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Sample records for pv market growth

  1. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  2. Distributed PV Adoption - Sensitivity to Market Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2016-02-01

    NREL staff used the dSolar (distributed solar) model to forecast the adoption of distributed, behind-the-meter PV through the year 2050 for 9 different scenarios. The scenarios varied in their assumptions about a carbon tax, the cost of PV systems in the future, and what credit would be given for excess generation once current net metering policies expire.

  3. Comparing Photovoltaic (PV) Costs and Deployment Drivers in the Japanese and U.S. Residential and Commercial Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.; Seel, J.

    2016-04-19

    Japan has re-emerged in 2013 as one of the world's fastest-growing and largest photovoltaic (PV) markets (Renewable Energy World 2013). Year-over-year growth in Japanese installed capacity in the first half of 2013 was about 270%. Japan's PV market was on pace to triple in 2013 compared with 2012, with approximately 2.7 GW installed during the first half of 2013 (compared to about 1.6 GW in the United States). This places Japan's market among the world's largest PV markets, along with China, Germany, and the United States. This report explores details of the rapidly changing Japanese market, and similarities and differences between the Japanese and U.S. markets. We collected data from a diverse group of Japanese PV installers, and we gathered additional Japanese and U.S. data from published sources as well as internal analyses.

  4. Developing Market Opportunities for Flexible Rooftop Applications of PV Using Flexible CIGS Technology: Market Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Sabnani, L.; Skumanich, A.; Ryabova, E.; Noufi, R.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent upsurge in developments for building-integrated phototovoltaics (BiPV) roof top materials based on CIGS. Several new companies have increased their presence and are looking to bring products to market for this application in 2011. For roof-top application, there are significant key requirements beyond just having good conversion efficiency. Other attributes include lightweight, as well as moisture-proof, and fully functionally reliable. The companies bringing these new BIPV/BAPV products need to ensure functionality with a rigorous series of tests, and have an extensive set of 'torture' tests to validate the capability. There is a convergence of form, aesthetics, and physics to ensure that the CIGS BiPV deliver on their promises. This article will cover the developments in this segment of the BiPV market and delve into the specific tests and measurements needed to characterize the products. The potential market sizes are evaluated and the technical considerations developed.

  5. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Johnson, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  6. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  7. PV Installation Labor Market Analysis and PV JEDI Tool Developments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, B.

    2012-06-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  8. Shaking Up the Residential PV Market: Implications of Recent Changes to the ITC

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-11-12

    residential credit. After first setting the stage by briefly reviewing our previous findings, the document proceeds to cover four specific areas in which the removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry that go beyond the obvious market growth potential created by these more-lucrative federal incentives. These four areas include: (1) The financial implications of whether or not residential cash rebates are considered to be taxable income; (2) The role of low-interest loan programs and other forms of 'subsidized energy financing' under an uncapped ITC; (3) The degree to which taxable and nontaxable rebate levels might be reduced in response to the extra value provided by an uncapped ITC; and (4) The impact of an uncapped ITC on third-party financing and ownership models that are just beginning to emerge in the residential sector. The document concludes by highlighting a common thread that runs throughout: the need for PV program managers to understand whether or not their rebates are considered to be taxable income before they can react in an appropriate manner to the recent changes in federal solar policy and, if financing programs are offered, the need to understand whether the IRS considers these programs to be 'subsidized'. Finally, we note that this paper is based on current law; future legislative changes to the ITC could, of course, alter the conclusions reached here.

  9. PV industry growth and module reliability in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvidhya, Dhirayut; Seapan, Manit; Sangpongsanont, Yaowanee; Chenvidhya, Tanokkorn; Limsakul, Chamnan; Songprakorp, Roongrojana

    2015-09-01

    The PV applications in Thailand are now installed more than 1.2 GWp cumulatively. It is due to the National Renewable Energy Program and its targets. In the latest Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP), the PV electricity production target has increased from 2 GWp to 3 GWp. With this rapid growth, customers and manufacturers seek for module standard testing. So far over one thousands of PV modules per annum have been tested since 2012. The normal tests include type approval test according to TIS standard, acceptance test and testing for local standard development. For type test, the most module failure was found during damp heat test. For annual evaluation test, the power degradation and delamination of power was found between 0 to 6 percent from its nameplate after deployment of 0 to 5 years in the field. For thin-film module, the degradation and delamination was found in range of 0 to 13 percent (about 5 percent on average) from its nameplate for the modules in operation with less than 5 years. However, for the PV modules at the reference site on campus operated for 12 years, the power degradation was ranging from 10 to 15 percent. Therefore, a long term performance assessment needs to be considered to ensure the system reliability.

  10. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  11. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  12. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  13. Market Acceptance of Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report finds that smart growth developments enjoy market acceptance because of stability in prices over time. Housing resales in smart growth developments often have greater appreciation than their conventional suburban counterparts.

  14. Market Transformation Pathways for Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, Ross; Ross, Brian

    2013-06-03

    This report presents the market and policy findings of the Minnesota Solar Challenge program. The report draws on information collected from state agencies, local government units, solar industry participants, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) adopters (sometimes called customer-generators), state and national experts, the Commerce distributed generation stakeholder process, and the numerous reports and data sets referenced herein.

  15. PV batteries and charge controllers: Technical issues, costs, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.; Hund, T.D.; Harrington, S.R.

    1997-11-01

    A survey of US system integrators, charge controller manufacturers, and battery manufacturers was conducted in 1996 to determine market and application trends. This survey was sponsored by the USDOE. Results from 21 system integrators show a 1995 PV battery sales of $4.76 million. Using the survey results, a top down market analysis was conducted with a total predicted US battery market of $34.7 million and a world wide market of US $302 million. The survey also indicated that 71% (of dollars) were spent on VRLA and 29% on flooded lead-acid batteries. Eighty percent of charge controllers were ON-OFF, vs. PWM or constant voltage.

  16. The Market for Smart Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Based on several studies of market demand, the authors determined that consumer demand for smart growth would translate into more than 600,000 houses out of the approximately 2 million new housing units built in 2007.

  17. Encouraging PV Adoption in New Market-Rate ResidentialConstruction: A Critical Review of Program Experiences to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-24

    In this paper, we review experiences with programs to support the deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in new, market-rate homes, drawing upon interviews with program managers around the country, project data, and publicly-available documentation on program design, impacts, and experiences. We focus on state clean energy funds, which have been established in 14 U.S. states to build markets for clean energy resources, as well as a select number of other state or local organizations whose activities are particularly noteworthy. We describe the types of programs implemented and their impacts to date, and discuss key issues and lessons learned for initiatives aimed at growing the new home market for PV.

  18. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M.; Moradali, M. Fata

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  19. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  20. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B. C.; Buhrmann, J.

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  1. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  2. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  3. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Kirchberg, Janine; Büttner, Daniela; Thiemer, Barbara; Sawers, R Gary

    2012-01-01

    The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB). acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  4. Modeling the U.S. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2010-09-01

    Global rooftop PV markets are growing rapidly, fueled by a combination of declining PV prices and several policy-based incentives. The future growth, and size, of the rooftop market is highly dependent on continued PV cost reductions, financing options, net metering policy, carbon prices and future incentives. Several PV market penetration models, sharing a similar structure and methodology, have been developed over the last decade to quantify the impacts of these factors on market growth. This study uses a geospatially rich, bottom-up, PV market penetration model--the Solar Deployment Systems (SolarDS) model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory--to explore key market and policy-based drivers for residential and commercial rooftop PV markets. The identified drivers include a range of options from traditional incentives, to attractive customer financing options, to net metering and carbon policy.

  5. Photovoltaic Installation Data from the Open PV Project: Real-time Status of the Solar Photovoltaic Market in the U.S.

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open PV Project is a collaborative effort between government, industry, and the public that is compiling a comprehensive database of photovoltaic (PV) installation data for the United States. Data for the project are voluntarily contributed from a variety of sources including utilities, installers, and the general public. The data collected is actively maintained by the contributors and are always changing to provide an evolving, up-to-date snapshot of the US solar power market. The database allows searching by state or zipcode, size or date ranges, and organization name. The results include the cost of each solar install and an average of cost per power watt in that specific state. The Open PV Visualization Gallery features four interactive data maps that instantly reconfigure to display updated information as soon as an individual or organization uploads new data.

  6. Policy Building Blocks: Helping Policymakers Determine Policy Staging for the Development of Distributed PV Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing body of qualitative and a limited body of quantitative literature supporting the common assertion that policy drives development of clean energy resources. Recent work in this area indicates that the impact of policy depends on policy type, length of time in place, and economic and social contexts of implementation. This work aims to inform policymakers about the impact of different policy types and to assist in the staging of those policies to maximize individual policy effectiveness and development of the market. To do so, this paper provides a framework for policy development to support the market for distributed photovoltaic systems. Next steps include mathematical validation of the framework and development of specific policy pathways given state economic and resource contexts.

  7. Dendritic growth model of multilevel marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, James Christopher S.; Monterola, Christopher P.

    2017-02-01

    Biologically inspired dendritic network growth is utilized to model the evolving connections of a multilevel marketing (MLM) enterprise. Starting from agents at random spatial locations, a network is formed by minimizing a distance cost function controlled by a parameter, termed the balancing factor bf, that weighs the wiring and the path length costs of connection. The paradigm is compared to an actual MLM membership data and is shown to be successful in statistically capturing the membership distribution, better than the previously reported agent based preferential attachment or analytic branching process models. Moreover, it recovers the known empirical statistics of previously studied MLM, specifically: (i) a membership distribution characterized by the existence of peak levels indicating limited growth, and (ii) an income distribution obeying the 80 - 20 Pareto principle. Extensive types of income distributions from uniform to Pareto to a "winner-take-all" kind are also modeled by varying bf. Finally, the robustness of our dendritic growth paradigm to random agent removals is explored and its implications to MLM income distributions are discussed.

  8. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Mills, Andrew

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  9. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay; Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schindelholz, Eric John; Sorensen, Neil R.; Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  10. Protection of tomato seedlings against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato by using the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Bashan, Yoav; De-Bashan, Luz E

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato, and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were inoculated onto tomato plants, either alone, as a mixed culture, or consecutively. The population dynamics in the rhizosphere and foliage, the development of bacterial speck disease, and their effects on plant growth were monitored. When inoculated onto separate plants, the A. brasilense population in the rhizosphere of tomato plants was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the population of P. syringae pv. tomato (10(7) versus 10(5) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). Under mist chamber conditions, the leaf population of P. syringae pv. tomato was 1 order of magnitude greater than that of A. brasilense (10(7) versus 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of leaf). Inoculation of seeds with a mixed culture of the two bacterial strains resulted in a reduction of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere, an increase in the A. brasilense population, the prevention of bacterial speck disease development, and improved plant growth. Inoculation of leaves with the mixed bacterial culture under mist conditions significantly reduced the P. syringae pv. tomato population and significantly decreased disease severity. Challenge with P. syringae pv. tomato after A. brasilense was established in the leaves further reduced both the population of P. syringae pv. tomato and disease severity and significantly enhanced plant development. Both bacteria maintained a large population in the rhizosphere for 45 days when each was inoculated separately onto tomato seeds (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g [dry weight] of root). However, P. syringae pv. tomato did not survive in the rhizosphere in the presence of A. brasilense. Foliar inoculation of A. brasilense after P. syringae pv. tomato was established on the leaves did not alleviate bacterial speck disease, and A. brasilense did not survive well in the phyllosphere under these conditions, even in a mist chamber. Several

  11. Interaction of Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan-rich Antigen PvTRAg38 with Band 3 on Human Erythrocyte Surface Facilitates Parasite Growth.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Choudhary, Vandana; Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh K; Rathore, Sumit; Sharma, Yagya D

    2015-08-14

    Plasmodium tryptophan-rich proteins are involved in host-parasite interaction and thus potential drug/vaccine targets. Recently, we have described several P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs), including merozoite expressed PvTRAg38, from this noncultivable human malaria parasite. PvTRAg38 is highly immunogenic in humans and binds to host erythrocytes, and this binding is inhibited by the patient sera. This binding is also affected if host erythrocytes were pretreated with chymotrypsin. Here, Band 3 has been identified as the chymotrypsin-sensitive erythrocyte receptor for this parasite protein. Interaction of PvTRAg38 with Band 3 has been mapped to its three different ectodomains (loops 1, 3, and 6) exposed at the surface of the erythrocyte. The binding region of PvTRAg38 to Band3 has been mapped to its sequence, KWVQWKNDKIRSWLSSEW, present at amino acid positions 197-214. The recombinant PvTRAg38 was able to inhibit the parasite growth in in vitro Plasmodium falciparum culture probably by competing with the ligand(s) of this heterologous parasite for the erythrocyte Band 3 receptor. In conclusion, the host-parasite interaction at the molecular level is much more complicated than known so far and should be considered during the development of anti-malarial therapeutics.

  12. Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program (BEP) represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential. Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers.

  13. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  14. PV solar electricity: status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  15. Transcriptional reprogramming and phenotypical changes associated with growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in cabbage xylem sap.

    PubMed

    Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Noël, Laurent D; SanCristobal, Magali; Danoun, Saida; Becker, Anke; Soreau, Paul; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Xylem sap (XS) is the first environment that xylem phytopathogens meet in planta during the early infection steps. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causative agent of Brassicaceae black rot, colonizes the plant xylem vessels to ensure its multiplication and dissemination. Besides suppression of plant immunity, Xcc has to adapt its metabolism to exploit plant-derived nutrients present in XS. To study Xcc behaviour in the early infection steps, we used cabbage XS to analyse bacterial growth. Mineral and organic composition of XS were determined. Significant growth of Xcc in XS was allowed by the rapid catabolism of amino acids, sugars and organic acids, and it was accompanied by the formation of biofilm-like structures. Transcriptome analysis of Xcc cultivated in XS using cDNA microarrays revealed a XS-specific transcriptional reprogramming compared to minimal or rich media. More specifically, up-regulation of genes encoding transporters such as TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), that could be associated with nutrient acquisition and detoxification, was observed. In agreement with the aggregation phenotype, expression of genes important for twitching motility and adhesion was up-regulated in XS. Taken together, our data show specific responses of Xcc to colonization of cabbage XS that could be important for the pathogenesis process and establish XS as a model medium to study mechanisms important for the early infection events.

  16. Xanthoferrin, the α-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, is required for optimum virulence and growth inside cabbage.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Rai, Rikky; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-06-27

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causes black rot, a serious disease of crucifers. Xanthomonads encode a siderophore biosynthesis and uptake gene cluster xss (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) involved in the production of a vibrioferrin-type siderophore. However, little is known about the role of the siderophore in the iron uptake and virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris. In this study, we show that X. campestris pv. campestris produces an α-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore (named xanthoferrin), which is required for growth under low-iron conditions and for optimum virulence. A mutation in the siderophore synthesis xssA gene causes deficiency in siderophore production and growth under low-iron conditions. In contrast, the siderophore utilization ΔxsuA mutant is able to produce siderophore, but exhibits a defect in the utilization of the siderophore-iron complex. Our radiolabelled iron uptake studies confirm that the ΔxssA and ΔxsuA mutants exhibit defects in ferric iron (Fe(3+) ) uptake. The ΔxssA mutant is able to utilize and transport the exogenous xanthoferrin-Fe(3+) complex; in contrast, the siderophore utilization or uptake mutant ΔxsuA exhibits defects in siderophore uptake. Expression analysis of the xss operon using a chromosomal gusA fusion indicates that the xss operon is expressed during in planta growth and under low-iron conditions. Furthermore, exogenous iron supplementation in cabbage leaves rescues the in planta growth deficiency of ΔxssA and ΔxsuA mutants. Our study reveals that the siderophore xanthoferrin is an important virulence factor of X. campestris pv. campestris which promotes in planta growth by the sequestration of Fe(3+) .

  17. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  18. Individual insurance: health insurers try to tap potential market growth.

    PubMed

    November, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Genna R; Ginsburg, Paul B; Quinn, Brian C

    2009-11-01

    Individual insurance is the only source of health coverage for people without access to employer-sponsored insurance or public insurance. Individual insurance traditionally has been sought by older, sicker individuals who perceive the need for insurance more than younger, healthier people. The attraction of a sicker population to the individual market creates adverse selection, leading insurers to employ medical underwriting--which most states allow--to either avoid those with the greatest health needs or set premiums more reflective of their expected medical use. Recently, however, several factors have prompted insurers to recognize the growth potential of the individual market: a declining proportion of people with employer-sponsored insurance, a sizeable population of younger, healthier people forgoing insurance, and the likelihood that many people receiving subsidies to buy insurance under proposed health insurance reforms would buy individual coverage. Insurers are pursuing several strategies to expand their presence in the individual insurance market, including entering less-regulated markets, developing lower-cost, less-comprehensive products targeting younger, healthy consumers, and attracting consumers through the Internet and other new distribution channels, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Insurers' strategies in the individual insurance market are unlikely to meet the needs of less-than-healthy people seeking affordable, comprehensive coverage. Congressional health reform proposals, which envision a larger role for the individual market under a sharply different regulatory framework, would likely supersede insurers' current individual market strategies.

  19. The ColRS system of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is required for virulence and growth in iron-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Pandey, Alok; Vishnu Priya, M R; Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2012-09-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice, produces siderophores only under iron-limiting conditions. We screened 15 400 mTn5-induced mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and isolated 27 mutants that produced siderophores even under iron-replete conditions. We found that the mTn5 insertions in 25 of these mutants were in or close to six genes. Mutants with insertions in five of these genes [colS, XOO1806 (a conserved hypothetical protein), acnB, prpR and prpB] exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. Insertions in a sixth gene, XOO0007 (a conserved hypothetical protein), were found to affect the ability to grow on iron-limiting medium, but did not affect the virulence. Targeted gene disruptants for colR (encoding the predicted cognate regulatory protein for ColS) also exhibited a deficiency for growth on iron-limiting medium and a decrease in virulence. colR and colS mutants were defective in the elicitation of hypersensitive response symptoms on the nonhost tomato. In addition, colR and colS mutants induced a rice basal defence response, suggesting that they are compromised in the suppression of host innate immunity. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that a functional ColRS system is required for the optimal expression of several genes encoding components of the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Our results demonstrate the role of several novel genes, including colR/colS, in the promotion of growth on iron-limiting medium and the virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

  20. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, Jeffery D.

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  1. Little study sees large growth in Asian natural gas market

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1993-06-03

    Power capacity additions in Asia will at least triple by 2010, and Arthur D. Little Inc. predicts natural gas can pick up a good 15 percent of that market. The study predicts Asia potentially will need 720 gigawatts of new power generation by 2010, of which 15 percent may be gas-based. This represents a market three times the size of the US market in the same period, and would require more than $1 trillion in investment to finance the power generation projects alone. Six forces are driving new market opportunities for natural gas in Asia, and have set the stage for major investments in Asian gas-based power generation. They are: New technologies; growing environmental pressures; privatization; alternative energy pricing; gas availability; and continued economic growth. Japan, South Korea and Taiwan already have large, well-established markets for both gas and power that provide minimal opportunities for foreign investment. But the rest of Asia - specifically, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, Bangladesh and Myanmar - is still relatively undeveloped, the study said, and gas is emerging as an energy import substitute or export earner. The study found those countries will turn increased environmental awareness and concern into legislation as their economic prosperity grows, leading to a higher future value for natural gas relative to other fuels. Stricter emissions standards will favor gas over diesel, fuel oil and coal.

  2. Performance and Degradation Analysis of Operating PV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Freire, Felipe

    The environmental concerns together with the decrease in technology cost lead the solar market to growth rapidly along the last decade. The photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the solar energy alternatives and the silicon solar cells are currently the most widespread technology. Photovoltaic (PV) modules are considered the most reliable component of a photovoltaic system. The reliability and lifetime depends on the modules energy conversion performance and degradation modes. The analysis of monitoring data give insights about the PV system performance along its service time. The comparison between this data and mathematical models configure a way to predict the futures and new PV installations performance. The goal of this study is to understand the PV systems performance and degradation along its lifetime. A mathematical model was employed to predict the power output of a real, relatively new operating PV system with respect to environmental parameters temperature, irradiance and cloud coverage. The model used is based on one diode ideality factor and takes into account the parasitic series resistance. The results have been compared with the actual PV output data collected for the year 2014 and show good correlation. As the model predicts the system power output assuming the system in new conditions, the deviation in performance of the real data in comparison to the modeling results need to be further investigated for systems in service for longer time. For this propose, the study presents a condensed review of various causes of degradation in silicon PV modules and techniques to observe and investigate these degradation mechanisms. Major effects on output performance exhibit increase in observed ideality factor n2 and recombination current J02 primarily caused by decrease in minority carrier lifetime, shunts and increase in series resistance. The study further, investigates the governing degradation modes on a ten years old PV crystalline silicon module

  3. Drivers of the OCT market growth in clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyé, Clémentine; d'Humières, Benoît.

    2015-03-01

    The development of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) systems started in the 1990's. The technology early found its application in Ophthalmology. Today more than 75% of the OCT market comes from the ophthalmic sector. However the growth of the ophthalmology OCT market has been slowing down for the last years. In this article, we present the results of our prospective study on the drivers of the OCT market growth in the coming years, based on bibliographical research and interviews with key players. In parallel of being used for ophthalmology, OCT has been developed and tested in new medical domains like cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, etc. OCT addresses key societal challenges such as the diagnosis of coronary artery diseases or skin cancer. There is a strong demand for fast, high-resolution, label-free and in vivo imaging tools in these fields. For the last 5 years, RD efforts have been focused on improving the performance and the compactness of OCT components and sub-systems. Advances in integrated photonics will enable the miniaturization of components and sub-systems and thus pave the way to Point-of-Care applications. Moreover the developments of new functionalities of OCT systems are undertaken to reach more complex diagnosis. OCT will no longer be a simple imaging device, it is on the verge of becoming a quantitative measurement tool. Our study shows that the emergence of new applications along with the improvements of components performance and the progress of functional OCT will drive the OCT market growth in the coming years.

  4. Mutations of ferric uptake regulator (fur) impair iron homeostasis, growth, oxidative stress survival, and virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2010-05-01

    Iron is essential in numerous cellular functions. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron's toxic effects. Here, we characterize the roles of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) fur, which encodes an iron sensor and a transcriptional regulator that acts in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and virulence. Herein, we isolated spontaneous Xcc fur mutants that had high intracellular iron concentrations due to constitutively high siderophore levels and increased expression of iron transport genes. These mutants also had reduced aerobic plating efficiency and resistance to peroxide killing. Moreover, one fur mutant was attenuated on a host plant, thus indicating that fur has important roles in the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris.

  5. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  6. MarketBusting: strategies for exceptional business growth.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rita Gunther; MacMillan, Ian C

    2005-03-01

    If company leaders were granted a single wish, it would surely be for a reliable way to create new growth businesses. Business practitioners'overwhelming interest in this subject prompted the authors to conduct a three-year study of organizational growth--specifically, to find out which growth strategies were most successful. They discovered, somewhat to their surprise, that even companies in mature industries found rich new sources of growth when they reconfigured their unit of business (what they bill customers for) or their key metrics (how they measure success). In this article, the authors outline these and other moves companies can make to redefine their profit drivers and realize low-risk growth. They offer plenty of real-world examples. For instance: CHANGING YOUR UNIT OF BUSINESS: Once a conventional printing house, Madden Communications not only prints promotional materials for customers but also manages the distribution and installation of those materials on-site. Its revenues grew from dollars 1o million in 1990 to dollars 133 million in 2004, in an industry that many had come to regard as hopelessly mature. IMPROVING YOUR KEY METRICS-PARTICULARLY PRODUCTIVITY: Lamons Gasket, with dollars 80 million in revenues, built a Web site that radically improved its customers' ability to find, order, and pay for goods. The firm's market share rose along with its customer retention rate. The authors also suggest ways to identify your unit of business and associated key metrics and recognize the obstacles to changing them; review the key customer segments you serve; assess the need for new capabilities and the potential for internal resistance to change; and communicate to internal and external constituencies the changes you wish to make in your unit of business or key metrics.

  7. Dynamic protein phosphorylation during the growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris B100 revealed by a gel-based proteomics approach.

    PubMed

    Musa, Yaarub Raji; Bäsell, Katrin; Schatschneider, Sarah; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Becher, Dörte; Niehaus, Karsten

    2013-08-20

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) synthesizes huge amounts of the exopolysaccharide xanthan and is a plant pathogen affecting Brassicaceae, among them the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Xanthan is produced as a thickening agent at industrial scale by fermentation of Xcc. In an approach based on 2D gel electrophoresis, protein samples from different growth phases were characterized to initialize analysis of the Xanthomonas phosphoproteome. The 2D gels were stained with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein stain to identify putatively phosphorylated proteins. Spots of putatively phosphorylated proteins were excised from the gel and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Three proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated, the phosphoglucomutase/phosphomannomutase XanA that is important for xanthan and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, the phosphoenolpyruvate synthase PspA that is involved in gluconeogenesis, and an anti-sigma factor antagonist RsbR that was so far uncharacterized in xanthomonads. The growth phase in which the samples were collected had an influence on protein phosphorylation in Xcc, particular distinct in case of RsbR, which was phosphorylated during the transition from the late exponential growth phase to the stationary phase.

  8. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2006-03-28

    The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or ''buy-down'' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). With the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government is poised to play a much more significant future role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, and--absent an extension (for which the solar industry has already begun lobbying)--will last for a period of two years: the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2008. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions. We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state

  9. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  10. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  11. III-Vs at Scale: A PV Manufacturing Cost Analysis of the Thin Film Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Maxwell; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael; Battaglia, Corsin; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a manufacturing cost analysis for producing thin-film indium phosphide modules by combining a novel thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth process with a standard monolithic module platform. The example cell structure is ITO/n-TiO2/p-InP/Mo. For a benchmark scenario of 12% efficient modules, the module cost is estimated to be $0.66/W(DC) and the module cost is calculated to be around $0.36/W(DC) at a long-term potential efficiency of 24%. The manufacturing cost for the TF-VLS growth portion is estimated to be ~$23/m2, a significant reduction compared with traditional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The analysis here suggests the TF-VLS growth mode could enable lower-cost, high-efficiency III-V photovoltaics compared with manufacturing methods used today and open up possibilities for other optoelectronic applications as well.

  12. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Price, S.; Margolis, R.; Barbose, G.; Bartlett, J.; Cory, K.; Couture, T.; DeCesaro, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Frickel, M.; Hemmeline, C.; Mendelsohn, T.; Ong, S.; Pak, A.; Poole, L.; Peterman, C.; Schwabe, P.; Soni, A.; Speer, B.; Wiser, R.; Zuboy, J.; James, T.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts. Highlights of this report include: (1) The global PV industry has seen impressive growth rates in cell/module production during the past decade, with a 10-year compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 46% and a 5-year CAGR of 56% through 2008. (2) Thin-film PV technologies have grown faster than crystalline silicon over the past 5 years, with a 10-year CAGR of 47% and a 5-year CAGR of 87% for thin-film shipments through 2008. (3) Global installed PV capacity increased by 6.0 GW in 2008, a 152% increase over 2.4 GW installed in 2007. (4) The United States installed 0.34 GW of PV capacity in 2008, a 63% increase over 0.21 GW in 2007. (5) Global average PV module prices dropped 23% from $4.75/W in 1998 to $3.65/W in 2008. (6) Federal legislation, including the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (EESA, October 2008) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA, February 2009), is providing unprecedented levels of support for the U.S. solar industry. (7) In 2008, global private-sector investment in solar energy technology topped $16 billion, including almost $4 billion invested in the United States. (8) Solar PV market forecasts made in early 2009 anticipate global PV production and demand to increase fourfold between 2008 and 2012, reaching roughly 20 GW of production and demand by 2012. (9

  13. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  14. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  15. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  16. Breaking through market barriers with an improved sizing method: Case study of a stand-alone PV system in the northern Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G. )

    1990-12-01

    According to the sizing methodology used here, a stand-alone photovoltaic irrigation water-pumping system for installation in northern Sudan would cost less than anticipated by other sizing methods. This method makes use of the concept of system reliability or availability without the attendant computational complexity or unwieldiness associated with many other sizing methodologies presented in the literature. Thus, two barriers to the use of photovoltaic systems for electricity generation are addressed by an improved method of estimation. One is the commonly cited claim that PV systems are too costly. The other is that the computer-aided design methods for predicting performance are too complex or difficult to use. This makes one wonder if other objections to the use of renewable-energy technologies could be overcome through improving methods of specifying systems. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. VET Provider Market Structures: History, Growth and Change. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbel, Patrick; Misko, Josie

    2016-01-01

    This paper tracks the development of the Australian vocational education and training (VET) provider market over the last two decades in the context of significant policy changes and generally increased competition. It provides an insight into how the sector has arrived at its current position, painting a present-day picture of great diversity.…

  18. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-02

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  19. Drug-device combination products: regulatory landscape and market growth.

    PubMed

    Bayarri, L

    2015-08-01

    Combination products are therapeutic and diagnostic products that combine drugs, devices and/or biological products, leading to safer and more effective treatments thanks to careful and precise drug targeting, local administration and individualized therapy. These technologies can especially benefit patients suffering from serious diseases and conditions such as cancer, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and diabetes, among others. On the other hand, drug-device combination products have also introduced a new dynamic in medical product development, regulatory approval and corporate interaction. Due to the increasing integration of drugs and devices observed in the latest generation of combination products, regulatory agencies have developed specific competences and regulations over the last decade. Manufacturers are required to fully understand the specific requirements in each country in order to ensure timely and accurate market access of new combination products, and the development of combination products involves a very specific pattern of interactions between manufacturers and regulatory agencies. The increased sophistication of the products brought to market over the last couple of decades has accentuated the need to develop drugs and devices collaboratively using resources from both industries, fostering the need of business partnering and technology licensing. This review will provide a global overview of the market trends, as well as (in the last section) an analysis of the drug-device combination products approved by the FDA during the latest 5 years.

  20. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, T.Q.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  1. PV_LIB Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    While an organized source of reference information on PV performance modeling is certainly valuable, there is nothing to match the availability of actual examples of modeling algorithms being used in practice. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a PV performance modeling toolbox (PV_LIB) for Matlab. It contains a set of well-documented, open source functions and example scripts showing the functions being used in practical examples. This toolbox is meant to help make the multi-step process of modeling a PV system more transparent and provide the means for model users to validate and understand the models they use and or develop. It is fully integrated into Matlab’s help and documentation utilities. The PV_LIB Toolbox provides more than 30 functions that are sorted into four categories

  2. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  3. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  4. Household and labour market change: implications for the growth of inequality in Britain.

    PubMed

    McRae, S

    1997-09-01

    The paper examines the relationships between population and household change, on the one hand, and labour market/employment change, on the other, and considers how these relationships have contributed to the growth of inequality. The perspective of the paper is sociological, although much of the work done in these areas has been carried out by demographers and economists. Areas where sociological research remains to be done are highlighted. Developments in patterns of fertility and in households are linked to the growth of individualism and to changes in the labour market, and shown to be implicated jointly in the marked growth of inequality in Britain. The paper argues that future research must link households and labour markets, and work towards understanding emerging new relationships between working and private lives, between living arrangements and labour supply, and between individual freedom and social integration.

  5. Worldwide growth market forecast for re-entry drilling

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Operators worldwide hail re-entry drilling as the fastest growing development technique in the business. With re-entry technology advancing on a number of fronts, the only question seems to be which re-entry technique is best to get optimum well productivity. Discussions now address how best to proceed: traditional re-entry (RED), coiled tubing drilling (CTD) or short radius (SRD). New technology is definitely fueling a methodology shift in favor of coiled tubing drilling and short radius drilling. Petroleum Engineer International explored the booming re-entry business with operators from the North Sea and North American markets. The paper contains the operators` thoughts on re-entry drilling.

  6. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  7. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  8. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  9. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  10. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, David; Barbose, Galen; Margolis, Robert; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim; Goodrich, Alan

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  11. Dynamics of Aviation Biofuel Investment, Incentives, and Market Growth: An Exploration Using the Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, Laura; Newes, Emily

    2016-10-25

    The Federal Aviation Administration promotes the development of an aviation biofuel market, and has pursued a goal of 1 billion gallons of production annually by 2018. Although this goal is unlikely to be met, this analysis applies the Biomass Scenario Model to explore conditions affecting market growth, and identifies policy incentive and oil price conditions under which this level of production might occur, and by what year. Numerous combinations of conditions that are more favorable than current conditions can reach the goal before 2030.

  12. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  13. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  14. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  15. Open PV Project: Unlocking PV Installation Data (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This brochure summarizes the Open PV Project, a collaborative effort of government, industry, and the public to compile a comprehensive database of PV installations in the United States. The brochure outlines the purpose and history of the project as well as the main capabilities and benefits of the online Open PV tool. The brochure also introduces how features of the tool are used, and it describes the sources and characteristics of Open PV's data and data collection processes.

  16. Sensitivity of Utility-Scale Solar Deployment Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market and Performance Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Eurek, K.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Mowers, M.

    2013-04-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The ReEDS model was used to simulate utility PV and CSP deployment for this present study, based on several market and performance assumptions - electricity demand, natural gas prices, coal retirements, cost and performance of non-solar renewable technologies, PV resource variability, distributed PV deployment, and solar market supply growth - in addition to the SunShot solar price projections. This study finds that utility-scale solar deployment is highly sensitive to solar prices. Other factors can have significant impacts, particularly electricity demand and natural gas prices.

  17. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  18. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  19. A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, Shawn; Lin, Zhenhong; Wu, Zhixin; Zheng, Jihu; Lyu, Renzhi; Przesmitzki, Steven V.; He, Xin

    2017-01-01

    The year 2015 marks a turning point in China s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) or new energy vehicle (NEV) industry, with an explosive growth in both productions and sales, following the gloomy period of 2009-2012. The PEV production in 2015 reached a record level of nearly 380,000 units, a 352 % increase from 2014, making China the largest PEV market in the world. For the potential implications on energy and the environment, it is worth studying the driving forces of China s PEV market and understanding its future trajectory and dynamics. The key findings of this report are listed in the following. Though controversial, the government monetary incentives have played a significant role to impel China to be the largest light PEV (191,100 units) market in the world. Chinese vehicle buyers appear more price sensitive on PEVs. Inexpensive low-cost micro electric vehicles are the most popular vehicle model in China s PEV market (38.9 % of the PEV market in 2015). In contrast, the premium or luxury vehicles are more popular in the gasoline vehicle segment. In fact, China is expected to be the largest premium car market in 2016. The PEV sales growth is primarily possible because of the young domestic private-owned auto manufacturers, which are mostly located in south China. Top-tier conventional vehicle automakers in China appear to be less proactive in the PEV market, based on market shares. This is in clear contrast to the U.S. market, where major automakers are generally the primary players in the PEV market. The PEVs produced by the domestic automakers are concentrated in the low-end market segment, while the high-end vehicle segment is dominated by the foreign brands. At present, the substantial market growth and government subsidies afford the domestic entrants to quickly gain profits in the low-end segment. The PEV consumers in China are very sensitive to the vehicle price, thus prefer the PEVs with cheaper prices after government subsidies, and care less about the

  20. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  1. Identification of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) in a black market product.

    PubMed

    Walpurgis, Katja; Thomas, Andreas; Laussmann, Tim; Horta, Luis; Metzger, Sabine; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The use of growth factors for accelerated healing of sports injuries is restricted under the terms of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) anti-doping code. Cheating athletes have used the black market as a source of performance-enhancing substances. Drugs that currently undergo clinical trials are frequently offered--despite the unknown health risks associated with the administration of unapproved pharmaceuticals. Recently, a new growth factor (referred to as fibroblast growth factor 1/FGF-1) with known effects on the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue was detected in an unlabelled black market product confiscated by the German customs. The identification of the protein was achieved by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE), different proteolytic digestions, immunological methods and nano-liquid chromatography high-resolution/high-accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed slight differences concerning the molecular weight of recombinant human and black market FGF-1. Using in-gel proteolysis, a truncation or modification located at the N-terminus of the protein was suggested. These findings demonstrate that drug candidates without clinical approval can be readily obtained from the black market, regardless of potential dangerous consequences for the consumer, which corroborates the necessity of proactive and preventive doping control approaches. In that regard, physiological concentrations of blood and urine specimens collected from healthy individuals were analyzed and were found to range below 28 pg/ml in urine, while there was no detectable FGF-1 in plasma.

  2. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  3. Quantifying PV power Output Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, Thomas E.; Perez, Richard

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to rigorously quantify power Output Variability from a fleet of photovoltaic (PV) systems, ranging from a single central station to a set of distributed PV systems. The approach demonstrates that the relative power Output Variability for a fleet of identical PV systems (same size, orientation, and spacing) can be quantified by identifying the number of PV systems and their Dispersion Factor. The Dispersion Factor is a new variable that captures the relationship between PV Fleet configuration, Cloud Transit Speed, and the Time Interval over which variability is evaluated. Results indicate that Relative Output Variability: (1) equals the inverse of the square root of the number of systems for fully dispersed PV systems; and (2) could be further minimized for optimally-spaced PV systems. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of defence responses induced by the endophytic plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN and the non-host bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi in grapevine cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Bordiec, Sophie; Paquis, Sandra; Lacroix, Hélène; Dhondt, Sandrine; Ait Barka, Essaïd; Kauffmann, Serge; Jeandet, Philippe; Mazeyrat-Gourbeyre, Florence; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan

    2011-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial microorganisms that colonize the rhizosphere of many plant species and confer beneficial effects, such as an increase in plant growth. PGPR are also well known as inducers of systemic resistance to pathogens in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved locally after direct perception of these bacteria by plant cells still remain largely unknown. Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN is an endophytic PGPR that colonizes grapevine and protects the plant against the grey mould disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. This report focuses on local defence events induced by B. phytofirmans PsJN after perception by the grapevine cells. It is demonstrated that, after addition to cell suspension cultures, the bacteria were tightly attaching to plant cells in a way similar to the grapevine non-host bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi. B. phytofirmans PsJN perception led to a transient and monophasic extracellular alkalinization but no accumulation of reactive oxygen species or cell death were detected. By contrast, challenge with P. syringae pv. pisi induced a sustained and biphasic extracellular alkalinization, a two phases oxidative burst, and a HR-like response. Perception of the PGPR also led to the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the expression of a battery of defence genes that was, however, weaker in intensity compared with defence gene expression triggered by the non-host bacteria. Some defence genes up-regulated after B. phytofirmans PsJN challenge are specifically induced by exogenous treatment with SA or jasmonic acid, suggesting that both signalling pathways are activated by the PGPR in grapevine.

  5. Heavier chicks at hatch improves marketing body weight by enhancing skeletal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Sklan, D; Heifetz, S; Halevy, O

    2003-11-01

    This study examined some of the factors connected with the greater marketing weight observed in chicks hatching with higher BW. Examination of chicks hatching from maternal flocks of different ages indicated that BW at hatch increased quadratically and yolk sac weight linearly with age, whereas components of the gastrointestinal tract showed no significant trend. Growth of pectoralis muscles and gastrointestinal tract were compared in chicks hatching at the same weight from maternal flocks of 28 and 64 wk of age and in chicks from the same maternal flock (44 wk old) hatching at different weights. The results indicated that no differences were found among chicks hatching with the same weight from maternal flocks of different ages. In contrast, in chicks from the same maternal flock hatching at different weights the gastrointestinal tract tended to compose a smaller proportion of BW in large chicks, and its growth was not correlated with performance. Liver proportions were greater in heavier chicks. Pectoralis growth and satellite cell numbers and activity were greater in heavier chicks through 5 d posthatch, and pectoralis muscles were heavier at marketing. Examination of some of the growth factors involved suggested that in heavier chicks satellite cells underwent higher proliferation and earlier differentiation during their critical period of activity in the immediate posthatch days. To determine when these differences in activity were established, examination of 15-d embryonic myoblast activity indicated that at this stage activity was already greater in the heavier eggs. This finding suggests that programming of muscle growth may be completed in late embryonic stages. This study suggests that enhanced satellite cell activity is involved in increased growth of chicks hatching with higher BW.

  6. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  7. Leasing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, Michael; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The article discusses the adoption, consequences and current market status of the leasing of residential photovoltaic systems. It addresses attributed energy savings and market potential of residential system leasing.

  8. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  9. 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Adam

    2016-02-16

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process. The research conducted during Project Silicon led to the first industrial scaling of 1366’s Direct Wafer™ process – an innovative, US-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that destroys the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions: the 35-year-old grand challenge of making quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. The SunPath program made it possible for 1366 Technologies to build its demonstration factory, a key and critical step in the Company’s evolution. The demonstration factory allowed 1366 to build every step of the process flow at production size, eliminating potential risk and ensuring the success of the Company’s subsequent scaling for a 1 GW factory to be constructed in Western New York in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the commercial viability of the Direct Wafer process and its resulting wafers were established as 1366 formed key strategic partnerships, gained entry into the $8B/year multi-Si wafer market, and installed modules featuring Direct Wafer products – the veritable proving grounds for the technology. The program also contributed to the development of three Generation 3 Direct Wafer furnaces. These furnaces are the platform for copying intelligently and preparing our supply chain – large-scale expansion will not require a bigger machine but more machines. SunPath filled the

  10. PV Manufacturing R&D Project -- Trends in the U.S. PV Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K. E.; Mitchell, R. L.; Bower, W. I.; King, R.

    2005-01-01

    To foster continued growth in the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMR&D) Project--a partnership with U.S. PV industry participants to perform cost-shared manufacturing research and development. Throughout FY 2004, PVMR&D managed fourteen subcontracts across the industry. The impact of PVMR&D is quantified by reductions in direct module manufacturing costs, scale-up of existing PV production capacity, and accrual of cost savings to the public and industry. An analysis of public and industry investment shows that both recaptured funds by mid-1998 based on estimated manufacturing cost savings from PVMR&D participation. Since project inception, total PV manufacturing capacity has increased from 14 MW to 201 MW at the close of 2003, while direct manufacturing costs declined from $5.55/W to $2.49/W. These results demonstrate continued progress toward the overriding goals of the PVMR&D project.

  11. U.S. Solar Market Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, Larry

    2011-05-01

    2010 marked the emergence of the utility sector photovoltaic market. Utility sector photovoltaic installations quadrupled over 2009 installations. The share of utility sector installations of all U.S. grid-connected PV installations grew from virtually none in 2006 to 15 percent in 2009 and 32 percent in 2010. In addition, 2010 saw installation of a 75 MWAC concentrating solar power plant, the largest installed in the U.S. since 1991. In 2010, annual distributed grid-connected PV installations in the United States grew by 62 percent, to 606 MWDC. Photovoltaic arrays were installed at more than 50,000 sites in 2010, a 45 percent increase over the number of installations in 2009. Solar water heating installations increased by 6 percent in 2010, compared with 2009. Solar water heating has shown only two years of higher growth in the last 10 years. Solar pool heating installations increased by 13 percent in 2010, the largest growth in five years.

  12. Progress in PV:BONUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaeth, James J.; Pierce, Lizana K.

    1996-01-01

    The PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) program, to develop photovoltaic products and the associated infrastructure for a sustainable photovoltaic market in the building sector, has attracted a variety of promising projects ranging from integrated modular homes, rooftop integrated photovoltaic systems, dispatchable peak shaving systems, alternating-current module, photovoltaic glazing systems, and curtain wall systems. The mutual commitment by the Department of Energy and the program recipients has inspired diverse partnerships among manufacturers, utilities, construction companies, and universities for the development of niche markets for building-integrated photovoltaics. Many of the photovoltaic systems are currently being demonstrated with market campaigns underway to commercialize these innovative renewable energy, building-integrated products.

  13. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  14. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  15. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  16. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    industry’s first single-stage multi-port hybrid power converter. This unique low cost approach eliminates the hybrid power conversion bottlenecks when integrating batteries into PV systems. As result this product will significantly accelerate market adoption of these systems.

  17. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  18. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoepfner, Christian

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  19. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-15

    In October 2008, the United States Congress extended both the residential and commercial solar investment tax credits (ITCs) for an unprecedented eight years, lifted the $2,000 cap on the residential credit, removed the prohibition on utility use of the commercial credit, and eliminated restrictions on the use of both credits in conjunction with the Alternative Minimum Tax. These significant changes, which apply to systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2009, will increase the value of the solar credits for residential system owners in particular, and are likely--in conjunction with state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar--to spur significant growth in residential, commercial, and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the years ahead. This article focuses specifically on the residential credit, describing three areas in which removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry.

  20. China's bullet trains facilitate market integration and mitigate the cost of megacity growth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Siqi; Kahn, Matthew E

    2013-04-02

    Megacity growth in the developing world is fueled by a desire to access their large local labor markets. Growing megacities suffer from high levels of traffic congestion and pollution, which degrade local quality of life. Transportation technology that allows individuals to access the megacity without living within its boundaries offers potentially large social benefits, because individuals can enjoy the benefits of urban agglomeration while not paying megacity real estate rents and suffering from the city's social costs. This paper presents evidence supporting the claim that China's bullet trains are playing this role. The bullet train is regarded as one of the most significant technological breakthroughs in passenger transportation developed in the second half of the 20th century. Starting in 2007, China has introduced several new bullet trains that connect megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou with nearby cities. Through facilitating market integration, bullet trains will stimulate the development of second- and third-tier cities. By offering households and firms a larger menu of location alternatives, bullet trains help to protect the quality of life of the growing urban population. We document that this transport innovation is associated with rising real estate prices in the nearby secondary cities.

  1. Using the Spatial Distribution of Installers to Define Solar Photovoltaic Markets

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Nemet, Gregory F.; Darghouth, Naim

    2016-09-01

    Solar PV market research to date has largely relied on arbitrary jurisdictional boundaries, such as counties, to study solar PV market dynamics. This paper seeks to improve solar PV market research by developing a methodology to define solar PV markets. The methodology is based on the spatial distribution of solar PV installers. An algorithm is developed and applied to a rich dataset of solar PV installations to study the outcomes of the installer-based market definitions. The installer-based approach exhibits several desirable properties. Specifically, the higher market granularity of the installer-based approach will allow future PV market research to study the relationship between market dynamics and pricing with more precision.

  2. Growth in Biofuels Markets: Long Term Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Seth D. Meyer; Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2010-12-02

    Over the last several years increasing energy and petroleum prices have propelled biofuels and the feedstocks used to produce them, to the forefront of alternative energy production. This growth has increased the linkages between energy and agricultural markets and these changes around the world are having a significant effect on agricultural markets as biofuels begin to play a more substantial role in meeting the world's energy needs. Biofuels are alternatively seen as a means to reduce carbon emissions, increase energy independence, support rural development and to raise farm income. However, concern has arisen that the new demand for traditional commodities or alternative commodities which compete for land can lead to higher food prices and the environmental effects from expanding crop acreage may result in uncertain changes in carbon emissions as land is converted both in the US and abroad. While a number of studies examine changes in land use and consumption from changes in biofuels policies many lack effective policy representation or complete coverage of land types which may be diverted in to energy feedstock production. Many of these biofuels and renewable energy induced land use changes are likely to occur in developing countries with at-risk consumers and on environmentally sensitive lands. Our research has improved the well known FAPRI-MU modeling system which represents US agricultural markets and policies in great detail and added a new model of land use and commodity markets for major commodity producers, consumers and trade dependent and food insecure countries as well as a rest of the world aggregate. The international modules include traditional annual crop lands and include perennial crop land, pasture land, forest land and other land uses from which land may be drawn in to biofuels or renewable energy feedstock production. Changes in calorie consumption in food insecure countries from changes in renewable energy policy can also be examined with a

  3. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Craig; Horowitz, Scott; Maguire, Jeff; Velasco, Paulo Tabrares; Springer, David; Coates, Peter; Bell, Christy; Price, Snuller; Sreedharan, Priya; Pickrell, Katie

    2014-04-01

    This project targeted the development of a software tool, BEopt-CA (Ex) (Building Energy Optimization Tool for California Existing Homes), that aims to facilitate balanced integration of energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and photovoltaics (PV) in the residential retrofit1 market. The intent is to provide utility program managers and contractors in the EE/DR/PV marketplace with a means of balancing the integration of EE, DR, and PV

  4. Impact of siderophore production by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 on epiphytic fitness and biocontrol activity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea 1a/96.

    PubMed

    Wensing, Annette; Braun, Sascha D; Büttner, Petra; Expert, Dominique; Völksch, Beate; Ullrich, Matthias S; Weingart, Helge

    2010-05-01

    The use of naturally occurring microbial antagonists to suppress plant diseases offers a favorable alternative to classical methods of plant protection. The soybean epiphyte Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93 shows great potential for controlling P. syringae pv. glycinea, the causal agent of bacterial blight of soybean. Its activity against P. syringae pv. glycinea is highly reproducible even in field trials, and the suppression mechanisms involved are of special interest. In this work we demonstrated that P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 produced a significantly larger amount of siderophores than the pathogen P. syringae pv. glycinea produced. While P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 and P. syringae pv. glycinea produce the same siderophores, achromobactin and pyoverdin, the regulation of siderophore biosynthesis in the former organism is very different from that in the latter organism. The epiphytic fitness of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 mutants defective in siderophore biosynthesis was determined following spray inoculation of soybean leaves. The population size of the siderophore-negative mutant P. syringae pv. syringae strain 22d/93DeltaSid was 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the wild type 10 days after inoculation. The growth deficiency was compensated for when wound inoculation was used, indicating the availability of iron in the presence of small lesions on the leaves. Our results suggest that siderophore production has an indirect effect on the biocontrol activity of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93. Although siderophore-defective mutants of P. syringae pv. syringae 22d/93 still suppressed development of bacterial blight caused by P. syringae pv. glycinea, siderophore production enhanced the epiphytic fitness and thus the competitiveness of the antagonist.

  5. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  6. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  7. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  8. Demographic Imperatives and Religious Markets: Considering the Individual and Interactive Roles of Fertility and Switching in Group Growth

    PubMed Central

    Scheitle, Christopher P.; Kane, Jennifer B.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Two models seeking to explain the growth and decline of religious groups are prevalent in the literature. The religious market approach emphasizes the role of intergroup competition and in doing so focuses on religious switching. Another perspective emphasizes demographic mechanisms, particularly fertility. Research to date has not considered how switching and fertility interact as mechanisms of growth. Switching and fertility share a significant role in the growth trajectory of a religious group. Early success in gaining members through switching has an important long-term impact which fertility alone cannot produce. The age of those switching into a group can also have significant consequences for the effects of fertility. PMID:22291450

  9. Locational Sensitivity Investigation on PV Hosting Capacity and Fast Track PV Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Ainsworth, Nathan; Gotseff, Peter; Baker, Kyri

    2016-05-05

    A 15% PV penetration threshold is commonly used by utilities to define photovoltaic (PV) screening methods where PV penetration is defined as the ratio of total solar PV capacity on a line section to peak load. However, this method doesn't take into account PV locational impact or feeder characteristics that could strongly change the feeder's capability to host PVs. This paper investigates the impact of PV location and phase connection type on PV hosting capacity, and then proposes a fast-track PV screening approach that leverages various PV hosting capacity metric responding to different PV locations and types. The proposed study could help utilities to evaluate PV interconnection requests and also help increase the PV hosting capacity of distribution feeders without adverse impacts on system voltages.

  10. PV large systems project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    Near term photovoltaic central-station markets are analyzed. Cost effectiveness of photovoltaic plants is determined in terms of reduction of oil consumption. The breakeven photovoltaic system cost vs oil-steam power generation is given. The value of photovoltaic power plants in Southern California and in Los Angelos is given in terms of fuel savings and capacity value. The potential value of third party financing, facilitated by Federal and state tax incentives is analyzed.

  11. PV system testing and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1999-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) PV Program System Performance and Engineering Project is being conducted by The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), and Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). It provides PV system, subsystem, and component-level technology-performance characterization testing; test-method development and validation; national and international consensus standards and codes development, test-facility product certification, and laboratory-accreditation program implementation; and information exchange and technical assistance to the PV community. Emphasis is placed on reducing technical and infrastructural barriers to system acceptance, reducing life-cycle cost of systems, providing systems-engineering best practices and guidelines, and leading the national effort in performance and reliability testing, and consensus standards, codes, and certification program development and implementation—thereby ensuring that PV systems meet customers' needs and expectations. A summary of project activities, accomplishments, and future plans is provided and highlighted by an overview of PV system test-procedure and standards development.

  12. Investigation of bias radiation effect on PV cell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuebo; Quan, Chenggen; Chan, Joanne; Ng, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells are photo-electrical devices that convert light energy directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. PV cell assemblies are used to make solar modules employed in a variety of ways ranging from space applications to domestic energy consumption. Characterisation and performance testing of PV cells are critical to the development of PV technologies and growth of the solar industry. As new solar products are being developed, its energy conversion efficiency and other critical parameters must be accurately measured and tested against globally recognised metrological standards. The differential spectral responsivity (DSR) measurement is one of the primary methods for calibrating reference PV cells. This is done by calculating its spectral responsivities through measuring the AC short-circuit current produced by a PV cell under a modulated monochromatic radiation and different levels of steady-state broadband bias light radiation. It is observed that different types of bias light source will produce different signal-to-noise levels and significantly influence measurement accuracy. This paper aims to investigate the noise sources caused by different types of bias light sources (e.g. xenon arc and tungsten-halogen lamps) and the relevant measurement uncertainties so as to propose a guideline for selection of bias light source which can improve the signal-to-noise level and measurement uncertainty. The DSRs of the PV cells are measured using a commercial DSR measurement system under different levels of bias radiation from 0 to 1 kWm-2. The data analysis and uncertainty evaluation are presented in this paper using experimental data and mathematical tools.

  13. Growth and variability in health plan premiums in the individual insurance market before the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Before we can evaluate the impact of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance premiums in the individual market, it is critical to understand the pricing trends of these premiums before the implementation of the law. Using rates of increase in the individual insurance market collected from state regulators, this issue brief documents trends in premium growth in the pre-ACA period. From 2008 to 2010, premiums grew by 10 percent or more per year. This growth was also highly variable across states, and even more variable across insurance plans within states. The study suggests that evaluating trends in premiums requires looking across a broad array of states and plans, and that policymakers must examine how present and future changes in premium rates compare with the more than 10 percent per year premium increases in the years preceding health reform.

  14. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  15. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  16. Transformation of California's Residential Photovoltaics Market Through Third-Party Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, E.; Miller, M.; Macal, C. M.; Graziano, D. J.; Heimiller, D.; Ozik, J.; Perry, T. D.

    2012-03-01

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption.

  17. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  18. Impact of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth, efficiency, and carcass traits of finishing pigs in a three-phase marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Gerlemann, G D; Allee, G L; Rincker, P J; Ritter, M J; Boler, D D; Carr, S N

    2014-03-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in a 3-phase marketing strategy. One thousand seven hundred forty pigs were used in 80 single-sex pens in 2 blocks. Each pen housed approximately 22 pigs. Sixteen percent of the total population of pigs was sold during the first marketing period, 18% was sold during the second marketing period, and the remaining 66% was sold during the third marketing period. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design of 2 treatments. Pigs in the second marketing group had greater growth performance indicators than pigs in the first marketing group. Over the entire feeding period, pigs fed RAC were 2.73 kg heavier (P < 0.0001), had 0.11 kg/d greater (P < 0.0001) ADG, and had 0.04 greater (P < 0.0001) G:F than pigs not fed RAC. Hot carcass weights were 3.3% greater (P < 0.0001), carcass yields were 0.68 (% units) greater (P < 0.0001), fat depth was 7.2% less (P < 0.0001), loin depth was 5.6% greater (P < 0.0001), and estimated carcass lean was 0.97% units greater (P < 0.0001) in RAC-fed pigs when compared with pigs not fed RAC. By the end of the first marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (89.73 kg) were 2.1% heavier (P = 0.04) and gained 0.19 kg/d more (P = 0.03) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (87.89 kg). By the end of the second marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (99.00 kg) were 3.1% heavier (P < 0.001) and gained 0.14 kg/d more (P < 0.001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (96.02 kg). By the end of the third marketing period carcasses from pigs fed RAC (102.75 kg) were 3.7% heavier (P < 0.0001) and gained 0.10 kg/d more (P < 0.0001) carcass weight than carcasses from pigs not fed RAC (99.06 kg). Although carcass gain per day decreased with extended RAC feeding duration, HCW advantages continued to increase as feeding duration was increased from 7 d to 35 d. Growth benefits were evident during the initial marketing period, but as

  19. Opportunities for PV applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, John A.; Rahilly, W. Patrick

    1987-01-01

    Workshop members devoted the majority of time to discussing future prospects for technology support of photovoltaic applications. Photovoltaics has provided power for almost every spacecraft launched in the free world in the last 25 years. Over this time, photovoltaics has demonstrated impressive growth in power level, operating lifetime and specific power (W/kg and W/square m). Yet, the current attitude toward this reliable form of space power generation is likely to preclude further dramatic performance gains.

  20. Let it grow-the open market solution to marijuana control.

    PubMed

    Gettman, Jon; Kennedy, Michael

    2014-11-18

    This commentary evaluates regulatory frameworks for the legalized production, sale, and use of marijuana. Specifically, we argue that the primary goal of legalization should be the elimination of the illicit trade in marijuana and that maximizing market participation through open markets and personal cultivation is the best approach to achieving this goal. This argument is based on the assertion that regulatory models based on a tightly controlled government market will fail because they replicate the fatal flaws of the prohibition model. This commentary argues that an examination of the reasons for prohibition's failure-to wit, the inability of government to control the production of marijuana-completely undercuts the basic premise of a tightly controlled market, which depends on the ability of the government to control production. The public interest would be better served by an effective regulatory framework which recognizes and takes advantage of competitive market forces. This analysis argues that reducing teenage access to marijuana requires the elimination of an overcapitalized illicit market. Further, it asserts that this goal and maximization of tax revenue from a legal marijuana market are mutually exclusive objectives.

  1. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  2. Chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato.

    PubMed

    Cuppels, Diane A

    1988-03-01

    Optimal laboratory conditions for studying chemotaxis by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato were determined by using the Adler capillary tube assay. Although they are not an absolute requirement for chemotaxis, the presence of 0.1 mM EDTA and 1 mM MgCl(2) in the chemotaxis buffer (10 mM potassium phosphate [pH 7.2]) significantly enhanced the response to attractant. The addition of mannitol as an energy source had little effect. The optimal temperature for chemotaxis was 23 degrees C, which is 5 degrees C below the optimal growth temperature for this pathogen. The best response occurred when the bacteria were exposed to attractant for 60 min at a concentration of approximately 5 x 10 CFU/ml. P. syringae pv. tomato was strongly attracted to citric and malic acids, which are the predominant organic acids in tomato fruit. With the exception of asparagine, the major amino acids of tomatoes were weak to moderate attractants. Glucose and fructose, which account for approximately 47% of tomato dry matter, also elicited poor responses. In assays with tomato intercellular fluid and leaf surface water, the bacterial speck pathogen could not chemotactically distinguish between a resistant and a susceptible cultivar of tomato.

  3. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  4. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  5. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  6. Growth of the Asian health-care market: global implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard J

    2007-10-01

    The global economy is being transformed by an explosion of information unleashed by the internet, the digital revolution, communications and increased international mobility. This transformation is manifesting in many ways, including rapid development of countries such as China, commoditization of public services, mobilization of workforces, shifting of market control from suppliers to consumers, interlinked rises in product demand and customer expectations, and problems regulating international business competition. As Asia is home to half of the world's population, and offers both a large relatively low-cost workforce in some countries and a potentially huge retail market, this region could be central to the future of the global economy. Like other industries, the pharmaceutical industry faces a new array of Asia-specific opportunities and challenges. Success in meeting these challenges will go to those pharmaceutical companies that best understand the unique strengths and constraints of Asia's diverse cultures, talents and markets.

  7. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more

  8. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  9. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  11. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  12. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  13. Solar PV water pumping system for rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Although PV water pumping systems have high initial costs, they require virtually no maintenance, require no fuel and thus save foreign exchange. They are easy to install and operate, have no moving parts and hence are highly reliable and durable and are modular in nature for future expansion, PV systems are found to be competitive with conventional diesel generator systems. Despite the above mentioned facts policy makers are still not convinced that solar PV water pumping systems can support rural development. This paper gives reasons for the failures of some solar PV water pumping projects in Nepal. Development of solar electricity totaling about 800 KWp in Nepal is briefly highlighted. Basic preconditions are identified for the successful operation of solar PV water pumping systems. The findings of successful solar PV water pumping systems are highlighted with specific reference to socio-economic impacts in the rural society. Subsidy policy of the government on solar PV water pumping systems is analyzed. Development of a spontaneous market for community solar PV water pumping system is analyzed. Suggestions are given on how solar PV water pumping system can be made more affordable by village people. Typical Nepalese rural areas are found to be suitable and economical for SPVWPS. Site evaluation procedure is given. Finally, the paper indicates the important of training for the local people in installation, operation and routine maintenance to ensure the reliability of the SPVWPS. The paper emphasizes the involvement of end-users from the very beginning of planning stage of SPVWPS. Detail comparison between a SPVWPS and an equivalent diesel generator is also indicated in the paper.

  14. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  15. Development of standardized, low-cost AC PV systems. Phase I annual report, 7 September 1995--7 November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, S.J.; Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Kaelin, M.

    1997-06-01

    The objectives of this two-year program are to improve the reliability and safety and reduce the cost of installed grid-connected PV systems by creating standardized, pre-engineered components and an enhanced, low-cost, 250-Watt micro inverter. These advances will be combined with the new, large area Solarex MSX-240 PV module resulting in standard, modular AC PV {open_quotes}building blocks{close_quotes} used to create utility-interactive PV systems as small as one module to many thousands of modules to suit virtually any application. AC PV building blocks will be developed to meet the requirements of the U.S., Japanese and European markets.

  16. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean; Van Damme, Jo; Dinsart, Christiane

    2013-12-15

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. - Highlights: • The oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. • Abortive viral cycle upon infection of endothelial cells with H-1PV. • Inhibition of VEGF expression and KS-IMM tumor growth by H-1PV.

  17. The Price-Concentration Relationship in Early Residential Solar Third-Party Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, Jacquelyn; Langheim, Ria; Machak, Christina; Hellow, Henar; Sigrin, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The market for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States has experienced tremendous growth over the past decade, with installed capacity more than doubling between 2014 and 2016 alone (SEIA, 2016). As the residential market continues to grow, it prompts new questions about the nature of competition between solar installers and how this competition, or lack thereof, affects the prices consumers are paying. It is often assumed that more competition leads to lower prices, but this is not universally true. For example, some studies have shown that factors such as brand loyalty could lead to a negative relationship between concentration and price in imperfectly competitive markets (Borenstein, 1985; Holmes, 1989). As such, the relationship between prices and market concentration is an open empirical question since theory could predict either a positive or negative relationship. Determining a relationship between prices and market concentration is challenging for several reasons. Most significantly, prices and market structure are simultaneously determined by each other -- the amount of competition a seller faces influences the price they can command, and prices determine a seller's market share. Previous studies have examined recent PV pricing trends over time and between markets (Davidson et al., 2015a; Davidson and Margolis 2015b; Nemet et al., 2016; Gillingham et al., 2014; Barbose and Darghouth 2015). While these studies of solar PV pricing are able to determine correlations between prices and market factors, they have not satisfactorily proven causation. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, there is little work to date that focuses on identifying the causal relationship between market structure and the prices paid by consumers. We use a unique dataset on third-party owned contract terms for the residential solar PV market in the San Diego Gas and Electricity service territory to better understand this relationship. Surprisingly, we find that

  18. Ensuring Quality of PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.; Doi, T.; Otani, K.; Amano, J.

    2011-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) customers need to have confidence in the PV modules they purchase. Currently, no test can quantify a module's lifetime with confidence, but stress tests are routinely used to differentiate PV product designs. We suggest that the industry would be strengthened by using the wisdom of the community to develop a single set of tests that will help customers quantify confidence in PV products. This paper evaluates the need for quality assurance (QA) standards and suggests a path for creating these. Two types of standards are needed: 1) QA of the module design and 2) QA of the manufacturing process.

  19. Assuring long-term reliability of concentrator PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, R.; Garboushian, V.; Brown, J.; Crawford, C.; Darban, K.; Dutra, D.; Geer, S.; Ghassemian, V.; Gordon, R.; Kinsey, G.; Stone, K.; Turner, G.

    2009-08-01

    Concentrator PV (CPV) systems have attracted significant interest because these systems incorporate the world's highest efficiency solar cells and they are targeting the lowest cost production of solar electricity for the world's utility markets. Because these systems are just entering solar markets, manufacturers and customers need to assure their reliability for many years of operation. There are three general approaches for assuring CPV reliability: 1) field testing and development over many years leading to improved product designs, 2) testing to internationally accepted qualification standards (especially for new products) and 3) extended reliability tests to identify critical weaknesses in a new component or design. Amonix has been a pioneer in all three of these approaches. Amonix has an internal library of field failure data spanning over 15 years that serves as the basis for its seven generations of CPV systems. An Amonix product served as the test CPV module for the development of the world's first qualification standard completed in March 2001. Amonix staff has served on international standards development committees, such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), in support of developing CPV standards needed in today's rapidly expanding solar markets. Recently Amonix employed extended reliability test procedures to assure reliability of multijunction solar cell operation in its seventh generation high concentration PV system. This paper will discuss how these three approaches have all contributed to assuring reliability of the Amonix systems.

  20. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  1. 46 CFR 153.355 - PV venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false PV venting systems. 153.355 Section 153.355 Shipping... Systems § 153.355 PV venting systems. When Table 1 requires a PV venting system, the cargo tank must have a PV valve in its vent line. The PV valve must be located between the tank and any connection...

  2. 46 CFR 153.355 - PV venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false PV venting systems. 153.355 Section 153.355 Shipping... Systems § 153.355 PV venting systems. When Table 1 requires a PV venting system, the cargo tank must have a PV valve in its vent line. The PV valve must be located between the tank and any connection...

  3. Cost of energy from utility-scale PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The cost of energy produced by three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants was estimated based on PV cell and module technology expected to be available by 1995. Plant designs were created for two high concentration PV plants (500 suns), both based on advanced back-contact silicon cell technology, and a thin-film, flat plate plant using copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. The concentrator plants included a central receiver plant using stretched-membrane heliostats and a Fresnel-lens module plant, both utilizing two-axis tracking. Basic plant design factors were selected to minimize 30-year levelized energy costs. Total capital requirements to construct the three plants were estimated through detailed cost estimates. Costs of the cell and module components of the plants were determined by modeling their manufacturing processes when producing modules at an annual rate of both 25 MW/year and 100 MW/year. Energy outputs were determined by computer modeling with hourly insolation and temperature profiles for the two sites. Power system simulation studies were carried out to estimate the impact of the PV plants on system power production cost using synthetic, but realistic, utility system definitions. Both high and low growth rate utility system expansion plans were considered, and capacity and energy credits were calculated. Additionally, credits were calculated for environmental externalities. Benefit/cost ratios for each plant and site were determined. The results of the study provide projections in 1990 dollars of the cost of electric energy from utility-scale PV plants assuming a mature technology that may be available by about 1995. The cost of energy produced by the CIS flat plate plant was projected to be as low as 10.8 cents/kWh. The concentrator plant results were only slightly higher at 12.3 cents/kWh for the Fresnel lens plant and 13.1 cents/kWh for the central receiver plant. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  5. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  6. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  7. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  8. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  9. The role of PV in demand-site management: Policy and industry challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, John; Hadjilambrinos, Constantine; Wang, Young-Doo

    1992-12-01

    Most electric utility planners consider photovoltaics to be a frontier technology which is not yet mature enough to contribute to the U.S. electric generation market. Over the past decade, utilities and their regulators have begun to emphasize demand-side management (DMS) to meet an increasing proportion of their service needs. For PV to be a valued technology in the electricity sector, DSM applications need to be identified that can provide a significant market for this technology. DSM programs of 20 of the most active utilities in the DSM market are analyzed in this research to determine the size, prices, demand, and impact of policy. Target PV-DSM markets are identified and the policy and industry challenges that must be met are defined.

  10. A Survey of State and Local PV Program Response to Financial Innovation and Disparate Federal Tax Treatment in the Residential PV Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Holt, Edward

    2015-06-01

    High up-front costs and a lack of financing options have historically been the primary barriers to the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in the residential sector. State clean energy funds, which emerged in a number of states from the restructuring of the electricity industry in the mid-to-late 1990s, have for many years attempted to overcome these barriers through PV rebate and, in some cases, loan programs. While these programs (rebate programs in particular) have been popular, the residential PV market in the United States only started to achieve significant scale in the last five years – driven in large part by an initial wave of financial innovation that led to the rise of third-party ownership.

  11. School Choice and Economic Growth: A Research Synthesis on How Market Forces Can Fuel Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth typically results when businesses, workers, investors, and entrepreneurs are free to compete, innovate, and work to better serve consumers by supplying new or improved goods and services. These incentives govern the marketplace, and when built upon a sound foundation of property rights, the rule of law, open trade, minimal…

  12. Market and Institutional Sources of Educational Growth. Discussion Paper No. 494-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.

    In this paper, research from several traditions is synthesized to discern causes of change in the level of formal educational attainment in the United States for cohorts during the first half of the twentieth century. Two sources of educational growth are considered: (1) changing population composition on family background factors that affect how…

  13. Development of flame retardant PV module encapsulants: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    This Phase 1 final report covers the work performed by Springborn Testing and Research, Inc., for the period October 1, 1997 to June 30, 1998 under the Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC36-97GO10255, entitled Development of Flame Retardant PV Module Encapsulants. While use of roof-mounted arrays has always been an attractive means of deploying PV, only within recent years have such building integrated concepts (BIPV) found renewed interest among module makers and end-users. Prior to building integrated and rooftop applications, flammability requirements for modules have not been a great industry concern. However, with growing interest in BIPV and the requirement for building code requirements for commercial and industrial structures, flammability issues have become a barrier to entry for many module constructions into this potentially huge domestic market for PV. The overall goal of the 3 phase PV BONUS two project is to develop and commercialize a line of fire retardant encapsulation materials to serve the emerging building integrated and building mounted PV market. The objectives of the Phase 1 effort are limited to concept development and business planning activities.

  14. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: AReview of Current Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-11-12

    Some stakeholders continue to voice concerns about the performance of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, particularly because these systems typically receive financial support through ratepayer- or publicly-funded programs. Although much remains to be understood about the extent and specific causes of poor PV system performance, several studies of the larger programs and markets have shed some light on the issue. An evaluation of the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s Emerging Renewables Program, for example, found that 7% of systems, in a sample of 95, had lower-than-expected power output due to shading or soiling (KEMA 2005). About 3% of a larger sample of 140 systems were not operating at all or were operating well below expected output, due to failed equipment, faulty installation workmanship, and/or a lack of basic maintenance. In a recent evaluation of the other statewide PV incentive program in California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program, 9 of 52 projects sampled were found to have annual capacity factors less than 14.5%, although reasons for these low capacity factors generally were not identified (Itron 2005). Studies of PV systems in Germany and Japan, the two largest PV markets worldwide, have also revealed some performance problems associated with issues such as shading, equipment and installation defects, inverter failure, and deviations from module manufacturers' specifications (Otani et al. 2004, Jahn & Nasse 2004). Although owners of PV systems have an inherent incentive to ensure that their systems perform well, many homeowners and building operators may lack the necessary information and expertise to carry out this task effectively. Given this barrier, and the responsibility of PV incentive programs to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should (and often do) play a critical role in promoting PV system performance. Performance-based incentives (PBIs), which are based on actual energy production rather than

  15. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuel consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.

  16. Technological growth of fuel efficiency in european automobile market 1975–2015

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Kejia; Chen, Yuche

    2016-08-29

    This paper looks at the technological growth of new car fleet fuel efficiency in the European Union between 1975 and 2015. According to the analysis results, from1975 to 2006 the fuel efficiency technology improvements were largely offset by vehicles' increased weight, engine size, and consumer amenities such as acceleration capacity. After 2006, downsizing in weight and engine capacity was observed in new car fleet, while fuel consumption decreased by 32% between 2006 and 2015. We adopt a statistical method and find that from 1975 to 2015, a 1% increase in weight would result in 0.3 to 0.5% increments in fuelmore » consumption per 100 km, and a 1% reduction in 0-100 km/h acceleration time would increase fuel consumption by about 0.3%. Impacts of other attributes on fuel consumption are also assessed. To meet the European Union's 2021 fuel consumption target, downsizing of cars, as well as at least maintaining fuel efficiency technology growth trend observed between 2005 and 2015, are needed. Lastly, government policies on controlling improvement in acceleration performance or promoting alternative fuel vehicles are also important to achieve European Union 2021 target.« less

  17. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  18. Biofilm formation, epiphytic fitness, and canker development in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Rigano, Luciano A; Siciliano, Florencia; Enrique, Ramón; Sendín, Lorena; Filippone, Paula; Torres, Pablo S; Qüesta, Julia; Dow, J Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Vojnov, Adrián A; Marano, María Rosa

    2007-10-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is responsible for the canker disease affecting citrus plants throughout the world. Here, we have evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in leaf colonization during canker development on lemon leaves. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of X. axonopodis pv. citri strains expressing the green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate attachment and biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic (leaf) surfaces. Wild-type X. axonopodis pv. citri attached to and formed a complex, structured biofilm on glass in minimal medium containing glucose. Similar attachment and structured biofilm formation also were seen on lemon leaves. An X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB mutant strain, defective in production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan, did not form a structured biofilm on either abiotic or biotic surfaces. In addition, the X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB showed reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces and reduced disease symptoms. These findings suggest an important role for formation of biofilms in the epiphytic survival of X. axonopodis pv. citri prior to development of canker disease.

  19. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  20. A Survey of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Market Growth and Development from 2008 to 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Larsen, Peter; Gilligan, Donald; Singer, Terry

    2010-06-08

    In this study, LBNL analyzes the current size of the Energy Service Company (ESCO) industry, industry growth projections to 2011, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more indepth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. We draw heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and from our review of publicly available financial information regarding individual ESCOs. A significant ramp-up in energy efficiency activities is occurring at the local, state, and federal level. These activities include the establishment in {approx}18 states of statewide energy savings goals to be obtained from adoption of an Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS), legislative or state regulatory directives to obtain all cost-effective demand-side resources (Barbose et al 2009), and a significant increase in federal funding for energy efficiency programs as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). As part of this increased focus on energy efficiency, policymakers are evaluating the role of private sector companies, including ESCOs, in delivering cost-effective energy savings to end-users. The U.S. ESCO industry has long been recognized for its role in successfully delivering comprehensive energy projects in the public sector. This study analyzes the current size of the ESCO industry, industry growth projections, and market trends in order to provide policymakers with a more in-depth understanding of energy efficiency activity among private sector firms. This study may also be of interest to policymakers abroad who are exploring options to encourage development of a private-sector energy services industry in their own countries. This study draws heavily on information from interviews with ESCOs conducted from October 2009 to February 2010 and is part of a series of ESCO industry reports prepared by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in collaboration with the

  1. A new flexible a-Si PV module and its application to rooftop PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Yukimi; Ihara, Takuro; Hama, Toshio

    1994-12-31

    A novel photovoltaic (PV) module for roof top systems, solar roofing, was proposed. Solar roofing is a flexible amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV sheet having the function of roofing. Tempered glass is used as roof covering material. Technical items for roof top systems using solar roofing were discussed. Preliminary studies on module component materials showed feasibility of solar roofing. The authors designed a construction technology for tempered glass covered roofs. Effects of shadows on PV module upon its performance were also analyzed.

  2. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  3. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  4. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  5. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  6. Identification and Characterization of Performance Limiting Regions in Poly-Si Wafers for PV Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2011-01-01

    As demand for silicon photovoltaic (PV) material increases, so does the need for cost-effective feedstock and production methods that will allow enhanced penetration of silicon PV into the total energy market. The focus on cost minimization for production of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) PV has led to relaxed feedstock purity requirements, which has also introduced undesirable characteristics into cast poly-Si PV wafers. To produce cells with the highest possible conversion efficiencies, it is crucial to understand how reduced purity requirements and defects that are introduced through the casting process can impair minority carrier properties in poly-Si PV cells. This is only possible by using multiple characterization techniques that give macro-scale information (such as the spatial distribution of performance-limiting regions), as well as micro and nano-scale information about the structural and chemical nature of such performance-limiting regions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of combining multiple techniques to analyze performance-limiting regions in the poly-Si wafers that are used for PV cells. This is done by first identifying performance-limiting regions using macro-scale techniques including photoluminescence (PL) imaging, microwave photoconductive decay ({mu}PCD), and reflectometry), then using smaller-scale techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), cathodoluminescence (CL), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to understand the nature of such regions. This analysis shows that structural defects as well as metallic impurities are present in performance-limiting regions, which together act to decrease conversion efficiencies in poly-Si PV cells.

  7. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  8. Enhanced symbiotic nitrogen fixation with P. syringae pv tabaci

    SciTech Connect

    Langston-Unkefer, P.J.; Knight, T.J. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces ); Sengupta-Gopalan, C. )

    1989-04-01

    Infestation of legumes such as alfalfa and soybeans with the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci is accompanied by increased plant growth, nodulation, overall nitrogen fixation, and total assimilated nitrogen. These effects are observed only in plants infested with Tox{sup +} pathogen; the toxin is tabtoxinine-{beta}-lactam, an active site-directed irreversible inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. The key to the legumes survival of this treatment is the insensitivity of the nodule-specific form of glutamine synthetase to the toxin. As expected, significant changes are observed in ammonia assimilation in these plants. The biochemical and molecular biological consequences of this treatment are being investigated.

  9. Capacity Value of PV and Wind Generation in the NV Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Diao, Ruisheng; Samaan, Nader A.; Etingov, Pavel V.

    2014-03-21

    Calculation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power capacity values is important for estimating additional load that can be served by new PV or wind installations in the electrical power system. It also is the basis for assigning capacity credit payments in systems with markets. Because of variability in solar and wind resources, PV and wind generation contribute to power system resource adequacy differently from conventional generation. Many different approaches to calculating PV and wind generation capacity values have been used by utilities and transmission operators. Using the NV Energy system as a study case, this report applies peak-period capacity factor (PPCF) and effective load carrying capability (ELCC) methods to calculate capacity values for renewable energy sources. We show the connection between the PPCF and ELCC methods in the process of deriving a simplified approach that approximates the ELCC method. This simplified approach does not require generation fleet data and provides the theoretical basis for a quick check on capacity value results of PV and wind generation. The diminishing return of capacity benefit as renewable generation increases is conveniently explained using the simplified capacity value approach.

  10. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  11. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  12. Effects of lowering dietary fiber before marketing on finishing pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights.

    PubMed

    Asmus, M D; Derouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Houser, T A; Nelssen, J L; Goodband, R D

    2014-01-01

    A total of 264 pigs (initially 41.0 kg BW) were used in a 90-d study to determine the effects of lowering dietary fiber before market on pigs fed high dietary fiber [provided by wheat middlings (midds) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)] on growth performance, carcass characteristics, carcass fat quality, and intestinal weights of growing-finishing pigs. Pens of pigs were randomly allotted by initial BW and sex to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replications per treatment and 7 or 8 pigs per pen. A positive control (corn-soybean meal-based) diet containing no DDGS or midds (9.3% NDF) and a negative control diet with 30% DDGS and 19% midds (19% NDF) were fed throughout the entire trial (d 0 to 90). The other 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with the main effects of length of fiber reduction (23 or 47 d before marketing) and fiber level fed during the reduction period (low or medium). Pigs on these treatments were fed the negative control before the reduction treatment. The medium-fiber diet contained 15% DDGS and 9.5% midds (14.2% NDF) with the low-fiber diet was the positive control diet. Increasing the feeding duration of the low-fiber diets lowered overall ADFI (linear, P = 0.03) and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.01). Lowering the fiber level for the last 23 d did not influence growth performance; however, lowering the fiber level improved carcass yield (P = 0.002), with a greater response (P < 0.001) when the low-fiber diet was fed for 23 d. Jowl fat iodine value (IV) decreased when the longer lower fiber diets were fed (linear, P < 0.01) and was lower (P < 0.001) for pigs fed the low-fiber diet during the fiber reduction period than pigs fed the medium-fiber diet during the same time period; however, increasing the time lower fiber diets were fed from 23 to 47 d further reduced (P < 0.01) jowl IV. Increasing the duration that the control diet was fed by increasing the reduction time from 23 to 47 d increased (P < 0.01) backfat depth

  13. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  14. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steingass, H.; Asmon, I.

    1981-09-01

    Results of a month-long study in Morocco aimed at assessing the market potential for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in agriculture and rural service applications are presented. The following applications, requiring less than 15 kW of power, are described: irrigation, cattle watering, refrigeration, crop processing, potable water and educational TV. Telecommunications and transportation signalling applications, descriptions of power and energy use profiles, assessments of business environment, government and private sector attitudes towards photovoltaics, and financing were also considered. The Moroccan market presents both advantages and disadvantages for American PV manufacturers. The principle advantages of the Moroccan market are: a limited grid, interest in and present use of PV in communications applications, attractive investment incentives, and a stated policy favoring American investment. Disadvantages include: lack of government incentives for PV use, general unfamiliarity with PV technology, high first cost of PV, a well-established market network for diesel generators, and difficulty with financing. The market for PV in Morocco (1981-1986), will be relatively small, about 340 kwp. The market for PV is likely to be more favorable in telecommunications, transport signalling and some rural services. The primary market appears to be in the public (i.e., government) rather than private sector, due to financial constraints and the high price of PV relative to conventional power sector.

  15. Virulence deficiency caused by a transposon insertion in the purH gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2005-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. We have identified a Tn5-induced virulence-deficient mutant (BXO1704) of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. The BXO1704 mutant exhibited growth deficiency in minimal medium but was proficient in inducing a hypersensitive response in a non-host tomato plant. Sequence analysis of the chromosomal DNA flanking the Tn5 insertion indicated that the Tn5 insertion is in the purH gene, which is highly homologous to purH genes of other closely related plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Purine supplementation reversed the growth deficiency of BXO1704 in minimal medium. These results suggest that the virulence deficiency of BXO1704 may be due to the inability to use sufficient purine in the host.

  16. Functional expression and activity of the recombinant antifungal defensin PvD1r from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Defensins are basic, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides that are important components of plant defense against pathogens. Previously, we isolated a defensin, PvD1, from Phaseolus vulgaris L. (common bean) seeds. Results The aim of this study was to overexpress PvD1 in a prokaryotic system, verify the biologic function of recombinant PvD1 (PvD1r) by comparing the antimicrobial activity of PvD1r to that of the natural defensin, PvD1, and use a mutant Candida albicans strain that lacks the gene for sphingolipid biosynthesis to unravel the target site of the PvD1r in C. albicans cells. The cDNA encoding PvD1, which was previously obtained, was cloned into the pET-32 EK/LIC vector, and the resulting construct was used to transform bacterial cells (Rosetta Gami 2 (DE3) pLysS) leading to recombinant protein expression. After expression had been induced, PvD1r was purified, cleaved with enterokinase and repurified by chromatographic steps. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that the overall process of the recombinant production of PvD1r, including cleavage with the enterokinase, was successful. Additionally, modeling revealed that PvD1r had a structure that was similar to the defensin isolated from plants. Purified PvD1 and PvD1r possessed inhibitory activity against the growth of the wild-type pathogenic yeast strain C. albicans. Both defensins, however, did not present inhibitory activity against the mutant strain of C. albicans. Antifungal assays with the wild-type C. albicans strains showed morphological changes upon observation by light microscopy following growth assays. PvD1r was coupled to FITC, and the subsequent treatment of wild type C. albicans with DAPI revealed that the labeled peptide was intracellularly localized. In the mutant strain, no intracellular labeling was detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that PvD1r retains full biological activity after recombinant production, enterokinase cleavage and purification. Additionally, our

  17. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  18. Host genotype and hypersensitive reaction influence population levels of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population dynamics of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians spray inoculated on or infiltrated into lettuce leaves were monitored on cultivars that were well characterized for resistance or susceptibility to the pathogen. In general, population growth was greater for susceptible (Clemente, Salinas 88,...

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  20. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  1. PV system field experience and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steven; Rosenthal, Andrew; Thomas, Mike

    1997-02-01

    Hybrid power systems consisting of battery inverters coupled with diesel, propane, or gasoline engine-driven electrical generators, and photovoltaic arrays are being used in many remote locations. The potential cost advantages of hybrid systems over simple engine-driven generator systems are causing hybrid systems to be considered for numerous applications including single-family residential, communications, and village power. This paper discusses the various design constraints of such systems and presents one technique for reducing hybrid system losses. The Southwest Technology Development Institute under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories has been installing data acquisition systems (DAS) on a number of small and large hybrid PV systems. These systems range from small residential systems (1 kW PV - 7 kW generator), to medium sized systems (10 kW PV - 20 kW generator), to larger systems (100 kW PV - 200 kW generator). Even larger systems are being installed with hundreds of kilowatts of PV modules, multiple wind machines, and larger diesel generators.

  2. PV performance modeling workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    During the development of a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project, predicting expected energy production from a system is a key part of understanding system value. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, annual energy yield (kWh/kWp) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. A number of PV system performance models have been developed and are in use, but little has been published on validation of these models or the accuracy and uncertainty of their output. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a PV Performance Modeling Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22-23, 2010. The workshop was intended to address the current state of PV system models, develop a path forward for establishing best practices on PV system performance modeling, and set the stage for standardization of testing and validation procedures for models and input parameters. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop, as well as examines opportunities for collaborative efforts to develop objective comparisons between models and across sites and applications.

  3. Active post-marketing surveillance of the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor in diabetic foot ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background After several exploratory and confirmatory clinical trials, the intralesional administration of human recombinant epidermal growth factor (hrEGF) has been approved for the treatment of advanced diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this procedure in medical practice. Methods A prospective, post-marketing active pharmacosurveillance was conducted in 41 hospitals and 19 primary care polyclinics. Patients with DFU received hrEGF, 25 or 75 μg, intralesionally 3 times per week until complete granulation of the ulcer or 8 weeks maximum, adjuvant to standard wound care. Outcomes measured were complete granulation, amputations, and adverse events (AE) during treatment; complete lesion re-epithelization and relapses in follow-up (median: 1.2; maximum 4.2 years). Results The study included 1788 patients with 1835 DFU (81% Wagner’s grades 3 or 4; 43% ischemic) treated from May 2007 to April 2010. Complete granulation was observed in 76% of the ulcers in 5 weeks (median). Ulcer non-ischemic etiology (OR: 3.6; 95% CI: 2.8-4.7) and age (1.02; 1.01-1.03, for each younger year) were the main variables with influence on this outcome. During treatment, 220 (12%) amputations (171 major) were required in 214 patients, mostly in ischemic or Wagner’s grade 3 to 5 ulcers. Re-epithelization was documented in 61% of the 1659 followed-up cases; 5% relapsed per year. AE (4171) were reported in 47% of the subjects. Mild or moderate local pain and burning sensation, shivering and chills, were 87% of the events. Serious events, not related to treatment, occurred in 1.7% of the patients. Conclusions The favorable benefit/risk balance, confirms the beneficial clinical profile of intralesional hrEGF in the treatment of DFUs. PMID:24004460

  4. The Growth of Halal Meat Markets in Europe: An Exploration of the Supply Side Theory of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, John; Miele, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 15 years dedicated markets for halal meat have emerged in a number of European countries. While ethnic stores still constitute the major retail outlet for halal meat in most countries, "halal" labelled meat and meat products are increasingly available in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. Market expansion has also…

  5. Evaluation of Encapsulant Materials for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M.

    2010-01-01

    Encapsulant materials used in PV modules serve multiple purposes. They physically hold components in place, provide electrical insulation, optically couple superstrate materials (e.g., glass) to PV cells, protect components from mechanical stress by mechanically de-coupling components via strain relief, and protect materials from corrosion. To do this, encapsulants must adhere well to all surfaces, remain compliant, and transmit light after exposure to temperature, humidity, and UV radiation histories. Encapsulant materials by themselves do not completely prevent water vapour ingress [1-3], but if they are well adhered, they will prevent the accumulation of liquid water providing protection against corrosion as well as electrical shock. Here, a brief review of some of the polymeric materials under consideration for PV applications is provided, with an explanation of some of their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  7. On-grid PV implementation program. Phase I report, August 1994--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-29

    Southern California Edison Company (Edison) is finalizing a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop high value On-Grid applications for electricity from Photovoltaics (PV). Edison`s efforts are the result of Edison`s long-standing commitment to the pursuit of Renewable Energy. Edison has been a world leader in the development and use of PV. As the technology becomes more commercial, Edison has been actively seeking more applications for PV. After strenuous effort, Edison has now received approval to offer off-grid PV packages within its service territory. In addition, Edison has been very interested in finding high-value on-grid PV applications that may have the potential to become cost effective as PV applications increase and prices decline. Such high-value applications at Edison and other utilities will accelerate the price reductions, which in turn will increase the number of cost-effective applications, driving towards a market competitive with traditional sources of energy. Edison`s efforts build upon the work done by Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) at their Kerman substation, but goes much further than that effort. Edison submitted its original proposal to the DOE on June 30, 1993. A revised proposal was submitted on February 1, 1994, in response to a letter from the DOE`s Director of Solar Energy, Robert H. Annan. In a letter dated March 30, 1994, from Paul K. Kearns, Head of Contracting Activity for the DOE`s Golden Field Office, the DOE conditionally approved certain pre-award contract costs. The Cooperative Agreement with DOE was executed on August 16, 1994.

  8. Electron transfer mechanism in Shewanella loihica PV-4 biofilms formed at graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anand; Zhang, Xiaoming; Pastorella, Gabriele; Connolly, Jack O; Barry, Niamh; Woolley, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Marsili, Enrico

    2012-10-01

    Electron transfer mechanisms in Shewanella loihica PV-4 viable biofilms formed at graphite electrodes were investigated in potentiostat-controlled electrochemical cells poised at oxidative potentials (0.2V vs. Ag/AgCl). Chronoamperometry (CA) showed a repeatable biofilm growth of S. loihica PV-4 on graphite electrode. CA, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and its first derivative shows that both direct electron transfer (DET) mediated electron transfer (MET) mechanism contributes to the overall anodic (oxidation) current. The maximum anodic current density recorded on graphite was 90 μA cm(-2). Fluorescence emission spectra shows increased concentration of quinone derivatives and riboflavin in the cell-free supernatant as the biofilm grows. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) show accumulation of riboflavin at the graphite interface, with the increase in incubation period. This is the first study to observe a gradual shift from DET to MET mechanism in viable S. loihica PV-4 biofilms.

  9. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  10. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  11. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-01-29

    The focus of this report is the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter 1 provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. Chapter 2 presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. Chapter 3 presents cost, price, and performance trends. Chapter 4 discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. Chapter 5 provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  12. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  13. PV Cephei: Young Star Caught Speeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Arce, Héctor G.

    2004-06-01

    Three independent lines of evidence imply that the young star PV Cep is moving at roughly 20 km s-1 through the interstellar medium. The first and strongest suggestion of motion comes from the geometry of the Herbig-Haro (HH) knots in the ``giant'' HH flow associated with PV Cep. Bisectors of lines drawn between pairs of knots at nearly equal distances from PV Cep imply an east-west motion of the source, and a plasmon model fitted to the knot positions gives a good fit of 22 km s-1 motion for the star. The second bit of damning evidence comes from a redshifted trail of molecular gas pointing in the same east-west direction implied by the HH knot geometry. The third exhibit we offer in accusing PV Cep of speeding involves the apparent tilt in the high-velocity molecular jet now emanating from the star. This tilt is best explained if the true, current jet direction is north-south, as it is in Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images, and the star is moving, again at roughly 20 km s-1. Tracing the motion of PV Cep backward in time to the nearest cluster from which it might have been ejected, we find that it is very likely to have been thrown out of the massive star-forming cluster NGC 7023, more than 10 pc away. PV Cep and NGC 7023 are at similar distances, and the backward trace of PV Cep's motion is astonishingly well aligned with a dark, previously unexplained rift in NGC 7023. We propose that PV Cep was ejected, at a speed large enough to escape NGC 7023, at least 100,000 yr ago but that it did not enter the molecular cloud in which it now finds itself until more like 35,000 yr ago. Our calculations show that the currently observable molecular outflow associated with PV Cep is about 10,000 yr old, so the flow has had plenty of time to form while in its current molecular cloud. However, the question of what PV Cep was doing and what gas/disk it took along with it in the time it was traveling through the low-density region between NGC 7023 and its current home is an open

  14. PV Ceph: Young Star Caught Speeding?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A. A.; Arce, H. G.

    2003-12-01

    Three independent lines of evidence imply that the young star PV Ceph is moving at roughly 20 km s-1 through the interstellar medium. The first, and strongest, suggestion of motion comes from the geometry of the HH knots in the ``giant" Herbig-Haro flow associated with PV Ceph. Bisectors of lines drawn between pairs of knots at nearly equal distances from PV Ceph imply an E-W motion of the source, and a plasmon model fit to the knot positions gives a good fit of 22 km s-1 motion for the star. The second bit of damning evidence comes from a redshifted ``trail" of molecular gas, pointing in the same E-W direction implied by the HH knot geometry. The third exhibit we offer in accusing PV Ceph of speeding involves the tilt apparent in the high-velocity molecular jet now emanating from the star. This tilt is best explained if the true, current, jet direction is N-S, as it is in HST WFPC images, and the star is moving--again at roughly 20 km s-1. Tracing the motion of PV Ceph backward in time, to the nearest cluster from which it might have been ejected, we find that it is very likely to have been thrown out of the massive star-forming cluster NGC7023--more than 10 pc away. PV Ceph and NGC7023 are at similar distances, and the backward-trace of PV Ceph's motion is astonishingly well-aligned with a dark, previously unexplained, rift in NGC7023. We propose that PV Ceph was ejected, at a speed large enough to escape NGC7023, at least 100,000 years ago, but that it did not enter the molecular cloud in which it now finds itself until more like 10,000 years ago. Our calculations show that currently-observable molecular outflow associated with PV Ceph is about 10,000 years old, so that the flow has had plenty of time to form while in its current molecular cloud. But, the question of what PV Ceph was doing, and what gas/disk it took along with it in the time it was traveling through the low-density region between NGC7023 and its current home is open to question. Recent numerical

  15. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-11-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  16. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications worldwide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delasanta, D.; Rosen, J.; Nolfi, J.; Ulmer, R.

    1981-01-01

    Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.

  17. Transcription Factors PvERF15 and PvMTF-1 Form a Cadmium Stress Transcriptional Pathway1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tingting; Yang, Wanning; Lu, Wen; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    In plants, cadmium (Cd)-responsive transcription factors are key downstream effectors of Cd stress transcriptional pathways, which are capable of converging Cd stress signals through triggering the expression of Cd detoxification genes. However, the upstream transcriptional regulatory pathways that modulate their responses to Cd are less clear. Previously, we identified the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) METAL RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR1 (PvMTF-1) that responds to Cd and confers Cd tolerance in planta. Here, we demonstrate an upstream transcriptional regulation of the PvMTF-1 response to Cd. Using a yeast one-hybrid system, we cloned the bean ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR15 (PvERF15) that binds to the PvMTF-1 promoter. PvERF15 was strongly induced by Cd stress, and its overexpression resulted in the up-regulation of PvMTF-1. DNA-protein interaction assays further revealed that PvERF15 binds directly to a 19-bp AC-rich element in the PvMTF-1 promoter. The AC-rich element serves as a positive element bound by PvERF15 to activate gene expression. More importantly, knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference resulted in reduced Cd-induced expression of PvMTF-1. PvERF15 seems to be involved in Cd tolerance, since knockdown of PvERF15 by RNA interference in bean leaf discs decreased Cd tolerance in a transient assay. Since PvERF15 is a component of the Cd stress transcriptional pathway in beans and PvMTF-1 is one of its downstream targets, our findings provide a PvERF15/PvMTF-1 transcriptional pathway and thereby contribute to the understanding of Cd stress transcriptional regulatory pathways in plants. PMID:28073984

  18. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  20. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  2. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  3. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  4. Determination of Parameters of PV Concentrating System With Heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, R.; Norsoyan, A.; Dallakyan, V.

    2010-10-01

    The structure of PV concentrating system with heliostat is analyzed. The mathematical model of system consisting of PV concentrating module and heliostat is developed. With the use of developed mathematical model the optimal parameters of the system are determined. The results of this work can be used during the design of PV concentrating systems with heliostats.

  5. Specific energy yield comparison between crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon based PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferenczi, Toby; Stern, Omar; Hartung, Marianne; Mueggenburg, Eike; Lynass, Mark; Bernal, Eva; Mayer, Oliver; Zettl, Marcus

    2009-08-01

    As emerging thin-film PV technologies continue to penetrate the market and the number of utility scale installations substantially increase, detailed understanding of the performance of the various PV technologies becomes more important. An accurate database for each technology is essential for precise project planning, energy yield prediction and project financing. However recent publications showed that it is very difficult to get accurate and reliable performance data of theses technologies. This paper evaluates previously reported claims the amorphous silicon based PV modules have a higher annual energy yield compared to crystalline silicon modules relative to their rated performance. In order to acquire a detailed understanding of this effect, outdoor module tests were performed at GE Global Research Center in Munich. In this study we examine closely two of the five reported factors that contribute to enhanced energy yield of amorphous silicon modules. We find evidence to support each of these factors and evaluate their relative significance. We discuss aspects for improvement in how PV modules are sold and identify areas for further study further study.

  6. Colorado State University: A Midscale Market Solar Customer Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, Alison; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial increases in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment between 2005 and 2015, a large untapped market for solar PV deployment still exists in midscale market investments by universities. Recent estimates show that if all universities in the United States installed enough solar PV to meet 25% of their annual electricity consumption, this would cumulatively result in just over 16 gigawatts (GW) of additional installed PV capacity. Within this context, midscale market projects - loosely defined as solar PV installations ranging from 100 kilowatts (kW) to 2 megawatts (MW), but more broadly representing installations not captured in the residential or utility-scale sectors - could be an attractive option for universities. This case study focuses on one university solar customer, Colorado State University (CSU), to provide a detailed example of the challenges, solutions, and opportunities associated with university solar power procurement. Between 2009 and 2015, a combined 6,754 kW of both ground-mounted and rooftop solar PV was installed across multiple CSU campuses in Fort Collins, Colorado. This case study highlights CSU's decision-making process, campus engagement strategies, and relationships with state, local, and utility partners, which have culminated in significant on-campus PV deployment.

  7. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  8. Effect of State Policy Suites on the Development of Solar Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.

    2014-11-01

    There are an increasing number of state and local policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building robust solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. While some states have seen many-fold increases in solar PV installations over the last decade, many other states, some with very similar policies, have been less successful. The lack of a clear relationship between implementation of specific policies and increases in solar installations has been challenging to policymakers seeking to support such markets within their jurisdictions. This paper builds on recent work that has aimed at clarifying the relationships between policy implementation and successful solar PV markets.

  9. The Effects of Market Integration on Childhood Growth and Nutritional Status: the Dual Burden of Under- and Over-Nutrition in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Houck, K; Sorensen, MV; Lu, F; Alban, D; Alvarez, K; Hidobro, D; Doljanin, C; Ona, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Market integration is an important source of cultural change exposing indigenous populations to epidemiologic and nutrition transitions. As children and adolescents are biologically sensitive to the health effects of market integration, we examine community variation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and growth among a cross-cultural sample of Kichwa, Shuar, Huaorani and Cofán indigenous groups in the northern Ecuadorian Amazon. Methods We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), upper arm circumference and triceps skinfolds of 186 children and adolescents aged two to 18 years from seven communities. Anthropometric z-scores were calculated based on the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Comparisons were made to this US reference group, along with between community differences to contextually explore the impacts of varying degrees of market integration. Results We found a high prevalence of stunting in both boys (40%) and girls (34%). Adiposity increased with age and 40% of girls between 15 and 18 years old were overweight. There were large sex differences in body composition with higher BMI, arm circumference and triceps skinfolds in adolescent girls. The Kichwa demonstrated the poorest growth outcomes and nutritional stress followed by the Huaorani and Shuar; yet distinctions in under- and over-nutrition were evident within groups. Conclusion Market integration is a major factor influencing the developmental and lifestyle mismatch associated with the epidemiologic and nutrition transition in general, and the dual burden pattern of high rates of stunting yet adequate to above average short-term nutritional status indicators found among indigenous Amazonian populations. PMID:23657874

  10. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-04-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in the Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, R. A.; Delasanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential in the Philippines for stand alone photovoltaic (P/V) systems in agriculture was assessed. Applications include: irrigation, postharvest operation, food and fiber processing and storage, and livestock and fisheries operations. Power and energy use profiles for many applications as well as assessments of business, government and financial climate for P/V sales are described. Many characteristics of the Philippine agriculture and energy sector favorably influence the use of P/V systems. However, serious and significant barriers prevent achieving the technically feasible, cost competitive market for P/V systems in the agricultural sector. The reason for the small market is the limited availability capital for financing P/V systems. It is suggested that innovative financing schemes and promotional campaigns should be devised.

  12. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-11-14

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  13. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms are documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.

  14. Technologies to Increase PV Hosting Capacity in Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Mather, Barry; Gotseff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This paper studies the distributed photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution feeders by using the stochastic analysis approach. Multiple scenario simulations are conducted to analyze several factors that affect PV hosting capacity, including the existence of voltage regulator, PV location, the power factor of PV inverter and Volt/VAR control. Based on the conclusions obtained from simulation results, three approaches are then proposed to increase distributed PV hosting capacity, which can be formulated as the optimization problem to obtain the optimal solution. All technologies investigated in this paper utilize only existing assets in the feeder and therefore are implementable for a low cost. Additionally, the tool developed for these studies is described.

  15. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    SciTech Connect

    Peek, Richard T.

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  16. Electricity Bill Savings from Residential Photovoltaic Systems: Sensitivities to Changes in Future Electricity Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-09

    Customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States are often compensated at the customer’s underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Calculations of the customer economics of PV, meanwhile, often assume that retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms will not change and that retail electricity prices will increase (or remain constant) over time, thereby also increasing (or keeping constant) the value of bill savings from PV. Given the multitude of potential changes to retail rates and PV compensation mechanisms in the future, however, understanding how such changes might impact the value of bill savings from PV is critical for policymakers, regulators, utilities, the solar industry, and potential PV owners, i.e., any stakeholder interested in understanding uncertainties in and potential changes to the long-term customer economics of PV. This scoping study investigates the impact of, and interactions among, three key sources of uncertainty in the future value of bill savings from customer-sited PV, focusing in particular on residential customers. These three sources of uncertainty are: changes to electricity market conditions that would affect retail electricity prices, changes to the types of retail rate structures available to residential customers with PV, and shifts away from standard net-metering toward other compensation mechanisms for residential PV.

  17. HrpG and HrpX play global roles in coordinating different virulence traits of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinping; Figueiredo, Francisco; Jones, Jeffery; Wang, Nian

    2011-06-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is the causal agent of citrus canker, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus. To understand the virulence mechanisms of X. axonopodis pv. citri, we designed and conducted genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize the HrpG and HrpX regulons, which are critical for the pathogenicity of X. axonopodis pv. citri. Our analyses revealed that 232 and 181 genes belonged to the HrpG and HrpX regulons, respectively. In total, 123 genes were overlapped in the two regulons at any of the three selected timepoints representing three growth stages of X. axonopodis pv. citri in XVM2 medium. Our results showed that HrpG and HrpX regulated all 24 type III secretion system genes, 23 type III secretion system effector genes, and 29 type II secretion system substrate genes. Our data revealed that X. axonopodis pv. citri regulates multiple cellular activities responding to the host environment, such as amino acid biosynthesis; oxidative phosphorylation; pentose-phosphate pathway; transport of sugar, iron, and potassium; and phenolic catabolism, through HrpX and HrpG. We found that 124 and 90 unknown genes were controlled by HrpG and HrpX, respectively. Our results suggest that HrpG and HrpX interplay with a global signaling network and co-ordinate the expression of multiple virulence factors for modification and adaption of host environment during X. axonopodis pv. citri infection.

  18. Identification and characterization of new designer drug 4-fluoro-PV9 and α-PHP in the seized materials.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, Milena; Rojkiewicz, Marcin; Celiński, Rafał; Kuś, Piotr; Sajewicz, Mieczysław

    In this study, we present identification and physicochemical characterization of new cathinone derivatives, 4-fluoro-PV9 and already known α-PHP in seized materials. Although the disclosure of α-PHP from an illegal product had been reported and characterized to some extent, the data on α-PHP are also presented together with those of 4-fluoro-PV9. The data of characterization for the two compounds were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry and HPLC-diode array detection, electrospray ionization/ion trap mass spectrometry in MS(2) and MS(3) modes, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report for identification and detailed characterization of 4-fluoro-PV9 circulated on the illegal drug market.

  19. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  20. Design and application of PV power system for 100w to 10kw

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, R.W.

    1982-06-01

    Photovoltaic systems are economically viable in remote areas where grid power is not available and where power requirements are modest. PV systems provide power for water pumping, navigation aids, and residential electrification. Water pumping applications are projected to provide the largest market. The world's largest PV pumping unit, a 25Kw centrifugal pump system used to irrigate 80 acres of corn in Nebraska, is shown. Volumetric style ''jack pumps'' have been installed in the Upper Volta, and in Arizona. Remote residential AC power systems at the Hopi reservation, and a navigational aid system in the St. Lawrence Seaway are also demonstrated. Life cycle costing has shown that it is preferable to use deep cycle batteries.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Performance Limiting Regions in Poly-Si Wafers Used for PV Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2011-07-01

    As demand for silicon photovoltaic (PV) material increases, so does the need for cost-effective feedstock and production methods that will allow enhanced penetration of silicon PV into the total energy market. The focus on cost minimization for production of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) PV has led to relaxed feedstock purity requirements, which has also introduced undesirable characteristics into cast poly-Si PV wafers. To produce cells with the highest possible conversion efficiencies, it is crucial to understand how reduced purity requirements and defects that are introduced through the casting process can impair minority carrier properties in poly-Si PV cells. This is only possible by using multiple characterization techniques that give macro-scale information (such as the spatial distribution of performance-limiting regions), as well as micro and nano-scale information about the structural and chemical nature of such performance-limiting regions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of combining multiple techniques to analyze performance-limiting regions in the poly-Si wafers that are used for PV cells. This is done by first identifying performance-limiting regions using macro-scale techniques including photoluminescence (PL) imaging, microwave photoconductive decay (uPCD), and reflectometry), then using smaller-scale techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), cathodoluminescence (CL), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to understand the nature of such regions. This analysis shows that structural defects as well as metallic impurities are present in performance-limiting regions, which together act to decrease conversion efficiencies in poly-Si PV cells.

  2. Effects of Six Pratylenchus vulnus Isolates on the Growth of Peach-Almond Hybrid and Apple Rootstocks

    PubMed Central

    Pinochet, J.; Fernández, C.; Esmenjaud, D.; Doucet, M.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of six geographic isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus on the growth of GF-677 peach-almond hybrid and M-26 apple rootstocks were determined under greenhouse conditions. Plantlets were obtained from micropropagated plant material, and nematode isolates were reared in monoxenic cultures. All isolates suppressed growth on GF-677 compared with the uninfected controls. Isolate PvRO-S from Spain affected top weight of GF-677 more adversely than PvAT-F from France. Final population densities (Pf) of all P. vulnus on GF-677 were greater than 14.7 times the initial densities (Pi). They increased 61.5-fold on plants infected by PvWA-U from the United States. PvWA-U-, PvAT-F, and geographic undetermined PvU-UK isolates did not affect the growth of M-26 apple rootstock compared with PvAP-S, PvRO-S (both from Spain), and PvWA-A from Argentina isolates, which severely suppressed shoot growth of this rootstock. On M-26, Pf of the more parasitically fit isolates PvWA-A, PvAP-S, and PvRO-S were greater than those of nondamaging PvWA-U, PvAT-F, and PvU-UK isolates (>41.4 vs. <14.7 times the Pi). PvWA-U and PvAT-F reproduced more on GF-677 than on M-26 (>28.6 vs. <6.5 times the Pi). Isolate PvRO-S reproduced well and was quite destructive on both rootstocks. Results confirm the existence of strains with different damage potentials among geographically separated populations of P. vulnus. PMID:19279851

  3. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Larimer, Frank W; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti, Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Detter, J C; Lapidus, Alla L.; Land, Miriam L; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, Steven E.

    2005-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (Pss B728a) has been determined and is compared with that of A syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 Mb) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands varies, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin, syringomycin, indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to the epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  4. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  5. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  6. Host Genotype and Hypersensitive Reaction Influence Population Levels of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bull, Carolee T; Gebben, Samantha J; Goldman, Polly H; Trent, Mark; Hayes, Ryan J

    2015-03-01

    Dynamics of population sizes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians inoculated onto or into lettuce leaves were monitored on susceptible and resistant cultivars. In general, population growth was greater for susceptible (Clemente, Salinas 88, Vista Verde) than resistant (Batavia Reine des Glaces, Iceberg, Little Gem) cultivars. When spray-inoculated or infiltrated, population levels of X. campestris pv. vitians were consistently significantly lower on Little Gem than on susceptible cultivars, while differences in the other resistant cultivars were not consistently statistically significant. Populations increased at an intermediate rate on cultivars Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. There were significant positive correlations between bacterial concentration applied and disease severity for all cultivars, but bacterial titer had a significantly greater influence on disease severity in the susceptible cultivars than in Little Gem and an intermediate influence in Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. Infiltration of X. campestris pv. vitians strains into leaves of Little Gem resulted in an incompatible reaction, whereas compatible reactions were observed in all other cultivars. It appears that the differences in the relationship between population dynamics for Little Gem and the other cultivars tested were due to the hypersensitive response in cultivar Little Gem. These findings have implications for disease management and lettuce breeding because X. campestris pv. vitians interacts differently with cultivars that differ for resistance mechanisms.

  7. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean; Van Damme, Jo; Dinsart, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors.

  8. Final Technical Report - Photovoltaics for You (PV4You) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, J. M.; Sherwood, L.; Pulaski, J.; Cook, C.; Kalland, S.; Haynes, J.

    2005-08-14

    position in developing quality and competency standards for solar professionals and for training programs critical components to bring the solar industry into step with other recognized craft labor forces. IREC's objective was to provide consumer assurances and assist the states and the solar industry in building a strong and qualified workforce. IREC's Schools Going Solar Clearinghouse provided channels of information to educate students, teachers, parents and the community at large about the benefits of solar energy. Solar school projects enhance science and math education while creating an initial entry market for domestic PV. And, IREC's community and outreach network got the right information out to capture the interest and met the needs of different audiences and reached groups that weren't traditionally part of the solar community. IREC's PV4You project was effective because it resulted in reduced costs through easier interconnection and better net metering agreements and by raising the competency standards for solar practitioners. The project provided ways to eliminate barriers and constraints by providing technical assistance, offering model agreements based on industry consensus that were used by state and local decision makers. And, the project increased public acceptance by providing information, news and guidelines for different audiences.

  9. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Drew T; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O'Connor, Michael P; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990's. From October 1997 - September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea's GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko's wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife.

  10. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  11. Design and Implementation of an Innovative Residential PV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najm, Elie Michel

    This work focuses on the design and implementation of an innovative residential PV system. In chapter one, after an introduction related to the rapid growth of solar systems' installations, the most commonly used state of the art solar power electronics' configurations are discussed, which leads to introducing the proposed DC/DC parallel configuration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the power electronics' configurations are deliberated. The scope of work in the power electronics is defined in this chapter to be related to the panel side DC/DC converter. System integration and mechanical proposals are also within the scope of work and are discussed in later chapters. Operation principle of a novel low cost PV converter is proposed in chapter 2. The proposal is based on an innovative, simplified analog implementation of a master/slave methodology resulting in an efficient, soft-switched interleaved variable frequency flybacks, operating in the boundary conduction mode (BCM). The scheme concept and circuit configuration, operation principle and theoretical waveforms, design equations, and design considerations are presented. Furthermore, design examples are also given, illustrating the significance of the newly derived frequency equation for flybacks operating in BCM. In chapters 3, 4, and 5, the design implementation and optimization of the novel DC/DC converter illustrated in chapter 2 are discussed. In chapter 3, a detailed variable frequency BCM flyback design model leading to optimizing the component selections and transformer design, detailed in chapter 4, is presented. Furthermore, in chapter 4, the method enabling the use of lower voltage rating switching devices is also discussed. In chapter 5, circuitry related to Start-UP, drive for the main switching devices, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) as well as turn OFF soft switching and interleaving control are fully detailed. The experimental results of the proposed DC/DC converter are presented in

  12. Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for Enhancing Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-24

    Energy and Environment Technology Transition – Supporting DoD Readiness, Sustainability, and the Warfighter Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Photovoltaic (PV) Power Systems for Enhancing Energy Security 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...use of 235W solar panels Note [2] System AC Rating based upon typical .77 conversion factor from DC power to AC power ConsiderationNo. PV LAYOUT OPTION

  13. Photovoltaic materials and crystal growth research and development in the Gigawatt era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszek, T. F.

    2014-05-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry has recently undergone a period of oversupply and plunging prices which has imposed a harsh reevaluation of criteria for viability. The background history leading up to the current PV technology situation is presented and discussed in terms of the PV learning curve (PV module selling price as a function of amount produced). The effects of the past and recent learning curve fluctuations and their technological causes on various PV material crystal growth approaches are described. Some crystal growth research and development (R&D) needs for future viability are discussed.

  14. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance.

  15. PV modules with optimized energy balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weixlberger, Johann; Bruckner, Richard

    2011-09-01

    The overall energy balance of a solar PV-module across its life time needs a consideration incl. its energy consumption during manufacturing process versus its energy harvesting capabilities during life time. A glass-glass-module based on thin tempered glass on front and backside can dramatically influence this overall balance, since more than 50 % of encapsulation materials manufacturing energy can be saved, followed by a an further impact on frameless mounting of light-weighted modules, reducing mounting costs and enabling simpler BIPV.

  16. Development of a Dispatchable PV Peak Shainv System. PV: Bonus Program - Phase 1 Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Delmarva Power and Light and its subcontractors in Phase 1 of the US Department of Energy's PV:BONUS Program. The purpose of the program is to develop products and systems for buildings which utilize photovoltaic (N) technology. Beginning with a cooperative research effort with the University of Delaware's Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Delmarva Power developed and demonstrated the concept of Dispatchable PV Peak Shaving. This concept and the system which resulted horn the development work are unique from other grid-connected PV systems because it combines a PV, battery energy storage, power conversion and control technologies into an integrated package. Phase 1 began in July 1993 with the installation of a test and demonstration system at Delmarva's Northern Division General Office building near Newark, Delaware. Following initial testing throughout the summer and fall of 1993, significant modifications were made under an amendment to the DOE contract. Work on Phase 1 concluded in the early spring of 1995. Significant progress towards the goal of commercializing the system was made during Phase 1, and is summarized. Based on progress in Phase 1, a proposal to continue the work in Phase 2 was submitted to the US DOE in May 1995. A contract amendment and providing funds for the Phase 2 work is expected in July 1995.

  17. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2013-02-19

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  18. Methods of preparing flexible photovoltaic devices using epitaxial liftoff, and preserving the integrity of growth substrates used in epitaxial growth

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Lee, Kyusang; Shiu, Kuen-Ting

    2015-01-06

    There is disclosed methods of making photosensitive devices, such as flexible photovoltaic (PV) devices, through the use of epitaxial liftoff. Also described herein are methods of preparing flexible PV devices comprising a structure having a growth substrate, wherein the selective etching of protective layers yields a smooth growth substrate that us suitable for reuse.

  19. Advanced dendritic web growth development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.

  20. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells for Large-Area PV Fabrication on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldauf, C.; Dennler, G.; Schilinsky, P.; Brabec, C. J.

    Photovoltaics (PV) is the harvesting of energy from sunlight and conversion into electrical power. This technology is being increasingly recognized as one of the key components in our future global energy scenario. The limited resources of fossil fuel and the steadily increasing costs to supply fossil fuels to the market give a natural limit when renewable energies will begin to kick in as major energy suppliers. In addition, the detrimental long-term effects of CO2 and other emissions from burning fossil fuels into our atmosphere underscore the multiple benefits of developing renewable energy resources and commercializing them.

  1. Challenge to Move from 'One Size Fits All' to PV Modules the Customer Needs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Bosco, N.; Kempe, M.; Smith, R.; Packard, C. E.

    2011-09-01

    Historically, PV companies requested a single qualification test for a single product. As the market has grown, there have been increasing opportunities for companies to differentiate their products while still maintaining high manufacturing volumes of each product. At the same time, as PV is deployed in an increasingly broad range of conditions, modules need to be able to withstand a wide range of stresses. In some cases, targeting a specific deployment condition may allow reduction of product cost. Realizing this opportunity will require the ability to confidently predict long-term performance based on accelerated tests and known weather conditions. By working together, the community can most quickly develop tests that identify which products perform well under which conditions. This paper discusses some of the challenges of predicting long-term PV performance, including the wide range of stresses that may be encountered, the variability of the stresses from moment to moment, the complexity of some degradation mechanisms, and the dependence of accelerated testing on module geometry. The paper also describes two international projects that deal with location-specific durability evaluation and long-term module performance.

  2. A fatal case of poisoning related to new cathinone designer drugs, 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, and 4-methoxy PV9, and a dissociative agent, diphenidine.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Keiko; Usumoto, Yosuke; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Sameshima, Naomi; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2015-09-01

    A woman in her thirties was found dead on a bed. Considerable amounts of "aroma liquid" and "bath salt" products and hypnotic drug tablets were scattered beside the bed. Autopsy showed pulmonary congestion and edema. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses of "aroma liquid" and "bath salt" products showed the presence of new cathinone designer drugs, 4-methoxy PV8 (4-methoxy PHPP), PV9 (α-POP), and 4-methoxy PV9 (4-methoxy α-POP), and a dissociative agent, diphenidine. Drug screening in stomach contents, blood and hydrolyzed urine of the woman by GC-MS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed the presence of the above 4 types of drugs and 3 types of benzodiazepines, triazolam, flunitrazepam, and nitrazepam, and their metabolites. The above 7 drugs and 3 benzodiazepine metabolites were simultaneously determined by LC-MS/MS after modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) extraction using diazepam-d5 as the internal standard. The concentrations of 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, 4-methoxy PV9, and diphenidine in the femoral blood were 2.69, 0.743, 0.261, and 1.38μg/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than concentrations reported in previous cases. Alcohol concentration in the femoral blood was 1.52mg/ml. Based on the pathological and toxicological findings, the cause of death was determined to be 3 types of cathinone drugs, 4-methoxy PV8, PV9, and 4-methoxy PV9, and diphenidine poisoning under the influence of 3 benzodiazepines and alcohol.

  3. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  4. When PV modules are becoming real building elements: White solar module, a revolution for BIPV (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Escarré, Jordi; Li, Heng-Yu; Sansonnens, Laurent; Galliano, Federico; Cattaneo, Gianluca; Heinstein, Patrick; Nicolay, Sylvain; Bailat, Julien; Eberhard, Sébastien; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) is not anymore an option but a real need in the construction of nearly zero energy buildings. To date, the lack of PV products specifically designed for building integration, considering aesthetics and architectural aspects, is one important limiting factor allowing a massive deployment of PV in the built environment. Architects are continuously asking for new solutions to customize the colour of PV elements to better integrate them into the building skin. Among these colours, white is especially attractive as it is widely used in architecture for its elegance, versatility and fresh look. Until now, white solar modules were not considered to be an option and even never been though to be a technological possibility. Nonetheless, CSEM recently developed a new technology to make white solar modules a reality. Furthermore, the new Swiss company called Solaxess is now working on the industrialisation of this very innovative technology and the first products are expecting to be on the market at the end of 2015. The technology is based on the combination of two different elements: a solar cell able to convert solar infrared light into electricity and a selective filter which reflects and diffuse the whole visible spectrum. Any PV technology based on crystalline silicon can be used as they have a good response in the infrared. Approximately 55% of the current generated under standard test conditions comes from the infrared leading to conversion efficiencies above 11%. We will demonstrate, that thanks to this very innovative technology PV modules can become attractive and real active building elements and therefore meets the requirements of any future energy management through advanced building skins.

  5. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People’s Republic of China: 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Honglei; Xu, Lin; Shao, Yechang; Li, Liping; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West). Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI) was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates. Results Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the decrease in suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China. Suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China for the study period increased with age and was higher in rural than in urban area, higher in males than in females, and the highest in the Central region. When GDP per capita increased by 2,787 RMB, the suicide rate decreased by 0.498 times. VCMI showed no significant relationship with suicide rate in the negative binomial regression. Conclusion Suicide rate decreased in 2004–2013; varied among different age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions; and was negatively associated with the economic growth in the People’s Republic of

  6. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  7. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone replacement therapy in Japanese adults with growth hormone deficiency: a post-marketing observational study.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Akira; Tai, Shigeru; Imori, Makoto; Ihara, Katsuichiro; Taketsuna, Masanori; Funai, Jumpei; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Teramoto, Akira; Irie, Minoru; Chihara, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    This large-scale observational study examined the long-term effectiveness and safety of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for adult GH deficiency (GHD) in Japanese clinical practice using the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study database. The study included 402 GHD patients for safety analyses and a subset of 209 patients (149 adult-onset and 60 childhood-onset GHD patients) who had not previously received GH replacement therapy for the efficacy analyses. Data on clinical, metabolic, quality of life (QoL) characteristics, and all adverse events (AEs) were collected at baseline (start of GH treatment), 6 months, 1 year and 2 years. Over the observation period, there were improvements from baseline in insulin-like growth factor-I standard deviation scores (P<0.001), although the changes in metabolic parameters were minimal. QoL (Short Form-36) Z-scores significantly increased from baseline in both onset-type groups for several subscale domains (P<0.05). A total of 145 (36.1%) patients experienced ≥1 AE. Common AEs were hyperlipidaemia (2.7%) and hyperinsulinaemia (2.2%). Some patients experienced recurrent hypothalamic/pituitary tumour (events per 1000 patient-years: 2.78), new benign (0.93), malignant tumour (10.28) or other new tumour (0.93), new diabetes mellitus (7.45), and new stroke (3.71). Seven patients died during the observation period. Our safety findings are inconclusive about the associations between GH replacement and AEs, although the incidence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular events are similar to those reported in the Japanese general population. In conclusion, the key beneficial effects of GH replacement therapy for GHD are observed in routine clinical practice in Japan.

  8. New Course Development in Multicultural Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    The multicultural market has witnessed tremendous growth in many societies, yet multicultural marketing is marginalized in the marketing curriculum. The focus of this article is to stimulate more discussion of multicultural issues within marketing by proposing suggestions for a multicultural marketing course and identifying appropriate teaching…

  9. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  11. AtPV42a and AtPV42b Redundantly Regulate Reproductive Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Hou, Xingliang; Lee, Li Yen Candy; Liu, Lu; Yan, Xiaojing; Yu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background The conserved SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 complexes are global regulators of metabolic responses in eukaryotes and play a key role in the control of energy balance. Although α-type subunits of the SnRK1 complex have been characterized in several plant species, the biological function of β-type and γ-type subunits remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized AtPV42a and AtPV42b, the two homologous genes in Arabidopsis, which encode cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain-containing proteins that belong to the PV42 class of γ-type subunits of the plant SnRK1 complexes. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the expression of AtPV42a and AtPV42b in various tissues. Transgenic plants that expressed artificial microRNAs targeting these two genes were created. Reproductive organ development and fertilization in these plants were examined by various approaches, including histological analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and phenotypic analyses of reciprocal crosses between wild-type and transgenic plants. We found that AtPV42a and AtPV42b were expressed in various tissues during different developmental stages. Transgenic plants where AtPV42a and AtPV42b were simultaneously silenced developed shorter siliques and reduced seed sets. Such low fertility phenotype resulted from deregulation of late stamen development and impairment of pollen tube attraction conferred by the female gametophyte. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that AtPV42a and AtPV42b play redundant roles in regulating male gametogenesis and pollen tube guidance, indicating that the Arabidopsis SnRK1 complexes might be involved in the control of reproductive development. PMID:21533063

  12. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  13. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  14. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report: January 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the U.S. solar electricity market, including photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. The report provides an overview of global and U.S. installation trends. It also presents production and shipment data, material and supply chain issues, and solar industry employment trends. It also presents cost, price, and performance trends; and discusses policy and market drivers such as recently passed federal legislation, state and local policies, and developments in project financing. The final chapter provides data on private investment trends and near-term market forecasts.

  15. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  16. Previous reports of bacterial diseases on crucifers attributed to Pseuomonas syringae pv. maculicola were caused by P. cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pca) causes bacterial blight on crucifers, which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s Pca was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm), althoug...

  17. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  18. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  19. Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

  20. Managing PV Power on Mars - MER Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Chin, Keith; Wood, Eric; Herman, Jennifer; Ewell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The MER Rovers have recently completed over 5 years of operation! This is a remarkable demonstration of the capabilities of PV power on the Martian surface. The extended mission required the development of an efficient process to predict the power available to the rovers on a day-to-day basis. The performance of the MER solar arrays is quite unlike that of any other Space array and perhaps more akin to Terrestrial PV operation, although even severe by that comparison. The impact of unpredictable factors, such as atmospheric conditions and dust accumulation (and removal) on the panels limits the accurate prediction of array power to short time spans. Based on the above, it is clear that long term power predictions are not sufficiently accurate to allow for detailed long term planning. Instead, the power assessment is essentially a daily activity, effectively resetting the boundary points for the overall predictive power model. A typical analysis begins with the importing of the telemetry from each rover's previous day's power subsystem activities. This includes the array power generated, battery state-of-charge, rover power loads, and rover orientation, all as functions of time. The predicted performance for that day is compared to the actual performance to identify the extent of any differences. The model is then corrected for these changes. Details of JPL's MER power analysis procedure are presented, including the description of steps needed to provide the final prediction for the mission planners. A dust cleaning event of the solar array is also highlighted to illustrate the impact of Martian weather on solar array performance

  1. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  2. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  3. Three junction holographic micro-scale PV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this work a spectrum splitting micro-scale concentrating PV system is evaluated to increase the conversion efficiency of flat panel PV systems. In this approach, the dispersed spectrum splitting concentration systems is scaled down to a small size and structured in an array. The spectrum splitting configuration allows the use of separate single bandgap PV cells that increase spectral overlap with the incident solar spectrum. This results in an overall increase in the spectral conversion efficiency of the resulting system. In addition other benefits of the micro-scale PV system are retained such reduced PV cell material requirements, more versatile interconnect configurations, and lower heat rejection requirements that can lead to a lower cost system. The system proposed in this work consists of two cascaded off-axis holograms in combination with a micro lens array, and three types of PV cells. An aspherical lens design is made to minimize the dispersion so that higher concentration ratios can be achieved for a three-junction system. An analysis methodology is also developed to determine the optical efficiency of the resulting system, the characteristics of the dispersed spectrum, and the overall system conversion efficiency for a combination of three types of PV cells.

  4. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  5. Sub-synchronous resonance damping using high penetration PV plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayyatzadeh, M.; Kazemzadeh, R.

    2017-02-01

    The growing need to the clean and renewable energy has led to the fast development of transmission voltage-level photovoltaic (PV) plants all over the world. These large scale PV plants are going to be connected to power systems and one of the important subjects that should be investigated is the impact of these plants on the power system stability. Can large scale PV plants help to damp sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) and how? In this paper, this capability of a large scale PV plant is investigated. The IEEE Second Benchmark Model aggregated with a PV plant is utilized as the case study. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based conventional damping controller is designed and added to the main control loop of PV plant in order to damp the SSR and also investigation of the destructive effect of time delay in remote feedback signal. A new optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) algorithm has been used for managing the optimization problems. Fast Furrier Transformer (FFT) analysis and also transient simulations of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controller. Robustness of the proposed system has been analyzed by facing the system with disturbances leading to significant changes in generator and power system operating point, fault duration time and PV plant generated power. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  6. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  7. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  8. CPV Vs. PV from a grid-matching perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobach, E.; Bader, S.; Faiman, D.; Solomon, A. A.; Meron, G.

    2012-10-01

    In a recently-published series of papers we studied the general problem of matching large PV systems of various kinds to the electricity grid. In those studies CPV systems were simulated via an artificial ansatz in which they were treated as 2-axis flat-panel PV systems whose light sensitivity is only to the direct normal component (DNI) of solar irradiance. The present study replaces this ansatz with an experimentally validated model of a real CPV system. We compare a genuine 2-axis high-concentration CPV system with a static flat-panel PV system from the standpoint of matching both system types to the Israeli electricity grid.

  9. Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities and Potential Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-02-01

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy efficiency improvements, and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms, and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have met with mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including: (1) historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, (2) lack of program awareness, (3) reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and (4) a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy, and not in need of financing. Although some of these barriers have begun to fade--most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates--the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from several U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the City of Berkeley, California, these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather

  10. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  11. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  12. Market valuation perspectives for photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2014-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, working with Energy Sense Finance developed the proof-ofconcept PV Valueª tool in 2011 to provide real estate appraisers a tool that can be used to develop the market value and fair market value of a solar photovoltaic system. PV Valueª moved from a proof-of-concept spreadsheet to a commercial web-based tool developed and operated exclusively by Energy Sense Finance in June 2014. This paper presents the results of a survey aimed at different user categories in order to measure how the tool is being used in the marketplace as well as elicit information that can be used to improve the tools effectiveness.

  13. Photovoltaics for Buildings: Key Issues in Pursuit of Market Readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, S. J.

    1998-10-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry is rapidly beginning to recognize the market potential of the buildings sector. New PV-for-buildings products have recently become commercially available, and numerous products that are under development will be introduced within the next 5 years. To ensure that these new products will be adopted and used in common building practices, the PV industry should recognize and address important buildings industry issues. These issues include building codes and standards, after-market servicing, education, and warranties and insurance policies. Photovoltaic systems are also still very expensive. The simplest method for increasing their value for a building is to decrease the building's electrical loads through energy efficiency and conservation. Meeting these goals can only be accomplished through partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), private industry, and public institutions.

  14. Photovoltaics for buildings: Key issues in pursuit of market readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayter, Sheila J.

    1999-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry is rapidly beginning to recognize the market potential of the buildings sector. New PV-for-buildings products have recently become commercially available, and numerous products that are under development will be introduced within the next 5 years. To ensure that these new products will be adopted and used in common building practices, the PV industry should recognize and address important buildings industry issues. These issues include building codes and standards, after-market servicing, education, and warranties and insurance policies. Photovoltaic systems are also still very expensive. The simplest method for increasing their value for a building is to decrease the building's electrical loads through energy efficiency and conservation. Meeting these goals can only be accomplished through partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), private industry, and public institutions.

  15. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Doris, E.; Krasko, V.; Hillman, D.

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  16. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) intake of SEP. In experiment II, 24 male growing goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P < 0.05) in the SPVD group (44 g/d and 8.4 kg, respectively), but similar between the SEP+SPV (19 and 6.8) and Control (21 and 6.9) groups. In conclusion, SPV can support goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed.

  17. Concentrating PV survey: an unbiased overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, Jim; Peterson, Terry

    2011-10-01

    Concentrating Photovoltaic technology garnered significant attention during the polysilicon shortage of 2007-2009. Between 70-80 companies disclosed plans to produce photovoltaic equipment, but only a few actually deployed systems. This paper reviews the candidates in this market who might be able to deploy 50MW systems by 2012, and discusses these companies and their technologies. Some analysis of the prospects for the CPV market is also detailed. This paper draws from a survey of the CPV market performed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) for the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District1, a recent NREL2 study and the International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (iNEMI) Advance Manufacturing Technology Roadmap3.

  18. Nurse education in competitive markets: the case for relationship marketing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M

    1998-10-01

    Since the National Health Service reforms of the late 1980s, nurse education has been increasingly subject to market forces. This new competitive environment presents not only threat, but also challenge and opportunity. Providers of nurse education who recognize the need for market orientation and develop responsive marketing strategies will maximize their potential for market retention and growth. Traditional marketing strategies have considerable limitations for public sector services. The new and growing field of relationship marketing offers nurse education an opportunity to retain and develop profitable relationships with both internal and external markets. This paper reviews the marketing arena in nurse education and proposes context-based qualitative research to ascertain definitive constructs of service quality. Such constructs might then be rooted in a theoretical framework of service quality measurement, and be measured within the disconfirmation paradigm of relationship marketing.

  19. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  20. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  1. Deconstructing Solar Photovoltaic Pricing: The Role of Market Structure, Technology, and Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Gillingham, Kenneth; Deng, Hao; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim; Nemet, Gregory; Barbose, Galen; Rai, Varun; Dong, C. G.

    2014-12-15

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) system prices in the United States display considerable heterogeneity both across geographic locations and within a given location. Such heterogeneity may arise due to state and federal policies, differences in market structure, and other factors that influence demand and costs. This paper examines the relative importance of such factors on equilibrium solar PV system prices in the United States using a detailed dataset of roughly 100,000 recent residential and small commercial installations. As expected, we find that PV system prices differ based on characteristics of the systems. More interestingly, we find evidence suggesting that search costs and imperfect competition affect solar PV pricing. Installer density substantially lowers prices, while regions with relatively generous financial incentives for solar PV are associated with higher prices.

  2. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing a photovoltaic (PV) system for northern climates, the prospective installation should be evaluated with respect to the potentially detrimental effects of snow preventing solar radiation from reaching the PV cells. The extent to which snow impacts performance is difficult to determine because snow events also increase the uncertainty of the solar radiation measurement, and the presence of snow needs to be distinguished from other events that can affect performance. This paper describes two instruments useful for evaluating PV system performance losses from the presence of snow: (1) a pyranometer with a heater to prevent buildup of ice and snow, and (2) a digital camera for remote retrieval of images to determine the presence of snow on the PV array.

  3. Retaining the Value of PV at High Penetration Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah; Bolen, Michael

    2016-10-13

    PV prices have dropped and are now attractive without incentives for peaking applications in some locations. Modeling suggests and, empirically, some regions demonstrate that as PV penetration increases its value decreases, predominantly due to a decrease in energy and capacity value. It is not apparent what technologies and price may be needed for PV to supply tens of percent of electricity in the most economically efficient manner. A 1-day workshop was co-sponsored by EPRI and NREL with support from ASU. A dozen presentations and discussions introduced how the interplay of various technologies impact the value of PV, identified technical challenges and gaps impeding implementation, and discussed future R&D needs and opportunities.

  4. Evaluation of PV Module Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.; McNutt, Peter; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes an effort to inspect and evaluate PV modules in order to determine what failure or degradation modes are occurring in field installations. This paper will report on the results of six site visits, including the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Hedge Array, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) Springerville, Central Florida Utility, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification.

  5. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.; Sherring, C.

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  6. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  7. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Designing new solar projects to be 'microgrid-ready' enables the U.S. DoD, other federal agencies, and the private sector to plan future microgrid initiatives to utilize solar PV as a generating resource. This fact sheet provides background information with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  8. pV3-Gold Visualization Environment for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa L.

    1997-01-01

    A new visualization environment, pV3-Gold, can be used during and after a computer simulation to extract and visualize the physical features in the results. This environment, which is an extension of the pV3 visualization environment developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with guidance and support by researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, features many tools that allow users to display data in various ways.

  9. Draft genome sequences of three Xanthomonas translucens pathovar reference strains (pv. arrhenatheri, pv. poae and pv. phlei) with different specificities for forage grasses.

    PubMed

    Hersemann, Lena; Wibberg, Daniel; Widmer, Franco; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Kölliker, Roland

    2016-01-01

    As causal agents of bacterial wilt in pastures and meadows, bacteria of the species Xanthomonas translucens are a serious issue in forage grass production. So far, only little is known about host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level and the lack of comprehensive genome data impeded targeted breeding strategies towards resistant forage grass cultivars. Here we announce the draft genome sequences of three grass-pathogenic Xanthomonas translucens pathotype strains, i.e. pv. arrhenatheri LMG 727, pv. poae LMG 728 and pv. phlei LMG 730 isolated from Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl (Switzerland), Poa trivialis L. (Switzerland) and Phleum pratense L. (Norway), respectively. The genomes of all three strains revealed a non-canonical type III secretion system and a set of 22 type III effectors as common virulence-related traits. Distinct inter-pathovar differences were observed for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster and the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetases.

  10. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, H; Feil, W S; Chain, P; Larimer, F; DiBartolo, G; Copeland, A; Lykidis, A; Trong, S; Nolan, M; Goltsman, E; Thiel, J; Malfatti, S; Loper, J E; Lapidus, A; Detter, J C; Land, M; Richardson, P M; Kyrpides, N C; Ivanova, N; Lindow, S E

    2005-07-14

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar syringae B728a (Pss B728a), has been determined and is compared with that of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. While a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences (REPs) unique to Pss B728a when compared to Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands vary, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin (SP), syringomycin (SR), indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.

  11. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton).

  12. High Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, D.; Hambrick, J.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service (APS) and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledgebase needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility and residential scale PV. Building upon the APS Community Power Project - Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.5 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. The goal of this paper is to provide insight and lessons learned on the early stages of high penetration PV deployment. Primarily focusing on modeling and data acquisition, this paper describes the overall project, early results, and plans for future phases of the project.

  13. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  14. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  15. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  16. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    PubMed

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  17. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  18. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  19. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  20. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Muller, Matt T.; Simpson, Lin J.

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.

  1. Strategic Planning and the Marketing Process: Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Elizabeth J.

    1983-01-01

    Illustrates how basic principles of marketing and strategic market planning can be applied to libraries and discusses some concepts of strategic planning (organization mission, objectives and goals, growth strategy, program portfolio plan) and marketing (opportunity analysis, target market selection, marketing mix strategy, marketing systems…

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 uses constitutive and apoplast-induced nutrient assimilation pathways to catabolize nutrients that are abundant in the tomato apoplast.

    PubMed

    Rico, Arantza; Preston, Gail M

    2008-02-01

    The plant apoplast is the intercellular space that surrounds plant cells, in which metabolic and physiological processes relating to cell wall biosynthesis, nutrient transport, and stress responses occur. The apoplast is also the primary site of infection for hemibiotrophic pathogens such as P. syringae, which obtain nutrients directly from apoplastic fluid. We have used apoplastic fluid extracted from healthy tomato leaves as a growth medium for Pseudomonas spp. in order to investigate the role of apoplastic nutrients in plant colonization by Pseudomonas syringae. We have confirmed that apoplast extracts mimic some of the environmental and nutritional conditions that bacteria encounter during apoplast colonization by demonstrating that expression of the plant-induced type III protein secretion pathway is upregulated during bacterial growth in apoplast extracts. We used a modified phenoarray technique to show that apoplast-adapted P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 expresses nutrient utilization pathways that allow it to use sugars, organic acids, and amino acids that are highly abundant in the tomato apoplast. Comparative analyses of the nutrient utilization profiles of the genome-sequenced strains P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, and the unsequenced strain P. syringae pv. tabaci 11528 with nine other genome-sequenced strains of Pseudomonas provide further evidence that P. syringae strains are adapted to use nutrients that are abundant in the leaf apoplast. Interestingly, P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A lacks many of the nutrient utilization abilities that are present in three other P. syringae strains tested, which can be directly linked to differences in the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A genome.

  3. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  4. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    PubMed

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  5. All-AC, building integrated PV system for mass deployment of residential PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cammack, Kevin; Augenbraun, Joe; Sun, Dan

    2011-05-17

    Project Objective: Solar Red is developing novel PV installation methods and system designs that lower costs dramatically and allow seamless integration into the structure of any sloped roof using existing construction tools and processes. The overall objective of this project is to address the greatest barriers to massive adoption of residential and small commercial rooftop solar – scalability of installation and total cost of ownership - by moving Solar Red’s snap-in/snap-out PV installation method from the pre-prototype design phase to the development and construction of a deployed prototype system. Financial Summary: Funded through ARRA, DOE and Match Funding Original Project Budget: $229,310 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $79,310 Actual Cost: $216,598 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $120,087 Project Summary: Develop snap-in/snap-out mounting system for low-cost, thin-film solar panels – Lower installation cost – Lower sales costs – Lower training/expertise barriers

  6. The Class II Trehalose 6-phosphate Synthase Gene PvTPS9 Modulates Trehalose Metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Barraza, Aarón; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Reyes, José L.; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A.; Avonce, Nelson; Quinto, Carmen; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1%) of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant. PMID:27847509

  7. Synergistic combination of valproic acid and oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV as a potential therapy against cervical and pancreatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Junwei; Bonifati, Serena; Hristov, Georgi; Marttila, Tiina; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Stanzel, Sven; Schnölzer, Martina; Mougin, Christiane; Aprahamian, Marc; Grekova, Svitlana P; Raykov, Zahari; Rommelaere, Jean; Marchini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    The rat parvovirus H-1PV has oncolytic and tumour-suppressive properties potentially exploitable in cancer therapy. This possibility is being explored and results are encouraging, but it is necessary to improve the oncotoxicity of the virus. Here we show that this can be achieved by co-treating cancer cells with H-1PV and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) such as valproic acid (VPA). We demonstrate that these agents act synergistically to kill a range of human cervical carcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma cell lines by inducing oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. Strikingly, in rat and mouse xenograft models, H-1PV/VPA co-treatment strongly inhibits tumour growth promoting complete tumour remission in all co-treated animals. At the molecular level, we found acetylation of the parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 at residues K85 and K257 to modulate NS1-mediated transcription and cytotoxicity, both of which are enhanced by VPA treatment. These results warrant clinical evaluation of H-1PV/VPA co-treatment against cervical and pancreatic ductal carcinomas.

  8. The Class II Trehalose 6-phosphate Synthase Gene PvTPS9 Modulates Trehalose Metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris Nodules.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Aarón; Contreras-Cubas, Cecilia; Estrada-Navarrete, Georgina; Reyes, José L; Juárez-Verdayes, Marco A; Avonce, Nelson; Quinto, Carmen; Díaz-Camino, Claudia; Sanchez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1%) of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  9. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  10. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  11. On the spectral response of PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, J. Y.; Guo, S.; Walsh, T. M.; Hishikawa, Y.; Stangl, R. A.

    2014-09-01

    The spectral response of silicon wafer based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules is studied using simulation and experimental methods. Circuit simulations show that the module spectral response (SR) depends on (1) the SR of the cells, (2) the shunt resistance Rshunt of the cells, and (3) the bypass diodes of the module. For realistic Rshunt values, the module SR is significantly higher than the minimal SR of the individual cells (which would be the module SR in the case of infinite Rshunt). Round-robin tests using different experimental methods (partial illumination and full-area illumination) to determine the SR of a wafer-based module and a thin-film silicon module were conducted. Both SR methods are found to agree reasonably well. However, circuit simulations indicate that if only one cell, or a few cells, within the module have significantly different characteristics but not known, the results may differ considerably. The partial illumination method can access the SR of the individual cells within a module, but it possibly requires a long measurement time in order to measure the SR and Rshunt of each cell for confirming the SR of the whole module. In contrast, full-area illumination methods measure the module SR directly, but they cannot access the cell SRs if problematic cells exist. An uncertainty analysis of the full-area illumination method is conducted, which reveals that—if the calibrated reference cell is chosen properly—the calibration uncertainty of the reference cell itself is the main source of uncertainty.

  12. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  13. EcpA, an extracellular protease, is a specific virulence factor required by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola but not by X. oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua-Song; Song, Xue; Zou, Li-Fang; Yuan, Liang; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Wei; Che, Yi-Zhou; Zhao, Wen-Xiang; Duan, Yong-Ping; Chen, Gong-You

    2012-09-01

    Previously, 12 protease-deficient mutants of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) RS105 strain were recovered from a Tn5-tagged mutant library. In the current study, the Tn5 insertion site in each mutant was mapped. Mutations in genes encoding components of the type II secretion apparatus, cAMP regulatory protein, integral membrane protease subunit, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase proenzyme and extracellular protease (ecpA(Xoc)) either partially or completely abolished extracellular protease activity (ECPA) and reduced virulence in rice. Transcription of ecpA(Xoc) was induced in planta in all the mutants except RΔecpA. Complementation of RΔecpA with ecpA(Xoc) in trans restored ECPA, virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Purified EcpA(Xoc) induced chlorosis- and necrosis-like symptoms similar to those induced by the pathogen when injected into rice leaves. Heterologous expression of ecpA(Xoc) conferred ECPA upon the vascular bacterium X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and upon non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the C-terminal residues of EcpA in Xoo PXO99(A) and Xoc RS105 are different, and a frame shift in ecpA(Xoo) may explain the absence of EcpA activity in Xoo. Collectively, these results suggest that EcpA(Xoc) is a tissue-specific virulence factor for Xoc but not Xoo, although the two pathovars are closely related bacterial pathogens of rice.

  14. Understanding the Complexities of Subnational Incentives in Supporting a National Market for Distributed Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Doris, E.; Getman, D.

    2014-09-01

    Subnational policies pertaining to photovoltaic (PV) systems have increased in volume in recent years and federal incentives are set to be phased out over the next few. Understanding how subnational policies function within and across jurisdictions, thereby impacting PV market development, informs policy decision making. This report was developed for subnational policy-makers and researchers in order to aid the analysis on the function of PV system incentives within the emerging PV deployment market. The analysis presented is based on a 'logic engine,' a database tool using existing state, utility, and local incentives allowing users to see the interrelationships between PV system incentives and parameters, such as geographic location, technology specifications, and financial factors. Depending on how it is queried, the database can yield insights into which combinations of incentives are available and most advantageous to the PV system owner or developer under particular circumstances. This is useful both for individual system developers to identify the most advantageous incentive packages that they qualify for as well as for researchers and policymakers to better understand the patch work of incentives nationwide as well as how they drive the market.

  15. Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Tian, Tian; Miller, Mackay

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to evaluate China's photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards and the U.S. counterparts and to propose recommendations for future revisions to these standards. This report references the 2013 report Comparative Study of Standards for Grid-Connected PV System in China, the U.S. and European Countries, which compares U.S., European, and China's PV grid interconnection standards; reviews various metrics for the characterization of distribution network with PV; and suggests modifications to China's PV interconnection standards and requirements. The recommendations are accompanied by assessments of four high-penetration PV grid interconnection cases in the United States to illustrate solutions implemented to resolve issues encountered at different sites. PV penetration in China and in the United States has significantly increased during the past several years, presenting comparable challenges depending on the conditions of the grid at the point of interconnection; solutions are generally unique to each interconnected PV installation or PV plant.

  16. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  17. Thermal performances of vertical hybrid PV/T air collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabet, I.; Touafek, K.; Bellel, N.; Khelifa, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, numerical analyses and the experimental validation of the thermal behavior of a vertical photovoltaic thermal air collector are investigated. The thermal model is developed using the energy balance equations of the PV/T air collector. Experimental tests are conducted to validate our mathematical model. The tests are performed in the southern Algerian region (Ghardaïa) under clear sky conditions. The prototype of the PV/T air collector is vertically erected and south oriented. The absorber upper plate temperature, glass cover temperature, air temperature in the inlet and outlet of the collector, ambient temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation are measured. The efficiency of the collector increases with increase in mass flow of air, but the increase in mass flow of air reduces the temperature of the system. The increase in efficiency of the PV/T air collector is due to the increase in the number of fins added. In the experiments, the air temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet of the PV/T air collector reaches 10 ° C on November 21, 2014, the interval time is between 10:00 and 14:00, and the temperature of the upper plate reaches 45 ° C at noon. The mathematical model describing the dynamic behavior of the typical PV/T air collector is evaluated by calculating the root mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. A good agreement between the experiment and the simulation results is obtained.

  18. The reliability of bypass diodes in PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra; Schneller, Eric; Gade, Vivek

    2013-09-01

    The operating conditions of bypass diodes in PV modules deployed in the field are considerably harsher than the conditions at which the diode manufacturers test the diodes. This has a potential to significantly reduce the operating life of bypass diodes and has raised concerns about the safety and reliability of PV modules as a whole. The study of modes and mechanisms of the failures encountered in bypass diodes used in PV modules can provide important information which would be useful to predict the module lifetime. This paper presents the review of the failure modes and mechanisms observed in bypass diodes and current work related to reliability testing of bypass diodes. The International PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force has recommended following four potential areas of research to understand the reliability issues of bypass diodes: Electrostatic Discharge, reverse bias thermal runaway testing, forward bias overheating and transition testing of forward bias to reverse bias. As a joint collaborative effort between Florida Solar Energy Center and Solar and Environmental Test Laboratory at Jabil Inc., laboratory testing of bypass diodes on the guidelines provided by the International PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force has been initiated. Preliminary results from this work are presented in this paper.

  19. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Estimation of PV energy production based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, G.

    2015-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is an attractive source of power for systems without connection to power grid. Because of seasonal variations of solar radiation, design of such a power system requires careful analysis in order to provide required reliability. In this paper we present results of three-year measurements of experimental PV system located in Poland and based on polycrystalline silicon module. Irradiation values calculated from results of ground measurements have been compared with data from solar radiation databases employ calculations from of satellite observations. Good convergence level of both data sources has been shown, especially during summer. When satellite data from the same time period is available, yearly and monthly production of PV energy can be calculated with 2% and 5% accuracy, respectively. However, monthly production during winter seems to be overestimated, especially in January. Results of this work may be helpful in forecasting performance of similar PV systems in Central Europe and allow to make more precise forecasts of PV system performance than based only on tables with long time averaged values.

  1. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: results from Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-10-01

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log-log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from {f}-1.23 to {f}-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a {f}-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an {f}-1.76 spectrum. This suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  2. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  3. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGES

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  4. The Integration of Marketing in Post-Secondary Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Patrick J.; And Others

    Marketing can solve problems postsecondary vocational educators face related to enrollment, professional contribution, image, and program quality. Postsecondary vocational education should be aggressively marketed because of its expanding growth and mission. Postsecondary institutions are using various marketing strategies, including activities…

  5. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonassyringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000.

    SciTech Connect

    Feil, Helene; Feil, William S.; Chain, Patrick; Larimer, Frank; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Copeland, Alex; Lykidis, Athanasios; Trong,Stephen; Nolan, Matt; Goltsman, Eugene; Thiel, James; Malfatti,Stephanie; Loper, Joyce E.; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, John C.; Land, Miriam; Richardson, Paul M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Lindow, StevenE.

    2005-04-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringaepathovar syringae B728a (Pss B728a), has been determined and is comparedwith that of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). Thesetwo pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenicbacteria differ in host range and apparent patterns of interaction withplants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth andhigher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronouncedapoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 megabases) containsa circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids.While a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequencedPseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a whencompared to Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely tocontribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitiveextragenic palindromic sequences (REPs) unique to Pss B728a when comparedto Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genomeas a whole. Content of the genomic islands vary, with one containing aprophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Among the976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are thoseencoding for syringopeptin (SP), syringomycin (SR), indole acetic acidbiosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. Thegenomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a suchas ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contributeto epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism. Pseudomonassyringae, a member of the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria, is awidespread bacterial pathogen of many plant species. The species P.syringae is subdivided into approximately 50 pathovars based onpathogenicity and host range. P. syringae is capable of

  6. Financing Solar PV at Government Sites with PPAs and Public Debt (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Historically, state and local governmental agencies have employed one of two models to deploy solar photovoltaic (PV) projects: (1) self-ownership (financed through a variety of means) or (2) third-party ownership through a power purchase agreement (PPA). Morris County, New Jersey, administrators recently pioneered a way to combine many of the benefits of self-ownership and third-party PPAs through a bond-PPA hybrid, frequently referred to as the Morris Model. At the request of the Department of Energy's Solar Market Transformation group, NREL examined the hybrid model. This fact sheet describes how the hybrid model works, assesses the model's relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA model, provides a quick guide to project implementation, and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.

  7. Financing Solar PV at Government Sites with PPAs and Public Debt (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    Historically, state and local governmental agencies have employed one of two models to deploy solar photovoltaic (PV) projects: (1) self-ownership (financed through a variety of means) or (2) third-party ownership through a power purchase agreement (PPA). Morris County, New Jersey, administrators recently pioneered a way to combine many of the benefits of self-ownership and third-party PPAs through a bond-PPA hybrid, frequently referred to as the Morris Model. At the request of the Department of Energy?s Solar Market Transformation group, NREL examined the hybrid model. This fact sheet describes how the hybrid model works, assesses the model?s relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA model, provides a quick guide to project implementation, and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.

  8. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  9. PV Inverter Products Manufacturing and Design Improvements for Cost Reduction and Performance Enhancements: Final Subcontract Report, November 2003 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.

    2004-04-01

    The specific objectives of this subcontracted development work by Xantrex Technology Inc. were to: (1) Capture the newest digital signal processor (DSP) technology to create high-impact,''next generation'' power conversion equipment for the PV industry; (2) Create a common resource base for three PV product lines. This standardized approach to both hardware and software control platforms will provide significant market advantage over foreign competition; (3) Achieve cost reductions through increased volume of common components, reduced assembly labor, and the higher efficiency of producing more products with fewer design, manufacturing, and production test variations; (4) Increase PV inverter product reliability. Reduce inverter size, weight and conversion losses. The contract goals were to achieve an overall cost reduction of 10% to 20% for the three inverters and with no compromise in performance. The cost of the 10-kW inverter was reduced by 56%, and the cost of the 25-kW inverter was reduced by 53%. The 2.5-kW inverter has no basis for comparison, but should benefit equally from this design approach. Not only were the contract cost reduction goals exceeded by a wide margin, but the performance and reliability of the products were also enhanced. The conversion efficiency improvement, as reflected in the 50% conversion loss reduction, adds significant value in renewable energy applications. The size and weight reductions also add value by providing less cumbersome product solutions for system designers.

  10. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-01-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  11. Recent developments in high-efficiency PV cells

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-22

    Enormous progress has been made in recent years on a number of photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices in terms of conversion efficiencies. Ultrahigh-efficiency (>30{percent}) PV cells have been fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys such as gallium indium phosphide (GaInP{sub 2}). The high-efficiency GaAs-based solar cells are being produced on a commercial scale, particularly for space applications. Efficiencies in the range of 18{percent} to 24{percent} have been achieved in traditional silicon-based devices fabricated from both multicrystalline and single-crystal materials. Major advances in efficiency have also been made on various thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon (aSi:H), copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride materials. This paper gives a brief overview of the recent progress in PV cell efficiencies based on these materials and devices.

  12. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  13. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  14. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  15. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  16. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  17. Transcriptional analysis of the sweet orange interaction with the citrus canker pathogens Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifolii.

    PubMed

    Cernadas, Raúl Andrés; Camillo, Luciana Rodrigues; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2008-09-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifolii pathotype C (Xaa) are responsible for citrus canker disease; however, while Xac causes canker on all citrus varieties, Xaa is restricted to Mexican lime, and in sweet oranges it triggers a defence response. To gain insights into the differential pathogenicity exhibited by Xac and Xaa and to survey the early molecular events leading to canker development, a detailed transcriptional analysis of sweet orange plants infected with the pathogens was performed. Using differential display, suppressed subtractive hybridization and microarrays, we identified changes in transcript levels in approximately 2.0% of the approximately 32,000 citrus genes examined. Genes with altered expression in response to Xac/Xaa surveyed at 6 and 48 h post-infection (hpi) were associated with cell-wall modifications, cell division and expansion, vesicle trafficking, disease resistance, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and responses to hormones auxin, gibberellin and ethylene. Most of the genes that were commonly modulated by Xac and Xaa were associated with basal defences triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns, including those involved in reactive oxygen species production and lignification. Significantly, we detected clear changes in the transcriptional profiles of defence, cell-wall, vesicle trafficking and cell growth-related genes in Xac-infected leaves between 6 and 48 hpi. This is consistent with the notion that Xac suppresses host defences early during infection and simultaneously changes the physiological status of the host cells, reprogramming them for division and growth. Notably, brefeldin A, an inhibitor of vesicle trafficking, retarded canker development. In contrast, Xaa triggered a mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway involving WRKY and ethylene-responsive transcriptional factors known to activate downstream defence genes.

  18. Progress Toward Sequestering Carbon Nanotubes in PmPV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-diocty-loxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV] is a candidate means of promoting dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into epoxies for making strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. Bare SWNTs cannot be incorporated because they are not soluble in epoxies. In the present approach, one exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around SWNTs without chemically bonding to them.

  19. Amp-hour counting control for PV hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of an amp-hour (Ah) counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based PV hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive field testing of the charge algorithm on flooded lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The test results after one-year have demonstrated that PV charge utilization, battery charge control, and battery state of charge (SOC) has been significantly improved by providing maximum charge to the batteries while limiting battery overcharge to manufacturers specifications during variable solar resource and load periods.

  20. Toward integrated PV panels and power electronics using printing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ababei, Cristinel; Yuvarajan, Subbaraya; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, we review the latest developments in the area of printing technologies with an emphasis on the fabrication of control-embedded photovoltaics (PV) with on-board active and passive devices. We also review the use of power converters and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits with PV panels. Our focus is on the investigation of the simplest implementations of such circuits in view of their integration with solar cells using printing technologies. We see this concept as potentially enabling toward further cost reduction. Besides a discussion as to feasibility, we shall also present some projections and guidelines toward possible integration. (author)

  1. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  2. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  3. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  4. Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzis, Lisa; Friedman, David; Hill, Sarah; Teagan, Peter; Strong, Steven; Strong, Marilyn

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  5. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Photovoltaics: An Analysis of Changes in Market Forecasts from 2008 to 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, J. E.; Margolis, R. M.; Jennings, C. E.

    2009-09-01

    To examine how the financial crisis has impacted expectations of photovoltaic production, demand and pricing over the next several years, we surveyed the market forecasts of industry analysts that had issued projections in 2008 and 2009. We find that the financial crisis has had a significant impact on the PV industry, primarily through increasing the cost and reducing the availability of investment into the sector. These effects have been more immediately experienced by PV installations than by production facilities, due to the different types and duration of investments, and thus PV demand has been reduced by a greater proportion than PV production. By reducing demand more than production, the financial crisis has accelerated previously expected PV overcapacity and resulting price declines.

  6. An oxidoreductase is involved in cercosporin degradation by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tanya V; Mitchell, Thomas K; Daub, Margaret E

    2006-09-01

    The polyketide toxin cercosporin plays a key role in pathogenesis by fungal species of the genus Cercospora. The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. zinniae is able to rapidly degrade this toxin. Growth of X. campestris pv. zinniae strains in cercosporin-containing medium leads to the breakdown of cercosporin and to the formation of xanosporic acid, a nontoxic breakdown product. Five non-cercosporin-degrading mutants of a strain that rapidly degrades cercosporin (XCZ-3) were generated by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis and were then transformed with a genomic library from the wild-type strain. All five mutants were complemented with the same genomic clone, which encoded a putative transcriptional regulator and an oxidoreductase. Simultaneous expression of these two genes was necessary to complement the mutant phenotype. Sequence analysis of the mutants showed that all five mutants had point mutations in the oxidoreductase gene and no mutations in the regulator. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of both of these genes in the wild-type strain is upregulated after exposure to cercosporin. Both the oxidoreductase and transcriptional regulator genes were transformed into three non-cercosporin-degrading bacteria to determine if they are sufficient for cercosporin degradation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the oxidoreductase was expressed in all transconjugants. However, none of the transconjugants were able to degrade cercosporin, suggesting that additional factors are required for cercosporin degradation. Further study of cercosporin degradation in X. campestris pv. zinniae may allow for the engineering of Cercospora-resistant plants by using a suite of genes.

  7. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  8. Differences between Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and Pantoea agglomerans BRT98 in Epiphytic and Endophytic Colonization of Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Sabaratnam, Siva; Beattie, Gwyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The leaf colonization strategies of two bacterial strains were investigated. The foliar pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a and the nonpathogen Pantoea agglomerans strain BRT98 were marked with a green fluorescent protein, and surface (epiphytic) and subsurface (endophytic) sites of bean and maize leaves in the laboratory and the field were monitored to see if populations of these strains developed. The populations were monitored using both fluorescence microscopy and counts of culturable cells recovered from nonsterilized and surface-sterilized leaves. The P. agglomerans strain exclusively colonized epiphytic sites on the two plant species. Under favorable conditions, the P. agglomerans strain formed aggregates that often extended over multiple epidermal cells. The P. syringae pv. syringae strain established epiphytic and endophytic populations on asymptomatic leaves of the two plant species in the field, with most of the P. syringae pv. syringae B728a cells remaining in epiphytic sites of the maize leaves and an increasing number occupying endophytic sites of the bean leaves in the 15-day monitoring period. The epiphytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from multiplication in surface sites rather than from the movement of cells from subsurface to surface sites. The endophytic P. syringae pv. syringae B728a populations appeared to originate primarily from inward movement through the stomata, with higher levels of multiplication occurring in bean than in maize. A rainstorm involving a high raindrop momentum was associated with rapid growth of the P. agglomerans strain on both plant species and with rapid growth of both the epiphytic and endophytic populations of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on bean but not with growth of the P. syringae pv. syringae strain on maize. These results demonstrate that the two bacterial strains employed distinct colonization strategies and that the epiphytic and

  9. Capturing the Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Digital lecture capture and broadcast solutions have been around for only about 10 years, but are poised for healthy growth. Frost & Sullivan research analysts estimate that the market (which amounts to $25 million currently) will quadruple by 2013. It's still dominated by a few key players, however: Sonic Foundry holds a hefty 40 percent-plus…

  10. Technology support for initiation of high-throughput processing of thin-film CdTe PV modules. Phase 3 final technical report, 14 March 1997--1 April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.C.; Dorer, G.L.; Jayamaha, U.; Hanak, J.J.

    1998-09-01

    Thin-film PV devices based on cadmium telluride have been identified as one of the candidates for high-performance, low-cost source of renewable electrical energy. Roadblocks to their becoming a part of the booming PV market growth have been a low rate of production and high manufacturing cost caused by several rate-limiting process steps. Solar Cells Inc. has focused on the development of manufacturing processes that will lead to high volume and low-cost manufacturing of solar cells and on increasing the performance of the present product. The process research in Phase 3 was concentrated on further refinement of a newly developed vapor transport deposition (VTD) process and its implementation into the manufacturing line. This development included subsystems for glass substrate transport, continuous feed of source materials, generation of source vapors, and uniform deposition of the semiconductor layers. As a result of this R and D effort, the VTD process has now achieved a status in which linear coating speeds in excess of 8 ft/min have been achieved for the semiconductor, equal to about two modules per minute, or 144 kW per 24 hour day. The process has been implemented in a production line, which is capable of round-the-clock continuous production of coated substrates 120 cm x 60 cm in size at a rate of 1 module every four minutes, equal to 18 kW/day. Currently the system cycle time is limited by the rate of glass introduction into the system and glass heating, but not by the rate of the semiconductor deposition. A new SCI record efficiency of 14.1% has been achieved for the cells.

  11. Social marketing in public health.

    PubMed

    Grier, Sonya; Bryant, Carol A

    2005-01-01

    Social marketing, the use of marketing to design and implement programs to promote socially beneficial behavior change, has grown in popularity and usage within the public health community. Despite this growth, many public health professionals have an incomplete understanding of the field. To advance current knowledge, we provide a practical definition and discuss the conceptual underpinnings of social marketing. We then describe several case studies to illustrate social marketing's application in public health and discuss challenges that inhibit the effective and efficient use of social marketing in public health. Finally, we reflect on future developments in the field. Our aim is practical: to enhance public health professionals' knowledge of the key elements of social marketing and how social marketing may be used to plan public health interventions.

  12. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.

    2013-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module I-V curves were measured at Florida, Colorado, and Oregon locations to provide data for the validation and development of models used for predicting the performance of PV modules.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Strains Associated with Walnut Blight in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Higuera, Gastón; González-Escalona, Narjol; Véliz, Camila; Vera, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis is an important pathogen responsible for walnut blight outbreaks globally. Here, we report four draft genome sequences of X. arboricola pv. juglandis strains isolated from Chilean walnut trees. PMID:26450732

  14. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae.

  15. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  16. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  17. Baseline testing procedures for PV modules beyond the qualification testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, Eric; Shiradkar, Narendra S.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2013-09-01

    The qualification tests described in IEC 61215 for the c-Si PV modules are essentially pass/fail tests that assist in avoiding infant mortality. This paper reports on the baseline test procedure carried out on PV modules at Florida Solar Energy Center that go beyond the pass/fail criteria of the qualification tests and obtain information about the degradation modes and mechanisms. The importance and limitations of the various characterization techniques are described. Electroluminescence imaging has been used to detect and categorize the faults at the cell level. Indoor infrared imaging has been used to study the quality of electrical interconnects in the module. The infrared imaging carried out on the modules while they are undergoing outdoor exposure has provided information about the presence and distribution of hot spots in these modules. Conventionally, the insulation resistance tester has been used mostly for the dry and wet leakage test. In this study, the importance of the polarization index test and voltage excursion test are described. The use of these tests is essential to provide insight into the modes and mechanisms of degradation, during reliability and durability studies of PV modules. A predictive model for the service life of a PV module may be developed through the results obtained from these characterization techniques in conjunction with long-term exposure and accelerated lifetime tests.

  18. Assessing the Causes of Encapsulant Delamination in PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, John H.; Hacke, Peter; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-11-21

    Delamination of the encapsulant is one of the most prevalent PV module field failures. This paper will present examples of various types of delaminations that have been observed in the field. It will then discuss the development of accelerated stress tests designed to duplicate those field failures and thus provide tools for avoiding them in the future.

  19. Detection of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea in soybean seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is one of 52 that will compose the second edition of the Laboratory Manual for the Detection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria from Seeds and other Planting Material, to be published by the American Phytopathological Society. The chapter presents a description of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. ...

  20. National solar technology roadmap: Wafer-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    This report applies to all bulk-silicon-based PV technologies, including those based on Czochralski, multicrystalline, float-zone wafers, and melt-grown crystals that are 100 μm or thicker, such as ribbons, sheet, or spheral silicon.

  1. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  2. SToPV: A Five Minute Assessment of Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Place value underpins much of what people do in number. In this article, the author describes some simple tasks that may be used to assess students' understanding of place value. This set of tasks, the Six Tasks of Place Value (SToPV), takes five minutes to administer and can give direct insight into a student's understanding of the number system…

  3. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  4. Fault Current Contribution from Single-Phase PV Inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Bravo, R.; Robles, S.

    2011-01-01

    A significant increase in photovoltaic (PV) system installations is expected to come on line in the near future and as the penetration level of PV increases, the effect of PV may no longer be considered minimal. One of the most important attributions of additional PV is what effect this may have on protection systems. Protection engineers design protection systems to safely eliminate faults from the electric power system. One of the new technologies recently introduced into the electric power system are distributed energy resources (DER). Currently, inverter-based DER contributes very little to the power balance on all but a few utility distribution systems. As DER become prevalent in the distribution system, equipment rating capability and coordination of protection systems merit a closer investigation. A collaborative research effort between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Southern California Edison (SCE) involved laboratory short-circuit testing single-phase (240 VAC) residential type (between 1.5 and 7kW) inverters. This paper will reveal test results obtained from these short-circuit tests.

  5. Recent advances in PV systems technology development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, M.; Grottke, M.; Weiss, I.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the photovoltaics (PV) systems technology development were to study several aspects of plant design, monitoring, control, operation, and management of different types of photovoltaic plants. Unsolved problems were to be identified and analysed, and guidelines to improve the monitoring system were to be developed. Principal studies are summarized.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for Power Electronics in PV Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Deline, C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.

    2011-02-01

    The presentation describes the value of adding DC converters and other power electronics to modules to improve their output even when shading or bad cells would otherwise decrease the module output. The presentation was part of a workshop sponsored by ARPA-E exploring the opportunities for power electronics to support PV applications.

  7. Lettuce cultivar influences Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians population levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial Leaf Spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv), is a widespread and economically important disease of lettuce. Cultivars with resistance to Xcv have been identified, but mechanisms for resistance in this pathosystem have not been investigated. We hypothesized that susceptibl...

  8. Defining Bankability for Each Step of a PV Project Using IECRE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-07-12

    How can a PV customer know whether a PV plant is 'good'? IECRE was created to provide a cost-effective way to identify 'good' PV plants. This presentation describes the motivation, strategy, and status of the IECRE effort as of July, 2016.

  9. Methods for high-voltage bias testing of PV modules in hot and humid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Pethe, Shirish A.; Kaul, Ashwani

    2011-09-01

    The accelerated tests currently carried out on PV modules reduce the infant mortality as well as improve the production techniques during the manufacture of PV modules. However, the accelerated tests do not completely duplicate the real world operating conditions of PV modules. Hence it is essential to deploy PV modules in the field for extended periods in order to estimate the degradation, if any, as well as to elucidate the degradation mechanisms. Moreover, PV modules should be tested by specially designed tests in harsh climates. At Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) high-voltage bias testing of PV modules was carried out in hot and humid climate with the individual modules biased at +/- 600 V. It was observed that the leakage currents flowing from the PV circuit to the ground is directly proportional to the bias voltage. PV systems with maximum voltage of 1000 V are installed in Europe and elsewhere which means higher leakage currents will be produced in the PV modules. Based on this fact and the earlier observations, high voltage bias testing of c-Si PV modules specially designed for high voltage operation was carried out in hot and humid climate with the individual modules biased at +/-1500 V at FSEC and higher. This paper provides results of high voltage bias testing of PV modules. The results indicate that the test can be considered as reliable metric in determination of the long term performance of PV modules.

  10. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  11. DOE Request for Information (RFI) DE-FOA-0000153 PV Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-02-01

    This draft report summarizes the results of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Manufacturing Request for Information (RFI), DE-FOA-0000153, that was released in September 2009. The PV Manufacturing Initiative is intended to help facilitate the development of a strong PV manufacturing industry in the United States.

  12. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Daurelio, Lucas D; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2008-11-25

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile molecules that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. The bacterial citrus pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, also contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein, XacPNP, that shares significant sequence similarity and identical domain organization with plant PNPs but has no homologues in other bacteria. We have expressed and purified XacPNP and demonstrated that the bacterial protein alters physiological responses including stomatal opening in plants. Although XacPNP is not expressed under standard nutrient rich culture conditions, it is strongly induced under conditions that mimic the nutrient poor intercellular apoplastic environment of leaves, as well as in infected tissue, suggesting that XacPNP transcription can respond to the host environment. To characterize the role of XacPNP during bacterial infection, we constructed a XacPNP deletion mutant. The lesions caused by this mutant were more necrotic than those observed with the wild-type, and bacterial cell death occurred earlier in the mutant. Moreover, when we expressed XacPNP in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, the transgenic bacteria caused less necrotic lesions in the host than the wild-type. In conclusion, we present evidence that a plant-like bacterial PNP can enable a plant pathogen to modify host responses to create conditions favorable to its own survival.

  13. Xanthan Pyruvilation Is Essential for the Virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Bianco, María Isabel; Toum, Laila; Yaryura, Pablo Marcelo; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Gudesblat, Gustavo Eduardo; Roeschlin, Roxana; Marano, María Rosa; Ielpi, Luis; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2016-09-01

    Xanthan, the main exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by Xanthomonas spp., contributes to bacterial stress tolerance and enhances attachment to plant surfaces by helping in biofilm formation. Therefore, xanthan is essential for successful colonization and growth in planta and has also been proposed to be involved in the promotion of pathogenesis by calcium ion chelation and, hence, in the suppression of the plant defense responses in which this cation acts as a signal. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between xanthan structure and its role as a virulence factor. We analyzed four Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris mutants that synthesize structural variants of xanthan. We found that the lack of acetyl groups that decorate the internal mannose residues, ketal-pyruvate groups, and external mannose residues affects bacterial adhesion and biofilm architecture. In addition, the mutants that synthesized EPS without pyruvilation or without the external mannose residues did not develop disease symptoms in Arabidopsis thaliana. We also observed that the presence of the external mannose residues and, hence, pyruvilation is required for xanthan to suppress callose deposition as well as to interfere with stomatal defense. In conclusion, pyruvilation of xanthan seems to be essential for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris virulence.

  14. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  15. Global Genomic Analysis of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Plasmids▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Zhao, Youfu; Murillo, Jesús; Sundin, George W.; Ramos, Cayo

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains harbor native plasmids belonging to the pPT23A plasmid family (PFPs) which are detected in all pathovars of the related species Pseudomonas syringae examined and contribute to the ecological and pathogenic fitness of their host. However, there is a general lack of information about the gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids and their role in the interaction of this pathogen with olive plants. We designed a DNA macroarray containing 135 plasmid-borne P. syringae genes to conduct a global genetic analysis of 32 plasmids obtained from 10 P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi strains. Hybridization results revealed that the number of PFPs per strain varied from one to four. Additionally, most strains contained at least one plasmid (designated non-PFP) that did not hybridize to the repA gene of pPT23A. Only three PFPs contained genes involved in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor indole-3-acetic acid (iaaM, iaaH, and iaaL). In contrast, ptz, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of cytokinins, was found in five PFPs and one non-PFP. Genes encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), type IVA, were found in both PFPs and non-PFPs; however, type IVB genes were found only on PFPs. Nine plasmids encoded both T4SSs, whereas seven other plasmids carried none of these genes. Most PFPs and non-PFPs hybridized to at least one putative type III secretion system effector gene and to a variety of additional genes encoding known P. syringae virulence factors and one or more insertion sequence transposase genes. These results indicate that non-PFPs may contribute to the virulence and fitness of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi host. The overall gene content of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi plasmids, with their repeated information, mosaic arrangement, and insertion sequences, suggests a possible role in adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:17993520

  16. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  17. PV Cz silicon manufacturing technology improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jester, T.

    1995-09-01

    This describes work done in the final phase of a 3-y, 3-phase contract to demonstrate cost reductions and improvements in manufacturing technology. The work focused on near-term projects in the SSI (Siemens Solar Industries) Czochralski (Cz) manufacturing facility in Camarillo, CA; the final phase was concentrated in areas of crystal growth, wafer technology, and environmental, safety, and health issues. During this period: (1) The crystal-growing operation improved with increased growth capacity; (2) Wafer processing with wire saws continued to progress; the wire saws yielded almost 50 percent more wafers per inch in production. The wire saws needs less etching, too; (3) Cell processing improvements focused on better handling and higher mechanical yield. The cell electrical distribution improved with a smaller standard deviation in the distribution; and (4) Module designs for lower material and labor costs continued, with focus on a new junction box, larger modules with larger cells, and less costly framing techniques. Two modules demonstrating these cost reductions were delivered during this phase.

  18. Field Demonstration of Using Advanced PV Inverter Functionality to Mitigate the Impacts of High-Penetration PV Grid Integration on the Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, Barry; Gebeyehu, Araya

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes a field demonstration that was completed to show the ability of currently installed PV inverters to implement advanced PV inverter functionality and that such functionality was effective at reducing the voltage-related PV impacts of high-penetration PV integration. A distribution circuit was instrumented and then tested for a two week period using off-unity power factor operation. Specifically, an inductive power factor of -0.95 was demonstrated. The results show that the PV inverters were capable of such operation and that the use of off-unity power factor operation was highly effective at reducing the voltage-related impacts of the PV systems interconnected to the circuits used in the demonstration. The impacts of using off-unity power factor operation - resulting in additional reactive current flow on the distribution circuit - are also presented and analyzed.

  19. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  20. Supersonic market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochte, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced supersonic transport markets of the free world were projected for the period 1985 to 2004. Passenger traffic volume and airplane range and seat capacity requirements were estimated for Mach 2.2 service by international regional area market areas and by city pairs within and between these areas. Market factors and traffic factors examined include variable loads, growth rates, supersonic transport market shares, and schedule frequencies considering the different makeup of passenger traffic and individual city pairs. Direct, indirect, and total operating costs and yield levels were economically analyzed for first class and full fare economy class traffic.

  1. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  2. Detecting loss mechanisms of c-Si PV modules in-situ I-V measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Siyu; Schneller, Eric; Walters, Joe; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-09-01

    PV module reliability is alsways an important issue for PV industry. In an outdoor PV system, PV modules suffer from degradation due to different factors. It is then very important to determine the loss mechanisms of a PV module and making improvement based on this. It is found in this work that due to mismatch effect, using fitting method to extract I-V characteristics might not be well applied on a PV module, especially when it has non-uniform degradation problem. This work proposes a method to accurately quantify the power loss of PV modules due to different degradation mechanisms, including series resistance (Rs) loss, non-uniform shunting loss and number of shunted cells, uniform shunting loss, uniform current loss, non-uniform current (mismatch) loss, recombination current (J01 and J02) losses of a PV module. All required input information are the measured current-voltage (I-V) curves and short circuit current- open circuit voltage (Isc-Voc) of PV module initial state and final state. The method is first applied to a simulated PV module with various degradation problems. Power loss due to each loss mechanism for the simulated PV module is then extracted using the proposed method and a pie chart can be generated. Comparing with the actual power loss on each loss mechanism, the method proposed in this work is proved to be very accurate. The method is then further applied to a degradated PV module istalled in an outdoor PV system. The power loss on series resistance, shunting and current mismatch are effectively identified and the number of shunted cells is accurately calculated. In the real application, this method can be used in both indoor and outdoor characterization, which can be very beneficial for PV degradation analysis of PV modules and systems.

  3. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein-1 (PTB1) is a determinant of the tissue and host tropism of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera PV1(RIPO).

    PubMed

    Jahan, Nusrat; Wimmer, Eckard; Mueller, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of picornavirus genomes serves as the nucleation site of a highly structured ribonucleoprotein complex essential to the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit and initiation of viral protein translation. The transition from naked RNA to a functional "IRESome" complex are poorly understood, involving the folding of secondary and tertiary RNA structure, facilitated by a tightly concerted binding of various host cell proteins that are commonly referred to as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). Here we have investigated the influence of one ITAF, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTB1), on the tropism of PV1(RIPO), a chimeric poliovirus in which translation of the poliovirus polyprotein is under the control of a human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2) IRES element. We show that PV1(RIPO)'s growth defect in restrictive mouse cells is partly due to the inability of its IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. Over-expression of human PTB1 stimulated the HRV2 IRES-mediated translation, resulting in increased growth of PV1(RIPO) in murine cells and human neuronal SK-N-MC cells. Mutations within the PV1(RIPO) IRES, selected to grow in restrictive mouse cells, eliminated the human PTB1 supplementation requirement, by restoring the ability of the IRES to interact with endogenous murine PTB. In combination with our previous findings these results give a compelling insight into the thermodynamic behavior of IRES structures. We have uncovered three distinct thermodynamic aspects of IRES formation which may independently contribute to overcome the observed PV1(RIPO) IRES block by lowering the free energy δG of the IRESome formation, and stabilizing the correct and functional structure: 1) lowering the growth temperature, 2) modifying the complement of ITAFs in restricted cells, or 3) selection of adaptive mutations. All three mechanisms can conceivably modulate the thermodynamics of RNA folding, and thus facilitate and stabilize the

  4. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

    2012-10-01

    Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

  5. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  6. Silicon PV module customization using laser technology for new BIPV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ballesteros, Juan José; Lauzurica, Sara; Morales, Miguel; del Caño, Teodosio; Valencia, Daniel; Casado, Leonardo; Balenzategui, José Lorenzo; Molpeceres, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that lasers have helped to increase efficiency and to reduce production costs in the photovoltaic (PV) sector in the last two decades, appearing in most cases as the ideal tool to solve some of the critical bottlenecks of production both in thin film (TF) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) technologies. The accumulated experience in these fields has brought as a consequence the possibility of using laser technology to produce new Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) products with a high degree of customization. However, to produce efficiently these personalized products it is necessary the development of optimized laser processes able to transform standard products in customized items oriented to the BIPV market. In particular, the production of semitransparencies and/or freeform geometries in TF a-Si modules and standard c-Si modules is an application of great interest in this market. In this work we present results of customization of both TF a-Si modules and standard monocrystalline (m-Si) and policrystalline silicon (pc-Si) modules using laser ablation and laser cutting processes. A discussion about the laser processes parameterization to guarantee the functionality of the device is included. Finally some examples of final devices are presented with a full discussion of the process approach used in their fabrication.

  7. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-01-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  8. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigelmann, W.; Neyeloff, S.

    1981-11-01

    The market potential for photovoltaic systems in the agricultural sector of Colombia is assessed. Consideration was given to over twenty specific livestock production, crop production, and rural services applications requiring less than 15 kW of power without backup power. Analysis revealed that near-term potential exists for photovoltaic technology in applications in coffee depulging, cattle watering, rural domestic users, rural water supply and small irrigation, rural telephones, rural health posts, and vaccine refrigeration. Market size would be in the 1200 to 2500 kWp range in the 1981 to 86 timeframe. Positive factors influencing the market size include a lack of electrical services, potential for developing the Llanos Orientales Territory, high fuel costs in remote areas, balance of system availability, the presence of wealthy land owners, and a large government-sponsored contract for photovoltaic (PV)-powered rural telephone systems. The anticipated eligibility of photovoltaic equipment for loans would be a further positive factor in market potential. Important negative factors include relatively inexpensive energy in developed locations, reliance on hydropower, lack of familiarity with PV equipment, a lack of financing, and established foreign competition in PV technology. Recommendations to American PV manufacturers attempting to develop the Colombian market are given.

  9. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  10. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  11. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  12. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  13. Pseudomonas cannabina pv.cannabina pv. nov., and Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis(Cintas Koike and Bull 2000)comb. nov., are members of the emended species Pseudomonas cannabina(ex Šutic & Dowson 1959)Gardan et al., 1999

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic data suggested that the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis belongs to P. syringae sensu lato and this was confirmed by sequence similarity in the 16S rDNA gene demonstrated in this research. Labeled DNA from P. syringae pv. alisalensis was used as a probe in DNA/DNA hy...

  14. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  15. Crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucine aminopeptidase, from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kwang; Natarajan, Sampath; Park, Hanseul; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Lee, Sang Hee; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2013-10-01

    Aminopeptidases are metalloproteinases that degrade N-terminal residues from protein and play important roles in cell growth and development by controlling cell homeostasis and protein maturation. We determined the crystal structure of XoLAP, a leucyl aminopeptidase, at 2.6 Å resolution from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing the destructive rice disease of bacterial blight. It is the first crystal structure of aminopeptidase from phytopathogens as a drug target. XoLAP existed as a hexamer and the monomer structure consisted of an N-terminal cap domain and a C-terminal peptidase domain with two divalent zinc ions. XoLAP structure was compared with BlLAP and EcLAP (EcPepA) structures. Based on the structural comparison, the molecular model of XoLAP in complex with the natural aminopeptidase inhibitor of microginin FR1 was proposed. The model structure will be useful to develop a novel antibacterial drug against Xoo.

  16. Novel cyclic lipodepsipeptide from Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain 508 and syringopeptin antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Grgurina, Ingeborg; Bensaci, Mekki; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Mannina, Luisa; Cruciani, Oscar; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sorensen, Kevin N; Takemoto, Jon Y

    2005-12-01

    The syringopeptins are a group of antimicrobial cyclic lipodepsipeptides produced by several plant-associated pseudomonads. A novel syringopeptin, SP508, was shown to be produced as two homologs (A and B) by Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans strain 508 from apple and to structurally resemble syringopeptin SP22. SP508 differed from SP22 and other syringopeptins by having three instead of four alpha,beta-unsaturated amino acids and a longer beta-hydroxy acyl chain. Both SP508 and SP22 displayed growth-inhibitory activities against Mycobacterium smegmatis, other gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts but not against gram-negative bacteria. Structure-activity analyses of the SP508 and SP22 homologs indicated chemical structural features that lead to enhanced antimycobacterial activity by these pseudomonad cyclic lipodepsipeptides.

  17. A decade of PV lighting in the Colorado Rockies

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1996-11-01

    In the mountains between Aspen and Vail there are twenty-two ski huts that all use solar photovoltaic power for their lighting needs. The huts are managed by a non-profit corporation called the Tenth Mountain Division Hut Association (TMDHA). The systems were installed in the early 1980s and have all been or are in the process of being upgraded as the technology improves over the years. The huts have been a test in the design and maintenance of remote PV systems, due to their location, the users and their time of use. Yet, the past ten years have shown that remote PV systems can be made safe, reliable, understandable, educational and economical.

  18. Best practices for PV solar home system projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-12-31

    PV solar home systems (SHS) are increasingly employed as an energy supply option for rural populations. The past 20 years` experience with small-scale SHS programs in developing countries has had mixed results. However, efforts in recent years have been more successful. In support of World Bank lending operations, the Banks Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) has undertaken a series of case studies of currently operating SHS programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. These programs have varying degrees of government, NGO, and private sector involvement. This paper summarizes ASTAE`s draft Solar Photovoltaics: Best Practices for Household Electrification report which identifies the institutional, financial, and technical factors fundamental to the success of a PV solar home system project. The final version of the ASTAE report will incorporate comments from an international group of peer reviewers.

  19. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  20. Scalable Optimization Methods for Distribution Networks With High PV Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Guggilam, Swaroop S.; Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Chen, Yu Christine; Dhople, Sairaj V.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a suite of algorithms to determine the active- and reactive-power setpoints for photovoltaic (PV) inverters in distribution networks. The objective is to optimize the operation of the distribution feeder according to a variety of performance objectives and ensure voltage regulation. In general, these algorithms take a form of the widely studied ac optimal power flow (OPF) problem. For the envisioned application domain, nonlinear power-flow constraints render pertinent OPF problems nonconvex and computationally intensive for large systems. To address these concerns, we formulate a quadratic constrained quadratic program (QCQP) by leveraging a linear approximation of the algebraic power-flow equations. Furthermore, simplification from QCQP to a linearly constrained quadratic program is provided under certain conditions. The merits of the proposed approach are demonstrated with simulation results that utilize realistic PV-generation and load-profile data for illustrative distribution-system test feeders.

  1. Quantify Degradation Rates and Mechanisms of PV Modules and Systems Installed in Florida Through Comprehensive Experimental and Theoretical Analysis (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorloaica-Hickman, N.; Davis, K.; Kurtz, S.; Jordan, D.

    2011-02-01

    The economic viability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies is inextricably tied to both the electrical performance and degradation rate of the PV systems, which are the generators of electrical power in PV systems. Over the past 15 years, performance data have been collected on numerous PV systems installed throughout the state of Florida and will be presented.

  2. High Penetration PV: How High Can We Go?

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Brochure highlighting NREL's partnership with SolarCity and Hawaiian Electric (HECO) to increase the penetration of solar photovoltaics on the electricity grid. To better understand the potential impact of transient overvoltages due to load rejection, NREL collaborated with SolarCity and HECO to run a series of tests measuring the magnitude and duration of load rejection overvoltage events and demonstrating the ability of advanced PV inverters to mitigate their impacts.

  3. Regulation of resistance to copper in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria.

    PubMed

    Voloudakis, Andreas E; Reignier, Therese M; Cooksey, Donald A

    2005-02-01

    Copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria were previously shown to carry plasmid-borne copper resistance genes related to the cop and pco operons of Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli, respectively. However, instead of the two-component (copRS and pcoRS) systems determining copper-inducible expression of the operons in P. syringae and E. coli, a novel open reading frame, copL, was found to be required for copper-inducible expression of the downstream multicopper oxidase copA in X. axonopodis. copL encodes a predicted protein product of 122 amino acids that is rich in histidine and cysteine residues, suggesting a possible direct interaction with copper. Deletions or frameshift mutations within copL, as well as an amino acid substitution generated at the putative start codon of copL, caused a loss of copper-inducible transcriptional activation of copA. A nonpolar insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene in copL resulted in copper sensitivity in the wild-type strain. However, repeated attempts to complement copL mutations in trans failed. Analysis of the genomic sequence databases shows that there are copL homologs upstream of copAB genes in X. axonopodis pv. citri, X. campestris pv. campestris, and Xylella fastidiosa. The cloned promoter area upstream of copA in X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria did not function in Pseudomonas syringae or in E. coli, nor did the P. syringae cop promoter function in Xanthomonas. However, a transcriptional fusion of the Xanthomonas cop promoter with the Pseudomonas copABCDRS was able to confer resistance to copper in Xanthomonas, showing divergence in the mechanisms of regulation of the resistance to copper in phytopathogenic bacteria.

  4. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  5. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern

    2010-03-15

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  6. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  7. PvaPy: Python API for EPICS PV Access

    SciTech Connect

    Veseli, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of sites deploying and adopting EPICS Version 4 grows, so does the need to support PV Access from multiple languages. Especially important are the widely used scripting languages that tend to reduce both software development time and the learning curve for new users. In this paper we describe PvaPy, a Python API for the EPICS PV Access protocol and its accompanying structured data API. Rather than implementing the protocol itself in Python, PvaPy wraps the existing EPICS Version 4 C++ libraries using the Boost.Python framework. This approach allows us to benefit from the existing code base and functionality, and to significantly reduce the Python API development effort. PvaPy objects are based on Python dictionaries and provide users with the ability to access even the most complex of PV Data structures in a relatively straightforward way. Its interfaces are easy to use, and include support for advanced EPICS Version 4 features such as implementation of client and server Remote Procedure Calls (RPC).

  8. Stochastic PV performance/reliability model : preview of alpha version.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miller, Steven P.

    2010-03-01

    Problem Statement: (1) Uncertainties in PV system performance and reliability impact business decisions - Project cost and financing estimates, Pricing service contracts and guarantees, Developing deployment and O&M strategies; (2) Understanding and reducing these uncertainties will help make the PV industry more competitive (3) Performance has typically been estimated without much attention to reliability of components; and (4) Tools are needed to assess all inputs to the value proposition (e.g., LCOE, cash flow, reputation, etc.). Goals and objectives are: (1) Develop a stochastic simulation model (in GoldSim) that can represent PV system performance as a function of system design, weather, reliability, and O&M policies; (2) Evaluate performance for an example system to quantify sources of uncertainty and identify dominant parameters via a sensitivity study; and (3) Example System - 1 inverter, 225 kW DC Array latitude tilt (90 strings of 12 modules {l_brace}1080 modules{r_brace}), Weather from Tucumcari, NM (TMY2 with annual uncertainty).

  9. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  10. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  11. View on world market

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, J.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Reasons contributing to a potential growth in wind power are cited. Increased demand is expected to arise due to increased energy needs and environmental concerns. Barriers, primarily political, to the development of wind energy are assessed. Development is predicted to occur first in countries with a demand for new capacity and political decisions to protect the environment.

  12. Pharmaceutical market access in emerging markets: concepts, components, and future.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Juluru, Karthaveerya; Thimmaraju, Phani Kishore; Reddy, Jayachandra; Patil, Anand

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to consolidate the concepts of pharmaceutical market access and highlight its growing importance in emerging markets. Market access has gained considerable attention worldwide as countries try to contain their escalating healthcare expenditures amidst the global economic slowdown. This has resulted in governments adopting stricter measures for new product approval. Thus, pharmaceutical companies are finding it increasingly difficult to successfully address the specific challenges posed by various government and regulatory agencies and stakeholders. There is an increasing need to establish market access functions, especially in emerging markets, where the complex, dynamic healthcare landscape confounds product approval and uptake. Moreover, emerging markets are the engines of growth today, and, thus, performing in these markets is critical for the majority of pharmaceutical companies. To address the challenges posed by regulatory agencies and diverse stakeholders, a customized market access strategy is the need of the hour. A market access framework with specific tools and tactics will help companies to plan, implement, and monitor stakeholder engagement activities.

  13. Pharmaceutical market access in emerging markets: concepts, components, and future

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anuj; Juluru, Karthaveerya; Thimmaraju, Phani Kishore; Reddy, Jayachandra; Patil, Anand

    2014-01-01

    This article intends to consolidate the concepts of pharmaceutical market access and highlight its growing importance in emerging markets. Market access has gained considerable attention worldwide as countries try to contain their escalating healthcare expenditures amidst the global economic slowdown. This has resulted in governments adopting stricter measures for new product approval. Thus, pharmaceutical companies are finding it increasingly difficult to successfully address the specific challenges posed by various government and regulatory agencies and stakeholders. There is an increasing need to establish market access functions, especially in emerging markets, where the complex, dynamic healthcare landscape confounds product approval and uptake. Moreover, emerging markets are the engines of growth today, and, thus, performing in these markets is critical for the majority of pharmaceutical companies. To address the challenges posed by regulatory agencies and diverse stakeholders, a customized market access strategy is the need of the hour. A market access framework with specific tools and tactics will help companies to plan, implement, and monitor stakeholder engagement activities. PMID:27226834

  14. 2016 Alabama PV soft cost and workforce development

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E.; Edwards, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeastern US has the largest potential for growth in the solar industry. However, currently they languish behind the rest of the US. There are several bright spots including the large number of utility scale installations in North Carolina and the recent successes in South Carolina under Act 236. In order to better understand the impacts of state legislation on the growth of the solar industry in the SE US, the Savannah River National Laboratory has undertaken a study to look at the growth in each state in order to develop recommendations to help reduce the cost of solar and to spur the industry. This is the second report in the series. The first focused on developing cost metrics for South Carolina under Act 236. This report focuses on Alabama, the 49th ranked state for solar business, which has very similar population and median income to South Carolina. For this survey, the ten known in-state installers were contacted. Responses were received from seven, representing 70% of the installers, a majority of which provide both residential and commercial installations. Interestingly, none of the respondents serve the utility scale sector. Overall, costs for Alabama are on track with the rest of the country with a reported average cost of $3.29/W-DC for residential systems and $2.44/W-DC for commercial systems. 60% of this cost is attributed to hardware only. Of the remaining costs, installation contributed to the largest percentage of soft costs followed by overhead, marketing and sales, and permitting, respectively. This also closely mirrors results seen in South Carolina. Job growth in the industry is expected to proceed well. An expected 34-42 additional full time equivalent jobs were expected to be added in Alabama within the six month window following the survey period. During the three years following the survey, this number was expected to double with 89-97 additional jobs being added to the market. In both cases, a vast majority of these jobs were for

  15. Battery Energy Storage Market: Commercial Scale, Lithium-ion Projects in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, Joyce; Gagnon, Pieter; Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Fu, Ran; Remo, Tim

    2016-10-01

    This slide deck presents current market data on the commercial scale li-ion battery storage projects in the U.S. It includes existing project locations, cost data and project cost breakdown, a map of demand charges across the U.S. and information about how the ITC and MACRS apply to energy storage projects that are paired with solar PV technology.

  16. Wind energy: A review of technical and market issues

    SciTech Connect

    Garrad, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. The paper is divided into three sections: the market, the technology, and general conclusions. The market section compares European and US wind energy growth and contributing factors and barriers to growth. A technology overview discusses wind turbine concepts, mass reduction, blade structural flexibility, and growth in machine size. Political decisions, economic aspects, public acceptance, and technology limitations are assessed for their influence on the growth of wind energy. 11 figs.

  17. Medical device market in China.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Philip; Morshed, Bashir I; Mussivand, Tofy

    2015-06-01

    With China's growing old-age population and economic presence on the international stage, it has become important to evaluate its domestic and foreign market contribution to medical devices. Medical devices are instruments or apparatuses used in the prevention, rehabilitation, treatment, or knowledge generation with respect to disease or other abnormal conditions. This article provides information drawn from recent publications to describe the current state of the Chinese domestic market for medical devices and to define opportunities for foreign investment potential therein. Recent healthcare reforms implemented to meet rising demand due to an aging and migrating population are having a positive effect on market growth-a global market with a projected growth of 15% per year over the next decade.

  18. Marketing Education for the next Four Billion: Challenges and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for a third transformation in marketing pedagogy, one made necessary by the emergence of subsistence consumers as a high-growth market segment. Continued double-digit growth in buying power and consumption among the world's poor appear certain, provided that the subsistence merchants serving such markets are effective. Ensuring…

  19. Statistical overview of findings by IR-inspections of PV-plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buerhop, Claudia; Pickel, Tobias; Scheuerpflug, Hans; Camus, Christian; Hauch, Jens; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2016-09-01

    First statistical evaluation of IR-inspections of PV-plants reveals that 86% of the installed PV-plants show IR-abnormalities. More than 120 PV-plants with more than 160,000 PV-modules were inspected and evaluated statistically. Main IR-abnormalities or failures in modules and string installations are analyzed, respectively. The average failure rate for PV-modules is about 8% and for module strings approximately 4%. The differentiation between the installation locations reveals that small residential installation show relatively more defective modules than large field installations. - Therefore, IR-imaging is a valuable method to give fast and reliable information about the actual quality and failure rate in inspected PV-installations.

  20. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote Performance: A Reviewof Current Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Increasing levels of financial support for customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, provided through publicly-funded incentive programs, has heightened concerns about the long-term performance of these systems. Given the barriers that customers face to ensuring that their PV systems perform well, and the responsibility that PV incentive programs bear to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should, and often do, play a critical role in ensuring that PV systems receiving incentives perform well. To provide a point of reference for assessing the current state of the art, and to inform program design efforts going forward, we examine the approaches to encouraging PV system performance used by 32 prominent PV incentive programs in the U.S. We identify eight general strategies or groups of related strategies that these programs have used to address performance issues, and highlight important differences in the implementation of these strategies among programs.

  1. Optimal Planning Strategy for Large PV/Battery System Based on Long-Term Insolation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yona, Atsushi; Uchida, Kosuke; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are rapidly gaining acceptance as some of the best alternative energy sources. Usually the power output of PV system fluctuates depending on weather conditions. In order to control the fluctuating power output for PV system, it requires control method of energy storage system. This paper proposes an optimization approach to determine the operational planning of power output for PV system with battery energy storage system (BESS). This approach aims to obtain more benefit for electrical power selling and to smooth the fluctuating power output for PV system. The optimization method applies genetic algorithm (GA) considering PV power output forecast error. The forecast error is based on our previous works with the insolation forecasting at one day ahead by using weather reported data, fuzzy theory and neural network(NN). The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by the computer simulations.

  2. Final Technical Report: Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Burton, Patrick D.; Hansen, Clifford; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The Advanced Measurement and Analysis of PV Derate Factors project focuses on improving the accuracy and reducing the uncertainty of PV performance model predictions by addressing a common element of all PV performance models referred to as “derates”. Widespread use of “rules of thumb”, combined with significant uncertainty regarding appropriate values for these factors contribute to uncertainty in projected energy production.

  3. NREL PV working with industry, first quarter 2000; pulling out all the stops

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Poole, L.; Cook, G.

    2000-05-03

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The First Quarter, 2000, issue offers an in-depth look at the PV Program's Five Year Plan and the PV industry's progress in developing a 20-year roadmap. The editorialist is Roger Little, President and CEO of Spire Corporation and a member of the NCPV Advisory Board.

  4. Results from Undergraduate PV Projects at Seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, R. D.

    1999-03-03

    In 1995, the NREL/Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program funded seven Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in its HBCU Photovoltaic Research Associates Program for a period of three years. The program's purpose is to advance HBCU undergraduate knowledge of photovoltaics, primarily as a result of research investigations performed, and to encourage students to pursue careers in photovoltaics. This paper presents results from PV projects ranging from fundamental materials research on PV materials to field projects of PV systems.

  5. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  6. A modeling framework for potential induced degradation in PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermel, Peter; Asadpour, Reza; Zhou, Chao; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2015-09-01

    Major sources of performance degradation and failure in glass-encapsulated PV modules include moisture-induced gridline corrosion, potential-induced degradation (PID) of the cell, and stress-induced busbar delamination. Recent studies have shown that PV modules operating in damp heat at -600 V are vulnerable to large amounts of degradation, potentially up to 90% of the original power output within 200 hours. To improve module reliability and restore power production in the presence of PID and other failure mechanisms, a fundamental rethinking of accelerated testing is needed. This in turn will require an improved understanding of technology choices made early in development that impact failures later. In this work, we present an integrated approach of modeling, characterization, and validation to address these problems. A hierarchical modeling framework will allows us to clarify the mechanisms of corrosion, PID, and delamination. We will employ a physics-based compact model of the cell, topology of the electrode interconnection, geometry of the packaging stack, and environmental operating conditions to predict the current, voltage, temperature, and stress distributions in PV modules correlated with the acceleration of specific degradation modes. A self-consistent solution will capture the essential complexity of the technology-specific acceleration of PID and other degradation mechanisms as a function of illumination, ambient temperature, and relative humidity. Initial results from our model include specific lifetime predictions suitable for direct comparison with indoor and outdoor experiments, which are qualitatively validated by prior work. This approach could play a significant role in developing novel accelerated lifetime tests.

  7. Determining the Effects of Environment and Atmospheric Parameters on PV Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Micheli, Leonardo; Muller, Matthew; Kurtz, Sarah

    2016-11-21

    The performance losses due to soiling occurring on any photovoltaic (PV) device are caused by a complex mechanism that involves numerous factors and their interactions. For this reason, the present work analyzes the outputs of reference PV cells installed in various locations, with the aim of contributing to the identification of the most important factors influencing the accumulation of dust on a PV surface. Parameters such as the air-quality indexes, the recurrence and the amount of rainfall and the climate zone are investigated and related to the soiling losses of the PV device.

  8. Precursor Report of Data Needs and Recommended Practices for PV Plant Availability Operations and Maintenance Reporting.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Roger R.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the factors that affect reliability of a photovoltaic (PV) power plant is an important aspect of optimal asset management. This document describes the many factors that affect operation and maintenance (O&M) of a PV plant, identifies the data necessary to quantify those factors, and describes how data might be used by O&M service providers and others in the PV industry. This document lays out data needs from perspectives of reliability, availability, and key performance indicators and is intended to be a precursor for standardizing terminology and data reporting, which will improve data sharing, analysis, and ultimately PV plant performance.

  9. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  10. Intelligent control of PV system on the basis of the fuzzy recurrent neuronet*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the fuzzy recurrent neuronet for PV system’s control. Based on the PV system’s state, the fuzzy recurrent neural net tracks the maximum power point under random perturbations. The validity and advantages of the proposed intelligent control of PV system are demonstrated by numerical simulations. The simulation results show that the proposed intelligent control of PV system achieves real-time control speed and competitive performance, as compared to a classical control scheme on the basis of the perturbation & observation algorithm.

  11. Computer Modelling and Simulation of Solar PV Array Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Nalin Kumar

    2003-02-01

    The main objective of my PhD research work was to study the behaviour of inter-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The approach involved the construction of mathematical models to investigate different types of research problems related to the energy yield, fault tolerance, efficiency and optimal sizing of inter-connected solar PV array systems. My research work can be divided into four different types of research problems: 1. Modeling of inter-connected solar PV array systems to investigate their electrical behavior, 2. Modeling of different inter-connected solar PV array networks to predict their expected operational lifetimes, 3. Modeling solar radiation estimation and its variability, and 4. Modeling of a coupled system to estimate the size of PV array and battery-bank in the stand-alone inter-connected solar PV system where the solar PV system depends on a system providing solar radiant energy. The successful application of mathematics to the above-m entioned problems entailed three phases: 1. The formulation of the problem in a mathematical form using numerical, optimization, probabilistic and statistical methods / techniques, 2. The translation of mathematical models using C++ to simulate them on a computer, and 3. The interpretation of the results to see how closely they correlated with the real data. Array is the most cost-intensive component of the solar PV system. Since the electrical performances as well as life properties of an array are highly sensitive to field conditions, different characteristics of the arrays, such as energy yield, operational lifetime, collector orientation, and optimal sizing were investigated in order to improve their efficiency, fault-tolerance and reliability. Three solar cell interconnection configurations in the array - series-parallel, total-cross-tied, and bridge-linked, were considered. The electrical characteristics of these configurations were investigated to find out one that is comparatively less susceptible to

  12. Analysis of Irradiance Models for Bifacial PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Clifford W.; Stein, Joshua S.; Deline, Chris; MacAlpine, Sara; Marion, Bill; Asgharzadeh, Amir; Toor, Fatima

    2016-11-21

    We describe and compare two methods for modeling irradiance on the back surface of rack-mounted bifacial PV modules: view factor models and ray-tracing simulations. For each method we formulate one or more models and compare each model with irradiance measurements and short circuit current for a bifacial module mounted a fixed tilt rack with three other similarly sized modules. Our analysis illustrates the computational requirements of the different methods and provides insight into their practical applications. We find a level of consistency among the models which indicates that consistent models may be obtained by parameter calibrations.

  13. Space shuttle Production Verification Motor 1 (PV-1) static fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    All inspection and instrumentation data indicate that the PV-1 static test firing conducted 18 Aug. 1988 was successful. With the exception of the intentionally flawed joints and static test modifications, PV-1 was flight configuration. Fail-safe flaws guaranteeing pressure to test the sealing capability of primary O-rings were included in the aft field joint, case-to-nozzle joint, and nozzle internal Joint 5. The test was conducted at ambient conditions, with the exception of the field joints and case/nozzle joints which were maintained at a minimum of 75 F. Ballistics performance values were within specification requirements. The PV-1 motor exhibited chamber pressure oscillations similar to previously tested Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motors, particularly QM-7. The first longitudinal mode oscillations experienced by PV-1 were the strongest ever measured in a Space Shuttle motor. Investigation into this observation is being conducted. Joint insulation performed as designed with no evidence of gas flow within unflawed forward field joints. The intentionally flawed center and aft case field joint insulation performance was excellent. There was no evidence of hot gas past the center field joint capture feature O-ring, the case-to-nozzle joint primary O-ring, or the aft field joint primary O-ring. O-ring seals and barriers with assured pressure at the flaws showed erosion and heat effect, but all sealed against passage of hot gases with the exception of the aft field joint capture feature O-ring. There was no evidence of erosion, heat effect, or blowby on any O-ring seals or barriers at the unflawed joints. Nozzle performance was nominal with typical erosion. Post-test examination revealed that the forward nose ring was of the old high performance motor design configuration with the 150-deg ply angle. All nozzle components remained intact for post-test evaluation. The thrust vector control system operated correctly. The water deluge system, CO2 quench, and

  14. New Barrier Coating Materials for PV Module Backsheets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, G. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S. H.; Pern, J.; McMahon, T. J.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper describes the high moisture barrier high resistivity coatings on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) have been fabricated and characterized for use in PV module back sheet applications. These thin film barriers exhibit water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) as low as 0.1 g/m2-day at 37.8 C and have shown excellent adhesion (> 10 N/mm) to both ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and PET even after filtered xenon arc lamp UV exposure. The WVTR and adhesion values for this construction are compared to and shown to be superior to candidate polymeric backsheet materials.

  15. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High Penetration PV Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, C.; Burman, K.

    2010-04-01

    Overview of the solar resource assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in cooperation with Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) in Hawaii to determine the technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of solar renewable energy generation on the island of Kauaii through the use of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The analysis, which was performed using a custom version of NREL's In My Back Yard (IMBY) software tool, showed that there is potential to generate enough energy to cover the peak load as reported for Kauai in 2007.

  16. Arsenic-induced plant growth of arsenic-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata: Impact of arsenic and phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Han, Yong-He; Yang, Guang-Mei; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock (PR) has been shown to promote plant growth and arsenic (As) uptake by As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV). However, little is known about its behaviors in agricultural soils. In this study, impact of 50 mg kg(-1) As and/or 1.5% PR amendment on plant As accumulation and growth was investigated by growing PV for 90 d in three agricultural soils. While As amendment significantly increased plant As uptake and substantially promoted PV growth, the opposite was observed with PR amendment. Arsenic amendment increased plant frond As from 16.9-265 to 961-6017 mg kg(-1),whereas PR amendment lowered frond As to 10.2-216 mg kg(-1). The As-induced plant growth stimulation was 69-71%. While PR amendment increased plant Ca and P uptake, As amendment showed opposite results. The PV biomass was highly correlated with plant As at r = 0.82, but with weak correlations with plant Ca or P at r < 0.30. This study confirmed that 1) As significantly promoted PV growth, probably independent of Ca or P uptake, 2) PR amendment didn't enhance plant growth or As uptake by PV in agricultural soils with adequate available P, and 3) PV effluxed arsenite (AsIII) growing in agricultural soils.

  17. Design, Operation and Economic Analysis of Autonomous Hybrid PV-Diesel Power Systems Including Battery Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Demetrios P.; Maltas, Eleftherios Z.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic techno-economic analysis of autonomous PV-Diesel energy system with battery storage. This hybrid type power system was developed and installed on the roof of the Electrical Engineering Laboratory building in the city of Xanthi, Greece, where a weather station is also installed providing necessary meteorological data since 2002. Such system can be generally used to supply electrical loads of isolated remote areas. The actual design of such a system is based on: a pre-defined load pattern to be supplied; the pertinent weather data; the relevant market prices; and the applicable recent economic rates (eg June 2009 for the Greek case). The system is operated on a predictive manner using a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which controls the main system parameters for safe and continuous power supply to meet reliably the desired load demand. Three distinct systems of this type and of equal capacity, which combine energy sources and battery storage have been proposed and assessed technically and economically.

  18. Advanced polymer PV system: PVMaT 4A1 annual report, September 1995--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hanoka, J; Chleboski, R; Farber, M; Fava, J; Kane, P; Martz, J

    1997-06-01

    Purpose of this subcontract was to produce lower module and systems costs through the innovative use of polymeric materials. The Innovative Mounting System (IMS) was developed and testing begun during the first year of this contract. IMS reduces the cost of installed PV systems by reducing labor and materials costs both in the factory and in field installation. It incorporates several advances in polymers, processing methods and product design. An advanced backskin material permits elimination of the conventional Al perimeter frame by protecting and sealing the edge and by direct bonding of multifunctional mounting bars. Electrical interconnection is easier and more reliable with a new junction box. Feasibility of a non-vacuum, high-throughput lamination method was also demonstrated, involving a novel transparent encapsulant with UV stabilization package that can be laminated in air and which should lead to longer field life than conventional designs. The first-year program culminated in the fielding of prototype products with the new encapsulant, backskin, junction box, frameless edge seal, and IMS. Feedback and marketing information from potential customers were solicited. Result promises a $0.50/watt manufacturing and system cost reductions as well as increased system lifetime. The second year will complete refinement and test of the encapsulant and backskin, complete the new lamination method, and refine product designs.

  19. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity the DOE provides Technical Assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar American Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar PV projects in school districts across the country.

  20. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity, DOE provides technical assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay Area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar America Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar photovoltaics (PV) projects in school districts across the country.

  1. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  2. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  3. 77 FR 24171 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... also considers the extent to which a proposed project targets markets with the greatest growth... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2013 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of...

  4. 76 FR 21327 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... also considers the extent to which a proposed project targets markets with the greatest growth... Commodity Credit Corporation Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market... the 2012 Foreign Market Development Cooperator (Cooperator) program. The intended effect of...

  5. Impact of energy prices on agricultural and energy markets: an integrated modeling approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in biofuel and agricultural markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  6. Approaches to improving energy yield from PV modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaus, Joachim; Duell, Matthias; Eckert, Johannes; Adurodija, Frederick O.; Li, Biao; Mickiewicz, Rafal A.; Doble, Dan M.

    2010-08-01

    PV modules were fabricated that incorporated various methods to increase the amount of light which is ultimately transmitted to the solar cell in order to improve energy yield. The techniques employed included diffuse scattering and reflection to minimize shading losses, as well as using structured glass to increase the probability of incident light capture. In the first technology, a laser is used to create a scattering pattern on the front-side glass of the module. This pattern directed light away from the bus bars and grid fingers, resulting in an increase in short circuit current (ISC) of up to 3.3%. In the second technology, the bus wires were coated with a diffuse reflective coating. A part of the incident sunlight is reflected from this coating at such angles that internal reflection at the front surface of the front-side glass occurs. The light is reflected back to the active area of the solar cell and contributes to the generated photocurrent resulting in an average increase of 0.9% in ISC. Finally, four different types of commercially available structured glass were investigated: grooves, pyramids, inverted pyramids, and a very lightly textured glass with only 5% increased surface area. Results showed an increase in ISC of up to 3.2% for pyramid structures using normally incident light, with the effect increasing at higher angles of incidence. The results demonstrated the possibility of improving PV module energy yield by taking advantage of basic optical principles and straightforward processing methods.

  7. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audwinto, I. A.; Leong, C. S.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m2. DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; Pmax, Vmax, Imax, Voc, Isc, Rserries, Rshunt, Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition.

  8. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  9. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  10. Newer Concepts in Mars Exploration; LORPEX and PV Enhanced Aerobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Natale, Guy; Marcozzi, Massimiliano; Greene, Jack; Duke, Vanessa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes two new concepts in Mars Exploration, both of which involve the utilization of in-situ resources. In the first invention, we describe a Locally Refueled Planetary Explorer (LORPEX) which has practically unlimited range and life since it "lives off the land/atmosphere" by extracting fuel and oxidizer from the atmosphere, and possibly water at a later stage, as a source of hydrogen. The robot has been built and demonstrated to the media, including one science show in Pasadena. In the second invention, the concept is to obviate the difficulty of finding a suitable, lightweight substrate to bond the photovoltaic cells to; if we have an aerobot anyway for covering vast terrains, the balloon surface provides an ideal substrate for the PV cells at a minimal additional mass. Because of the truly large areas, and because sun-pointing is no longer a factor, the power availability is constant and represents at least a ten-fold increase over comparable/competing technologies; when this is combined with the minimum mass, the advantages should be apparent. Both of these technologies, LORPEX and PV-Enhanced Aerobots, won NASA NTR awards.

  11. Pathogenic Interactions Between Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Cultivars of Pummelo (Citrus grandis).

    PubMed

    Shiotani, H; Ozaki, K; Tsuyumu, S

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The aggressiveness of strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on seven Citrus species, including Citrus sinensis (navel orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. unshiu (Satsuma mandarin), C. junos (Yuzu), C. aurantifolia ('Mexican' lime), C. tachibana (Tachibana), and C. grandis (pummelo: 'Otachibana', 'Banpeiyu', and 'Anseikan'), were assessed by comparing lesion expansion and growth in planta, using a prick inoculation method. The existence of two groups distinct in aggressiveness was demonstrated on the pummelo cultivars, whereas the remaining species tested were uniformly susceptible. The two groups of strains were distinct in lesion expansion and growth in planta; however, both caused canker lesions on the 'Otachibana' pummelo. The sensitivity of the bacterial strains to phages Cp1 and Cp2 was associated with differences in aggressiveness. Namely, all the strains sensitive to Cp2 but resistant to Cp1 were aggressive to 'Otachibana', whereas all the strains sensitive to Cp1 but resistant to Cp2 were weakly aggressive. When a repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction amplification was carried out by enterobacterial repetitive intergeneric consensus (ERIC) sequences (ERIC1R and ERIC2) as the primers, these two groups were also distinguishable by the presence or absence of a 1.8-kb DNA fragment among otherwise identical fragments. The 1.8-kb fragment was amplified only from the strains aggressive to C. grandis.

  12. Direct suppression of a rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) by monoterpene (S)-limonene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Chung, Moon-Soo; Kang, Mihyung; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, Sungbeom

    2016-05-01

    Rice bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a severe disease of rice plants. Upon pathogen infection, rice biosynthesizes phytoalexins, including diterpenoids such as momilactones, phytocassanes, and oryzalexins. However, information on headspace volatiles in response to Xoo infection is limited. We have examined headspace volatile terpenes, induced by the infection of Xoo, and investigated their biological roles in the rice plant. Monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, α-terpene, and (S)-limonene and sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, α-copaene, and β-elemene were detected from 1-week-old Xoo-infected rice seedlings, by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All monoterpenes were constitutively released from rice seedlings before Xoo infection. However, (S)-limonene emission was further elicited after exposure of the seedlings to Xoo in coincidence with upregulation of limonene synthase gene (OsTPS20) transcripts. Only the stereospecific (S)-limonene [and not (R)-limonene or other monoterpenes] severely inhibited Xoo growth, as confirmed by disc diffusion and liquid culture assays. Rice seedlings showed suppressed pathogenic symptoms suggestive of resistance to Xoo infection after foliar treatment with (S)-limonene. Collectively, our findings suggest that (S)-limonene is a volatile phytoanticipin, which plays a significant role in suppressing Xoo growth in rice seedlings.

  13. Light signaling mediated by PAS domain-containing proteins in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Mao, Daqing; Tao, Jun; Li, Chunxia; Luo, Chao; Zheng, Linlin; He, Chaozu

    2012-01-01

    Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains are important signalling modules that possibly monitor changes in various stimuli such as light. For the majority of PAS domains that have been identified by sequence similarity, the biological function of the signalling pathways has not yet been experimentally investigated.Thirty-three PAS proteins were discovered in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris(Xcc) by genome/proteome analysis. Thirteen PAS proteins were identified as contributing to light signalling and Xcc growth, motility or virulence using molecular genetics and bioinformatics methods. The PAS domains played important roles in light signalling to regulate the growth, motility and virulence of Xcc. They might be regulated by not only light quality (wavelength)but also quantity (intensity) as potential light-signalling components. Evaluating the light wavelength, three light-signalling types of PAS proteins in Xcc were shown to be involved in blue light signalling, tricolour (blue, red and far red)signalling or red/far-red signalling. This showed that Xcc had evolved a complicated light-signalling system to adapt to a complex environment.

  14. Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential NewConstruction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and LessonsLearned

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-02-10

    As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their tax-deductible home mortgage and, with rebates and other financial incentives, potentially achieve an immediate net-positive cash flow from the investment. New homes are amenable to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are less susceptible to aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems. The performance of PV systems can be optimized on new homes by taking roof orientation and shading into account when designing the home. Perhaps most importantly, subdivisions with PV systems installed on a large number of homes offer potential cost savings from volume purchases of modules and inverters and from scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability of builders to install PV as a standard feature on multiple homes in new subdivisions offers an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and information-related market barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a decision about installing PV. Builders may benefit in several ways from incorporating PV into new homes. Builders may gain greater market differentiation, enhanced media exposure, and less community or political opposition to development projects. Additionally, if homebuyers place a high value on PV, builders may be able to earn additional profits, just as they would on granite countertops or other high-value home features. Although the impact of PV on the original sale price of new homes has not yet been rigorously examined, some limited empirical evidence does suggest that PV and energy efficient features may have a positive effect on resale value. Along with its unique advantages, residential new construction also faces unique barriers to PV adoption. Most fundamentally, perhaps, is the general aversion to technology risk within the building industry

  15. Growing a market economy

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  16. Market trends in the projection display industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  17. Small intestinal growth measures are correlated with feed efficiency in market weight cattle, despite minimal effects of maternal nutrition during early to midgestation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Hess, B W; Paisley, S I; Du, M; Caton, J S

    2014-09-01

    length. In this study, calf performance and efficiency during finishing as well as most measures of small intestinal growth were not affected by maternal nutrient restriction during early and midgestation. Results indicate that offspring small intestinal gene expression may be affected by gestational nutrition even when apparent tissue growth is unchanged. Furthermore, small intestinal size and growth may explain some variation in efficiency of nutrient utilization in feedlot cattle.

  18. International wind farm markets: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rackstraw, K.

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  19. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Matthew D; Warren, Benjamin A; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-09-17

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform.

  20. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Papio hamadryas papillomavirus 1 (PhPV1) in Kenyan baboons.

    PubMed

    Chai, Daniel; Bassis, Christine M; Bergin, Ingrid L; Bell, Jason D; Nyachieo, Atunga; Gathumbi, Peter K

    2017-02-01

    Papio hamadryas papillomavirus (PhPV) 1, 2, and 3, are Alphapapillomaviruses that have been detected in Kenyan Olive baboons but the distribution is unknown. Therefore, cervical screening for PhPV1 was performed in baboons from various areas in Kenya using a nested polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence rate was 33%.

  1. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  2. Draft genome sequences of pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3 isolated from alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the annotated draft genome of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming, USA. Comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae pv. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathoge...

  3. NREL PV Module Reliability and Performance R&D Status and Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during Fiscal Year (FY)2004 of the Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability and Performance R&D Subtask, which is part of the PV Module Reliability R&D Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  4. Stabilization of hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles by axial silyloxy groups.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tamal; Lee, Way-Zen; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-05-04

    We report the stabilization of the hexa-coordination environment for P(v) corroles by using alkyl/aryl substituted silyloxy groups as axial ligands. The P(v) corroles are highly fluorescent in a hexa-coordination environment compared to in a penta-coordination environment. However, P(v) corroles generally undergo axial ligand dissociation to form a mixture of penta- and hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents such as toluene, CH2Cl2, CHCl3. The usage of moderately bulkier and electron-donating silyloxy groups helps to restrict the axial ligand dissociation of silyloxy substituted hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles in non-coordinating solvents. The crystal structure confirmed the hexa-coordination geometry for the P(v) corroles. The P(v) corroles strongly absorb and emit in the visible region, with decent quantum yields and singlet state lifetimes. The hexa-coordinated P(v) corroles are highly stable under electrochemical conditions.

  5. Design and Performance of a Hybrid PV/T Solar Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.; Georgostathis, P.; Sarris, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present design considerations and experimental results of a thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar system that is investigated at the University of Patras. Hybrid PV/T systems can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We tested outdoors PV/T prototypes consisted of pc-Si PV modules and heat exchanger of copper sheet with copper pipes, for two system types (PVT/UNGL and PVT/GL). We used commercial PV modules, which give about 12%-15% efficiency, depending on the operating temperature and the use or not of additional glazing. During the experiments the generated electricity was transmitted to a load, simulating real system operation. Steady state tests of the system were performed outdoors to determine collector thermal efficiency. The glazed PV/T collector presents remarkably higher thermal output than the unglazed PV/T collector, but the electrical output of it is reduced due to additional optical losses. The experimental study of the tested thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar device showed that it can perform effectively during all year long, achieving at least 40° C of hot water and producing electricity at a satisfactory level.

  6. Moving to a Higher Level for PV Reliability through Comprehensive Standards Based on Solid Science (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-11-01

    PV reliability is a challenging topic because of the desired long life of PV modules, the diversity of use environments and the pressure on companies to rapidly reduce their costs. This presentation describes the challenges, examples of failure mechanisms that we know or don't know how to test for, and how a scientific approach is being used to establish international standards.

  7. Irrigation water is an unlikely source of inoculum of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causes severe bacterial blight on crucifers across the United States. These experiments examined the potential of irrigation water as a source of inoculum for P. cannabina pv. alisalensis. Water samples were collected from multiple irrigation reservoirs and spri...

  8. Identification of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis previously isolated from diseased crucifers in Australia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causes bacterial blight on crucifers, a severe disease which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s P. cannabina pv. alisalensis was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas s...

  9. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  10. Creating dynamic equivalent PV circuit models with impedance spectroscopy for arc-fault modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Strauch, Jason E.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2011-06-01

    Article 690.11 in the 2011 National Electrical Code{reg_sign} (NEC{reg_sign}) requires new photovoltaic (PV) systems on or penetrating a building to include a listed arc fault protection device. Currently there is little experimental or empirical research into the behavior of the arcing frequencies through PV components despite the potential for modules and other PV components to filter or attenuate arcing signatures that could render the arc detector ineffective. To model AC arcing signal propagation along PV strings, the well-studied DC diode models were found to inadequately capture the behavior of high frequency arcing signals. Instead dynamic equivalent circuit models of PV modules were required to describe the impedance for alternating currents in modules. The nonlinearities present in PV cells resulting from irradiance, temperature, frequency, and bias voltage variations make modeling these systems challenging. Linearized dynamic equivalent circuits were created for multiple PV module manufacturers and module technologies. The equivalent resistances and capacitances for the modules were determined using impedance spectroscopy with no bias voltage and no irradiance. The equivalent circuit model was employed to evaluate modules having irradiance conditions that could not be measured directly with the instrumentation. Although there was a wide range of circuit component values, the complex impedance model does not predict filtering of arc fault frequencies in PV strings for any irradiance level. Experimental results with no irradiance agree with the model and show nearly no attenuation for 1 Hz to 100 kHz input frequencies.

  11. OUT Success Stories: Thin-Film PV: Leadership in Materials R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchford, P.

    2000-08-31

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a modern energy technology that makes use of semiconductor materials to convert sunlight directly to electricity. The idea of thin film technology is to produce truly low-cost PV devices by using pennies worth of active semiconductor materials.

  12. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  13. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  14. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  15. Amplified fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis-based genotypic relatedness among pathogenic variants of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae.

    PubMed

    Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Vernière, Christian; Jouen, Emmanuel; Ah-You, Nathalie; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    Three pathogenic variants (i.e. pathotypes) have been described within Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker. Pathotype A strains naturally infect a wide range of Citrus species and members of some related genera. In contrast, pathotypes A* and A(w) have narrow host ranges within the genus Citrus and have been isolated from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) and from Mexican lime and alemow (Citrus macrophylla L.), respectively. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on four partial housekeeping gene sequences (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB ) for the genotypic classification of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and the poorly characterized citrus pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae. A Mantel test showed that genetic distances derived from AFLP and MLSA were highly correlated. X. campestris pv. bilvae showed a close relatedness to the type strain of X. citri, indicating that this pathovar should be reclassified as X. citri pv. bilvae. All pathotype A* and A(w) strains were most closely related to X. citri pv. citri strains with a wide host range (pathotype A), confirming previous DNA-DNA hybridization data. Pathotype A(w) should be considered a junior synonym of pathotype A* on the basis of pathogenicity tests, AFLP, MLSA and PCR using pathovar-specific primers. Evolutionary genome divergences computed from AFLP data suggested that pathotype A* (including A(w) strains) is a group of strains that shows a wider genetic diversity than pathotype A.

  16. Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV): Analysis and US market potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frantzis, L.; Friedman, D.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Strong, S.; Strong, M.

    1995-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for grid-connected, building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin; and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US. Off-grid building applications also offer a near-term market for BIPV, but are not included in the scope of this study.

  17. Estimating the level of cash invested in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2004-12-01

    Long-term trends of financial markets are considered as a growth phenomenon, with a steady influx of money needed to ensure a sustainable growth. A study is made of the impact of money supply, dividends and interest rates, on the growth of a market. A method to estimate the level of investment of cash into stocks is introduced, thereby eventually also identifying periods when stock markets are likely to have topped.

  18. Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) Module during Partial Shading based on Simplified Two-Diode Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitti Babu, B.; Gurjar, Suresh; Meher, Ashish

    2015-02-01

    Generally, the characteristics of photovoltaic (PV) array are largely affected by solar temperature, solar irradiance, shading patterns, array configuration and location of shading modules. Partial shading is due to moving clouds and shadows of nearby obstacles and can cause a significant degradation in the output of PV system. Hence, the characteristics of PV array get more multifaceted with multiple peaks. The ultimate aim of the paper is to analyze the performance of PV module during such adverse condition based on simplified two-diode model. To reduce the computational time, the simplified two-diode model has a photocurrent source in parallel with two ideal diodes. Only four parameters are required to be calculated from datasheet in order to simulate the model. Moreover, the performance of PV array is evaluated at different shaded patterns and it is found that the model has less computational time and gives accurate results.

  19. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-09-15

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  20. Analysis of PV Advanced Inverter Functions and Setpoints under Time Series Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Seuss, John; Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert Joseph; Grijalva, Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Utilities are increasingly concerned about the potential negative impacts distributed PV may have on the operational integrity of their distribution feeders. Some have proposed novel methods for controlling a PV system's grid - tie inverter to mitigate poten tial PV - induced problems. This report investigates the effectiveness of several of these PV advanced inverter controls on improving distribution feeder operational metrics. The controls are simulated on a large PV system interconnected at several locations within two realistic distribution feeder models. Due to the time - domain nature of the advanced inverter controls, quasi - static time series simulations are performed under one week of representative variable irradiance and load data for each feeder. A para metric study is performed on each control type to determine how well certain measurable network metrics improve as a function of the control parameters. This methodology is used to determine appropriate advanced inverter settings for each location on the f eeder and overall for any interconnection location on the feeder.

  1. Simplified Method for Modeling the Impact of Arbitrary Partial Shading Conditions on PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    MacAlpine, Sara; Deline, Chris

    2015-06-14

    It is often difficult to model the effects of partial shading conditions on PV array performance, as shade losses are nonlinear and depend heavily on a system's particular configuration. This work describes and implements a simple method for modeling shade loss: a database of shade impact results (loss percentages), generated using a validated, detailed simulation tool and encompassing a wide variety of shading scenarios. The database is intended to predict shading losses in crystalline silicon PV arrays and is accessed using basic inputs generally available in any PV simulation tool. Performance predictions using the database are within 1-2% of measured data for several partially shaded PV systems, and within 1% of those predicted by the full, detailed simulation tool on an annual basis. The shade loss database shows potential to considerably improve performance prediction for partially shaded PV systems.

  2. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  3. Characterization of the hrpF pathogenicity peninsula of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F

    2005-06-01

    The hrp gene cluster of Xanthomonas spp. contains genes for the assembly and function of a type III secretion system (TTSS). The hrpF genes reside in a region between hpaB and the right end of the hrp cluster. The region of the hrpF gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is bounded by two IS elements and also contains a homolog of hpaF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and two newly identified genes, hpa3 and hpa4. A comparison of the hrp gene clusters of different species of Xanthomonas revealed that the hrpF region is a constant yet more variable peninsula of the hrp pathogenicity island. Mutations in hpaF, hpa3, and hpa4 had no effect on virulence, whereas hrpF mutants were severely reduced in virulence on susceptible rice cultivars. The hrpF genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, X. campestris pv. campestris, and X. axonopodis pv. citri each were capable of restoring virulence to the hrpF mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Correspondingly, none of the Xanthomonas pathovars with hrpF from X. oryzae pv. oryzae elicited a hypersensitive reaction in their respective hosts. Therefore, no evidence was found for hrpF as a host-specialization factor. In contrast to the loss of Bs3-dependent reactions by hrpF mutants of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, hrpF mutants of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with either avrXa10 or avrXa7 elicited hypersensitive reactions in rice cultivars with the corresponding R genes. A double hrpFxoo-hpa1 mutant also elicited an Xa10-dependent resistance reaction. Thus, loss of hrpF, hpal, or both may reduce delivery or effectiveness of type III effectors. However, the mutations did not completely prevent the delivery of effectors from X. oryzae pv. oryzae into the host cells.

  4. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences.

  5. Market analysis of seismic security systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taglio, S.

    1981-01-01

    This report provides information on the commercialization potential of the NASA Activity Monitor. Data on current commercially available products, market size, and growth are combined with information on the NASA technology and the projected impact of this technology on the market.

  6. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  7. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  8. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  9. Market trends in the projection display industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (< 10 pound) projectors and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products.

  10. From Bench Top to Market: Growth of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Injection CVD Using Fe Organometallics - Production of a Commercial Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowsell, J.; Hepp, A. F.; Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Cowen, J. C.; Scheiman, D. A.; Flood, D. M.; Flood, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Preferential oriented multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared by the injection chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method using either cyclopentadienyliron dicarbonyl dimer or cyclooctatetraene iron tricarbonyl as the iron catalyst source. The catalyst precursors were dissolved in toluene as the carrier solvent for the injections. The concentration of the catalyst was found to influence both the growth (i.e., MWNT orientation) of the nanotubes, as well as the amount of iron in the deposited material. As deposited, the multiwalled carbon nanotubes contained as little as 2.8% iron by weight. The material was deposited onto tantalum foil and fused silica substrates. The nanotubes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. This synthetic route provides a simple and scalable method to deposit MWNTs with a low defect density, low metal content and a preferred orientation. Subsequently, a small start-up was founded to commercialize the deposition equipment. The contrast between the research and entrepreneurial environments will be discussed.

  11. Packaging Materials and Design for Improved PV Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Kempe, M.; Pern, J.; Glick, S.; del Cueto, J.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2005-01-01

    A number of candidate alternative encapsulant and soft backsheet materials have been evaluated in terms of their suitability for photovoltaic (PV) module packaging applications. Relevant properties, including peel strength as a function of damp heat exposure and permeability, have been measured. Based on these tests, promising new encapsulants with adhesion-promoting primers have been identified that result in improved properties. Test results for backsheets provided by industry and prepared at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have suggested strategies to achieve significantly improved products. The ability of glass/glass and glass/breathable backsheet constructions laminated with various encapsulant and/or edge seal materials to protect thin-film aluminum coatings deposited onto glass substrates was assessed. Glass/glass laminate constructions can trap harmful compounds that catalyze moisture-driven corrosion of the aluminum. Constructions with breathable backsheets allow higher rates of moisture ingress, but also allow egress of deleterious substances that can result in decreased corrosion.

  12. Painlevé equations from Darboux chains: I. PIII PV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willox, Ralph; Hietarinta, Jarmo

    2003-10-01

    We show that the Painlevé equations PIII-PVI can be derived in a unified way from a periodic sequence of Darboux transformations for a Schrödinger problem with quadratic eigenvalue dependence. The general problem naturally divides into three different branches, each described by an infinite chain of equations. The Painlevé equations are obtained by closing the chain periodically at the lowest nontrivial level(s). The chains provide 'symmetric forms' for the Painlevé equations, from which Hirota bilinear forms and Lax pairs are derived. In this paper (part I) we analyse in detail the cases PIII-PV, while PVI will be studied in part II.

  13. PV Degradation Methodology Comparison -- A Basis for a Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk C.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2016-11-21

    What is the best method to determine long-term PV system performance and degradation rates? Ideally, one universally applicable methodology would be desirable so that a single number could be derived. However, data sets vary in their attributes and evidence is presented that defining two methodologies may be preferable. Monte Carlo simulations of artificial performance data allowed investigation of different methodologies and their respective confidence intervals. Tradeoffs between different approaches were delineated, elucidating as to why two separate approaches may need to be included in a standard. Regression approaches tend to be preferable when data sets are less contaminated by seasonality, noise and occurrence of outliers although robust regression can significantly improve the accuracy when outliers are present. In the presence of outliers, marked seasonality, or strong soiling events, year-on-year approaches tend to outperform regression approaches.

  14. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Aillerie, M.

    2016-07-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  15. The reliability and stability of multijunction amorphous silicon PV modules

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.E.

    1995-11-01

    Solarex is developing a manufacturing process for the commercial production of 8 ft{sup 2} multijunction amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV modules starting in 1996. The device structure used in these multijunction modules is: glass/textured tin oxide/p-i-n/p-i-n/ZnO/Al/EVA/Tedlar where the back junction of the tandem structure contains an amorphous silicon germanium alloy. As an interim step, 4 ft{sup 2} multijunction modules have been fabricated in a pilot production mode over the last several months. The distribution of initial conversion efficiencies for an engineering run of 67 modules (4 ft{sup 2}) is shown. Measurements recently performed at NREL indicate that the actual efficiencies are about 5% higher than those shown, and thus exhibit an average initial conversion efficiency of about 9.5%. The data indicates that the process is relatively robust since there were no modules with initial efficiencies less than 7.5%.

  16. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  17. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  18. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  19. High Iron-Sequestrating Bifidobacteria Inhibit Enteropathogen Growth and Adhesion to Intestinal Epithelial Cells In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Gutierrez, Pamela; de Wouters, Tomas; Werder, Julia; Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays an important role in host health, in particular by its barrier effect and competition with exogenous pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the competition of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum PV8-2 (Bp PV8-2) and Bifidobacterium kashiwanohense PV20-2 (Bk PV20-2), isolated from anemic infant gut microbiota and selected for their high iron sequestration properties, was investigated against Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhi) and Escherichia coli O157:H45 (EHEC) by using co-culture tests and assays with intestinal cell lines. Single and co-cultures were carried out anaerobically in chemically semi-defined low iron (1.5 μM Fe) medium (CSDLIM) without and with added ferrous iron (30 μM Fe). Surface properties of the tested strains were measured by bacterial adhesion to solvent xylene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and to extracellular matrix molecules, mucus II, collagen I, fibrinogen, fibronectin. HT29-MTX mucus-secreting intestinal cell cultures were used to study bifidobacteria competition, inhibition and displacement of the enteropathogens. During co-cultures in CSDLIM we observed strain-dependent inhibition of bifidobacterial strains on enteropathogens, independent of pH, organic acid production and supplemented iron. Bp PV8-2 significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited S. Typhi N15 and EHEC after 24 h compared to single culture growth. In contrast Bk PV20-2 showed less inhibition on S. Typhi N15 than Bp PV8-2, and no inhibition on EHEC. Affinity for intestinal cell surface glycoproteins was strain-specific, with high affinity of Bp PV8-2 for mucin and Bk PV20-2 for fibronectin. Bk PV20-2 showed high adhesion potential (15.6 ± 6.0%) to HT29-MTX cell layer compared to Bp PV8-2 (1.4 ± 0.4%). In competition, inhibition and displacement tests, Bp PV8-2 significantly (P < 0.05) reduced S. Typhi N15 and EHEC adhesion, while Bk PV20-2 was only active on S. Typhi N15 adhesion. To conclude, bifidobacterial strains selected for their high iron binding

  20. Opportunities and issues in international photovoltaic market development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Arent, D.; Baldwin, S.

    1996-05-01

    The confluence of technology development and market readiness is opening up major business opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) systems throughout the developing world. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories in Abuquerque (Sandia), working on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, have launched pilot projects in several countries throughout the world over the past 3 years. The focus of these pilot projects has been the development of in-country institutional capabilities necessary to deliver the promise of PV electricity to the rural populations. In addition to country-specific activities, NREL is conducting several technology, information, and partnership projects focused on further accelerating the education, training, business, and technology developments necessary to bridge the gap between promise and reality. This paper summarizes these efforts.