based SOP collection and to deficits in the mobile availability. The next developmental stage, the SOP healthcare information assistant (SOPHIA) included a simplified and advanced update feature, an archive feature previously missing and notably the possibility to share the SOP library with other departments including the option to adapt each SOP to the individual situation. A survey of the personnel showed that the app-based allocation of SOPs (Aesculapp, SOPHIA) had a higher acceptance than the PDF-based developmental stage SOP form. The SOP management system SOPHIA combines the benefits of the forerunner version Aesculapp with improved options for intradepartmental maintenance and administration of the SOPs and the possibility of an export and editing function for interinstitutional exchange of SOPs.

  4. The circadian neuropeptide PDF signals preferentially through a specific adenylate cyclase isoform AC3 in M pacemakers of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Laura B; Taghert, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R) is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells--the PDF-R(+) LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s) is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into "circadian signalosomes," whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types.

  5. Gardner's Two Children Problems and Variations: Puzzles with Conditional Probability and Sample Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendy; Stacey, Kaye

    2014-01-01

    This article presents "The Two Children Problem," published by Martin Gardner, who wrote a famous and widely-read math puzzle column in the magazine "Scientific American," and a problem presented by puzzler Gary Foshee. This paper explains the paradox of Problems 2 and 3 and many other variations of the theme. Then the authors…

  6. 76 FR 12072 - Public Availability of Commodity Futures Trading Commission FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf . Commodity Futures Trading Commission has posted its inventory.../groups/public/@aboutcftc/documents/file/cftcserviceinventory_2010.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  7. Galaxy clustering with photometric surveys using PDF redshift information

    DOE PAGES

    Asorey, J.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; ...

    2016-03-28

    Here, photometric surveys produce large-area maps of the galaxy distribution, but with less accurate redshift information than is obtained from spectroscopic methods. Modern photometric redshift (photo-z) algorithms use galaxy magnitudes, or colors, that are obtained through multi-band imaging to produce a probability density function (PDF) for each galaxy in the map. We used simulated data to study the effect of using different photo-z estimators to assign galaxies to redshift bins in order to compare their effects on angular clustering and galaxy bias measurements. We found that if we use the entire PDF, rather than a single-point (mean or mode) estimate, the deviations are less biased, especially when using narrow redshift bins. When the redshift bin widths aremore » $$\\Delta z=0.1$$, the use of the entire PDF reduces the typical measurement bias from 5%, when using single point estimates, to 3%.« less

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Smoking among People with Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health Page maintained by: Office ...

  9. Non-Gaussian PDF Modeling of Turbulent Boundary Layer Fluctuating Pressure Excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinwolf, Alexander; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate properties of the probability density function (PDF) of turbulent boundary layer fluctuating pressures measured on the exterior of a supersonic transport aircraft. It is shown that fluctuating pressure PDFs differ from the Gaussian distribution even for surface conditions having no significant discontinuities. The PDF tails are wider and longer than those of the Gaussian model. For pressure fluctuations upstream of forward-facing step discontinuities and downstream of aft-facing step discontinuities, deviations from the Gaussian model are more significant and the PDFs become asymmetrical. Various analytical PDF distributions are used and further developed to model this behavior.

  10. Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)

    Science.gov Websites

    Estimates for FY 2019 (Green Book) PDF icon Excel icon (Zip File) Operations and Maintenance Overview Operation and Maintenance Overview PDF icon Budget Documents Military Personnel Programs (M-1) PDF icon Excel icon - Budget Appendix Display (M-1) Excel icon Operation and Maintenance Programs (O-1) PDF icon

  11. Extra dimensions: 3D and time in PDF documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.

  12. Extra Dimensions: 3D and Time in PDF Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.A.; /SLAC

    2012-04-11

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universalmore » 3D (U3D) file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. By providing support for scripting and animation, temporal data can also be easily distributed to a wide, non-technical audience. We discuss how the field of radiation imaging could benefit from incorporating full 3D information about not only the detectors, but also the results of the experimental analyses, in its electronic publications. In this article, we present examples drawn from high-energy physics, mathematics and molecular biology which take advantage of this functionality. We demonstrate how 3D detector elements can be documented, using either CAD drawings or other sources such as GEANT visualizations as input.« less

  13. Progress in the development of PDF turbulence models for combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    A combined Monte Carlo-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) algorithm was developed recently at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for turbulent reacting flows. In this algorithm, conventional CFD schemes are employed to obtain the velocity field and other velocity related turbulent quantities, and a Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve the evolution equation for the probability density function (pdf) of species mass fraction and temperature. In combustion computations, the predictions of chemical reaction rates (the source terms in the species conservation equation) are poor if conventional turbulence modles are used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature produces excessively large errors. Moment closure models for the source terms have attained only limited success. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative at the present time that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus may be the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. Assumed pdf's are useful in simple problems; however, for more general combustion problems, the solution of an evolution equation for the pdf is necessary.

  14. Handling a Collection of PDF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You have several options for making a large collection of PDF documents more accessible to your audience: avoid uploading altogether, use multiple document pages, and use document IDs as anchors for direct links within a document page.

  15. The Circadian Neuropeptide PDF Signals Preferentially through a Specific Adenylate Cyclase Isoform AC3 in M Pacemakers of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Laura B.; Taghert, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) is essential for normal circadian function in Drosophila. It synchronizes the phases of M pacemakers, while in E pacemakers it decelerates their cycling and supports their amplitude. The PDF receptor (PDF-R) is present in both M and subsets of E cells. Activation of PDF-R stimulates cAMP increases in vitro and in M cells in vivo. The present study asks: What is the identity of downstream signaling components that are associated with PDF receptor in specific circadian pacemaker neurons? Using live imaging of intact fly brains and transgenic RNAi, we show that adenylate cyclase AC3 underlies PDF signaling in M cells. Genetic disruptions of AC3 specifically disrupt PDF responses: they do not affect other Gs-coupled GPCR signaling in M cells, they can be rescued, and they do not represent developmental alterations. Knockdown of the Drosophila AKAP-like scaffolding protein Nervy also reduces PDF responses. Flies with AC3 alterations show behavioral syndromes consistent with known roles of M pacemakers as mediated by PDF. Surprisingly, disruption of AC3 does not alter PDF responses in E cells—the PDF-R(+) LNd. Within M pacemakers, PDF-R couples preferentially to a single AC, but PDF-R association with a different AC(s) is needed to explain PDF signaling in the E pacemakers. Thus critical pathways of circadian synchronization are mediated by highly specific second messenger components. These findings support a hypothesis that PDF signaling components within target cells are sequestered into “circadian signalosomes,” whose compositions differ between E and M pacemaker cell types. PMID:22679392

  16. Accessing files in an Internet: The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Larry L.; Rao, Herman C.

    1991-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  17. Accessing files in an internet - The Jade file system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Herman C.; Peterson, Larry L.

    1993-01-01

    Jade is a new distribution file system that provides a uniform way to name and access files in an internet environment. It makes two important contributions. First, Jade is a logical system that integrates a heterogeneous collection of existing file systems, where heterogeneous means that the underlying file systems support different file access protocols. Jade is designed under the restriction that the underlying file system may not be modified. Second, rather than providing a global name space, Jade permits each user to define a private name space. These private name spaces support two novel features: they allow multiple file systems to be mounted under one directory, and they allow one logical name space to mount other logical name spaces. A prototype of the Jade File System was implemented on Sun Workstations running Unix. It consists of interfaces to the Unix file system, the Sun Network File System, the Andrew File System, and FTP. This paper motivates Jade's design, highlights several aspects of its implementation, and illustrates applications that can take advantage of its features.

  18. The Quark Puzzle: A Novel Approach to Visualizing the Color Symmetries of Quarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettrust, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a simple hands-on and visual-method designed to introduce physics students of many age groups to the topic of quarks and their role in forming composite particles (baryons and mesons). A set of puzzle pieces representing individual quarks that fit together in ways consistent with known restrictions of flavor, color, and charge…

  19. Betty Petersen Memorial Library - NCWCP Publications - NWS

    Science.gov Websites

    (.PDF file) 254 1982 Smith W. 1-2 Day Comparative BWB and LFM Threat Scores and Bias 1971 - 1982 (.PDF Stackpole J. Tracton M. S. Comparative Evaluation of ECMWF and NMC Spectral Forecasts February - July 1982 file) 269 1983 Smith W. 1-2 Day Comparative BWB and LFM Threat Scores, No Precipitation Threat Scores

  20. 78 FR 19152 - Revisions to Modeling, Data, and Analysis Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... processing software should be filed in native applications or print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format...,126 (2006), aff'd sub nom. Alcoa, Inc. v. FERC, 564 F.3d 1342 (D.C. Cir. 2009). 3. In March 2007, the... print-to-PDF format and not in a scanned format. Commenters filing electronically do not need to make a...

  1. Modeling Interactions Among Turbulence, Gas-Phase Chemistry, Soot and Radiation Using Transported PDF Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The importance of explicitly accounting for the effects of unresolved turbulent fluctuations in Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulations of chemically reacting turbulent flows is increasingly recognized. Transported probability density function (PDF) methods have emerged as one of the most promising modeling approaches for this purpose. In particular, PDF methods provide an elegant and effective resolution to the closure problems that arise from averaging or filtering terms that correspond to nonlinear point processes, including chemical reaction source terms and radiative emission. PDF methods traditionally have been associated with studies of turbulence-chemistry interactions in laboratory-scale, atmospheric-pressure, nonluminous, statistically stationary nonpremixed turbulent flames; and Lagrangian particle-based Monte Carlo numerical algorithms have been the predominant method for solving modeled PDF transport equations. Recent advances and trends in PDF methods are reviewed and discussed. These include advances in particle-based algorithms, alternatives to particle-based algorithms (e.g., Eulerian field methods), treatment of combustion regimes beyond low-to-moderate-Damköhler-number nonpremixed systems (e.g., premixed flamelets), extensions to include radiation heat transfer and multiphase systems (e.g., soot and fuel sprays), and the use of PDF methods as the basis for subfilter-scale modeling in large-eddy simulation. Examples are provided that illustrate the utility and effectiveness of PDF methods for physics discovery and for applications to practical combustion systems. These include comparisons of results obtained using the PDF method with those from models that neglect unresolved turbulent fluctuations in composition and temperature in the averaged or filtered chemical source terms and/or the radiation heat transfer source terms. In this way, the effects of turbulence-chemistry-radiation interactions can be isolated and quantified.

  2. How to Create a Web-Ready PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Making EPA's PDF documents accessible (by Section 508 standards) and user-friendly includes steps such as adding bookmarks, using electronic conversion rather than scanning pages, and adding metadata.

  3. A Solar Cycle Prediction Puzzle's PossibleExplanation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet

    2007-05-01

    A long-standing and intriguing puzzle of the last few decades has been Joan Feynman's (1982) discovery that the solar cycle (sunspot number) maximum trends follow the level of geomagnetic activity during the prior minimum phase. Recently Hathaway (GRL 33, 2006) used this relationship to make a prediction of the size of the next solar maximum. But the physical reason why this should work at all remains a matter of speculation. Although it has been suggested that geomagnetic activity around solar minimum is determined by the terrestrial magnetosphere's response to high speed solar wind streams which seem to often characterize the declining phase of the cycle, why should the occurrence of these streams portend the new solar maximum? Our improving understanding of solar wind sources may hold the key, and also tell us something useful about the solar dynamo.

  4. The electron screening puzzle and nuclear clustering

    DOE PAGES

    Spitaleri, C.; Bertulani, C. A.; Fortunato, L.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak show evidence of an unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the target. The experiments need to include an effective "screening" potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the lowest measurable energies. Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20 years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values of the screening potential needed to explain the data. Furthermore, in this letter we show thatmore » instead of an atomic physics solution of the "electron screening puzzle", the reason for the large screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei.« less

  5. 78 FR 25483 - Notice of Proposed Revisions for the LSC Grant Assurances for Calendar Year 2014 Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    .../sites/default/files/Grants/ReferenceMaterials/2014-GrantAssurances-Proposed.pdf . DATES: All comments...-GrantAssurances-Proposed.pdf . Interested parties are requested to provide comments concerning the...

  6. Drosophila GPCR Han is a receptor for the circadian clock neuropeptide PDF.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang; Lee, Youngseok; Hong, Sung-Tae; Bang, Sunhoe; Paik, Donggi; Kang, Jongkyun; Shin, Jinwhan; Lee, Jaejung; Jeon, Keunhye; Hwang, Seungyoon; Bae, Eunkyung; Kim, Jaeseob

    2005-10-20

    The pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide controlling circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila, but its receptor is not yet known. From a large-scale temperature preference behavior screen in Drosophila, we isolated a P insertion mutant that preferred different temperatures during the day and night. This mutation, which we named han, reduced the transcript level of CG13758. We found that Han was expressed specifically in 13 pairs of circadian clock neurons in the adult brain. han null flies showed arrhythmic circadian behavior in constant darkness. The behavioral characteristics of han null mutants were similar to those of pdf null mutants. We also found that PDF binds specifically to S2 cells expressing Han, which results in the elevation of cAMP synthesis. Therefore, we herein propose that Han is a PDF receptor regulating circadian behavioral rhythm through coordination of activities of clock neurons.

  7. The Role of Inhibitory Control in Children's Cooperative Behaviors during a Structured Puzzle Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Burk, William J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of inhibitory control (measured by Stroop interference) in children's cooperative behaviors during a structured puzzle task. The sample consisted of 250 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds (117 girls and 133 boys) attending classrooms in three primary schools in Northern Italy. Children individually completed an elaborated…

  8. A Public-Key Based Authentication and Key Establishment Protocol Coupled with a Client Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, M. C.; Fung, Chun-Kan

    2003-01-01

    Discusses network denial-of-service attacks which have become a security threat to the Internet community and suggests the need for reliable authentication protocols in client-server applications. Presents a public-key based authentication and key establishment protocol coupled with a client puzzle protocol and validates it through formal logic…

  9. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  10. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  11. PDF neuron firing phase-shifts key circadian activity neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fang; Cerullo, Isadora; Chen, Xiao; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our experiments address two long-standing models for the function of the Drosophila brain circadian network: a dual oscillator model, which emphasizes the primacy of PDF-containing neurons, and a cell-autonomous model for circadian phase adjustment. We identify five different circadian (E) neurons that are a major source of rhythmicity and locomotor activity. Brief firing of PDF cells at different times of day generates a phase response curve (PRC), which mimics a light-mediated PRC and requires PDF receptor expression in the five E neurons. Firing also resembles light by causing TIM degradation in downstream neurons. Unlike light however, firing-mediated phase-shifting is CRY-independent and exploits the E3 ligase component CUL-3 in the early night to degrade TIM. Our results suggest that PDF neurons integrate light information and then modulate the phase of E cell oscillations and behavioral rhythms. The results also explain how fly brain rhythms persist in constant darkness and without CRY. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02780.001 PMID:24939987

  12. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chung, Brian Y; Kilman, Valerie L; Keath, J Russel; Pitman, Jena L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-03-10

    Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that times sleep and wake to specific times of day and a homeostat that drives sleep as a function of prior wakefulness. To analyze the role of the circadian clock, we have used the fruit fly Drosophila. Flies display the core behavioral features of sleep, including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds, and homeostatic regulation. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that disruption of PDF function increases sleep during the late night in light:dark and the first subjective day of constant darkness. Flies deploy genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep that are similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including GABA. We find that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the GABA(A) receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons reduces sleep, consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch-clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal-promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo.

  13. SU-F-T-94: Plan2pdf - a Software Tool for Automatic Plan Report for Philips Pinnacle TPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C

    Purpose: To implement an automatic electronic PDF plan reporting tool for Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) Methods: An electronic treatment plan reporting software is developed by us to enable fully automatic PDF report from Pinnacle TPS to external EMR programs such as MOSAIQ. The tool is named “plan2pdf”. plan2pdf is implemented using Pinnacle scripts, Java and UNIX shell scripts, without any external program needed. plan2pdf supports full auto-mode and manual mode reporting. In full auto-mode, with a single mouse click, plan2pdf will generate a detailed Pinnacle plan report in PDF format, which includes customizable cover page, Pinnacle plan summary,more » orthogonal views through each plan POI and maximum dose point, DRR for each beam, serial transverse views captured throughout the dose grid at a user specified interval, DVH and scorecard windows. The final PDF report is also automatically bookmarked for each section above for convenient plan review. The final PDF report can either be saved on a user specified folder on Pinnacle, or it can be automatically exported to an EMR import folder via a user configured FTP service. In manual capture mode, plan2pdf allows users to capture any Pinnacle plan by full screen, individual window or rectangular ROI drawn on screen. Furthermore, to avoid possible patients’ plan mix-up during auto-mode reporting, a user conflict check feature is included in plan2pdf: it prompts user to wait if another patient is being exported by plan2pdf by another user. Results: plan2pdf is tested extensively and successfully at our institution consists of 5 centers, 15 dosimetrists and 10 physicists, running Pinnacle version 9.10 on Enterprise servers. Conclusion: plan2pdf provides a highly efficient, user friendly and clinical proven platform for all Philips Pinnacle users, to generate a detailed plan report in PDF format for external EMR systems.« less

  14. Multiple sclerosis pathogenesis: missing pieces of an old puzzle.

    PubMed

    Rahmanzadeh, Reza; Brück, Wolfgang; Minagar, Alireza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2018-06-08

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) was considered to be a CD4 T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity, compatible with experimental autoimmune encephalitis model, which can be characterized by focal lesions in the white matter. However, studies of recent decades revealed several missing pieces of MS puzzle and showed that MS pathogenesis is more complex than the traditional view and may include the following: a primary degenerative process (e.g. oligodendroglial pathology), generalized abnormality of normal-appearing brain tissue, pronounced gray matter pathology, involvement of innate immunity, and CD8 T cells and B cells. Here, we review these findings and discuss their implications in MS pathogenesis.

  15. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    PubMed Central

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  16. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  17. Gaia's view of the λ Boo star puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Simon J.; Paunzen, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    The evolutionary status of the chemically peculiar class of λ Boo stars has been intensely debated. It is now agreed that the λ Boo phenomenon affects A stars of all ages, from star formation to the terminal age main sequence, but the cause of the chemical peculiarity is still a puzzle. We revisit the debate of their ages and temperatures in order to shed light on the phenomenon, using the new parallaxes in Gaia Data Release 1 with existing Hipparcos parallaxes and multicolour photometry. We find that no single formation mechanism is able to explain all the observations, and suggest that there are multiple channels producing λ Boo spectra. The relative importance of these channels varies with age, temperature and environment.

  18. 78 FR 9721 - Privacy Act of 1974; New System of Records, Office of General Counsel E-Discovery Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... massive emails, word processing documents, PDF files, spreadsheets, presentations, database entries, and....pdf . PURPOSES: OGC-EDMS provides OGC with a method to initiate, track, and manage the collection...

  19. 76 FR 9382 - Public Availability of the Securities and Exchange Commission FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    .../files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf . The Securities and.../secfy2010servicecontractinventories.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Questions regarding the service contract inventory should...

  20. ISER - Electric Disturbance Events (OE-417)

    Science.gov Websites

    Training. (PDF 1.1 MB) (DOC 1 MB) OE-417 Form and Instructions Survey Form (PDF 136 KB) ( DOC 104 KB) Form Instructions (PDF 383 KB) (DOC 104 KB) Annual Summaries Current Year Summary (PDF 71 KB) (XLS 43 KB) Archives -417 Survey Form E-Filing System Training. (PDF 1.1 MB) (DOC 1 MB) OE-417 FORM AND INSTRUCTIONS Survey

  1. PDF methods for combustion in high-speed turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Stephen B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the research performed during the second year of this three-year project. The ultimate objective of the project is extend the applicability of probability density function (pdf) methods from incompressible to compressible turbulent reactive flows. As described in subsequent sections, progress has been made on: (1) formulation and modelling of pdf equations for compressible turbulence, in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous inert flows; and (2) implementation of the compressible model in various flow configurations, namely decaying isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow and plane mixing layer.

  2. Schooling, Cognitive Skills, and the Latin American Growth Puzzle. NBER Working Paper No. 15066

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Latin America has trailed most other world regions over the past four decades despite its relatively high initial development and school attainment levels. This puzzle can be resolved by considering the actual learning as expressed in tests of cognitive skills, on which Latin American countries consistently perform at the…

  3. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    PubMed

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  4. PDF Signaling Is an Integral Part of the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator.

    PubMed

    Mezan, Shaul; Feuz, Jean Daniel; Deplancke, Bart; Kadener, Sebastian

    2016-10-11

    Circadian clocks generate 24-hr rhythms in physiology and behavior. Despite numerous studies, it is still uncertain how circadian rhythms emerge from their molecular and neural constituents. Here, we demonstrate a tight connection between the molecular and neuronal circadian networks. Using fluorescent transcriptional reporters in a Drosophila ex vivo brain culture system, we identified a reciprocal negative regulation between the master circadian regulator CLK and expression of pdf, the main circadian neuropeptide. We show that PDF feedback is required for maintaining normal oscillation pattern in CLK-driven transcription. Interestingly, we found that CLK and neuronal firing suppresses pdf transcription, likely through a common pathway involving the transcription factors DHR38 and SR, establishing a direct link between electric activity and the circadian system. In sum, our work provides evidence for the existence of an uncharacterized CLK-PDF feedback loop that tightly wraps together the molecular oscillator with the circadian neuronal network in Drosophila. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interference between a fast-paced spatial puzzle task and verbal memory demands.

    PubMed

    Epling, Samantha L; Blakely, Megan J; Russell, Paul N; Helton, William S

    2017-06-01

    Research continues to provide evidence that people are poor multi-taskers. Cognitive resource theory is a common explanation for the inability to efficiently perform multiple tasks at the same time. This theory proposes that one's limited supply of cognitive resources can be utilized faster than it is replenished, which results in a performance decline, particularly when these limited resources must be allocated among multiple tasks. Researchers have proposed both domain-specific, for example, spatial versus verbal processing resources, and domain general cognitive resources. In the present research, we investigated whether a spatial puzzle task performed simultaneously with a verbal recall task would impair performance in either task or both tasks, compared to performance on the tasks individually. As hypothesized, a reduction in word recall was found when dual-tasking, though performance on the puzzle task did not significantly differ between the single- and dual-task conditions. This is consistent, in part, with both a general resource theory and a Multiple Resource Theory, but further work is required to better understand the cognitive processing system. The employment of the recall task in the dual-task paradigm with a variety of secondary tasks will help to continue mapping out the specificity (or lack thereof) of cognitive resources utilized in various mental and physical tasks.

  6. 78 FR 11903 - Public Availability of the National Science Foundation Analysis of the 2011 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .../service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf and http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventory-guidance.pdf . The National Science Foundation has posted its...

  7. Anatomical characterization of PDF-tri neurons and peptidergic neurons associated with eclosion behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Selcho, Mareike; Mühlbauer, Barbara; Hensgen, Ronja; Shiga, Sakiko; Wegener, Christian; Yasuyama, Kouji

    2018-06-01

    The peptidergic Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF)-Tri neurons are a group of non-clock neurons that appear transiently around the time of adult ecdysis (=eclosion) in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. This specific developmental pattern points to a function of these neurons in eclosion or other processes that are active around pupal-adult transition. As a first step to understand the role of these neurons, we here characterize the anatomy of the PDF-Tri neurons. In addition, we describe a further set of peptidergic neurons that have been associated with eclosion behavior, eclosion hormone (EH), and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons, to single cell level in the pharate adult brain. PDF-Tri neurons as well as CCAP neurons co-express a classical transmitter indicated by the occurrence of small clear vesicles in addition to dense-core vesicles containing the peptides. In the tritocerebrum, gnathal ganglion and the superior protocerebrum PDF-Tri neurites contain peptidergic varicosities and both pre- and postsynaptic sites, suggesting that the PDF-Tri neurons represent modulatory rather than pure interneurons that connect the subesophageal zone with the superior protocerebrum. The extensive overlap of PDF-Tri arborizations with neurites of CCAP- and EH-expressing neurons in distinct brain regions provides anatomical evidence for a possible function of the PDF-Tri neurons in eclosion behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Computational/Experimental Platform for Investigating Three-Dimensional Puzzle Solving of Comminuted Articular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Thaddeus P.; Anderson, Donald D.; Willis, Andrew R.; Liu, Pengcheng; Frank, Matthew C.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstructing highly comminuted articular fractures poses a difficult surgical challenge, akin to solving a complicated three-dimensional (3D) puzzle. Pre-operative planning using CT is critically important, given the desirability of less invasive surgical approaches. The goal of this work is to advance 3D puzzle solving methods toward use as a pre-operative tool for reconstructing these complex fractures. Methodology for generating typical fragmentation/dispersal patterns was developed. Five identical replicas of human distal tibia anatomy, were machined from blocks of high-density polyetherurethane foam (bone fragmentation surrogate), and were fractured using an instrumented drop tower. Pre- and post-fracture geometries were obtained using laser scans and CT. A semi-automatic virtual reconstruction computer program aligned fragment native (non-fracture) surfaces to a pre-fracture template. The tibias were precisely reconstructed with alignment accuracies ranging from 0.03-0.4mm. This novel technology has potential to significantly enhance surgical techniques for reconstructing comminuted intra-articular fractures, as illustrated for a representative clinical case. PMID:20924863

  9. Solving the Undiagnosed Disease Puzzle at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [2.68 mb] Trusted Health Information from the National Institutes of Health Home Current Issue ...

  10. A circadian neuropeptide PDF in the honeybee, Apis mellifera: cDNA cloning and expression of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Miho; Sato, Seiji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Sumida, Kazunori; Koga, Keita; Itoh, Tsunao; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2011-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a pacemaker hormone regulating the locomotor rhythm in insects. In the present study, we cloned the cDNAs encoding the Apis PDF precursor protein, and found that there are at least seven different pdf mRNAs yielded by an alternative splicing site and five alternative polyadenylation sites in the 5'UTR and 3'UTR regions. The amino acid sequence of Apis PDF peptide has a characteristic novel amino acid residue, aspargine (Asn), at position 17. Quantitative real-time PCR of total and 5'UTR insertion-type pdf mRNAs revealed, for the first time, that the expression levels change in a circadian manner with a distinct trough at the beginning of night in LD conditions, and at the subjective night under DD conditions. In contrast, the expression level of 5'UTR deletion-type pdf mRNAs was about half of that of the insertion type, and the expression profile failed to show a circadian rhythm. As the expression profile of the total pdf mRNA exhibited a circadian rhythm, transcription regulated at the promoter region was supposed to be controlled by some of the clock components. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that 14 lateral neurons at the frontal margin of the optic lobe express these mRNA isoforms. PDF expressing cells examined with a newly produced antibody raised against Apis PDF were also found to have a dense supply of axon terminals in the optic lobes and the central brain.

  11. 10 CFR 2.1013 - Use of the electronic docket during the proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Internet or to another PDF file, that is necessary for the completeness of a filing, must be submitted in... free of author-imposed security restrictions. (2) Filings required to be served shall be served upon...

  12. Crystal structure of an EfPDF complex with Met-Ala-Ser based on crystallographic packing.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Hyun; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Eunice Eun Kyeong; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2009-04-17

    PDF (peptide deformylase) plays a critical role in the production of mature proteins by removing the N-formyl polypeptide of nascent proteins in the prokaryote cell system. This protein is essential for bacterial growth, making it an attractive target for the design of new antibiotics. Accordingly, PDF has been evaluated as a drug target; however, architectural mechanism studies of PDF have not yet fully elucidated its molecular function. We recently reported the crystal structure of PDF produced by Enterococcus faecium [K.H. Nam, J.I. Ham, A. Priyadarshi, E.E. Kim, N. Chung, K.Y. Hwang, "Insight into the antibacterial drug design and architectural mechanism of peptide recognition from the E. faecium peptide deformylase structure", Proteins 74 (2009) 261-265]. Here, we present the crystal structure of the EfPDF complex with MAS (Met-Ser-Ala), thereby not only delineating the architectural mechanism for the recognition of mimic-peptides by N-terminal cleaved expression peptide, but also suggesting possible targets for rational design of antibacterial drugs. In addition to their implications for drug design, these structural studies will facilitate elucidation of the architectural mechanism responsible for the peptide recognition of PDF.

  13. 77 FR 5279 - Public Availability of the National Science Foundation FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...-guidance-11052010.pdf and http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventory-guidance.pdf . The National Science Foundation has posted its inventory and a summary of...

  14. 78 FR 10215 - Public Availability of the National Science Foundation FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...-guidance-11052010.pdf and http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventory-guidance.pdf . The National Science Foundation has posted its inventory and a summary of...

  15. Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) has different effects on Drosophila's circadian clocks in the accessory medulla and in the dorsal brain.

    PubMed

    Wülbeck, Corinna; Grieshaber, Eva; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte

    2008-10-01

    The neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a key transmitter in the circadian clock of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we studied the rhythmic behavior of neural mutants with modified arborizations of the large PDF neurons. In sine oculis(1) (so(1)) mutants we found a higher density of PDF fibers in the fly's pacemaker center, the accessory medulla. These flies exhibited a significantly longer period (24.6 h) than control flies. When PDF levels were elevated to very high levels in the dorsal brain as true for so(mda) mutants and small optic lobes;so(1) double mutants (sol(1);so( 1)), a short-period component split off the long period in behavioral rhythmicity. The short period became shorter the higher the amount of PDF in this brain region and reached a value of approximately 21 h. The period alterations were clearly dependent on PDF, because so(1);Pdf 01 and so(mda);Pdf 01 double mutants showed a single free-running component with a period similar to Pdf 01 mutants (approximately 22.5 h) and significantly longer than the short period of so(mda) mutants. These observations indicate that PDF feeds back on the clock neurons and changes their period. Obviously, PDF lengthens the period of some clock neurons and shortens that of others.

  16. An Interactive 3D Virtual Anatomy Puzzle for Learning and Simulation - Initial Demonstration and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Messier, Erik; Wilcox, Jascha; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Diaz, Gabriel; Linte, Cristian A

    2016-01-01

    To inspire young students (grades 6-12) to become medical practitioners and biomedical engineers, it is necessary to expose them to key concepts of the field in a way that is both exciting and informative. Recent advances in medical image acquisition, manipulation, processing, visualization, and display have revolutionized the approach in which the human body and internal anatomy can be seen and studied. It is now possible to collect 3D, 4D, and 5D medical images of patient specific data, and display that data to the end user using consumer level 3D stereoscopic display technology. Despite such advancements, traditional 2D modes of content presentation such as textbooks and slides are still the standard didactic equipment used to teach young students anatomy. More sophisticated methods of display can help to elucidate the complex 3D relationships between structures that are so often missed when viewing only 2D media, and can instill in students an appreciation for the interconnection between medicine and technology. Here we describe the design, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a 3D virtual anatomy puzzle dedicated to helping users learn the anatomy of various organs and systems by manipulating 3D virtual data. The puzzle currently comprises several components of the human anatomy and can be easily extended to include additional organs and systems. The 3D virtual anatomy puzzle game was implemented and piloted using three display paradigms - a traditional 2D monitor, a 3D TV with active shutter glass, and the DK2 version Oculus Rift, as well as two different user interaction devices - a space mouse and traditional keyboard controls.

  17. Breakthroughs In Low-profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    this approach to help us finally to include, and manage quantitatively, this essential piece of the theoretical puzzle as we continue to revise and...appreciate ONR’s continuing support for this R&D. 10 http://www.uttyler.edu/ math /faculty...dkoslover.php & https://www.uttyler.edu/ math /curriculavitae/dkoslover.pdf 11 These include Variational Methods, Integral Equation Method, Equivalent

  18. The impact of the photon PDF and electroweak corrections on [Formula: see text] distributions.

    PubMed

    Pagani, D; Tsinikos, I; Zaro, M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the impact of EW corrections on differential distributions in top-quark pair production at the LHC and future hadron colliders, focussing on the effects of initial-state photons. Performing a calculation at Next-to-Leading Order QCD+EW accuracy, we investigate in detail the impact of photon-initiated channels on central values as well as PDF and scale uncertainties, both at order [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. We present predictions at 13 and 100 TeV, and provide results for the 8 TeV differential measurements performed by ATLAS and CMS. A thorough comparison of results obtained with the NNPDF2.3QED and CT14QED PDF sets is performed. While contributions due to the photon PDF are negligible with CT14QED, this is not the case for NNPDF2.3QED, where such contributions are sizeable and show large PDF uncertainties. On the one hand, we show that differential observables in top-pair production, in particular top-quark and [Formula: see text] rapidities, can be used to improve the determination of the photon PDF within the NNPDF approach. On the other hand, with current PDF sets, we demonstrate the necessity of including EW corrections and photon-induced contributions for a correct determination of both the central value and the uncertainties of theoretical predictions.

  19. Enhancing the Understanding of Government and Nonprofit Accounting with THE PUZZLE GAME: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…

  20. RNA-Puzzles Round II: assessment of RNA structure prediction programs applied to three large RNA structures

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Adamiak, Ryszard W.; Blanchet, Marc-Frédérick; Boniecki, Michal; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Chen, Shi-Jie; Cheng, Clarence; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Chou, Fang-Chieh; Cordero, Pablo; Cruz, José Almeida; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Das, Rhiju; Ding, Feng; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Kladwang, Wipapat; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lach, Grzegorz; Magnus, Marcin; Major, François; Mann, Thomas H.; Masquida, Benoît; Matelska, Dorota; Meyer, Mélanie; Peselis, Alla; Popenda, Mariusz; Purzycka, Katarzyna J.; Serganov, Alexander; Stasiewicz, Juliusz; Szachniuk, Marta; Tandon, Arpit; Tian, Siqi; Wang, Jian; Xiao, Yi; Xu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jinwei; Zhao, Peinan; Zok, Tomasz; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a report of a second round of RNA-Puzzles, a collective and blind experiment in three-dimensional (3D) RNA structure prediction. Three puzzles, Puzzles 5, 6, and 10, represented sequences of three large RNA structures with limited or no homology with previously solved RNA molecules. A lariat-capping ribozyme, as well as riboswitches complexed to adenosylcobalamin and tRNA, were predicted by seven groups using RNAComposer, ModeRNA/SimRNA, Vfold, Rosetta, DMD, MC-Fold, 3dRNA, and AMBER refinement. Some groups derived models using data from state-of-the-art chemical-mapping methods (SHAPE, DMS, CMCT, and mutate-and-map). The comparisons between the predictions and the three subsequently released crystallographic structures, solved at diffraction resolutions of 2.5–3.2 Å, were carried out automatically using various sets of quality indicators. The comparisons clearly demonstrate the state of present-day de novo prediction abilities as well as the limitations of these state-of-the-art methods. All of the best prediction models have similar topologies to the native structures, which suggests that computational methods for RNA structure prediction can already provide useful structural information for biological problems. However, the prediction accuracy for non-Watson–Crick interactions, key to proper folding of RNAs, is low and some predicted models had high Clash Scores. These two difficulties point to some of the continuing bottlenecks in RNA structure prediction. All submitted models are available for download at http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rnapuzzles/. PMID:25883046

  1. 29 CFR 4007.3 - Filing requirement; method of filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing requirement; method of filing. 4007.3 Section 4007.3... PREMIUMS § 4007.3 Filing requirement; method of filing. (a) In general. The estimation, determination... Web site (http://www.pbgc.gov). Subject to the provisions of § 4007.13, the plan administrator of each...

  2. The PDF method for turbulent combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    Probability Density Function (PDF) methods provide a means of calculating the properties of turbulent reacting flows. They have been successfully applied to many turbulent flames, including some with finite rate kinetic effects. Here the methods are reviewed with an emphasis on computational issues and their application to turbulent combustion.

  3. High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J.; Ehm, Lars

    In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.

  4. PDF cycling in the dorsal protocerebrum of the Drosophila brain is not necessary for circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Kula, Elzbieta; Levitan, Edwin S; Pyza, Elzbieta; Rosbash, Michael

    2006-04-01

    In Drosophila, the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a likely circadian molecule, secreted by central pacemaker neurons (LNvs). PDF is expressed in both small and large LNvs (sLNvs and lLNvs), and there are striking circadian oscillations of PDF staining intensity in the small cell termini, which require a functional molecular clock. This cycling may be relevant to the proposed role of PDF as a synchronizer of the clock system or as an output signal connecting pacemaker cells to locomotor activity centers. In this study, the authors use a generic neuropeptide fusion protein (atrial natriuretic factor-green fluorescent protein [ANF-GFP]) and show that it can be expressed in the same neurons as PDF itself. Yet, ANF-GFP as well as PDF itself does not manifest any cyclical accumulation in sLNv termini in adult transgenic flies. Surprisingly, the absence of detectable PDF cycling is not accompanied by any detectable behavioral pheno-type, since these transgenic flies have normal morning and evening anticipation in a light-dark cycle (LD) and are fully rhythmic in constant darkness (DD). The molecular clock is also not compromised. The results suggest that robust PDF cycling in sLNv termini plays no more than a minor role in the Drosophila circadian system and is apparently not even necessary for clock output function.

  5. Handling a Large Collection of PDF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    You have several options for making a large collection of PDF documents more accessible to your audience: avoid uploading altogether, use multiple document pages, and use document IDs as anchors for direct links within a document page.

  6. DSSTOX MASTER STRUCTURE-INDEX FILE: SDF FILE AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website. The DSSTox Master Structure-Index File serves to consolidate, manage, and ensure quality and uniformity of the chemical and substance information spanning all DSSTox Structure Data Files, including those in development but not yet published separately on this website.

  7. Please Move Inactive Files Off the /projects File System | High-Performance

    Science.gov Websites

    Computing | NREL Please Move Inactive Files Off the /projects File System Please Move Inactive Files Off the /projects File System January 11, 2018 The /projects file system is a shared resource . This year this has created a space crunch - the file system is now about 90% full and we need your help

  8. Exact PDF equations and closure approximations for advective-reactive transport

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, D.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of advection–reaction phenomena rely on advective flow velocity and (bio) chemical reaction rates that are notoriously random. By using functional integral methods, we derive exact evolution equations for the probability density function (PDF) of the state variables of the advection–reaction system in the presence of random transport velocity and random reaction rates with rather arbitrary distributions. These PDF equations are solved analytically for transport with deterministic flow velocity and a linear reaction rate represented mathematically by a heterog eneous and strongly-correlated random field. Our analytical solution is then used to investigate the accuracy and robustness of the recentlymore » proposed large-eddy diffusivity (LED) closure approximation [1]. We find that the solution to the LED-based PDF equation, which is exact for uncorrelated reaction rates, is accurate even in the presence of strong correlations and it provides an upper bound of predictive uncertainty.« less

  9. Set selection dynamical system neural networks with partial memories, with applications to Sudoku and KenKen puzzles.

    PubMed

    Boreland, B; Clement, G; Kunze, H

    2015-08-01

    After reviewing set selection and memory model dynamical system neural networks, we introduce a neural network model that combines set selection with partial memories (stored memories on subsets of states in the network). We establish that feasible equilibria with all states equal to ± 1 correspond to answers to a particular set theoretic problem. We show that KenKen puzzles can be formulated as a particular case of this set theoretic problem and use the neural network model to solve them; in addition, we use a similar approach to solve Sudoku. We illustrate the approach in examples. As a heuristic experiment, we use online or print resources to identify the difficulty of the puzzles and compare these difficulties to the number of iterations used by the appropriate neural network solver, finding a strong relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Storage of sparse files using parallel log-structured file system

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    A sparse file is stored without holes by storing a data portion of the sparse file using a parallel log-structured file system; and generating an index entry for the data portion, the index entry comprising a logical offset, physical offset and length of the data portion. The holes can be restored to the sparse file upon a reading of the sparse file. The data portion can be stored at a logical end of the sparse file. Additional storage efficiency can optionally be achieved by (i) detecting a write pattern for a plurality of the data portions and generating a singlemore » patterned index entry for the plurality of the patterned data portions; and/or (ii) storing the patterned index entries for a plurality of the sparse files in a single directory, wherein each entry in the single directory comprises an identifier of a corresponding sparse file.« less

  11. A compound scattering pdf for the ultrasonic echo envelope and its relationship to K and Nakagami distributions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P Mohana

    2003-03-01

    A compound probability density function (pdf) is presented to describe the envelope of the backscattered echo from tissue. This pdf allows local and global variation in scattering cross sections in tissue. The ultrasonic backscattering cross sections are assumed to be gamma distributed. The gamma distribution also is used to model the randomness in the average cross sections. This gamma-gamma model results in the compound scattering pdf for the envelope. The relationship of this compound pdf to the Rayleigh, K, and Nakagami distributions is explored through an analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the envelopes and random number simulations. The three parameter compound pdf appears to be flexible enough to represent envelope statistics giving rise to Rayleigh, K, and Nakagami distributions.

  12. 49 CFR 564.5 - Information filing; agency processing of filings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information filing; agency processing of filings... HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCE INFORMATION (Eff. until 12-01-12) § 564.5 Information filing; agency processing of filings. (a) Each manufacturer...

  13. Usability of PDF based Digital Textbooks to the Physically Disabled University Student.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hidehisa; Matsubara, Kayoko; Booka, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Digital textbooks have been expected for providing multimedia information that the print textbooks could not handle. The original digital textbook can be fabricated relatively easily by using Epub or DAISY. Print textbooks are, however, employed as textbooks in the most of lectures in universities. Therefore, it is considered necessary to convert the content of the print textbook to the digital textbook simply and in a short time. In this paper, the digital textbook using PDF files of the print textbook was suggested as one of simple and practical solution to provide an alternative textbook for the physically disabled university student who has difficulty handling the print textbook. Then usability of the suggested method was evaluated experimentally from the point of workload. Result of the experiment indicates that the digital textbook fabricated as the alternative one for the print textbook by the suggested method has a potential to reduce workload for the physically disabled university students. In addition, the digital textbook with larger LCD display needs less workload than the print textbook. Then, there are not so much difference in the workload between the print book which is smaller than the print textbook and the digital book made from the print book.

  14. Widespread receptivity to neuropeptide PDF throughout the neuronal circadian clock network of Drosophila revealed by real-time cyclic AMP imaging.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Orie T; Kim, Dong Jo; Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J; Taghert, Paul H

    2008-04-24

    The neuropeptide PDF is released by sixteen clock neurons in Drosophila and helps maintain circadian activity rhythms by coordinating a network of approximately 150 neuronal clocks. Whether PDF acts directly on elements of this neural network remains unknown. We address this question by adapting Epac1-camps, a genetically encoded cAMP FRET sensor, for use in the living brain. We find that a subset of the PDF-expressing neurons respond to PDF with long-lasting cAMP increases and confirm that such responses require the PDF receptor. In contrast, an unrelated Drosophila neuropeptide, DH31, stimulates large cAMP increases in all PDF-expressing clock neurons. Thus, the network of approximately 150 clock neurons displays widespread, though not uniform, PDF receptivity. This work introduces a sensitive means of measuring cAMP changes in a living brain with subcellular resolution. Specifically, it experimentally confirms the longstanding hypothesis that PDF is a direct modulator of most neurons in the Drosophila clock network.

  15. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock.

    PubMed

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-30

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit.

  16. Fluorescence circadian imaging reveals a PDF-dependent transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila molecular clock

    PubMed Central

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nunes, José Manuel; Rosbash, Michael; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Circadian locomotor behaviour is controlled by a pacemaker circuit composed of clock-containing neurons. To interrogate the mechanistic relationship between the molecular clockwork and network communication critical to the operation of the Drosophila circadian pacemaker circuit, we established new fluorescent circadian reporters that permit single-cell recording of transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms in brain explants and cultured neurons. Live-imaging experiments combined with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrate that the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) amplifies the molecular rhythms via time-of-day- and activity-dependent upregulation of transcription from E-box-containing clock gene promoters within key pacemaker neurons. The effect of PDF on clock gene transcription and the known role of PDF in enhancing PER/TIM stability occur via independent pathways downstream of the PDF receptor, the former through a cAMP-independent mechanism and the latter through a cAMP-PKA dependent mechanism. These results confirm and extend the mechanistic understanding of the role of PDF in controlling the synchrony of the pacemaker neurons. More broadly, our results establish the utility of the new live-imaging tools for the study of molecular-neural interactions important for the operation of the circadian pacemaker circuit. PMID:28134281

  17. Analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) testbed development and evaluation to support dynamic mobility applications (DMA) and active transportation and demand management (ATDM) programs — evaluation report for ATDM program. [supporting datasets - Pasadena Testbed

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-07-26

    This zip file contains POSTDATA.ATT (.ATT); Print to File (.PRN); Portable Document Format (.PDF); and document (.DOCX) files of data to support FHWA-JPO-16-385, Analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) testbed development and evaluation to support d...

  18. Instructional Media Production for Early Childhood Education: A. B. C. Jig-Saw Puzzle, a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudashiru Olalere; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke K.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a. b. c. jig-saw puzzle was produced for early childhood education using local materials. This study was a production based type of research, to serve as a supplemental or total learning resource. Its production followed four phases of development referred to as information, design, production and evaluation. The storyboard cards,…

  19. Characterization of PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Salaheldin; Uemura, Hiroyuki; Umezaki, Yujiro; Saifullah, A S M; Shimohigashi, Miki; Tomioka, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide playing important roles in insect circadian systems. In this study, we morphologically and physiologically characterized PDF-immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobe and the brain of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. PDF-immunoreactivity was detected in cells located in the proximal medulla (PDFMe cells) and those in the dorsal and ventral regions of the outer chiasma (PDFLa cells). The PDFMe cells had varicose processes spread over the frontal surface of the medulla and the PDFLa cells had varicose mesh-like innervations in almost whole lamina, suggesting their modulatory role in the optic lobe. Some of PDFMe cells had a hairpin-shaped axonal process running toward the lamina then turning back to project into the brain where they terminated at various protocerebral areas. The PDFMe cells had a low frequency spontaneous spike activity that was higher during the night and was often slightly increased by light pulses. Six pairs of PDF-immunoreactive neurons were also found in the frontal ganglion. Competitive ELISA with anti-PDF antibodies revealed daily cycling of PDF both in the optic lobe and cerebral lobe with an increase during the night that persisted in constant darkness. The physiological role of PDF is discussed based on these results.

  20. The puzzle box as a simple and efficient behavioral test for exploring impairments of general cognition and executive functions in mouse models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah, Nada M-B; Fuss, Johannes; Trusel, Massimo; Galsworthy, Michael J; Bobsin, Kristin; Colacicco, Giovanni; Deacon, Robert M J; Riva, Marco A; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sprengel, Rolf; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Gass, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions are key features of schizophrenia. Rodent behavioral paradigms used so far to find animal correlates of such deficits require extensive effort and time. The puzzle box is a problem-solving test in which mice are required to complete escape tasks of increasing difficulty within a limited amount of time. Previous data have indicated that it is a quick but highly reliable test of higher-order cognitive functioning. We evaluated the use of the puzzle box to explore executive functioning in five different mouse models of schizophrenia: mice with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus lesions, mice treated sub-chronically with the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801, mice constitutively lacking the GluA1 subunit of AMPA-receptors, and mice over-expressing dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. All mice displayed altered executive functions in the puzzle box, although the nature and extent of the deficits varied between the different models. Deficits were strongest in hippocampus-lesioned and GluA1 knockout mice, while more subtle deficits but specific to problem solving were found in the medial prefrontal-lesioned mice, MK-801-treated mice, and in mice with striatal overexpression of D2 receptors. Data from this study demonstrate the utility of the puzzle box as an effective screening tool for executive functions in general and for schizophrenia mouse models in particular. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. ACHP | Report to the President and Congress, 1996-1997

    Science.gov Websites

    PDF files, you need the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Please visit Adobe to download the free Acrobat Reader . For conversion of PDF to HTML, visit Access Adobe's free conversion service. Updated September 24

  2. Successful COG8 and PDF overlap is mediated by alterations in splicing and polyadenylation signals.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Quental, Rita; da Costa, Luís T; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

    2012-02-01

    Although gene-free areas compose the great majority of eukaryotic genomes, a significant fraction of genes overlaps, i.e., unique nucleotide sequences are part of more than one transcription unit. In this work, the evolutionary history and origin of a same-strand gene overlap is dissected through the analysis of COG8 (component of oligomeric Golgi complex 8) and PDF (peptide deformylase). Comparative genomic surveys reveal that the relative locations of these two genes have been changing over the last 445 million years from distinct chromosomal locations in fish to overlapping in rodents and primates, indicating that the overlap between these genes precedes their divergence. The overlap between the two genes was initiated by the gain of a novel splice donor site between the COG8 stop codon and PDF initiation codon. Splicing is accomplished by the use of the PDF acceptor, leading COG8 to share the 3'end with PDF. In primates, loss of the ancestral polyadenylation signal for COG8 makes the overlap between COG8 and PDF mandatory, while in mouse and rat concurrent overlapping and non-overlapping Cog8 transcripts exist. Altogether, we demonstrate that the origin, evolution and preservation of the COG8/PDF same-strand overlap follow similar mechanistic steps as those documented for antisense overlaps where gain and/or loss of splice sites and polyadenylation signals seems to drive the process.

  3. APFEL: A PDF evolution library with QED corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Rojo, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Quantum electrodynamics and electroweak corrections are important ingredients for many theoretical predictions at the LHC. This paper documents APFEL, a new PDF evolution package that allows for the first time to perform DGLAP evolution up to NNLO in QCD and to LO in QED, in the variable-flavor-number scheme and with either pole or MS bar heavy quark masses. APFEL consistently accounts for the QED corrections to the evolution of quark and gluon PDFs and for the contribution from the photon PDF in the proton. The coupled QCD ⊗ QED equations are solved in x-space by means of higher order interpolation, followed by Runge-Kutta solution of the resulting discretized evolution equations. APFEL is based on an innovative and flexible methodology for the sequential solution of the QCD and QED evolution equations and their combination. In addition to PDF evolution, APFEL provides a module that computes Deep-Inelastic Scattering structure functions in the FONLL general-mass variable-flavor-number scheme up to O(αs2) . All the functionalities of APFEL can be accessed via a Graphical User Interface, supplemented with a variety of plotting tools for PDFs, parton luminosities and structure functions. Written in FORTRAN 77, APFEL can also be used via the C/C++ and Python interfaces, and is publicly available from the HepForge repository.

  4. Disk diffusion quality control guidelines for NVP-PDF 713: a novel peptide deformylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, Tamara R; Jones, Ronald N

    2004-01-01

    NVP-PDF713 is a peptide deformylase inhibitor that has emerged as a candidate for treating Gram-positive infections and selected Gram-negative species that commonly cause community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This report summarizes the results of a multi-center (seven participants) disk diffusion quality control (QC) investigation for NVP PDF-713 using guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards and the standardized disk diffusion method. A total of 420 NVP-PDF 713 zone diameter values were generated for each QC organism. The proposed zone diameter ranges contained 97.6-99.8% of the reported participant results and were: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 (25-35 mm), Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (30-37 mm), and Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247 (24-32 mm). These QC criteria for the disk diffusion method should be applied during the NVP-PDF 713 clinical trials to maximize test accuracy.

  5. Evaluation of a Consistent LES/PDF Method Using a Series of Experimental Spray Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heye, Colin; Raman, Venkat

    2012-11-01

    A consistent method for the evolution of the joint-scalar probability density function (PDF) transport equation is proposed for application to large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent reacting flows containing evaporating spray droplets. PDF transport equations provide the benefit of including the chemical source term in closed form, however, additional terms describing LES subfilter mixing must be modeled. The recent availability of detailed experimental measurements provide model validation data for a wide range of evaporation rates and combustion regimes, as is well-known to occur in spray flames. In this work, the experimental data will used to investigate the impact of droplet mass loading and evaporation rates on the subfilter scalar PDF shape in comparison with conventional flamelet models. In addition, existing model term closures in the PDF transport equations are evaluated with a focus on their validity in the presence of regime changes.

  6. Children with Praderwilli Syndrome Vs. Williams Syndrome: Indirect Effects on Parents during a Jigsaw Puzzle Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ly, T. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Genetic disorders predispose individuals to exhibit characteristic behaviours, which in turn elicit particular behaviours from others. In response to the strength of Prader?Willi syndrome (PWS) and weakness of Williams syndrome (WS) in visual-spatial tasks such as jigsaw puzzles, parents' behaviours can be affected by their child's…

  7. ACHP | Citizen's Guide to Section 106 Review

    Science.gov Websites

    print PDF files, you need the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Please visit Adobe to download the free Acrobat Reader. For conversion of PDF to HTML, visit Access Adobe's free conversion service. Return to Top

  8. PDF investigations of turbulent non-premixed jet flames with thin reaction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    PDF (probability density function) modeling studies are carried out for the Sydney piloted jet flames. These Sydney flames feature much thinner reaction zones in the mixture fraction space compared to those in the well-studied Sandia piloted jet flames. The performance of the different turbulent combustion models in the Sydney flames with thin reaction zones has not been examined extensively before, and this work aims at evaluating the capability of the PDF method to represent the thin turbulent flame structures in the Sydney piloted flames. Parametric and sensitivity PDF studies are performed with respect to the different models and model parameters. A global error parameter is defined to quantify the departure of the simulation results from the experimental data, and is used to assess the performance of the different set of models and model parameters.

  9. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangtian; Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Kondo, Shu; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A; Wegener, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF.

  10. Allatostatin A Signalling in Drosophila Regulates Feeding and Sleep and Is Modulated by PDF

    PubMed Central

    Reiher, Wencke; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Sellami, Azza; Cognigni, Paola; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Veenstra, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding and sleep are fundamental behaviours with significant interconnections and cross-modulations. The circadian system and peptidergic signals are important components of this modulation, but still little is known about the mechanisms and networks by which they interact to regulate feeding and sleep. We show that specific thermogenetic activation of peptidergic Allatostatin A (AstA)-expressing PLP neurons and enteroendocrine cells reduces feeding and promotes sleep in the fruit fly Drosophila. The effects of AstA cell activation are mediated by AstA peptides with receptors homolog to galanin receptors subserving similar and apparently conserved functions in vertebrates. We further identify the PLP neurons as a downstream target of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an output factor of the circadian clock. PLP neurons are contacted by PDF-expressing clock neurons, and express a functional PDF receptor demonstrated by cAMP imaging. Silencing of AstA signalling and continuous input to AstA cells by tethered PDF changes the sleep/activity ratio in opposite directions but does not affect rhythmicity. Taken together, our results suggest that pleiotropic AstA signalling by a distinct neuronal and enteroendocrine AstA cell subset adapts the fly to a digestive energy-saving state which can be modulated by PDF. PMID:27689358

  11. The pdf approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a probabilistic approach to turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows. The two-phase flows considered are composed of a continuous phase, which is a turbulent fluid, and a dispersed phase, which represents an ensemble of discrete particles (solid particles, droplets or bubbles). Gathering the difficulties of turbulent flows and of particle motion, the challenge is to work out a general modelling approach that meets three requirements: to treat accurately the physically relevant phenomena, to provide enough information to address issues of complex physics (combustion, polydispersed particle flows, …) and to remain tractable for general non-homogeneous flows. The present probabilistic approach models the statistical dynamics of the system and consists in simulating the joint probability density function (pdf) of a number of fluid and discrete particle properties. A new point is that both the fluid and the particles are included in the pdf description. The derivation of the joint pdf model for the fluid and for the discrete particles is worked out in several steps. The mathematical properties of stochastic processes are first recalled. The various hierarchies of pdf descriptions are detailed and the physical principles that are used in the construction of the models are explained. The Lagrangian one-particle probabilistic description is developed first for the fluid alone, then for the discrete particles and finally for the joint fluid and particle turbulent systems. In the case of the probabilistic description for the fluid alone or for the discrete particles alone, numerical computations are presented and discussed to illustrate how the method works in practice and the kind of information that can be extracted from it. Comments on the current modelling state and propositions for future investigations which try to link the present work with other ideas in physics are made at the end of the paper.

  12. 78 FR 16875 - Request of the U.S. Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator for Public Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..._strategy_on_mitigating_the_theft_of_u.s._trade_secrets.pdf http:/www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/ IPEC/admin_strategy_on_mitigating_the_theft_of_u.s._trade_ secrets.pdf. A related OMB blog post is...

  13. Serotonin and the Neuropeptide PDF Initiate and Extend Opposing Behavioral States in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Flavell, Steven W.; Pokala, Navin; Macosko, Evan Z.; Albrecht, Dirk R.; Larsch, Johannes; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Foraging animals have distinct exploration and exploitation behaviors that are organized into discrete behavioral states. Here we characterize a neuromodulatory circuit that generates long-lasting roaming and dwelling states in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state. Serotonin promotes dwelling states through the MOD-1 serotonin-gated chloride channel. The spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons correlates with dwelling behavior, and optogenetic modulation of the critical MOD-1-expressing targets induces prolonged dwelling states. PDF promotes roaming states through a Gαs-coupled PDF receptor; optogenetic activation of cAMP production in PDF receptor-expressing cells induces prolonged roaming states. The neurons that produce and respond to each neuromodulator form a distributed circuit orthogonal to the classical wiring diagram, with several essential neurons that express each molecule. The slow temporal dynamics of this neuromodulatory circuit supplement fast motor circuits to organize long-lasting behavioral states. PMID:23972393

  14. Vertical overlap of probability density functions of cloud and precipitation hydrometeors: CLOUD AND PRECIPITATION PDF OVERLAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Lim, Kyo-Sun Sunny; Larson, Vincent E.

    Coarse-resolution climate models increasingly rely on probability density functions (PDFs) to represent subgrid-scale variability of prognostic variables. While PDFs characterize the horizontal variability, a separate treatment is needed to account for the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. When sub-columns are drawn from these PDFs for microphysics or radiation parameterizations, appropriate vertical correlations must be enforced via PDF overlap specifications. This study evaluates the representation of PDF overlap in the Subgrid Importance Latin Hypercube Sampler (SILHS) employed in the assumed PDF turbulence and cloud scheme called the Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB). PDF overlap in CLUBB-SILHS simulations of continentalmore » and tropical oceanic deep convection is compared with overlap of PDF of various microphysics variables in cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of the same cases that explicitly predict the 3D structure of cloud and precipitation fields. CRM results show that PDF overlap varies significantly between different hydrometeor types, as well as between PDFs of mass and number mixing ratios for each species, - a distinction that the current SILHS implementation does not make. In CRM simulations that explicitly resolve cloud and precipitation structures, faster falling species, such as rain and graupel, exhibit significantly higher coherence in their vertical distributions than slow falling cloud liquid and ice. These results suggest that to improve the overlap treatment in the sub-column generator, the PDF correlations need to depend on hydrometeor properties, such as fall speeds, in addition to the currently implemented dependency on the turbulent convective length scale.« less

  15. Probabilistic interpretation of Peelle's pertinent puzzle and its resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Kenneth M.; Kawano, T.; Talou, P.

    2004-01-01

    Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) states a seemingly plausible set of measurements with their covariance matrix, which produce an implausible answer. To answer the PPP question, we describe a reasonable experimental situation that is consistent with the PPP solution. The confusion surrounding the PPP arises in part because of its imprecise statement, which permits to a variety of interpretations and resulting answers, some of which seem implausible. We emphasize the importance of basing the analysis on an unambiguous probabilistic model that reflects the experimental situation. We present several different models of how the measurements quoted in the PPP problem could bemore » obtained, and interpret their solution in terms of a detailed probabilistic analysis. We suggest a probabilistic approach to handling uncertainties about which model to use.« less

  16. Probabilistic Interpretation of Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle and its Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Kenneth M.; Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick

    2005-05-24

    Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) states a seemingly plausible set of measurements with their covariance matrix, which produce an implausible answer. To answer the PPP question, we describe a reasonable experimental situation that is consistent with the PPP solution. The confusion surrounding the PPP arises in part because of its imprecise statement, which permits to a variety of interpretations and resulting answers, some of which seem implausible. We emphasize the importance of basing the analysis on an unambiguous probabilistic model that reflects the experimental situation. We present several different models of how the measurements quoted in the PPP problem could bemore » obtained, and interpret their solution in terms of a detailed probabilistic analysis. We suggest a probabilistic approach to handling uncertainties about which model to use.« less

  17. Combined PDF and Rietveld studies of ADORable zeolites and the disordered intermediate IPC-1P.

    PubMed

    Morris, Samuel A; Wheatley, Paul S; Položij, Miroslav; Nachtigall, Petr; Eliášová, Pavla; Čejka, Jiří; Lucas, Tim C; Hriljac, Joseph A; Pinar, Ana B; Morris, Russell E

    2016-09-28

    The disordered intermediate of the ADORable zeolite UTL has been structurally confirmed using the pair distribution function (PDF) technique. The intermediate, IPC-1P, is a disordered layered compound formed by the hydrolysis of UTL in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid solution. Its structure is unsolvable by traditional X-ray diffraction techniques. The PDF technique was first benchmarked against high-quality synchrotron Rietveld refinements of IPC-2 (OKO) and IPC-4 (PCR) - two end products of IPC-1P condensation that share very similar structural features. An IPC-1P starting model derived from density functional theory was used for the PDF refinement, which yielded a final fit of Rw = 18% and a geometrically reasonable structure. This confirms the layers do stay intact throughout the ADOR process and shows PDF is a viable technique for layered zeolite structure determination.

  18. Structural reconstruction of the catalytic center of LiPDF through multiple scattering calculation with MXAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyun; Chu, Wangsheng; Ma, Sixuan; Gong, Weimin; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hu, Tiandou; Xie, Yaning; Wu, ZiYu

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF, EC 3.5.1.27) is essential for the normal growth of eubacterium but not for mammalians. Recently, PDF has been studied as a target for new antibiotics. In this paper, X-ray absorption spectroscopy was employed to determine the local structure around the zinc ion of PDF from Leptospira Interrogans in dry powder, because it is very difficult to obtain the crystallized sample of LiPDF. We performed X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) calculation and reconstructed successfully the local geometry of the active center, and the results from calculations show that a water molecule (Wat1) has moved towards the zinc ion and lies in the distance range to coordinate with the zinc ion weakly. In addition, the sensitivity of theoretical spectra to the different ligand bodies was evaluated in terms of goodness-of-fit.

  19. How Can I Protect My Children from the Sun?

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF-860KB] explains how school staff, parents, and health care providers can promote sun safety. The manual Shade Planning for America’s Schools [PDF-1.2MB] helps ensure school grounds have ... (US) Español (Spanish) File ...

  20. Sirtuin Activation: A Role for Plasma Membrane in the Cell Growth Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the observation that impermeable oxidants can stimulate cell growth has not been satisfactorily explained. The discovery of sirtuins provides a logical answer to the puzzle. The NADH-dependent transplasma membrane electron transport system, which is stimulated by growth factors and interventions such as calorie restriction, can transfer electrons to external acceptors and protect against stress-induced apoptosis. We hypothesize that the activation of plasma membrane electron transport contributes to the cytosolic NAD+ pool required for sirtuin to activate transcription factors necessary for cell growth and survival. PMID:23033342

  1. Sirtuin activation: a role for plasma membrane in the cell growth puzzle.

    PubMed

    Crane, Frederick L; Navas, Plácido; Low, Hans; Sun, Iris L; de Cabo, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    For more than 20 years, the observation that impermeable oxidants can stimulate cell growth has not been satisfactorily explained. The discovery of sirtuins provides a logical answer to the puzzle. The NADH-dependent transplasma membrane electron transport system, which is stimulated by growth factors and interventions such as calorie restriction, can transfer electrons to external acceptors and protect against stress-induced apoptosis. We hypothesize that the activation of plasma membrane electron transport contributes to the cytosolic NAD(+) pool required for sirtuin to activate transcription factors necessary for cell growth and survival.

  2. Puzzling Two-Proton Decay of 67Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. M.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2018-05-01

    Ground-state two-proton (2 p ) radioactivity is a rare decay mode found in a few very proton-rich isotopes. The 2 p decay lifetime and properties of emitted protons carry invaluable information on nuclear structure in the presence of a low-lying proton continuum. The recently measured 2 p decay of 67Kr turned out to be unexpectedly fast. Since 67Kr is expected to be a deformed system, we investigate the impact of deformation effects on the 2 p radioactivity. We apply the recently developed Gamow coupled-channel framework, which allows for a precise description of three-body systems in the presence of rotational and vibrational couplings. This is the first application of a three-body approach to a two-nucleon decay from a deformed nucleus. We show that deformation couplings significantly increase the 2 p decay width of 67Kr; this finding explains the puzzling experimental data. The calculated angular proton-proton correlations reflect a competition between 1 p and 2 p decay modes in this nucleus.

  3. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000; RM12-3-000] Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that on April 16, 2013, the staff of the...

  4. Registered File Support for Critical Operations Files at (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turek, G.; Handley, Tom; Jacobson, J.; Rector, J.

    2001-01-01

    The SIRTF Science Center's (SSC) Science Operations System (SOS) has to contend with nearly one hundred critical operations files via comprehensive file management services. The management is accomplished via the registered file system (otherwise known as TFS) which manages these files in a registered file repository composed of a virtual file system accessible via a TFS server and a file registration database. The TFS server provides controlled, reliable, and secure file transfer and storage by registering all file transactions and meta-data in the file registration database. An API is provided for application programs to communicate with TFS servers and the repository. A command line client implementing this API has been developed as a client tool. This paper describes the architecture, current implementation, but more importantly, the evolution of these services based on evolving community use cases and emerging information system technology.

  5. EUPDF: An Eulerian-Based Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) Solver. User's Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    EUPDF is an Eulerian-based Monte Carlo PDF solver developed for application with sprays, combustion, parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and spray solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type. The manual provides the user with the coding required to couple the PDF code to any given flow code and a basic understanding of the EUPDF code structure as well as the models involved in the PDF formulation. The source code of EUPDF will be available with the release of the National Combustion Code (NCC) as a complete package.

  6. Highway Safety Information System guidebook for the Minnesota state data files. Volume 1 : SAS file formats

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-02-01

    The Minnesota data system includes the following basic files: Accident data (Accident File, Vehicle File, Occupant File); Roadlog File; Reference Post File; Traffic File; Intersection File; Bridge (Structures) File; and RR Grade Crossing File. For ea...

  7. The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.

  8. 17 CFR 12.10 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... served by e-mail attachment must be in PDF or other non-alterable form. To be timely filed under this... that are served by e-mail attachment must be in PDF or other non-alterable form. For the purposes of...

  9. Piecing together the puzzle: Improving event content coverage for real-time sub-event detection using adaptive microblog crawling

    PubMed Central

    Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Wang, Xinyue; Poslad, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In an age when people are predisposed to report real-world events through their social media accounts, many researchers value the benefits of mining user generated content from social media. Compared with the traditional news media, social media services, such as Twitter, can provide more complete and timely information about the real-world events. However events are often like a puzzle and in order to solve the puzzle/understand the event, we must identify all the sub-events or pieces. Existing Twitter event monitoring systems for sub-event detection and summarization currently typically analyse events based on partial data as conventional data collection methodologies are unable to collect comprehensive event data. This results in existing systems often being unable to report sub-events in real-time and often in completely missing sub-events or pieces in the broader event puzzle. This paper proposes a Sub-event detection by real-TIme Microblog monitoring (STRIM) framework that leverages the temporal feature of an expanded set of news-worthy event content. In order to more comprehensively and accurately identify sub-events this framework first proposes the use of adaptive microblog crawling. Our adaptive microblog crawler is capable of increasing the coverage of events while minimizing the amount of non-relevant content. We then propose a stream division methodology that can be accomplished in real time so that the temporal features of the expanded event streams can be analysed by a burst detection algorithm. In the final steps of the framework, the content features are extracted from each divided stream and recombined to provide a final summarization of the sub-events. The proposed framework is evaluated against traditional event detection using event recall and event precision metrics. Results show that improving the quality and coverage of event contents contribute to better event detection by identifying additional valid sub-events. The novel combination of

  10. Piecing together the puzzle: Improving event content coverage for real-time sub-event detection using adaptive microblog crawling.

    PubMed

    Tokarchuk, Laurissa; Wang, Xinyue; Poslad, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In an age when people are predisposed to report real-world events through their social media accounts, many researchers value the benefits of mining user generated content from social media. Compared with the traditional news media, social media services, such as Twitter, can provide more complete and timely information about the real-world events. However events are often like a puzzle and in order to solve the puzzle/understand the event, we must identify all the sub-events or pieces. Existing Twitter event monitoring systems for sub-event detection and summarization currently typically analyse events based on partial data as conventional data collection methodologies are unable to collect comprehensive event data. This results in existing systems often being unable to report sub-events in real-time and often in completely missing sub-events or pieces in the broader event puzzle. This paper proposes a Sub-event detection by real-TIme Microblog monitoring (STRIM) framework that leverages the temporal feature of an expanded set of news-worthy event content. In order to more comprehensively and accurately identify sub-events this framework first proposes the use of adaptive microblog crawling. Our adaptive microblog crawler is capable of increasing the coverage of events while minimizing the amount of non-relevant content. We then propose a stream division methodology that can be accomplished in real time so that the temporal features of the expanded event streams can be analysed by a burst detection algorithm. In the final steps of the framework, the content features are extracted from each divided stream and recombined to provide a final summarization of the sub-events. The proposed framework is evaluated against traditional event detection using event recall and event precision metrics. Results show that improving the quality and coverage of event contents contribute to better event detection by identifying additional valid sub-events. The novel combination of

  11. The PDF4LHC report on PDFs and LHC data: Results from Run I and preparation for Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Ball, Richard D.

    2015-09-16

    The accurate determination of Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) of the proton is an essential ingredient of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) program. PDF uncertainties impact a wide range of processes, from Higgs boson characterization and precision Standard Model measurements to New Physics searches. A major recent development in modern PDF analyses has been to exploit the wealth of new information contained in precision measurements from the LHC Run I, as well as progress in tools and methods to include these data in PDF fits. In this report we summarize the information that PDF-sensitive measurements at the LHC have provided somore » far, and review the prospects for further constraining PDFs with data from the recently started Run II. As a result, this document aims to provide useful input to the LHC collaborations to prioritize their PDF-sensitive measurements at Run II, as well as a comprehensive reference for the PDF-fitting collaborations.« less

  12. Can CH-53K 3D Technical Data Support the Provisioning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    contain the minimum required data characteristics and elements (Appendix A) and (2) are fully anno - tated, they can be converted to 3D PDF files that...were anno - tated as part of the original model development/creation process, the time to perform an annotation would be about 50 percent (about 1.5...files, after the fact. If the models had been anno - tated at the time they were created, we estimate that the cost to implement a 3D PDF solution for

  13. Assessment of PDF Micromixing Models Using DNS Data for a Two-Step Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Kuochen; Chakrabarti, Mitali; Fox, Rodney O.; Hill, James C.

    1996-11-01

    Although the probability density function (PDF) method is known to treat the chemical reaction terms exactly, its application to turbulent reacting flows have been overshadowed by the ability to model the molecular mixing terms satisfactorily. In this study, two PDF molecular mixing models, the linear-mean-square-estimation (LMSE or IEM) model and the generalized interaction-by-exchange-with-the-mean (GIEM) model, are compared with the DNS data in decaying turbulence with a two-step parallel-consecutive reaction and two segregated initial conditions: ``slabs" and ``blobs". Since the molecular mixing model is expected to have a strong effect on the mean values of chemical species under such initial conditions, the model evaluation is intended to answer the following questions: Can the PDF models predict the mean values of chemical species correctly with completely segregated initial conditions? (2) Is a single molecular mixing timescale sufficient for the PDF models to predict the mean values with different initial conditions? (3) Will the chemical reactions change the molecular mixing timescales of the reacting species enough to affect the accuracy of the model's prediction for the mean values of chemical species?

  14. 47 CFR 1.913 - Application and notification forms; electronic and manual filing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever possible. (2) Any associated documents submitted with an... possible. The attachment should be uploaded via ULS in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF... the table of contents, should be in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) whenever possible...

  15. KnowledgePuzzle: A Browsing Tool to Adapt the Web Navigation Process to the Learner's Mental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlAgha, Iyad

    2012-01-01

    This article presents KnowledgePuzzle, a browsing tool for knowledge construction from the web. It aims to adapt the structure of web content to the learner's information needs regardless of how the web content is originally delivered. Learners are provided with a meta-cognitive space (e.g., a concept mapping tool) that enables them to plan…

  16. Batch Conversion of 1-D FITS Spectra to Common Graphical Display Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, Darrell J.; Patterson, A. P.; Wing, R. F.; Costa, E.; Jedrzejewski, R. I.

    2008-09-01

    Authors DJM, RFW, and EC have accumulated about 1000 spectra of cool stars from CTIO, ESO, and LCO over the interval 1985 to 1994 and processed them with the standard IRAF tasks into FITS files of normalized intensity vs. wavelength. With the growth of the Web as a means of exchanging and preserving scientific information, we desired to put the spectra into a Web-readable format. We have searched without success sites such as the Goddard FITS Image Viewer page, http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/fits_viewer.html, for a program to convert a large number of 1-d stellar spectra from FITS format into common formats such as PDF, PS, or PNG. Author APP has written a Python script to do this using the PyFITS module and plotting routines from Pylab. The program determines the wavelength calibration using header keywords and creates PNG plots with a legend read from a CSV file that may contain the star name, position, spectral type, etc. It could readily be adapted to perform almost any kind of simple batch processing of astronomical data. The program may be obtained from the first author (jack@stsci.edu). Support for DJM from the research program for CSC astronomers at STScI is gratefully acknowledged. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  17. Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Burr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, andmore » if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.« less

  18. PDF modeling of turbulent flows on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. Because the technique solves a transport equation for the PDF of the velocity and scalars, a mathematically exact treatment of advection, viscous effects and arbitrarily complex chemical reactions is possible; these processes are treated without closure assumptions. A set of algorithms is proposed to provide an efficient solution of the PDF transport equation modeling the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and concentration of a passive scalar in geometrically complex configurations. An unstructured Eulerian grid is employed to extract Eulerian statistics, to solve for quantities represented at fixed locations of the domain and to track particles. All three aspects regarding the grid make use of the finite element method. Compared to hybrid methods, the current methodology is stand-alone, therefore it is consistent both numerically and at the level of turbulence closure without the use of consistency conditions. Since both the turbulent velocity and scalar concentration fields are represented in a stochastic way, the method allows for a direct and close interaction between these fields, which is beneficial in computing accurate scalar statistics. Boundary conditions implemented along solid bodies are of the free-slip and no-slip type without the need for ghost elements. Boundary layers at no-slip boundaries are either fully resolved down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly modeling the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the low-Reynolds-number wall region without damping or wall-functions or specified via logarithmic wall-functions. As in moment closures and large eddy simulation, these wall-treatments provide the usual trade-off between resolution and computational cost as required by the given application. Particular attention is focused on

  19. What cognitive strategies do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) use to solve a trial-unique puzzle-tube task incorporating multiple obstacles?

    PubMed

    Tecwyn, Emma C; Thorpe, Susannah K S; Chappell, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Apparently sophisticated behaviour during problem-solving is often the product of simple underlying mechanisms, such as associative learning or the use of procedural rules. These and other more parsimonious explanations need to be eliminated before higher-level cognitive processes such as causal reasoning or planning can be inferred. We presented three Bornean orangutans with 64 trial-unique configurations of a puzzle-tube to investigate whether they were able to consider multiple obstacles in two alternative paths, and subsequently choose the correct direction in which to move a reward in order to retrieve it. We were particularly interested in how subjects attempted to solve the task, namely which behavioural strategies they could have been using, as this is how we may begin to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underpinning their choices. To explore this, we simulated performance outcomes across the 64 trials for various procedural rules and rule combinations that subjects may have been using based on the configuration of different obstacles. Two of the three subjects solved the task, suggesting that they were able to consider at least some of the obstacles in the puzzle-tube before executing action to retrieve the reward. This is impressive compared with the past performances of great apes on similar, arguably less complex tasks. Successful subjects may have been using a heuristic rule combination based on what they deemed to be the most relevant cue (the configuration of the puzzle-tube ends), which may be a cognitively economical strategy.

  20. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation was developed. The algorithm was validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames was carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  1. A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Andrew T.

    1991-01-01

    The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed in this work. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional CFD flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation has been developed. The algorithm has been validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames has been carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computuations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.

  2. Publications - PDF 88-8 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 88-8 Publication Details Title: Alaska's mineral industry 1987: Executive summary Authors , Alaska's mineral industry 1987: Executive summary: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  3. Storing files in a parallel computing system using list-based index to identify replica files

    SciTech Connect

    Faibish, Sorin; Bent, John M.; Tzelnic, Percy

    Improved techniques are provided for storing files in a parallel computing system using a list-based index to identify file replicas. A file and at least one replica of the file are stored in one or more storage nodes of the parallel computing system. An index for the file comprises at least one list comprising a pointer to a storage location of the file and a storage location of the at least one replica of the file. The file comprises one or more of a complete file and one or more sub-files. The index may also comprise a checksum value formore » one or more of the file and the replica(s) of the file. The checksum value can be evaluated to validate the file and/or the file replica(s). A query can be processed using the list.« less

  4. Serotonin and the neuropeptide PDF initiate and extend opposing behavioral states in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Flavell, Steven W; Pokala, Navin; Macosko, Evan Z; Albrecht, Dirk R; Larsch, Johannes; Bargmann, Cornelia I

    2013-08-29

    Foraging animals have distinct exploration and exploitation behaviors that are organized into discrete behavioral states. Here, we characterize a neuromodulatory circuit that generates long-lasting roaming and dwelling states in Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that two opposing neuromodulators, serotonin and the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), each initiate and extend one behavioral state. Serotonin promotes dwelling states through the MOD-1 serotonin-gated chloride channel. The spontaneous activity of serotonergic neurons correlates with dwelling behavior, and optogenetic modulation of the critical MOD-1-expressing targets induces prolonged dwelling states. PDF promotes roaming states through a Gαs-coupled PDF receptor; optogenetic activation of cAMP production in PDF receptor-expressing cells induces prolonged roaming states. The neurons that produce and respond to each neuromodulator form a distributed circuit orthogonal to the classical wiring diagram, with several essential neurons that express each molecule. The slow temporal dynamics of this neuromodulatory circuit supplement fast motor circuits to organize long-lasting behavioral states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    Devices ( ORCHID ) Lead Organization: University of California at Berkeley Project Title: Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators Technical...be a PDF. Please do not password protect or secure the PDF . The maximum file size for the Report Document is 50MB. 150915 UCB Nguyen ORCHID

  6. 43 CFR 4.1362 - Where to file; when to file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPEALS PROCEDURES Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Request for Review... Transfer, Assignment Or Sale of Rights Granted Under Permit (federal Program; Federal Lands Program... file; when to file. (a) The request for review shall be filed with the Hearings Division, Office of...

  7. 10 CFR 2.1013 - Use of the electronic docket during the proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Information contained in hyperlinks to a Web site on the Internet or to another PDF file, that is necessary... to the filing. (vii) All electronic submissions must be free of author-imposed security restrictions...

  8. 76 FR 47606 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... the following formats: One hard copy with original signature, and one electronic copy via e- mail (acceptable file formats are Adobe Acrobat PDF, WordPerfect, MS Word, MS PowerPoint, or rich text file...

  9. PCF File Format.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  10. Enriching a document collection by integrating information extraction and PDF annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powley, Brett; Dale, Robert; Anisimoff, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Modern digital libraries offer all the hyperlinking possibilities of the World Wide Web: when a reader finds a citation of interest, in many cases she can now click on a link to be taken to the cited work. This paper presents work aimed at providing the same ease of navigation for legacy PDF document collections that were created before the possibility of integrating hyperlinks into documents was ever considered. To achieve our goal, we need to carry out two tasks: first, we need to identify and link citations and references in the text with high reliability; and second, we need the ability to determine physical PDF page locations for these elements. We demonstrate the use of a high-accuracy citation extraction algorithm which significantly improves on earlier reported techniques, and a technique for integrating PDF processing with a conventional text-stream based information extraction pipeline. We demonstrate these techniques in the context of a particular document collection, this being the ACL Anthology; but the same approach can be applied to other document sets.

  11. Extraction and labeling high-resolution images from PDF documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chachra, Suchet K.; Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2013-12-01

    Accuracy of content-based image retrieval is affected by image resolution among other factors. Higher resolution images enable extraction of image features that more accurately represent the image content. In order to improve the relevance of search results for our biomedical image search engine, Open-I, we have developed techniques to extract and label high-resolution versions of figures from biomedical articles supplied in the PDF format. Open-I uses the open-access subset of biomedical articles from the PubMed Central repository hosted by the National Library of Medicine. Articles are available in XML and in publisher supplied PDF formats. As these PDF documents contain little or no meta-data to identify the embedded images, the task includes labeling images according to their figure number in the article after they have been successfully extracted. For this purpose we use the labeled small size images provided with the XML web version of the article. This paper describes the image extraction process and two alternative approaches to perform image labeling that measure the similarity between two images based upon the image intensity projection on the coordinate axes and similarity based upon the normalized cross-correlation between the intensities of two images. Using image identification based on image intensity projection, we were able to achieve a precision of 92.84% and a recall of 82.18% in labeling of the extracted images.

  12. Betty Petersen Memorial Library - NCWCP Publications - NWS

    Science.gov Websites

    Filters to Variational Statistical Analysis with Spatially Inhomogeneous Covariances (.PDF file) 432 2001 file) 456 2008 Purser, R. James Normalization Of The Diffusive Filters That Represent The Inhomogeneous file) 457 2008 Purser, R. James Normalization Of The Diffusive Filters That Represent The Inhomogeneous

  13. PDBToSDF: Create ligand structure files from PDB file.

    PubMed

    Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

    2011-01-01

    Protein Data Bank (PDB) file contains atomic data for protein and ligand in protein-ligand complexes. Structure data file (SDF) contains data for atoms, bonds, connectivity and coordinates of molecule for ligands. We describe PDBToSDF as a tool to separate the ligand data from pdb file for the calculation of ligand properties like molecular weight, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, hydrogen bond receptors easily.

  14. Publications - PDF 89-7 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 89-7 Publication Details Title: Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1988 Authors , Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1988: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  15. Publications - PDF 90-10 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    content DGGS PDF 90-10 Publication Details Title: Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1989 Authors , Summary of Alaska's mineral industry in 1989: Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

  16. 77 FR 60138 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... statements must be supplied to Elizabeth Hadley in one of the following formats: One hard copy with original... file formats are Adobe Acrobat PDF, MS Word, PowerPoint, or rich text file). Registered speakers who...

  17. Publications - RDF 2015-17 | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical

    Science.gov Websites

    /10.14509/29519 Publication Products Report Report Information rdf2015_017.pdf (347.0 K) Digital Geospatial Data Digital Geospatial Data Tonsina geochemistry: DGGS samples Data File Format File Size Info

  18. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) can not fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First,more » the modeling error PDF by the tradional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. Furthermore, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less

  19. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) cannot fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First, themore » modeling error PDF by the traditional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. However, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less

  20. Modeling error PDF optimization based wavelet neural network modeling of dynamic system and its application in blast furnace ironmaking

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Ping; Wang, Chenyu; Li, Mingjie; ...

    2018-01-31

    In general, the modeling errors of dynamic system model are a set of random variables. The traditional performance index of modeling such as means square error (MSE) and root means square error (RMSE) cannot fully express the connotation of modeling errors with stochastic characteristics both in the dimension of time domain and space domain. Therefore, the probability density function (PDF) is introduced to completely describe the modeling errors in both time scales and space scales. Based on it, a novel wavelet neural network (WNN) modeling method is proposed by minimizing the two-dimensional (2D) PDF shaping of modeling errors. First, themore » modeling error PDF by the traditional WNN is estimated using data-driven kernel density estimation (KDE) technique. Then, the quadratic sum of 2D deviation between the modeling error PDF and the target PDF is utilized as performance index to optimize the WNN model parameters by gradient descent method. Since the WNN has strong nonlinear approximation and adaptive capability, and all the parameters are well optimized by the proposed method, the developed WNN model can make the modeling error PDF track the target PDF, eventually. Simulation example and application in a blast furnace ironmaking process show that the proposed method has a higher modeling precision and better generalization ability compared with the conventional WNN modeling based on MSE criteria. However, the proposed method has more desirable estimation for modeling error PDF that approximates to a Gaussian distribution whose shape is high and narrow.« less