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Sample records for pv rural home

  1. Best practices for PV solar home system projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-12-31

    PV solar home systems (SHS) are increasingly employed as an energy supply option for rural populations. The past 20 years` experience with small-scale SHS programs in developing countries has had mixed results. However, efforts in recent years have been more successful. In support of World Bank lending operations, the Banks Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) has undertaken a series of case studies of currently operating SHS programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic. These programs have varying degrees of government, NGO, and private sector involvement. This paper summarizes ASTAE`s draft Solar Photovoltaics: Best Practices for Household Electrification report which identifies the institutional, financial, and technical factors fundamental to the success of a PV solar home system project. The final version of the ASTAE report will incorporate comments from an international group of peer reviewers.

  2. Home Schooling in Rural Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Robert L.; Cruzeiro, Patricia; Holz, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A 1996-97 survey of 40 home schooling families in rural Nebraska examined family characteristics, parents' social and political attitudes, the rationale for home schooling, curriculum and supplementary materials, children's opportunities for social experiences, rural characteristics, parents' educational attitudes, and support from extended…

  3. Remote monitoring of solar PV system for rural areas using GSM, V-F & F-V converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejwani, R.; Kumar, G.; Solanki, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The Small capacity photovoltaic (PV) systems like solar lantern and home lighting systems installed in remote rural area often fail without any prior warning due to lack of monitoring and maintenance. This paper describes implementation of remote monitoring for small capacity solar PV system that uses GSM voice channel for communication. Through GSM analog signal of sine wave with frequency range 300-3500 Hz and amplitude range 2.5-4 V is transmitted. Receiver is designed to work in the same frequency range. The voltage from solar PV system in range of 2 to 7.5 V can be converted to frequency directly at the transmitting end. The frequency range from 300-6000 Hz can be sensed and directly converted to voltage signal at receiving end. Testing of transmission and reception of analog signal through GSM voice channel is done for voltage to frequency (V-F) and frequency to voltage (F-V) conversions.

  4. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Johnson, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  5. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-15

    In October 2008, the United States Congress extended both the residential and commercial solar investment tax credits (ITCs) for an unprecedented eight years, lifted the $2,000 cap on the residential credit, removed the prohibition on utility use of the commercial credit, and eliminated restrictions on the use of both credits in conjunction with the Alternative Minimum Tax. These significant changes, which apply to systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2009, will increase the value of the solar credits for residential system owners in particular, and are likely--in conjunction with state, local, and utility rebate programs targeting solar--to spur significant growth in residential, commercial, and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the years ahead. This article focuses specifically on the residential credit, describing three areas in which removal of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC will have significant implications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system owners, and the PV industry.

  6. Life cycle cost analysis of a stand-alone PV system in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Emma

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a rural area in Kenya. The research conducted involved a comprehensive review of all the relevant literature associated with the study. Methodologies were extrapolated from this extensive literature to develop a model for the complete design and economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system. A women's center in rural Kenya was used as a worked example to demonstrate the workings of the model. The results suggest that electrifying the center using a stand-alone PV system is an economically viable option which is encouraging for the surrounding area. This model can be used as a business model to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system in alternative sites in Kenya.

  7. 12 CFR 613.3030 - Rural home financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shall have a loan from the Farm Credit System on more than one rural home at any one time. (c) Purposes... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rural home financing. 613.3030 Section 613.3030... Financing Under Titles I and II of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3030 Rural home financing. (a) Definitions....

  8. 12 CFR 613.3030 - Rural home financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall have a loan from the Farm Credit System on more than one rural home at any one time. (c) Purposes... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rural home financing. 613.3030 Section 613.3030... Financing Under Titles I and II of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3030 Rural home financing. (a) Definitions....

  9. 12 CFR 613.3030 - Rural home financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rural home financing. 613.3030 Section 613.3030 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY AND SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing Under Titles I and II of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3030 Rural home financing. (a) Definitions....

  10. 12 CFR 613.3030 - Rural home financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural home financing. 613.3030 Section 613.3030 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELIGIBILITY AND SCOPE OF FINANCING Financing Under Titles I and II of the Farm Credit Act § 613.3030 Rural home financing. (a) Definitions....

  11. Second Home Owners, Locals and Their Perspectives on Rural Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farstad, Maja; Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Dominating strands within the research literature on second homes explain social conflicts between rural hosting and visiting second home populations by describing their differing perspectives on rural development. Such presentations suggest that locals are likely to welcome new developments in order to enhance the economic viability of their…

  12. Recruitment and retention of home support workers in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Zena

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined recruitment and retention of home support workers (HSWs) providing home support in rural communities. Thirty-two participants were recruited across four island-based communities located in British Columbia, Canada. Thematic analysis of interview data revealed several key themes: (a) how the rural context shapes HSWs' employment decisions and opportunities; (b) why people become (and stay) HSWs in rural communities; and (c) how rurality influences the nature and scope of HSWs' work. These findings suggest that health human resource policies and programs aimed at HSW recruitment and retention should be tailored to characteristics, strengths, and challenges of rural communities.

  13. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Craig; Horowitz, Scott; Maguire, Jeff; Velasco, Paulo Tabrares; Springer, David; Coates, Peter; Bell, Christy; Price, Snuller; Sreedharan, Priya; Pickrell, Katie

    2014-04-01

    This project targeted the development of a software tool, BEopt-CA (Ex) (Building Energy Optimization Tool for California Existing Homes), that aims to facilitate balanced integration of energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and photovoltaics (PV) in the residential retrofit1 market. The intent is to provide utility program managers and contractors in the EE/DR/PV marketplace with a means of balancing the integration of EE, DR, and PV

  14. Ota City : characterizing output variability from 553 homes with residential PV systems on a distribution feeder.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakashima, Eichi; Lave, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    This report describes in-depth analysis of photovoltaic (PV) output variability in a high-penetration residential PV installation in the Pal Town neighborhood of Ota City, Japan. Pal Town is a unique test bed of high-penetration PV deployment. A total of 553 homes (approximately 80% of the neighborhood) have grid-connected PV totaling over 2 MW, and all are on a common distribution line. Power output at each house and irradiance at several locations were measured once per second in 2006 and 2007. Analysis of the Ota City data allowed for detailed characterization of distributed PV output variability and a better understanding of how variability scales spatially and temporally. For a highly variable test day, extreme power ramp rates (defined as the 99th percentile) were found to initially decrease with an increase in the number of houses at all timescales, but the reduction became negligible after a certain number of houses. Wavelet analysis resolved the variability reduction due to geographic diversity at various timescales, and the effect of geographic smoothing was found to be much more significant at shorter timescales.

  15. Rurality and Nursing Home Quality: Evidence from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Yu; Meng, Hongdao; Miller, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the impact of rural geographic location on nursing home quality of care in the United States. Design and Methods: The study used cross-sectional observational design. We obtained resident- and facility-level data from 12,507 residents in 1,174 nursing homes from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey. We used…

  16. Use of Informal In-Home Care by Rural Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Janette K.; McAuley, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined use of in-home services by older rural people who received assistance exclusively from informal sources. Results suggest that informal caregiver is essential in community-based care for rural elderly. Having a car, distance to friend, economic resources, physical health, and performance in daily living activities related to use of more…

  17. Illumination PV systems for 122 Indian school-homes under Mexican technology

    SciTech Connect

    del Valle, J.L.; Flores, C.; Tikasing, G.; Urbano, A.

    1982-09-01

    One hundred twenty-two PV systems, each of 65 pk watts, were installed for electrical lighting in school-homes for Indian children under one of the national educational programs. This project has benefitted at least 5000 children in nine Mexican States. The main characteristic of the systems is that they were designed, contructed and installed using Mexican Technology. Special attention was given to the didactic and anthropological aspects involved in the use of the systems in the Indian communities. The project was completed within the specified period of 12 months, at a cost of 0.5 million U.S. Dlls.

  18. HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY

    EPA Science Inventory

    HOME ENVIRONMENT AND CHILDHOOD ASTHMA IN A RURAL IOWA COUNTY
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Allison L. Naleway*?, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*.
    *University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA RTP, NC ?Curre...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES IN RURAL IOWA HOMES WITH ASTHMATIC CHILDREN
    Erik R. Svendsen*?, Stephen J. Reynolds*?, James A. Merchant*, Ann M. Stromquist*, Peter S. Thorne*. * The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA ?Current: USEPA,RTP, NC ?Current: Colorado...

  20. Maximizing Home Visit Time In Rural Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann

    The 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires early intervention programs to serve children in natural environments. Because of geography and resources, it is often impossible for service providers to visit rural families at home as frequently as families were seen via a center-based model. At first glance,…

  1. Regional, Rural Home ABE Program Spells Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, Claude

    Maine's State Division of Adult Education began setting up a regionalized Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in rural Franklin county in 1974 to serve the area's functional illiterates. Located in the building housing the Franklin County Community Action Program (CAP), linkages were developed with a large number of agencies; initially the 10 CAP…

  2. Conflicts and Contestations. Rural Populations' Perspectives on the Second Homes Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In response to demands to restructure and diversify their economies, many rural communities have welcomed the expanding phenomenon of second homes. However, while the second home owners bring new resources to the host communities, the literature also suggests that large second home populations in rural communities provide fertile ground for a…

  3. Differences between Newly Admitted Nursing Home Residents in Rural and Nonrural Areas in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Jane Nelson; Phillips, Charles D.; Hawes, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research in specific locales indicates that individuals admitted to rural nursing homes have lower care needs than individuals admitted to nursing homes in urban areas, and that rural nursing homes differ in their mix of short-stay and chronic-care residents. This research investigates whether differences in acuity are a function…

  4. Integrating care coordination home telehealth and home based primary care in rural Oklahoma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sorocco, Kristen H; Bratkovich, Kristi L; Wingo, Rita; Qureshi, Saleem M; Mason, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate the benefits of integrating VA Care Coordination Home Telehealth and Telemental health within HBPC. A case study design was used to determine quality assurance and quality improvement of incorporating additional home telehealth equipment within Home Based Primary Care (HBPC). Veterans with complex medical conditions and their caregivers living in rural Oklahoma were enrolled. Veterans received the same care other HBPC patients received with the addition of home telehealth equipment. Members from the interdisciplinary treatment team were certified to use the telehealth equipment. Veterans and their caregivers were trained on use of the equipment in their homes. Standard HBPC program measures were used to assess the program success. Assessments from all disciplines on the HBPC team were at baseline, 3, and 6 months, and participants provided satisfaction and interview data to assess the benefits of integrating technology into standard care delivery within an HBPC program. Six veterans were enrolled (mean age = 72 yrs) with a range of physical health conditions including: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, diabetes, hypertension, and syncope. Primary mental health conditions included depression, dementia, anxiety, and PTSD. Scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination ranged from 18 to 30. Over a 6-month period, case studies indicated improvements in strength, social functioning, decreased caregiver burden, and compliance with treatment plan. This integration of CCHT and HBPC served previously underserved rural veterans having complex medical conditions and appears both feasible and clinically beneficial to veterans and their caregivers.

  5. Indonesia solar home systems project for rural electrification

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghvi, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents, from a financing aspect the broad issues involved in a plan to provide solar home systems (SHS) to provide rural electrification in several areas of rural Indonesia. The paper discusses the approaches being used to provide funding, develop awareness of the technology, and assure the success of the project. The plan involves the use of grant money to help with some of the initial costs of such systems, and thereby to encourage local financing on a terms rather than cash basis. There are needs for market development, and development of a business structure in the country to support this type of technology. Provided this plan can succeed, it may serve as a model for further efforts.

  6. Job satisfaction of rural public and home health nurses.

    PubMed

    Juhl, N; Dunkin, J W; Stratton, T; Geller, J; Ludtke, R

    1993-03-01

    Based on Vroom's expectancy theory, this study was conducted to identify differences in job satisfaction between nurses working in public health settings, and staff nurses and administrators working in both settings. Questionnaires containing an adaptation of a job satisfaction scale were mailed to all 258 registered nurses practicing in public health and home health settings (response rate 57%) in a rural midwestern state. Respondents were asked to rate their satisfaction with various dimensions of their jobs, as well as how important each aspect was to them. Although both groups of nurses reported low satisfaction with salary, public health nurses were significantly less satisfied with their salaries than were home health nurses (F = 32.96, P < or = 0.001); home health nurses, however, were significantly less satisfied with benefits/rewards (F = 11.85, P < or = 0.001), task requirements (F = 8.37, P < or = 0.05), and professional status (F = 5.30, P < or = 0.05). Although administrators did not differ significantly from staff nurses on job satisfaction, they did perceive organizational climate (F = 4.50, P < or = 0.05) to be an important feature of satisfaction. These differences may be partially explained by divergent salaries, roles, and responsibilities between public health and home health nurses. PMID:8516258

  7. The Influence of Rural Location on Utilization of Formal Home Care: The Role of Medicaid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William D.; Van Nostrand, Joan; Shaffer, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the impact of rural-urban residence on formal home-care utilization among older people and determines whether and how Medicaid coverage influences the association between, rural-urban location and risk of formal home-care use. Design and Methods: We combined data from the 1998 consolidated file of the Medical…

  8. The Physical and Social Environments of Small Rural Nursing Homes: Assessing Supportiveness for Residents with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debra G.; Semchuk, Karen M.; Stewart, Norma J.; D'Arcy, Carl

    2003-01-01

    The physical and social environments are recognized as important therapeutic tools in the care of nursing home residents with dementia, yet little is known about the environments of rural nursing homes. This study was conducted in one rural health authority (16,000 km[superscript 2]) in the province of Saskatchewan. Long-term institutional care…

  9. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes

    PubMed Central

    Semmens, Erin O.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Allen, Ryan W.; Weiler, Emily C.; Ward, Tony J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (< 2.5 μm) and PNCs (particles/cm3) in six size fractions (0.30–0.49, 0.50–0.99, 1.00–2.49, 2.5–5.0, 5.0–10.0, 10.0+ μm). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5) μg/m3 during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1) μg/m3 during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd) = 0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings. PMID:25701812

  10. Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.

    PubMed

    Semmens, Erin O; Noonan, Curtis W; Allen, Ryan W; Weiler, Emily C; Ward, Tony J

    2015-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (<2.5μm) and PNCs (particles/cm(3)) in six size fractions (0.30-0.49, 0.50-0.99, 1.00-2.49, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10.0, 10.0+μm). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5)μg/m(3) during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1)μg/m(3) during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd)=0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings.

  11. Medicare-Certified Home Health Care: Urban-Rural Differences in Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Lacey; Jarosek, Stephanie L.; Virnig, Beth A.; Durham, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: Availability of Medicare-certified home health care (HHC) to rural elders can prevent more expensive institutional care. To date, utilization of HHC by rural elders has not been studied in detail. Purpose: To examine urban-rural differences in Medicare HHC utilization. Methods: The 2002 100% Medicare HHC claims and denominator files were…

  12. Using home buyers' revealed preferences to define the urban rural fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, James P.; Charles, Joni S.

    2008-03-01

    The location of new homes defines the urban rural fringe and determines many facets of the urban rural interaction set in motion by construction of new homes in previously rural areas. Home, neighborhood and school district characteristics play a crucial role in determining the spatial location of new residential construction, which in turn defines the boundary and spatial extent of the urban rural fringe. We develop and apply a spatial hedonic variant of the Blinder (J Hum Resour 8:436 455, 1973) and Oaxaca (Int Econ Rev 9:693 709, 1973) price decomposition to newer versus older home sales in the Columbus, Ohio metropolitan area during the year 2000. The preferences of buyers of newer homes are compared to those who purchased the nearest neighboring older home located in the same census block group, during the same year. Use of the nearest older home purchased in the same location represents a methodology to control for various neighborhood, social economic-demographic and school district characteristics that influence home prices. Since newer homes reflect current preferences for home characteristics while older homes reflect past preferences for these characteristics, we use the price differentials between newer and older home sales in the Blinder Oaxaca decomposition to assess the relative significance of various house characteristics to home buyers.

  13. Energy 101: Solar PV

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  14. Energy 101: Solar PV

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems can generate clean, cost-effective power anywhere the sun shines. This video shows how a PV panel converts the energy of the sun into renewable electricity to power homes and businesses.

  15. PV technology and success of solar electricity in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, T.Q.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1990 the PV Technology and the Solar electricity have been strongly developed in Vietnam. The PV experts of Solarlab have studied and set up an appropriate PV Technology responding to local Market needs. It has not only stood well but has been also transferred to Mali Republic and Lao P.D.R. The PV off grid systems of Solarlab demonstrate good efficiency and low prices. Over 60 solar stations and villages have been built to provide solar lighting for about 3000 families along the country in remote, mountainous areas and islands. 400 families are using stand-alone Solar Home Systems. The Solar electricity has been chosen for Rural Electrification and National Telecommunication Network in remote and mountainous regions. Many International projects in cooperation with FONDEM-France, SELF USA and Governmental PV projects have been realized by Solarlab. The experiences of maintenance, management and finance about PV development in Vietnam are also mentioned.

  16. Home-Based Comprehensive Assessment of Rural Elderly Persons: The CARE Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, David D.; Mehr, David R.; Campbell, James D.; Armer, Jane; Kruse, Robin L.; Rubenstein, Laurence Z.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Home-based comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has been effective in urban areas but has had little study in rural areas. CGA involves medical history taking, a physical exam, and evaluation of functional status, mental status, cognitive status, gait and balance, medications, vision, extent of social supports, and home safety. We…

  17. Formative Research on Creating Smoke-free Homes in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Butler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The home is a significant place for exposure to secondhand smoke for children and non-smoking adults. This study explored factors that would convince families to adopt household smoking bans and actions to create and maintain smoke-free homes. Interviews were conducted with adults in 102 households in rural Georgia. Participating families had a…

  18. Rural Alberta Home-Based Businesses: A Profile of Workshop Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capjack, M. Linda; Fetterman, Nelma I.

    1992-01-01

    Of 252 rural Alberta attendees of home-based business workshops, 60 were in business. Of these, 65 percent produced sewing, textile, or food-related products; 73 percent contributed less than 5 percent of family income; 72 percent worked at home because a hobby became profitable; and the majority were married women over 40. (SK)

  19. Cost Effective, Home Based Delivery System for Rural, Early Childhood Special Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    The Sensory Impaired Home Intervention (SKI*HI) Model provides services for rural, hearing impaired children at an average annual cost of $1,400 per child. Weekly home visits are provided by nearby or local part time parent advisors, thus minimizing travel costs and eliminating employment problems associated with long travel hours. (JHZ)

  20. Bringing It All Back Home: Reclaiming the Rural Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Mary

    Over the last 50 years, American attitudes toward rural areas have shifted from pride and concern to indifference and ultimately neglect. This shift in attitudes has accompanied the decline in rural population. The media tend to portray rural areas in extremes, depicting either poverty, neglect, and despair, or breath-taking scenery and an idyllic…

  1. Predictors of quality in rural nursing homes using standard and novel methods.

    PubMed

    Towsley, Gail L; Beck, Susan L; Pepper, Ginette A

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effect of market and organizational characteristics on nursing home quality as measured by deficiencies (number and weighted) on states in a rural region of the United States. Rural nursing homes in five Mountain West states (N = 161) were sampled from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system between January 1, 2004 and June 15, 2005. State comparisons indicated that rural nursing homes in Nevada had a higher number of deficiencies and weighted deficiency score as compared with Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Idaho. Using regression analyses, we found that a higher percentage of licensed practical nurses in the staffing mix were predictive of a greater number of deficiencies. Nursing homes with more beds or higher Medicaid occupancy had higher weighted deficiency scores. Although rural Mountain West nursing homes average a similar number of deficiencies as nursing homes nationwide, these nursing homes had a greater number of serious deficiencies and higher weighted deficiency scores, suggesting greater actual harm to resident health and safety.

  2. Home Water Treatment Habits and Effectiveness in a Rural Arizona Community

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Nathan; Wilkinson, Sarah T.; Verhougstraete, Marc; Sugeng, Anastasia; Loh, Miranda M.; Klimecki, Walter; Beamer, Paloma I.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking water quality in the United States (US) is among the safest in the world. However, many residents, often in rural areas, rely on unregulated private wells or small municipal utilities for water needs. These utilities may violate the Safe Drinking Water Act contaminant guidelines, often because they lack the required financial resources. Residents may use alternative water sources or install a home water treatment system. Despite increased home water treatment adoption, few studies have examined their use and effectiveness in the US. Our study addresses this knowledge gap by examining home water treatment in a rural Arizona community. Water samples were analyzed for metal(loid)s, and home treatment and demographic data were recorded in 31 homes. Approximately 42% of homes treated their water. Independent of source water quality, residents with higher income (OR = 1.25; 95%CI (1.00 – 1.64)) and education levels (OR = 1.49; 95%CI (1.12 – 2.12)) were more likely to treat their water. Some contaminant concentrations were effectively reduced with treatment, while some were not. We conclude that increased educational outreach on contaminant testing and treatment, especially to rural areas with endemic water contamination, would result in a greater public health impact while reducing rural health disparities. PMID:26120482

  3. The Methamphetamine Home: Psychological Impact on Preschoolers in Rural Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asanbe, Comfort B.; Hall, Charlene; Bolden, Charles D.

    2008-01-01

    Context: A growing number of children reside with methamphetamine-abusing parents in homes where the illicit drug is produced. Yet, the effects of a methamphetamine environment on psychological child outcome are still unknown. Purpose: To examine whether preschoolers who lived in methamphetamine-producing homes are at increased risk for developing…

  4. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.; Maguire, J.; Tabares-Velasco, P.; Springer, D.; Coates, P.; Bell, C.; Price, S.; Sreedharan, P.; Pickrell, K.

    2014-04-01

    Opportunities for combining energy efficiency, demand response, and energy storage with PV are often missed, because the required knowledge and expertise for these different technologies exist in separate organizations or individuals. Furthermore, there is a lack of quantitative tools to optimize energy efficiency, demand response and energy storage with PV, especially for existing buildings. As technology costs evolve (e.g., the ongoing reduction in the cost of PV), design strategies need to be adjusted accordingly based on quantitative analysis.

  5. Rural-Urban Comparisons of Nursing Home Residents With Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Robert J.; Wang, Suojin; Zhu,Li; Kim, MyungSuk

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurologic disease that disables younger adults, affecting as many as 350,000 Americans. Purpose: The objectives of this study are to develop profiles of nursing home residents with MS from rural areas and compare them to residents with MS who lived in urban areas, suburban areas, and large towns.…

  6. Parental Perceptions of Home Internet Use among Rural African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeananne Oldham

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growth of home Internet use over the past decade, disparities still exist among certain socioeconomic groups of the population. Rural, lower socioeconomic and African Americans fall further behind in technology access than any other group. The purpose of this ex post facto qualitative study was to investigate parental perceptions…

  7. Rural-Urban Differences in End-of-Life Nursing Home Care: Facility and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temkin-Greener, Helena; Zheng, Nan Tracy; Mukamel, Dana B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines urban-rural differences in end-of-life (EOL) quality of care provided to nursing home (NH) residents. Data and Methods: We constructed 3 risk-adjusted EOL quality measures (QMs) for long-term decedent residents: in-hospital death, hospice referral before death, and presence of severe pain. We used…

  8. Characteristics and Recruitment Paths of Certified Nursing Assistants in Rural and Urban Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Janice C.; Baek, Jong-Deuk; Laditka, Sarah B.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Most nursing home care is provided by certified nursing assistants (CNAs), but little is known about rural CNAs. Purpose: To develop a representative geographic profile of the CNA workforce, focusing on paths leading to present job. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a…

  9. No Home, No Family: Homeless Children in Rural Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ronald K.; Johnson, Alice K.; Bremseth, Michael D.; Tracy, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Statewide study of 455 Ohio children who received family preservation or reunification services found that the homeless child was more likely to be a child of color, to be younger, to have problems maintaining a bond with parents, and to be in a relative's home, and less likely to have behavior problems or successful service outcomes. Contains 22…

  10. Home-Based Businesses: Implications for the Rural Economy of the South. The Rural South: Preparing for the Challenges of the 21st Century, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela J.; Muske, Glenn

    In the face of changing agriculture, an aging population, and the outflow of citizens seeking livable wages, rural Southern communities are challenged with how to enhance their economies to insure long-term business viability. Home-based businesses are an effective aspect of rural economic development. They allow flexibility and choice of work…

  11. Rural home care of a technology-dependent infant.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to prepare for home care of technology-dependent infants. The environment must protect, support, and promote the physical, cognitive, and social growth and development of these infants. Parents and caregivers of technology-dependent infants should be taught cardiopulmonary resuscitation and should be helped to develop a plan for obtaining emergency medical assistance. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7780317

  12. Manufactured Homes as Affordable Housing in Rural Areas. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniak, Robert, Comp.

    This bibliography includes citations of approximately 60 books and articles pertaining to manufactured housing or "mobile homes," an important segment of the national housing industry. The availability of manufactured homes for low and moderate income groups is significant in light of skyrocketing new-housing costs. The South leads the nation with…

  13. Rural Compared to Urban Home Community Settings as Predictors of First-Year Students' Adjustment to University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Megan E.; Wintre, Maxine G.; Prancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Adams, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduates (N = 2,823) at 6 universities were surveyed longitudinally to examine the relevance of student home setting on the transition to university. Preliminary results indicated that rural students seem less likely to attend large, ethnically diverse universities. Hierarchical linear models revealed that "proximal rural" students…

  14. Training Home Economists for Rural Development. Report of a Global Study on the Development of Criteria for Establishing Training Institutions for Home Economics Staff in Rural Development. FAO Economic and Social Development Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

    In 1973 a global study aimed toward the development of criteria for establishing institutions for training home economists for rural development programs was initiated by the Home Economics and Social Programmes Services of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the U.N. As a first step, a survey was developed on the variety of roles appropriate…

  15. Optimization and life-cycle cost of health clinic PV system for a rural area in southern Iraq using HOMER software

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Kazmerski, L.L.

    2010-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for electricity of rural areas in southern Iraq and proposes a photovoltaic (PV) solar system to power a health clinic in that region. The total daily health clinic load is 31.6 kW h and detailed loads are listed. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) optimization computer model for distributed power, ''HOMER,'' is used to estimate the system size and its life-cycle cost. The analysis shows that the optimal system's initial cost, net present cost, and electricity cost is US$ 50,700, US$ 60,375, and US$ 0.238/kW h, respectively. These values for the PV system are compared with those of a generator alone used to supply the load. We found that the initial cost, net present cost of the generator system, and electricity cost are US$ 4500, US$ 352,303, and US$ 1.332/kW h, respectively. We conclude that using the PV system is justified on humanitarian, technical, and economic grounds. (author)

  16. Home Literacy Environments and Foundational Literacy Skills for Struggling and Nonstruggling Readers in Rural Early Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary…

  17. Results From an Intervention to Improve Rural Home Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Alcantara, Iris; Veluswamy, J. K.; Haardörfer, Regine; Hotz, James A.; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological models of healthy eating and physical activity emphasize the influence of behavioral settings such as homes and worksites in shaping behavior. Research on home environments suggests that both social and physical aspects of the home may impact physical activity and healthy eating. Objective Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the Emory Prevention Research Center (EPRC), Cancer Coalition of South Georgia, and the EPRC’s Community Advisory Board (CAB) designed and tested a coach-based intervention to make the home environment more supportive of healthy eating and physical activity for rural adults. Methods The 6-week intervention consisted of a tailored home environment profile, goal-setting, and behavioral contracting delivered through two home visits and two telephone calls. The study used a quasi-experimental design with data collected via telephone interviews at baseline, 2 and 4 months post-baseline. Ninety households (n = 90) completed all three telephone interviews. Results Multilevel models indicated that intervention households reported significant improvements in household food inventories, purchasing of fruit and vegetables, healthier meal preparation, meals with the TV off, and family support for healthy eating, relative to comparison households. Intervention households also reported increased exercise equipment and family support for physical activity relative to comparison households. Percent of fat intake decreased significantly, but no changes were observed for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, or weight among intervention relative to comparison households, although trends were generally in a positive direction. Conclusion Coaching combined with a focus on the home environment may be a promising strategy for weight gain prevention in adults. PMID:22982840

  18. Using vision to become viable: how rural hospital-based home health can thrive.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    It's been the trend for some years that, with their own particular set of challenges and constraints, hospital-based home health agencies have struggled to maintain profitability and efficiency in their operations. That can especially be true for hospital-based agencies operating in more rural areas, even as such agencies have been shown to play an important--or even critical--role in ensuring individuals in the communities they serve have access to needed treatment and health care services. Two executives who've successfully led a rural hospital-based agency discuss how to engage employees, referral sources, and communities and instill the right core philosophy to help your business succeed and grow. PMID:20391656

  19. Feasibility Study: Home Telemonitoring for Patients With Lung Cancer in a Mountainous Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Petitte, Trisha M.; Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Coole, Charles; Forth, Tara; Frick, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To explore the feasibility of rural home telemonitoring for patients with lung cancer. Design Exploratory, descriptive, observational. Setting Patient homes within a 75-mile radius of the study hospital in West Virginia. Sample 10 patients hospitalized with lung cancer as a primary or secondary-related diagnosis. Methods Data included referral and demographics, chart reviews, and clinical data collected using a HomMed telemonitor. Five patients received usual care after discharge; five had telemonitors set up at home for 14 days with daily phone calls for nurse coaching; mid- and end-study data were collected by phone and in homes through two months. Main Research Variables Enrollment and retention characteristics, physiologic (e.g., temperature, pulse, blood pressure, weight, O2 saturation) and 10 symptom datapoints, patient and family telemonitor satisfaction. Findings Of 45 referred patients, only 10 consented; 1 of 5 usual care and 3 of 5 monitored patients completed the entire study. Telemonitored data transmission was feasible in rural areas with high satisfaction; symptom data and physiologic data were inconsistent but characteristic of lung cancer. Conclusions Challenges included environment, culture, technology, and overall enrollment and retention. Physiologic and symptom changes were important data for nurse coaching on risks, symptom management, and clinician contact. Implications for Nursing Enrollment and retention in cancer research warrants additional study. Daily monitoring is feasible and important in risk assessment, but length of time to monitor signs and symptoms, which changed rapidly, is unclear. Symptom changes were useful as proxy indicators for physiologic changes, so risk outcomes may be assessable by phone for patient self-management coaching by nurses. PMID:24578075

  20. Effect of home based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa: cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabana, Hanani; Jackson, Debra; Naik, Reshma; Zembe, Wanga; Lombard, Carl; Swanevelder, Sonja; Fox, Matthew P; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia; Chopra, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of home based HIV counselling and testing on the prevalence of HIV testing and reported behavioural changes in a rural subdistrict of South Africa. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 16 communities (clusters) in uMzimkhulu subdistrict, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Participants 4154 people aged 14 years or more who participated in a community survey. Intervention Lay counsellors conducted door to door outreach and offered home based HIV counselling and testing to all consenting adults and adolescents aged 14-17 years with guardian consent. Control clusters received standard care, which consisted of HIV counselling and testing services at local clinics. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was prevalence of testing for HIV. Other outcomes were HIV awareness, stigma, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to violence, and access to care. Results Overall, 69% of participants in the home based HIV counselling and testing arm versus 47% in the control arm were tested for HIV during the study period (prevalence ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.81). More couples in the intervention arm had counselling and testing together than in the control arm (2.24, 1.49 to 3.03). The intervention had broader effects beyond HIV testing, with a 55% reduction in multiple partners (0.45, 0.33 to 0.62) and a stronger effect among those who had an HIV test (0.37, 0.24 to 0.58) and a 45% reduction in casual sexual partners (0.55, 0.42 to 0.73). Conclusions Home based HIV counselling and testing increased the prevalence of HIV testing in a rural setting with high levels of stigma. Benefits also included higher uptake of couple counselling and testing and reduced sexual risk behaviour. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31271935. PMID:23766483

  1. From home to hospital, a continuum of care: making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C; Saha, S

    2011-09-01

    The Lutheran Aid to Medicine in Bangladesh (LAMB) health and development project in rural Bangladesh has developed an integrated maternal and child healthcare system providing appropriate, accessible and affordable health services for the poor, through a home-to-hospital, continuum-of-care approach. LAMB is thus an example of how high-quality maternity health services accessible to women of all socio-economic classes in a rural context can be provided, making progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.

  2. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  3. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  4. A Feasibility Study of Home-Based Contingency Management with Adolescent Smokers of Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A.; Shelton, Brent J.; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted three video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT: n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT: n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until six-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until post-treatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  5. Indoor/outdoor relationships of particulate matter in domestic homes with roadside, urban and rural locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, N. C.; Thornton, C. A.; Mark, D.; Harrison, R. M.

    Particulate matter was measured inside and outside seven homes within Birmingham, UK, and two homes in rural locations during a 12 month period. Two of the urban homes were on the 10th and 13th floor of a multi-storey block of flats in the city centre; others were at ground level. Direct reading TEOM instruments provided near real-time data for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 mass concentrations. Particulate chemical composition was determined by the analysis of PTFE filters positioned in the bypass flow line of the TEOM, and QMA filters in modified Andersen cascade impactors. TEOM data were used in conjunction with information gained from activity diaries completed by occupants to identify the sources of episodic elevated particle concentrations within the home. Whilst the results indicated an important background contribution to indoor particulate matter from penetration of outdoor particles, indoor sources such as cooking, smoking, cleaning and general activity contributed substantially to indoor concentrations of PM 10 and were the dominant source of episodic peaks in PM 10. Cooking and smoking were determined to be major indoor sources of PM 2.5 and PM 1, whilst cleaning and general activity had little influence on concentrations within this size range. Chemical analysis of the particles collected was used to identify those particles with mainly indoor sources, such as organic carbon from cooking and those with outdoor sources, such as lead and sulphate. Sulphate proved a useful marker for demonstrating the greater ingress and/or indoor air lifetime of fine particles from outside the home (I/O ratio 0.8 for PM 1.1) compared to coarse particles (I/O ratio 0.6 for PM 10). I/O ratios for components such as zinc and elemental carbon were more site-specific.

  6. Building the Bridge between Home and School: One Rural School's Steps to Interrogate and Celebrate Multiple Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Faith Beyer

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines one rural school's efforts to recognize and celebrate the multiple literacies of its students, by hosting a LINK Up family night that highlights the varied funds of knowledge of school, community and home. In dialogue with excerpts from Sherman Alexie's novel, "The Absolute True Diaries of a Part Time Indian," the paper…

  7. Home Management and Consumer Education in Rural Development Programmes: Latin America. Nutrition Information Documents Series No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    The report represents a preliminary study of a three-month consultantship intended to review field experiences in selected Latin American countries for teaching rural families home management/consumer education concepts and to collect materials based on experiences. A detailed account is presented of the projects visited in Mexico, Argentina, and…

  8. Home Health Care Agency Staffing Patterns before and after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, by Rural and Urban Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, William J.; Spector, William; Van Nostrand, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Context: The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 and other recent policies have led to reduced Medicare funding for home health agencies (HHAs) and visits per beneficiary. Purpose: We examine the staffing characteristics of stable Medicare-certified HHAs across rural and urban counties from 1996 to 2002, a period encompassing the changes associated…

  9. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage: options for home births in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Prata, N; Gessessew, A; Abraha, A K; Holston, M; Potts, M

    2009-06-01

    This paper sought to determine the safety and feasibility of home-based prophylaxis of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with misoprostol, including assessment of the need for referrals and additional interventions. In rural Tigray, Ethiopia, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in intervention areas were trained to administer 600mcg of oral misoprostol. In non-intervention areas women were referred to the nearest health facility. Of the 966 vaginal deliveries attended by TBAs, only 8.9% of those who took misoprostol prophylactically (n = 485) needed additional intervention due to excessive bleeding compared to 18.9% of those who did not take misoprostol (n = 481).The experience of symptoms among those who used misoprostol can be considered of minor relevance and self-contained. This study found that prophylactic use of misoprostol in home births is a safe and feasible intervention. Community health care workers trained in its use can correctly and effectively administer misoprostol and be a champion in reducing PPH morbidity and mortality. PMID:20690252

  10. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities. PMID:22531289

  11. Mobile and home-based vendors' contributions to the retail food environment in rural South Texas Mexican-origin settlements.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R

    2012-10-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the US has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or "food desserts," where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limited or even absent. This exploratory study investigates two types of small-scale food vending that take place in rural colonias, or Mexican-origin settlements along the South Texas border with Mexico: mobile and home-based. Using a convenience sample of 23 vendors who live and work in Texas colonias, this study identifies the characteristics associated with mobile and home-based food vendors and their businesses and its contributions to the rural food environment. Findings reveal that mobile and home-based vending provides a variety of food and beverage options to colonia residents, and suggests that home-based vendors contribute a greater assortment of food options, including some healthier food items, than mobile food vendors, which offer and sell a limited range of products. Findings may contribute to the development of innovative policy solutions and interventions aimed at increasing healthy food options or reducing health disparities in immigrant communities.

  12. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, Amol A.; Jacobson, Arne; Park, Won Young; Lee, Ga Rick; Alstone, Peter; Khare, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  13. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  14. Creating and sustaining dementia special care units in rural nursing homes: the critical role of nursing leadership.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Debra G; Stewart, Norma J; D'Arcy, Carl; Cammer, Allison L

    2005-01-01

    Dementia Special Care Units (SCUs) are more likely to be found in larger nursing homes, which tend to be located in urban centres, rather than in smaller rural nursing homes. Reasons for the small number of rural SCUs are not known, although it has been speculated that space and staffing constraints, lack of a critical mass of residents needing specialized care and limited resources may be important factors. The purpose of this study was to describe the development of SCUs in eight small rural nursing homes (31-100 beds) in Saskatchewan, Canada, from the perspective of nursing directors involved in planning and implementing the units. Although the initial focus was on how and why the SCUs were established, the key finding was the critical role of nursing leadership and supervision in creating and sustaining the unit. Even the most successful SCUs required constant vigilance to maintain an effective program, highlighting their inherent fragility and the need for a designated, committed leader. Four key leadership activities were identified: perpetual reinforcement and enforcement of SCU goals and ideals; support, guidance and mentoring of staff; empowerment of staff; and liaison/public relations.

  15. Food Insecurity and Rural Adolescent Personal Health, Home, and Academic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanafelt, Amy; Hearst, Mary O.; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food-insecure (FIS) adolescents struggle in school and with health and mental health more often than food-secure (FS) adolescents. Rural communities experience important disparities in health, but little is known about rural FIS adolescents. This study aims to describe select characteristics of rural adolescents by food-security…

  16. Return Migration: A Study of College Graduates Returning to Rural U.S. Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Elizabeth D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions of return migration experiences and gain knowledge from rural residents who have left to obtain a college education and start careers in non-rural areas, and who then returned to their rural hometowns with the social and economic benefits of a college education, and other valuable resources. This…

  17. Health and economic benefits of scaling up a home-based neonatal care package in rural India: a modelling analysis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Arindam; Colson, Abigail R; Verma, Amit; Megiddo, Itamar; Ashok, Ashvin; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 900 000 newborn children die every year in India, accounting for 28% of neonatal deaths globally. In 2011, India introduced a home-based newborn care (HBNC) package to be delivered by community health workers across rural areas. We estimate the disease and economic burden that could be averted by scaling up the HBNC in rural India using IndiaSim, an agent-based simulation model, to examine two interventions. In the first intervention, the existing community health worker network begins providing HBNC for rural households without access to home- or facility-based newborn care, as introduced by India's recent programme. In the second intervention, we consider increased coverage of HBNC across India so that total coverage of neonatal care (HBNC or otherwise) in the rural areas of each state reaches at least 90%. We find that compared with a baseline of no coverage, providing the care package through the existing network of community health workers could avert 48 [95% uncertainty range (UR) 34-63] incident cases of severe neonatal morbidity and 5 (95% UR 4-7) related deaths, save $4411 (95% UR $3088-$5735) in out-of-pocket treatment costs, and provide $285 (95% UR $200-$371) in value of insurance per 1000 live births in rural India. Increasing the coverage of HBNC to 90% will avert an additional 9 (95% UR 7-12) incident cases, 1 death (95% UR 0.72-1.33), and $613 (95% UR $430-$797) in out-of-pocket expenditures, and provide $55 (95% UR $39-$72) in incremental value of insurance per 1000 live births. Intervention benefits are greater for lower socioeconomic groups and in the poorer states of Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. PMID:26561440

  18. Village-Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Distribution of Zinc for Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Audi, Allan; Pals, Sherri L.; Aol, George; Mbakaya, Charles; Williamson, John; Breiman, Robert F.; Larson, Charles P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. Methods We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children) to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS) sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children) to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health–facility only. Children’s caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI) reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children’s age. Results There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed), 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001). There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6%) and comparison villages (58.8%). Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%). There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46–0.99), but not presenting at clinic. Conclusions In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00530829

  19. Community-based family-style group homes for children orphaned by AIDS in rural China: an ethnographic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    As the number of children orphaned by AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has reached 17.3 million, most living in resource-poor settings, interest has grown in identifying and evaluating appropriate care arrangements for them. In this study, we describe the community-based family-style group homes (‘group homes’) in rural China. Guided by an ecological framework of children’s wellbeing, we conducted a series of ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions in the rural areas of Henan Province, which has been severely impacted by the AIDS endemic through commercial blood collection. Based on our observations and discussions, group homes appear to provide stable and safe living environments for children orphaned by AIDS. Adequate financial support from non-government organizations (NGOs) as well as the central and provincial governments has ensured a low child–caregiver ratio and attention to the basic needs of the children at group homes. The foster parents were selected from the local community and appear to have adequate qualifications and dedication. They receive a monthly stipend, periodical evaluation and parenting consultation from supporting NGOs. The foster parents and children in the group homes have formed strong bonds. Both children and foster parents reported positively on health and education. Characteristics of community-based group homes can be replicated in other care arrangements for AIDS orphans in resource-poor settings for the optimal health outcomes of those vulnerable children. We also call for capacity building for caregivers and communities to provide sustainable and supportive living environment for these children. PMID:25124083

  20. Reasons for Preference of Home Delivery with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) in Rural Bangladesh: A Qualitative Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Bidhan Krishna; Rahman, Musfikur; Rahman, Tawhidur; Hossain, Jahangir; Reichenbach, Laura; Mitra, Dipak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although Bangladesh has made significant progress in reducing maternal and child mortality in the last decade, childbirth assisted by skilled attendants has not increased as much as expected. An objective of the Bangladesh National Strategy for Maternal Health 2014–2024 is to reduce maternal mortality to 50/100,000 live births. It also aims to increase deliveries with skilled birth attendants to more than 80% which remains a great challenge, especially in rural areas. This study explores the underlying factors for the major reliance on home delivery with Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) in rural areas of Bangladesh. Methods This was a qualitative cross-sectional study. Data were collected between December 2012 and February 2013 in Sunamganj district of Sylhet division and data collection methods included key informant interviews (KII) with stakeholders; formal and informal health service providers and health managers; and in-depth interviews (IDI) with community women to capture a range of information. Key questions were asked of all the study participants to explore the question of why women and their families prefer home delivery by TBA and to identify the factors associated with this practice in the local community. Results The study shows that home delivery by TBAs remain the first preference for pregnant women. Poverty is the most frequently cited reason for preferring home delivery with a TBA. Other major reasons include; traditional views, religious fallacy, poor road conditions, limited access of women to decision making in the family, lack of transportation to reach the nearest health facility. Apart from these, community people also prefer home delivery due to lack of knowledge and awareness about service delivery points, fear of increased chance of having a caesarean delivery at hospital, and lack of female doctors in the health care facilities. Conclusions The study findings provide us a better understanding of the reasons

  1. Home on the Range--Health Literacy, Rural Elderly, Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David; Weinert, Clarann; Spring, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The demographic and socioeconomic impacts of the baby boomer generation turning 65 in 2011 will be magnified in rural areas where elderly are already disproportionately represented. The overall goal of a collaborative, community-based project was to improve the health literacy, health outcomes, and overall well-being of rural elderly in four…

  2. Finding Your Home in a Book: Sociocultural Influences on Literacy Learning in a Rural School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enger Waller, Rachael J.

    2011-01-01

    In a rural community there is a risk that readers will not find connections to their own lives, which may affect the pleasure gained from reading. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine the use of literature in a small rural elementary school, focusing on how sociocultural factors affect how students connect to and access literature.…

  3. The "Green Green Grass of Home"? Return Migration to Rural Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Laoire, Caitriona

    2007-01-01

    There have been calls recently to challenge some of the orthodoxies of counterurbanisation. This paper contributes to this by highlighting the complexity of rural in-migration processes, through a focus on rural return migration. There has been a significant increase in return migration to the Republic of Ireland (ROI) since 1996. The paper is…

  4. PV solar electricity: status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    of new concepts to broaden the product portfolio in coming years). The second topic outlines the most likely development of liberalized electricity markets in various regions worldwide. It will be emphasized that in such markets the future prices for electricity will more and more reflect the different cost for bulk and peak power production. This will not only happen for industrial electricity customers - as already today in many countries - but also for private households. The third topic summarizes the existing data and facts by correlating peak power demand and prices traded in various stock exchange markets with delivered PV kWh. It will be shown that a high degree of correlation is existent. Combining the three topics and postulating reverse net metering the competitiveness of PV solar electricity as described is most likely to occur. The described price decrease of modules will also have a very positive impact on off-grid rural applications, mainly in 3rd world countries. It will be shown that this is strongly advanced due to the development of mini-grids starting from solar home systems - with mini grids looking very similar to on-grid applications in weak grid areas of nowadays electricity network.

  5. Utilization of Medicines Available at Home by General Population of Rural and Urban Set Up of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, medicines are procured with prescription or without prescription by patients, which are kept at home and often are utilized in inappropriate manner. It may remain unused, get expired or may be repeated in the way of self medication. So there remains an increase chance of self-medication compared to prescribed drugs. Aim This study was aimed to explore the utilization pattern of medicines available at home with special attention to the types of medicine (with or without prescription) and their appropriate utilization (dosage compliance) and intended self-medication. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Anand district of Gujarat, India during the year 2012- 2014 after Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval. Data were collected from 800 houses, 400 each from urban and rural areas and then analysed for the details of medicines available in the house as: (i) number of homes having medicines; (ii) number of formulations with and without prescriptions; (iii) number of formulations with package inserts & expired formulations; (iv) Dosage forms of medicines; (v) pharmacological class wise distribution of medicines; (vi) status of the medicine use whether for current use, future use or leftover; and (vii) Appropriateness of medicines with and without prescription in relation to dose and duration of treatment. Results Medicines were available in 93.75% houses. More medicine formulations (16.76%) were found without prescription in urban area than in rural (11.82%). Highest number of dosage forms found, were that of tablets (62%). Among the prescribed medicines, majority of medicines were from cardiovascular disease (19.88%) and from without prescription medicines, Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) were the major group available at houses (35.13%). The leftover medicines with prescription were 20.39% and without prescription medicines were 13.37%. Appropriate dose and duration of medicines were followed more

  6. Compensation of Handicap and Autonomy Loss through e-Technologies and Home Automation for Elderly People in Rural Regions: An Actual Need for International Initiatives Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billonnet, Laurent; Dumas, Jean-Michel; Desbordes, Emmanuel; Lapôtre, Bertrand

    To face the problems of elderly and disabled people in a rural environment, the district of Guéret (department of Creuse, France) has set up the "Home automation and Health Pole". In association with the University of Limoges, this structure is based on the use of e-technologies together with home automation techniques. In this frame, many international collaborations attempts have started through a BSc diploma. This paper sums up these different collaborations and directions.

  7. Curriculum Reorientation in Rural Development: Implications for Home Economics. Report of the International Seminar (Nairobi, Kenya, February 19-23, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Vynckt, Susan, Ed.; Sachs-Israel, Margarete, Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at a seminar that examined the Home Economics curriculum at Kenyatta University (Nairobi, Kenya) in the context of Kenya's new educational system. The seminar studied themes of nutrition and health, child development and care, and rural development. Working groups prepared reports on each of these themes.…

  8. Bringing Home the Bacon? The Myth of the Role of Corporate Hog Farming in Rural Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    As rural communities decline due to job losses in agriculture and other industries, they often aggressively court new industries. In such circumstances, a community should question what a proposed new industry will require in terms of infrastructure; the effects of the new labor force on schools, businesses, and housing; the impact on the…

  9. Water management practices in rural and urban homes: a case study from Bangladesh on ingestion of polluted water.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S A; Hoque, B A; Mahmud, A

    1998-09-01

    Although Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in extending the availability of hand pumped and piped water, unsafe water is still ingested. This brief study attempted to assess water management practices in rural and urban homes in Bangladesh so as to establish the routes by which unsafe water is ingested, to examine methods of collection and storage, and determine why unsafe water sources are used when unsafe supplies are available. Forty-eight rural and forty-five urban slum households were studied. Observations, interviews and water quality investigations were conducted. The results show that the respondents were aware that hand pump/tap water is safe and took care to use these safe sources for drinking purposes. However, they continued to use surface water for non-drinking activities such as bathing, washing and rinsing their mouths. Reasons were given that it was a traditional practice to bathe in surface water and was more enjoyable. One of the reasons given for not using hand pumped water to wash clothing and food was that such groundwater caused staining. Bacteriological results from such ingested water showed the quality, especially in rural areas, to be poor. Results also showed the internal surfaces of the base of storage containers to be heavily contaminated with bacteria. This showed that water that was safe when it was first drawn would became contaminated during storage. This study had a limited scope; much further research is needed to find what determines and how water becomes contaminated in containers. These factors include how to reduce contamination of water, in particular the relationship between growth of bacteria in stored water and the material from which the container is made and how to improve the overall quality of water. On the management side, studies could be conducted as to how to improve people's understanding of the use of water for domestic purposes and its safe management.

  10. Examining the Experiences of Young People Transitioning from Out-of-Home Care in Rural Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Young people leaving state out-of-home care are arguably one of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged groups in society. Many have been found to experience significant health, social and educational deficits. In recent years, most Australian States and Territories have introduced specialist leaving care and after care programs and supports, but…

  11. Subdividing Rural America: Impacts of Recreational Lot and Second Home Development. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Planning Officials, Chicago, IL.

    Recreational land development in the United States falls into three general categories with the first two being more popular: (1) unimproved recreational subdivisions, largely speculative investments; (2) improved second home projects, used both for recreation and speculation; and (3) high amenity resort communities, recreational areas for higher…

  12. Nutritional self-care among a group of older home-living people in rural Southern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Bjørg; Söderhamn, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Background Older home-living people are an at-risk group for undernutrition, particularly those who are living alone. Lack of knowledge about healthy dietary habits, altered taste sensation, and declined health status are shown to be some of the factors related to undernutrition. The aims of this study were to explore how a small group of older people in Southern Norway perceived their nutritional self-care. Methods An exploratory qualitative approach, combined with a simple self-report questionnaire, was used. Five persons living in rural areas in Southern Norway, who in a former study were screened and found to be at risk for undernutrition, participated. Qualitative data assessed by means of individual self-care talks in the persons’ own homes were analyzed using directed content analysis. A simple self-report questionnaire containing demographic variables, two health-related questions, and the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-NO) instrument was filled out at baseline and 6 months after the self-care talks. Results The qualitative data showed that the participants had adequate knowledge about healthy and nutritious diets. They were aware of and motivated to adapt their diet to their current state of health and to perform the necessary actions to maintain an optimal nutritional status and nutritional self-care. Conclusion Older people living at home are a diverse group. However, this study showed that they may have sufficient knowledge, willingness, and ability to perform nutritional self-care, even if they live alone and have several chronic illnesses and impaired health. PMID:25670905

  13. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  14. Children, smoking households and exposure to second-hand smoke in the home in rural Australia: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Longman, Jo M; Passey, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to explore the association between rurality and (1) household smoking status and (2) home second-hand smoke exposure, in households with children aged 0–14 years. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Households across Australia. Participants Households across the country were randomly selected to provide a nationally representative sample. Respondents were persons aged 12 years or older in each household who were next going to celebrate their birthday. Primary outcome measures Household smoking status and smoking inside the home. Methodology The 2010 Australian National Drug Strategy Household survey data were analysed to explore the prevalence of household smoking and home second-hand smoke exposure in rural and urban households with children. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association of rurality with household smoking and with home second-hand smoke exposure, controlling for potential confounders. Results Households with children were more likely to be smoking households (35.4%, 95% CI 34.2% to 36.5%) than households without children (32.1%, 95% CI 31.3% to 32.8%). Both household smoking (43.6% (95% CI 41.5% to 45.7%) vs 31.4% (95% CI 30.0% to 32.8%)) and home second-hand smoke exposure (8.0% (95% CI 6.8% to 9.1%) vs 5.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 5.8%)) were significantly more common for rural children. In multivariate analyses controlling for confounding factors, rurality remained associated with smoking households (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.37), whereas it did not remain associated with children's home second-hand smoke exposure (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.35). Larger household size, low socioeconomic status and being a single-parent household were the main drivers of home second-hand smoke exposure. Conclusions The proportion of smoking households with children, and the number of children regularly exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes remain important public health concerns. Smoking cessation support

  15. Low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Yoshito; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether low-frequency group exercise improved the motor functions of community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area when combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. [Subjects] The subjects were community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area of Japan. [Methods] One group (n = 50) performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring. Another group (n = 37) performed group exercise only. Low-frequency group exercise (warm-up, exercises for motor functions, and cool-down) was performed in seven 40 to 70-minute sessions over 9 weeks by both groups. Five items of motor functions were assessed before and after the intervention. [Results] Significant interactions were observed between groups and assessment times for all motor functions. Improvements in motor functions were significantly greater in the group that performed group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring than in the group that performed group exercise only. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significant differences in 3 items of motor functions. No significant improvements were observed in motor functions in the group that performed group exercise only. [Conclusions] Group exercise combined with home exercise with self-monitoring improved motor functions in the setting of low-frequency group exercise for community-dwelling elderly people in a rural area. PMID:27065520

  16. [Working conditions of traditional birth attendants: some characteristics of rural home situations].

    PubMed

    Bessa, L F

    1999-09-01

    This is a study of qualitative and dialectical approach, which subject is to analyze the working conditions of the traditional birth attendants, in a reproductive perspective of work, and for this reason, economically undervalued. The analysis has been constructed having as central category the work, under marxist and feminist premises. Obtained results permit us to state these traditional birth attendants do their work in material and financial poor conditions, related to transportation, access, and still, working environment. The analysis of this practice has given us a possibility to present a discussion on some traits of the traditional birth attendant's work, which is characterized as a reproductive work, economically undervalued, autonomous and eminently feminine. It still configures as a social practice of popular health, legitimated by the community. In the rural domestic obstetrics practice, unequal relations were in evidence since men and women play different roles in the same occupation, being women's responsability the reproduction of the feminine role.

  17. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.; Sherring, C.

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  18. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness. We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings. Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.

  19. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Ravenwood Homes and Energy Smart Home Plans, Inc., Cape Coral, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-10-01

    PNNL, Florida HERO, and Energy Smart Home Plans helped Ravenwood Homes achieve a HERS 15 with PV or HERS 65 without PV on a home in Florida with SEER 16 AC, concrete block and rigid foam walls, high-performance windows, solar water heating, and 5.98 kW PV.

  20. Coming home to die? the association between migration and mortality in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Welaga, Paul; Hosegood, Victoria; Weiner, Renay; Hill, Caterina; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on migration often ignore the health and social impact of migrants returning to their rural communities. Several studies have shown migrants to be particularly susceptible to HIV infection. This paper investigates whether migrants to rural households have a higher risk of dying, especially from HIV, than non-migrants. Methods Using data from a large and ongoing Demographic Surveillance System, 41,517 adults, enumerated in bi-annual rounds between 2001 and 2005, and aged 18 to 60 years were categorized into four groups: external in-migrants, internal migrants, out-migrants and residents. The risk of dying by migration status was quantified by Cox proportional hazard regression. In a sub-group analysis of 1212 deaths which occurred in 2000 – 2001 and for which cause of death information was available, the relationship between migration status and dying from AIDS was examined in logistic regression. Results In all, 618 deaths were recorded among 7,867 external in-migrants, 255 among 4,403 internal migrants, 310 among 11,476 out-migrants and 1900 deaths were registered among 17,771 residents. External in-migrants were 28% more likely to die than residents [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 1.28, P < 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.16, 1.41)]. In the sub-group analysis, the odds of dying from AIDS was 1.79 [adjusted Odd ratio (aOR) = 1.79, P = 0.009, 95% CI (1.15, 2.78)] for external in-migrants compared to residents; there was no statistically significant difference in AIDS mortality between residents and out-migrants, [aOR = 1.25, P = 0.533, 95% CI (0.62–2.53)]. Independently, females were more likely to die from AIDS than males [aOR = 2.35, P < 0.001, 95% CI (1.79, 3.08)]. Conclusion External in-migrants have a higher risk of dying, especially from HIV related causes, than residents, and in areas with substantial migration this needs to be taken into account in evaluating mortality statistics and planning health care services. PMID:19538717

  1. Narratives of Violence, Pathology, and Empowerment: Mental Health Needs Assessment of Home-Based Female Sex Workers in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Srishti; Marcus, Marina; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the narratives of psychological distress and resilience among a group of female sex workers who use residential spaces to attend to clients in rural India. The narratives reflect the lived experiences of these women. They describe the women's reasons for opting into sex work; guilt, shame, and stigma related to their sex worker status; experiences with intimate partner and domestic violence; health-related problems; communication with their family members about their sex worker status; mental health referral practices among the women; and elements of resilience and strength that they experience within themselves and within their community of fellow sex workers. The article also offers elements of our own experiences of recruiting the women to participate in the focus group, training local outreach workers in conducting focus group discussions, and forging a collaboration with a local community-based organization to highlight important barriers, challenges, and strategies for planning a group-based discussion to explore the mental health needs of home-based sex workers.

  2. Narratives of Violence, Pathology, and Empowerment: Mental Health Needs Assessment of Home-Based Female Sex Workers in Rural India.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Srishti; Marcus, Marina; Verdeli, Helen

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the narratives of psychological distress and resilience among a group of female sex workers who use residential spaces to attend to clients in rural India. The narratives reflect the lived experiences of these women. They describe the women's reasons for opting into sex work; guilt, shame, and stigma related to their sex worker status; experiences with intimate partner and domestic violence; health-related problems; communication with their family members about their sex worker status; mental health referral practices among the women; and elements of resilience and strength that they experience within themselves and within their community of fellow sex workers. The article also offers elements of our own experiences of recruiting the women to participate in the focus group, training local outreach workers in conducting focus group discussions, and forging a collaboration with a local community-based organization to highlight important barriers, challenges, and strategies for planning a group-based discussion to explore the mental health needs of home-based sex workers. PMID:27463830

  3. Improving malaria home treatment by training drug retailers in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Marsh, V M; Mutemi, W M; Willetts, A; Bayah, K; Were, S; Ross, A; Marsh, K

    2004-04-01

    Recent global malaria control initiatives highlight the potential role of drug retailers to improve access to early effective malaria treatment. We report on the findings and discuss the implications of an educational programme for rural drug retailers and communities in Kenya between 1998 and 2001 in a study population of 70,000. Impact was evaluated through annual household surveys of over-the-counter (OTC) drug use and simulated retail client surveys in an early (1999) and a late (2000) implementation area. The programme achieved major improvements in drug selling practices. The proportion of OTC anti-malarial drug users receiving an adequate dose rose from 8% (n = 98) to 33% (n = 121) between 1998 and 1999 in the early implementation area. By 2001, and with the introduction of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine group drugs in accordance with national policy, this proportion rose to 64% (n = 441) across the early and late implementation areas. Overall, the proportion of shop-treated childhood fevers receiving an adequate dose of a recommended anti-malarial drug within 24 h rose from 1% (n = 681) to 28% (n = 919) by 2001. These findings strongly support the inclusion of private drug retailers in control strategies aiming to improve prompt effective treatment of malaria. PMID:15078263

  4. Evaluation of home-made salt-sugar oral rehydration solution in a rural Nigerian population.

    PubMed

    Nwoye, L O; Uwagboe, P E; Madubuko, G U

    1988-02-01

    Standardized local measures for preparing oral rehydration solution (ORS) in Nigeria were re-evaluated under laboratory conditions. Our results confirm those of the standardization team in respect of granulated and cube sugar. However, our mean weight of one salt measure (2.8155 +/- 0.292 g) is about 20% greater than their value. Consequently, correct use of the measures in our study gave solutions of 211-297 mmol-1 total concentration and 60-80 mmol-1, Na+ as against their values of 173-251 mmol 1-1 and 45-70 mmol-1, respectively. This discrepancy is most likely due to differences in salt type. Analysis of home-made solutions prepared by 40 illiterate mothers showed that 60% of them made accurately composed solutions. All the rest made hypertonic solutions. Salt type, spoon size and levelling technique are all possible causes of their error. The tendency to err only on the side of greater rather than lower salt concentration may be culture based or simply due to natural maternal instinct. To combat this trend, health education programmes in Nigeria should emphasize the danger in feeding a hypernatremic solution to a dehydrated child.

  5. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kamm, K. B.; Feikin, D. R.; Bigogo, G. M.; Aol, G.; Audi, A.; Cohen, A. L.; Shah, M. M.; Yu, J.; Breiman, R. F.; Ram, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. METHODS In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children < 5 years old were identified using parent-reported syndromic surveillance collected January–April 2009. We used multivariate generalised linear regression to estimate differences in prevalence of illness between households with and without the presence of soap in the home and a handwashing station. RESULTS Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI −2.6, −0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. CONCLUSIONS Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. PMID:24405627

  6. [The influence of minority sociolinguistic context on home support for seniors in a rural devitalized area: the case of Acadieville New Brunswick].

    PubMed

    Simard, Majella; Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Villalon, Lita; Gould, Odette; Éthier, Sophie; Gibbons, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    New Brunswick is one of the provinces most affected by the aging of the population. Moreover, aging at home in Francophone minority communities is a major challenge in rural areas. The goal of this paper is to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of aging at home and to expose organizational strategies deployed by seniors and their families in order to promote aging in place. The case study is the method of analysis that we have recommended. Our methodology is based on content analysis of 13 semi-structured interviews with seniors and their children. The results show that family and community support, resourcefulness and resiliency, the practice of leisure activities as well as the living environment are among the principal means used by older adults to promote aging at home. PMID:25792029

  7. Air pollutants in rural homes in Guizhou, China - Concentrations, speciation, and size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Wei, Wei; Li, Du; Aunan, Kristin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-11-01

    Several types of fuels, including coal, fuel wood, and biogas, are commonly used for cooking and heating in Chinese rural households, resulting in indoor air pollution and causing severe health impacts. In this paper, we report a study monitoring multiple pollutants including PM 10, PM 2.5, CO, CO 2, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from fuel combustion at households in Guizhou province of China. The results showed that most pollutants exhibited large variability for different type of fuels except for CO 2. Among these fuels, wood combustion caused the most serious indoor air pollution, with the highest concentrations of particulate matters (218˜417 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 201˜304 μg m -3 for PM 2.5), and higher concentrations of CO (10.8 ± 0.8 mg m -3) and TVOC (about 466.7 ± 337.9 μg m -3). Coal combustion also resulted in higher concentrations of particulate matters (220˜250 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 170˜200 μg m -3 for PM 2.5), but different levels for CO (respectively 14.5 ± 3.7 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 5.5 ± 0.7 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove) and TVOC (170 mg m -3 for combustion in brick stove and 700 mg m -3 for combustion in metal stove). Biogas was the cleanest fuel, which brought about the similar levels of various pollutants with the indoor case of non-combustion, and worth being promoted in more areas. Analysis of the chemical profiles of PM 2.5 indicated that OC and EC were dominant components for all fuels, with the proportions of 30˜48%. A high fraction of SO 42- (31˜34%) was detected for coal combustion. The cumulative percentages of these chemical species were within the range of 0.7˜1.3, which was acceptable for the assessment of mass balance.

  8. “Picking up the pieces”—Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area

    PubMed Central

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context. PMID:26362533

  9. How do rural patients benefit from the patient-centred medical home? A card study in the High Plains Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Zittleman, Linda; Ringel, Marc; Sutter, Christin; McCaffrey, Kelly; Gale, Susan; Gerk, Tony; Sanchez, Sergio; LeBlanc, William; Dickinson, L Miriam; Dickinson, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Context The patient-centred medical home (PCMH) has become a dominant model for improving the quality and cost of primary care. Geographic isolation, small populations, privacy concerns and staffing requirements may limit implementation of the PCMH in clinical practice. Objective To determine the primary care provider perceived benefit of PCMH for patients in rural Colorado. Design, setting and participants The High Plains Research Network (HPRN) is a community and practice-based research network spanning 30 000 square miles in 16 counties in eastern Colorado. The HPRN consists of 58 practices, 120 primary care clinicians and 145 000 residents. Main outcome measures Providers' perceived benefit of PCMH for individual patients. Results Seventy-eight providers in 37 practices saw 1093 patients and completed 1016 surveys. There was wide variation among the provider-perceived benefits of PCMH elements ranging from 9% for group visits to 64% for electronic prescribing. Provider-perceived benefit was higher for patients with a chronic medical condition. Conclusions Rural primary care providers perceived patient benefit for numerous elements of the PCMH. There is need to consider what PCMH elements may be required in practice and what components might be optional. Our findings reveal that rural practices share PCMH aspirations including commitment to quality, safety, outcomes, cost reduction, and patient and provider satisfaction. These findings support the need for ongoing conversation about how to best provide a locally relevant medical home. PMID:25949735

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Mandalay Homes — Pronghorn Ranch, Prescott Valley, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder has certified 20 homes to DOE Zero Energy Ready Home program and plans are underway for 50 more. Winner of a Production Builder prize in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, the homes achieved a HERS score of 48 without photovoltaics (PV) or HERS 25 with 3.5 kW PV included.

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Clifton View Homes — Kaltenbach Residence, Clinton, WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This home on Whidbey Island won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The DOE Zero Energy Ready Home scores HERS 37 without PV or HERS -13 with 10 kW PV, enough to power the home and an electric car.

  12. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  13. Assessing the Consistency and Microbiological Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices by Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Water at Home: A Case Study in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Huaylinos, Maria L.; Gil, Ana; Lanata, Claudio; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently by vulnerable populations. Over 1.1 billion people report treating their water prior to drinking it. These estimates, however, are based on responses to household surveys that may exaggerate the consistency and microbiological performance of the practice—key factors for reducing pathogen exposure and achieving health benefits. The objective of this study was to examine how HWT practices are actually performed by households identified as HWT users, according to international monitoring standards. Methods and Findings We conducted a 6-month case study in urban (n = 117 households) and rural (n = 115 households) Peru, a country in which 82.8% of households report treating their water at home. We used direct observation, in-depth interviews, surveys, spot-checks, and water sampling to assess water treatment practices among households that claimed to treat their drinking water at home. While consistency of reported practices was high in both urban (94.8%) and rural (85.3%) settings, availability of treated water (based on self-report) at time of collection was low, with 67.1% and 23.0% of urban and rural households having treated water at all three sampling visits. Self-reported consumption of untreated water in the home among adults and children <5 was common and this was corroborated during home observations. Drinking water of self-reported users was significantly better than source water in the urban setting and negligible but significantly better in the rural setting. However, only 46.3% and 31.6% of households had drinking water <1 CFU/100 mL at all follow-up visits. Conclusions Our results raise questions about the usefulness of current international monitoring of HWT practices and their usefulness as a proxy indicator for drinking water quality. The lack of consistency and sub-optimal microbiological effectiveness also

  14. Home Environment and Maternal Alienation: Longitudinal Effects on Rural Children's Intellectual Functioning--A Cross-Lagged Analysis. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poresky, Robert H.

    A geographically-based, random sample of 62 children, balanced for child gender, and their mothers who met selection criteria were observed and interviewed to determine the correlates of rural children's mental development. It was hypothesized that rural children's intellectual development would be positively correlated with a number of ecological…

  15. PV Solar Radiometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.; Cannon, T.W.

    1997-02-01

    Radiometric measurements performed by the PV Solar Radiometric Measurements Task support NREL{close_quote}s centers for Measurements and Characterization, Performance Engineering and Reliability, and Renewable Energy Resources. The task provides characterization, measurements, testing, designs, and analysis of radiometric instrumentation and data for the performance of PV cells, modules, and systems. We describe recent characterization of the radiometric performance of pyranometers deployed for PV system testing at the NREL Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) and improvements undertaken in NREL broadband radiometer characterization. Typical measurement and calibration issues with diode array spectroradiometers used for absolute spectral measurements applied to PV performance and characterization are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. PV_LIB Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    While an organized source of reference information on PV performance modeling is certainly valuable, there is nothing to match the availability of actual examples of modeling algorithms being used in practice. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a PV performance modeling toolbox (PV_LIB) for Matlab. It contains a set of well-documented, open source functions and example scripts showing the functions being used in practical examples. This toolbox is meant to help make the multi-step process of modeling a PV system more transparent and provide the means for model users to validate and understand the models they use and or develop. It is fully integrated into Matlab’s help and documentation utilities. The PV_LIB Toolbox provides more than 30 functions that are sorted into four categories

  17. PV_LIB Toolbox

    2012-09-11

    While an organized source of reference information on PV performance modeling is certainly valuable, there is nothing to match the availability of actual examples of modeling algorithms being used in practice. To meet this need, Sandia has developed a PV performance modeling toolbox (PV_LIB) for Matlab. It contains a set of well-documented, open source functions and example scripts showing the functions being used in practical examples. This toolbox is meant to help make the multi-stepmore » process of modeling a PV system more transparent and provide the means for model users to validate and understand the models they use and or develop. It is fully integrated into Matlab’s help and documentation utilities. The PV_LIB Toolbox provides more than 30 functions that are sorted into four categories« less

  18. PV standards overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBlasio, Richard

    1997-02-01

    A brief historical perspective and current status of the on going evolution of photovoltaic standards development and the use of these standards in promulgating accepted practices used in producing, measuring, and deploying Photovoltaic (PV) components and systems in the field. After nearly 20 years of experience in developing and writing domestic and international consensus PV standards the need and importance of standard methods and practices continues, as in the past, to be essential for a maturing PV industry. Part of this maturity has been in establishing and maintaining a common ground through the development of consensus standards and furthering the use of standards for PV commercialization in support of test facility accreditation, product certification, systems deployment, and safety code development to assure PV quality, performance, reliability, and safety.

  19. Linkage to care following a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Reshma; Doherty, Tanya; Jackson, Debra; Tabana, Hanani; Swanevelder, Sonja; Thea, Donald M; Feeley, Frank G; Fox, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Efforts to increase awareness of HIV status have led to growing interest in community-based models of HIV testing. Maximizing the benefits of such programmes requires timely linkage to care and treatment. Thus, an understanding of linkage and its potential barriers is imperative for scale-up. Methods This study was conducted in rural South Africa. HIV-positive clients (n=492) identified through home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) were followed up to assess linkage to care, defined as obtaining a CD4 count. Among 359 eligible clients, we calculated the proportion that linked to care within three months. For 226 clients with available data, we calculated the median CD4. To determine factors associated with the rate of linkage, Cox regression was performed on a subsample of 196 clients with additional data on socio-demographic factors and personal characteristics. Results We found that 62.1% (95% CI: 55.7 to 68.5%) of clients from the primary sample (n=359) linked to care within three months of HBHCT. Among those who linked, the median CD4 count was 341 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR] 224 to 542 cells/mm3). In the subsample of 196 clients, factors predictive of increased linkage included the following: believing that drugs/supplies were available at the health facility (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.78; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.96); experiencing three or more depression symptoms (aHR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.53); being a caregiver for four or more people (aHR 1.93; 95% CI: 1.07 to 3.47); and knowing someone who died of HIV/AIDS (aHR 1.68; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.49). Factors predictive of decreased linkage included the following: younger age – 15 to 24 years (aHR 0.50; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.91); living with two or more adults (aHR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.77); not believing or being unsure about the test results (aHR 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.77); difficulty finding time to seek health care (aHR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.67); believing that antiretroviral

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Cobblestone Homes — 2014 Model Home, Midland, MI

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This builder's first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, scored HERS 49 without PV or HERS 44 with 1.4 kW of PV, and served as a prototype and energy efficiency demonstration model while performance testing was conducted.

  1. GridPV Toolbox

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feedermore » on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.« less

  2. GridPV Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert; Quiroz, Jimmy; Grijalva, Santiago; Reno, Matthew; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-07-15

    Matlab Toolbox for simulating the impact of solar energy on the distribution grid. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving GridPV Toolbox information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions.

  3. [Accessible Rural Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nick, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly newsletter "Rural Exchange" provides information and resources on accessible rural housing for the disabled. "Accessible Manufactured Housing Could Increase Rural Home Supply" (Nick Baker) suggests that incorporation of access features such as lever door handles and no-step entries into manufactured housing could help…

  4. "I Use My Mother Tongue at Home and with Friends--Not in School!" Multilingualism and Identity in Rural Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spernes, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates students' experiences of being multilingual. Qualitative data have been collected during observation, focus groups, interviews and text writing in a public primary school in rural Kenya. The informants are students in standards one, three and eight whose mother tongue is the indigenous language called Nandi, which…

  5. The Impact of a Museum Travelling Exhibition on Middle School Teachers and Students from Rural, Low-Income Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United…

  6. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  7. Rural Development: What's Coming--What's Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Henry

    1978-01-01

    The speech, delivered 1 June 1978 at the Western Roundup Regional Conference on Rural Home Services (University of Montana, Missoula), indicates that rural America has suffered from neglect, disorganization, and the lack of a federal rural development policy. (B R)

  8. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  9. Needs assessment for home-based care and the strengthening of social support networks: the role of community care workers in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Moshabela, Mosa; Sips, Ilona; Barten, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Background Community care workers (CCWs) in rural South Africa provide medical, personal, household, educational, and social care services to their clients. However, little understanding exists on how provision of services is approached within a household, taking into account available social support networks. Objective The aim of this study was to generate an understanding of the processes that underpin the provision of care by CCWs in rural households and their engagement with clients, primary caregivers (PCGs), and other members of the social support network. Design We analysed in-depth interviews conducted in a triad of participants involved in a home-based care (HBC) encounter – 32 clients, 32 PCGs, and 17 CCWs. For each triad, a purposefully selected CCW was linked with a purposefully selected client and the corresponding PCG using maximum variation sampling. Three coders used an inductive content analysis method to describe participants’ references to the nuances of processes followed by CCWs in servicing HBC clients. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Findings The results suggest that, by intuition and prior knowledge, CCWs treated each household uniquely, depending on the clients’ care needs, cooperation, availability of a social network, and the reliability and resilience of the social support system for the client. Four distinct processes took place in rural households: needs assessment for care, rationing of care, appraisal of care, and reinforcement of a social support system. However, there was no particular order or sequence established for these processes, and caregivers followed no prescribed or shared standards. Conclusions CCWs bring a basket of services to a household, but engage in a constant, dynamic, and cyclical process of weighing needs against services provided. The service package is uniquely crafted and tailored for each household, depending on the absorptive capacity of the social support network

  10. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, DWH; Adlakha, S; Low, SH; De Martini, P; Chandy, KM

    2013-11-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of a museum travelling exhibition on middle school teachers and students from rural, low-income homes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badger, James; Harker, Richard J. W.

    2016-06-01

    Schools may be places of learning, but a great deal of learning occurs outside of school. A growing body of literature investigates how school field trips allow rural students to make real-life connections with their school curriculum. This paper contributes to that area of research by describing how students from five middle schools in the United States responded to a travelling museum exhibition hosted at a non-museum site. The authors explore the impact of the exhibition on students from poor, rural backgrounds, discussing how it helped them to engage with themes such as freedom of expression, democracy, citizenship and Holocaust education. The results show that, by connecting curricular content with real-life situations, field trips such as this have the potential to change not only students' understanding of the curriculum, but also their teachers' estimation of their abilities.

  12. Rural Navajo Students in Kayenta Unified School District's Special Education Programs: The Effects of Home Location and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimbecker, Connie; Bradley-Wilkinson, Evangeline; Nelson, Bernita; Smith, Jody; Whitehair, Marsha; Begay, Mary H.; Bradley, Brian; Gamble, Armanda; McCarty, Nellie; Medina, Catherine; Nelson, Jacob; Pettigrew, Bobbie; Sealander, Karen; Snyder, Maria; White, Sherri; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    In Kayenta Unified School District (KUSD) on the Navajo Reservation, 92 percent of students come from homes where Navajo is the primary language, but many students entering school are not fluent in either English or Navajo. A survey of 23 educators examined the effects of language and culture on the likelihood that a student would be placed in…

  13. Caregiver Perceptions of Children who have Complex Communication Needs Following a Home-based Intervention Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Rural Kenya: An Intervention Note

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Joseph K.; Newton, Charles R.; Hartley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    A high level of unmet communication need exists amongst children with developmental disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated preliminary evidence of the impact associated with a home-based, caregiver-implemented intervention employing AAC methods, with nine children in rural Kenya who have complex communication needs. The intervention used mainly locally-sourced low-tech materials, and was designed to make use of the child's strengths and the caregiver's natural expertise. A pretest-posttest design was used in the study. Data were gathered using an adapted version of the Communication Profile, which was based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to data from the first two sections of the Communication Profile-Adapted. Qualitative analysis was conducted on the final section. The data provided evidence of statistically significant positive changes in caregiver perceptions of communication at the levels of Body Structure and Function, and Activities for Communication. Also, analysis of the Participation for Communication section revealed some expansion to the children's social activities. The potential impact of the home-based intervention would benefit from investigation on a larger scale. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25379627

  14. Caregiver perceptions of children who have complex communication needs following a home-based intervention using augmentative and alternative communication in rural Kenya: an intervention note.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Karen; Gona, Joseph K; Newton, Charles R; Hartley, Sally

    2014-12-01

    A high level of unmet communication need exists amongst children with developmental disabilities in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated preliminary evidence of the impact associated with a home-based, caregiver-implemented intervention employing AAC methods, with nine children in rural Kenya who have complex communication needs. The intervention used mainly locally-sourced low-tech materials, and was designed to make use of the child's strengths and the caregiver's natural expertise. A pretest-posttest design was used in the study. Data were gathered using an adapted version of the Communication Profile, which was based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) framework. The non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test was applied to data from the first two sections of the Communication Profile-Adapted. Qualitative analysis was conducted on the final section. The data provided evidence of statistically significant positive changes in caregiver perceptions of communication at the levels of Body Structure and Function, and Activities for Communication. Also, analysis of the Participation for Communication section revealed some expansion to the children's social activities. The potential impact of the home-based intervention would benefit from investigation on a larger scale. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  15. Factors associated with HIV-testing and acceptance of an offer of home-based testing by men in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hensen, B; Lewis, J J; Schaap, A; Tembo, M; Mutale, W; Weiss, H A; Hargreaves, J; Ayles, H

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to describe HIV-testing among men in rural Lusaka Province, Zambia, using a population-based survey for a cluster-randomized trial. Households (N = 120) were randomly selected from each of the 42 clusters, defined as a health facility catchment area. Individuals aged 15-60 years were invited to complete questionnaires regarding demographics and HIV-testing history. Men testing in the last year were defined as recent-testers. After questionnaire completion adults were offered home-based rapid HIV-testing. Of the 2,828 men, 53 % reported ever-testing and 25 % recently-testing. Factors independently associated with ever- and recent-testing included age 20+ years, secondary/higher education, being married or widowed, a history of TB-treatment and higher socioeconomic position. 53 % of never-testers and 57 % of men who did not report a recent-test accepted home-based HIV-testing. Current HIV-testing approaches are inadequate in this high prevalence setting. Alternative strategies, including self-testing, mobile- or workplace-testing, may be required to complement facility-based services.

  16. Home care of malaria-infected children of less than 5 years of age in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea.

    PubMed Central

    Bailo Diallo, A.; De Serres, G.; Béavogui, A. H.; Lapointe, C.; Viens, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of mothers in a rural area of the Republic of Guinea to identify fever in their children, and to estimate the proportion of children who received antimalarial drugs. METHODS: Children under 5 years of age in 41 villages were selected by a two-step cluster sampling technique. During home visits we examined the children and questioned their mothers about the child's symptoms and treatment. FINDINGS: Of 784 children examined, 23% were febrile and more than half of them also had a positive smear result for Plasmodium. Mothers reported 63% of children with a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C as sick. Among all children reported as feverish by their mother, 55% had a normal temperature (< 37.5 degrees C). In contrast, a temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C was found in 38% of children identified as sick but afebrile by their mother and in 13% of children considered healthy. Among febrile children, 18% were given chloroquine at home or had consulted at the health centre or a dispensary. CONCLUSION: In areas where malaria is endemic, recognition of fever and its presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs is an essential part of the strategy of the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce the morbidity due to this disease. This population study shows that mothers often failed to identify fever in their children and to consult or to provide antimalarial treatment. Without great efforts to improve home care, it is unlikely that the morbidity and mortality due to malaria in young children will be greatly reduced. PMID:11217664

  17. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.

  18. Independence, Security, and the intergenerational social contract: home-helper services and elder care in rural Japan.

    PubMed

    Traphagan, John W

    2003-01-01

    For several years, demographic trends and changing ideas about responsibilities for elder care in Japan have contributed to the desire, or need, for families to seek out new care approaches. This article focuses on one alternative to traditional approaches to caring for elder family members--the home-helper program that is available through the Japanese long-term care insurance program. Using ethnographic data collected in northern Japan, it will be argued that the home-helper program forms a compensatory elder care system that is intended to augment family-provided care and social support, rather than to promote independent living. This compensatory approach to elder care is based upon an intergenerational social contract in which it is assumed that some degree of dependence on family members is both an expected and preferred outcome of growing old.

  19. Open PV Project: Unlocking PV Installation Data (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    This brochure summarizes the Open PV Project, a collaborative effort of government, industry, and the public to compile a comprehensive database of PV installations in the United States. The brochure outlines the purpose and history of the project as well as the main capabilities and benefits of the online Open PV tool. The brochure also introduces how features of the tool are used, and it describes the sources and characteristics of Open PV's data and data collection processes.

  20. PV System Performance and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during fiscal year (FY) 2005 of the Photovoltaic (PV) System Performance and Standards Subtask, which is part of the PV Systems Engineering Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  1. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.

    2014-09-01

    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  2. Using women advocacy groups to enhance knowledge and home management of febrile convulsion amongst mothers in a rural community of Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oche, Oche Mansur; Onankpa, Oloche Ben

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Febrile convulsions (FC) are a common paediatric problem worldwide. Between 1 and 4% of children will have a febrile convulsion with about 4% of cases arising before the age of six months. Although FC is benign and does not cause death, brain damage or learning disorders, it is quite frightening to observers and parents who witness an episode of FC, would think the child is going to die. Methods This was a quasi-experimental study (a pre and post-test interventional, one group), aimed at assessing the impact of health education on knowledge and home management of febrile convulsion amongst mothers in a rural community in North Western Nigeria. A one in three samples of fifty mothers that met the eligibility criteria where selected using systematic random sampling. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire with close and open-ended questions was administered to obtain data at pre- and post intervention. Results The ages of the mothers ranged from 18-47 with a mean age of 33 ± 7.14years. The perceived causes of febrile convulsion included fever (28%), witch craft (80%) with majority (98%) of the mothers administering traditional medications. Proportion of study subjects with adequate knowledge of febrile convulsion at baseline and post intervention were 4% (mean knowledge score of 35.3± 9.48) and 96.0% (mean knowledge score of 77.69 ± 10.75) respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Although inadequate knowledge and inappropriate home practices about FC were rampant in the study community, using community members to teach and sensitize the mothers on FC improved their knowledge base significantly. The use of effective educational intervention programmes and parental support groups will go a long way in reducing the incidence of FC among children in our communities. PMID:23560132

  3. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  4. Ecological risks of home and personal care products in the riverine environment of a rural region in South China without domestic wastewater treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nai-Sheng; Liu, You-sheng; Van den Brink, Paul J; Price, Oliver R; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Home and personal care products (HPCPs) including biocides, benzotriazoles (BTs) and ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in our daily life. After use, they are discharged with domestic wastewater into the receiving environment. This study investigated the occurrence of 29 representative HPCPs, including biocides, BTs and UV filters, in the riverine environment of a rural region of South China where no wastewater treatment plants were present, and assessed their potential ecological risks to aquatic organisms. The results showed the detection of 11 biocides and 4 BTs in surface water, and 9 biocides, 3 BTs and 4 UV filters in sediment. In surface water, methylparaben (MeP), triclocarban (TCC), and triclosan (TCS) were detected at all sites with median concentrations of 9.23 ng/L, 2.64 ng/L and 5.39 ng/L, respectively. However, the highest median concentrations were found for clotrimazole (CLOT), 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (MBT) and carbendazim (CARB) at 55.6 ng/L, 33.7 ng/L and 13.8 ng/L, respectively. In sediment, TCC, TCS, and UV-326 were detected with their maximum concentrations up to 353 ng/g, 155 ng/g, and 133 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations for those detected HPCPs in surface water and sediment were generally lower in the upper reach (rural area) of Sha River than in the lower reach of Sha River with close proximity to Dongjiang River (Pt-test<0.05), indicating other input sources of HPCPs in the lower reach. Biocides showed significantly higher levels in surface water in the wet season than in the dry and intermediate seasons. Preliminary risk assessment demonstrated that the majority of HPCPs monitored represented low risk in surface waters. There are potentially greater risks to aquatic organisms from the use of TCS and TCC in the wet season than in dry and intermediate seasons in surface waters. This preliminary assessment also indicates potential concerns associated with TCC, TCS, DEET, CARB, and CLOT in sediments, although additional data

  5. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Treasure Homes Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Treasure Homes, Inc., achieved a HERS rating of 46 without PV on its prototype “Gem” home, located on the shores of Lake Michigan in northern Indiana, thanks in part to training received from a Building America partner, the National Association of Home Builders Research Center.

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Home Sales Prices in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark

    2011-04-19

    An increasing number of homes in the U.S. have sold with photovoltaic (PV) energy systems installed at the time of sale, yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on home sale prices. A clearer understanding of these possible impacts might influence the decisions of homeowners considering the installation of a PV system, homebuyers considering the purchase of a home with PV already installed, and new home builders considering including PV as an optional or standard product on their homes. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. It finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems during this time frame. Estimates for this premium expressed in dollars per watt of installed PV range, on average, from roughly $4 to $5.5/watt across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests. When expressed as a ratio of the sales price premium of PV to estimated annual energy cost savings associated with PV, an average ratio of 14:1 to 19:1 can be calculated; these results are consistent with those of the more-extensive existing literature on the impact of energy efficiency on sales prices. When the data are split among new and existing homes, however, PV system premiums are markedly affected. New homes with PV show premiums of $2.3-2.6/watt, while existing homes with PV show premiums of more than $6/watt. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted. A number of other areas where future research would be useful are also highlighted.

  7. Occurrence and Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and their Derivatives in a Rural Chinese Home through Biomass Fuelled Cooking

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Junnan; Zhong, Junjun; Yang, Yifeng; Li, Bengang; Shen, Guofeng; Su, Yuhong; Wang, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Cao, Hongying; Zhu, Ying; Simonich, Staci L. M.; Tao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The concentration and composition of PAHs emitted from biomass cooking fuel were characterized in a rural non-smoking household in northern China. Twenty-two parent PAHs (pPAHs), 12 nitro-PAHs (nPAHs), and 4 oxy-PAHs (oPAHs) were measured in the kitchen, bedroom, and outdoors during both summer and winter. The most severe contamination occurred in the kitchen in the winter, where the daily mean concentrations of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were 7500±4100, 38±29, and 8400±9200 ng/m3, respectively. Our results suggest that the nPAHs were largely from secondary formation in ambient air while oPAHs were either from primary emission of biomass burning or secondary formation from pPAHs in the kitchen. The daily mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent exposure concentration was as high as 200±160 ng/m3 in the winter for the housewife who did the cooking compared to 59±37 ng/m3 for the control group that did not cook. PMID:22209516

  8. Factors Associated with Use of Guideline in Home Management of Malaria among Children in Rural South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akerele, Adekunle; Yusuf, Oyindamola B.; Falade, Catherine O.; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Pagnoni, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The dosage regimen for artemether-lumefantrine which is the standard of care for malaria in most of Sub-Saharan countries requires use of treatment guidelines and instructions to enhance caregivers' performance in the treatment of malaria. As part of a larger study evaluating its effectiveness in a rural local government area in southwestern Nigeria, 552 caregivers whose children had fever two weeks preceeding the survey were recruited. Information was collected with interviewer administered questionnaire. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted using the gllamm approach in Stata to determine the factors associated with use of guideline. Age and educational background of caregiver were significantly associated with guideline use. Caregivers aged 26–30 years were 4 times more likely to use guideline than those aged >40 years. Caregivers with primary education were 4 times more likely to use guideline compared with caregivers with no formal education. Between-village variance was 0.00092 ± 0.3084. Guideline use reduced with increasing age and lower education. PMID:22312572

  9. Factors Associated with Use of Guideline in Home Management of Malaria among Children in Rural South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Adekunle; Yusuf, Oyindamola B; Falade, Catherine O; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Pagnoni, Franco

    2011-01-01

    The dosage regimen for artemether-lumefantrine which is the standard of care for malaria in most of Sub-Saharan countries requires use of treatment guidelines and instructions to enhance caregivers' performance in the treatment of malaria. As part of a larger study evaluating its effectiveness in a rural local government area in southwestern Nigeria, 552 caregivers whose children had fever two weeks preceeding the survey were recruited. Information was collected with interviewer administered questionnaire. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted using the gllamm approach in Stata to determine the factors associated with use of guideline. Age and educational background of caregiver were significantly associated with guideline use. Caregivers aged 26-30 years were 4 times more likely to use guideline than those aged >40 years. Caregivers with primary education were 4 times more likely to use guideline compared with caregivers with no formal education. Between-village variance was 0.00092 ± 0.3084. Guideline use reduced with increasing age and lower education. PMID:22312572

  10. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; Metzger, Ian

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes the option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  11. PV Hourly Simulation Tool

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple general building characteristics and usage information to calculate the energy and cost benefits of solar PV. This tool conducts and complex hourly simulation of solar PV based primarily on the area available on the rooftop. It uses a simplified efficiency calculation method and real panel characteristics. It includes a detailed rate structure to account for time-of-use rates, on-peak and off-peak pricing, and multiple rate seasons. This tool includes themore » option for advanced system design inputs if they are known. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, incentives and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Affordable High Performance in Production Homes: Artistic Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Artistic Homes, a successful New Mexico production builder, who went from code-minimum to under HERS 50 standard on every home, with optional PV upgrades to HERS 35 or true net zero on every home plan offered.

  13. The impact of home-based HIV counseling and testing on care-seeking and incidence of common infectious disease syndromes in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In much of Africa, most individuals living with HIV do not know their status. Home-based counseling and testing (HBCT) leads to more HIV-infected people learning their HIV status. However, there is little data on whether knowing one’s HIV-positive status necessarily leads to uptake of HIV care, which could in turn, lead to a reduction in the prevalence of common infectious disease syndromes. Methods In 2008, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) offered HBCT to individuals (aged ≥13 years) under active surveillance for infectious disease syndromes in Lwak in rural western Kenya. HIV test results were linked to morbidity and healthcare-seeking data collected by field workers through bi-weekly home visits. We analyzed changes in healthcare seeking behaviors using proportions, and incidence (expressed as episodes per person-year) of acute respiratory illness (ARI), severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), acute febrile illness (AFI) and diarrhea among first-time HIV testers in the year before and after HBCT, stratified by their test result and if HIV-positive, whether they sought care at HIV Patient Support Centers (PSCs). Results Of 9,613 individuals offered HBCT, 6,366 (66%) were first-time testers, 698 (11%) of whom were HIV-infected. One year after HBCT, 50% of HIV-infected persons had enrolled at PSCs – 92% of whom had started cotrimoxazole and 37% of those eligible for antiretroviral treatment had initiated therapy. Among HIV-infected persons enrolled in PSCs, AFI and diarrhea incidence decreased in the year after HBCT (rate ratio [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77 – 0.91 and RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 – 0.98, respectively). Among HIV-infected persons not attending PSCs and among HIV-uninfected persons, decreases in incidence were significantly lower. While decreases also occurred in rates of respiratory illnesses among HIV-positive persons in care, there were

  14. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1PV Deployment Analysis for New York City we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2. A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3. Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New York City summarizes common concerns of utility engineers and network experts about interconnecting PV systems to secondary networks. This section also contains detailed descriptions of nine solutions, including advantages and disadvantages, potential impacts, and road maps for deployment. Section 4. Utility Application Process Reviewlooks at utility interconnection application processes across the country and identifies administrative best practices for efficient PV interconnection.

  15. PV at the Pentagon

    SciTech Connect

    Bing, J.

    2000-02-01

    The US Department of Defense joins the battle against global warming with a photovoltaic installation at the Pentagon heating and refrigeration plant. Sitting in a line between the Pentagon and the Oval Office are four concentric arcs of iridescent silicon. In June 1999, the first half of this thirty kilowatt photovoltaic (PV) system was dedicated on the grounds of the heating and refrigeration plant that serves the Pentagon near Washington, DC. This first half of the system (the two center arcs) is the world's largest array composed solely of Ascension Technology's SunSine{reg{underscore}sign}300 AC modules. Each of these photovoltaic panels has its own DC to AC inverter mounted directly on its back side. The second half of the installation, brought on line in October 1999, includes a conventional DC array that powers a pair of newly developed Trace Technologies 10 kW inverters. The AC output of these two unique PV systems is combined at a central collection point and funneled into the electric grid that supplies power to the Pentagon. The project is a collaboration of the US Department of Defense (DoD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), with cost-sharing support from Virginia Power, Johnson Controls, the Utility Photovoltaic Group (UPVG), and Applied Power Corporation. The systems were designed and installed by Ascension Technology, a division of Applied Power Corporation, with modules supplied by ASE Americas. This installation provides a unique real-world environment for researchers, utility engineers and power plant managers to test and compare the reliability, scalability, noise immunity and power quality of these two distinct approaches to PV energy production.

  16. Availability of Volunteer-Led Home-Based Care System and Baseline Factors as Predictors of Clinical Outcomes in HIV-Infected Patients in Rural Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Estopinal, Christopher B.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Sitali, Stanley; Stewart, Hannah; Davidson, Mario A.; Spurrier, John; Vermund, Sten H.

    2012-01-01

    Background We assessed the impact of home-based care (HBC) for HIV+ patients, comparing outcomes between two groups of Zambians receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) who lived in villages with and without HBC teams. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using medical charts from Macha Mission Hospital, a hospital providing HIV care in Zambia's rural Southern Province. Date of birth, date of ART initiation, place of residence, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4+ cell count, and hemoglobin (Hgb) were abstracted. Logistic regression was used to test our hypothesis that HBC was associated with treatment outcomes. Results Of 655 patients, 523 (80%) were eligible and included in the study. There were 428 patients (82%) with favorable outcomes (alive and on ART) and 95 patients (18%) with unfavorable outcomes (died, lost to follow-up, or stopped treatment). A minority of the 523 eligible patients (n = 84, 16%) lived in villages with HBC available. Living in a village with HBC was not significantly associated with treatment outcomes; 80% of patients in a village with HBC had favorable outcomes, compared to 82% of patients in a village without HBC (P = 0.6 by χ2). In bivariable analysis, lower BMI (P<0.001), low CD4+ cell count (P = 0.02), low Hgb concentration (P = 0.02), and older age at ART initiation (P = 0.047) were associated with unfavorable outcomes. In multivariable analysis, low BMI remained associated with unfavorable outcomes (P<0.001). Conclusions We did not find that living in a village with HBC available was associated with improved treatment outcomes. We speculate that the ART clinic's rigorous treatment preparation before ART initiation and continuous adherence counseling during ART create a motivated group of patients whose outcomes did not improve with additional HBC support. An alternative explanation is that the quality of the HBC program is suboptimal. PMID:23236351

  17. The Oportunidades program's fortified food supplement, but not improvements in the home diet, increased the intake of key micronutrients in rural Mexican children aged 12-59 months.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Leroy, Jef L; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2013-05-01

    Mexico's Oportunidades program provides conditional cash transfers, nutrition education, health services, and fortified food supplements for the young children of poor families. We have documented the effects of the program on growth and reduction of anemia. To better understand the impact pathways and disentangle the relative effects on dietary intake of the food supplements compared with other program components, we analyzed data from a randomized effectiveness evaluation of the Oportunidades program in rural children aged 12-59 mo. All Oportunidades beneficiaries received the cash transfers and the health and education components, but some children did not consume the supplements. The children's diet was evaluated using a single 24-h recall. The impact was estimated using multiple linear regression models with community-level random effects. Comparisons were made among children who received all the benefits of Oportunidades, including the fortified food supplement (SG), beneficiaries of the program who did not consume the food supplement (NSG), and the control group (CG). Relative to the NSG and CG, respectively, the SG consumed greater amounts of [mean (95% CI)]: energy, 94 (28, 160) and 111 (43, 180) kcal/d; iron, 7.6 (6.3, 8.9) and 7.7 (6.5, 9.0) mg/d; zinc, 7.5 (6.4, 8.6) and 7.6 (6.5, 8.7) mg/d; and vitamin A, 0.109 (0.071, 0.147) and 0.120 (0.080, 0.159) mg retinol equivalents/d. No differences were found between the NSG and CG (P > 0.05). To conclude, the Oportunidades program had a positive impact on the diet of children. The effects of the program on dietary intake resulted from the food supplement and not from improvements in the home diet. Our findings are useful for identifying which program components contributed to the effects on the nutritional status of children.

  18. Outdoor PV Degradation Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Smith, R. M.; Osterwald, C. R.; Gelak, E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output; may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined; accurately. At the Performance and Energy Rating Testbed (PERT) at the Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) at the; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) more than 40 modules from more than 10 different manufacturers; were compared for their long-term outdoor stability. Because it can accommodate a large variety of modules in a; limited footprint the PERT system is ideally suited to compare modules side-by-side under the same conditions.

  19. RDI's Wisdom Way Solar Village Final Report: Includes Utility Bill Analysis of Occupied Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Robb Aldrich, Steven Winter Associates

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Rural Development, Inc. (RDI) completed construction of Wisdom Way Solar Village (WWSV), a community of ten duplexes (20 homes) in Greenfield, MA. RDI was committed to very low energy use from the beginning of the design process throughout construction. Key features include: 1. Careful site plan so that all homes have solar access (for active and passive); 2. Cellulose insulation providing R-40 walls, R-50 ceiling, and R-40 floors; 3. Triple-pane windows; 4. Airtight construction (~0.1 CFM50/ft2 enclosure area); 5. Solar water heating systems with tankless, gas, auxiliary heaters; 6. PV systems (2.8 or 3.4kWSTC); 7. 2-4 bedrooms, 1,100-1,700 ft2. The design heating loads in the homes were so small that each home is heated with a single, sealed-combustion, natural gas room heater. The cost savings from the simple HVAC systems made possible the tremendous investments in the homes' envelopes. The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored temperatures and comfort in several homes during the winter of 2009-2010. In the Spring of 2011, CARB obtained utility bill information from 13 occupied homes. Because of efficient lights, appliances, and conscientious home occupants, the energy generated by the solar electric systems exceeded the electric energy used in most homes. Most homes, in fact, had a net credit from the electric utility over the course of a year. On the natural gas side, total gas costs averaged $377 per year (for heating, water heating, cooking, and clothes drying). Total energy costs were even less - $337 per year, including all utility fees. The highest annual energy bill for any home evaluated was $458; the lowest was $171.

  20. Residential Photovoltaic Energy Systems in California: The Effect on Home Sales Prices

    SciTech Connect

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Cappers, Peter

    2012-04-15

    Relatively little research exists estimating the marginal impacts of photovoltaic (PV) energy systems on home sale prices. Using a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009, we find strong evidence, despite a variety of robustness checks, that existing homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without PV systems, implying a near full return on investment. Premiums for new homes are found to be considerably lower than those for existing homes, implying, potentially, a tradeoff between price and sales velocity. The results have significant implications for homeowners, builders, appraisers, lenders, and policymakers.

  1. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  2. Maternal Self Esteem and Locus of Control Relates to the Quality of Young Children's Environment (HOME) in Rural Andhra Pradesh, India: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Sylvia; Vazir, Shahnaz; Bentley, Peggy; Johnson, Susan; Engle, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scale has been shown to be a significant predictor of later cognitive outcomes in many cultures. Therefore identifying factors associated with HOME could be used to promote child development. Maternal psychological well-being is often overlooked although critical in the creation of…

  3. Rural Resilience: Youth "Making a Life" in Regions of High Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan

    2001-01-01

    In rural Australia, education beyond year 10 involves leaving home. Rural families may influence young people to stay home. Family influence and culture should not always be considered a deficit, for the family provides support when jobs are scarce. Rural families' social capital and rural resilience should be considered in developing rural school…

  4. Introductory Epidemiology. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Stephen H.; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching a course in introductory epidemiology. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of epidemiology in rural health promotional training, general…

  5. Health Promotion Seminar. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with conducting a health promotion seminar. Covered in the first section of the guide are the role of a health care promotion seminar in rural health promotional training,…

  6. Chemistry for the Life Sciences. An Instructor Resource Guide. Appendix to a Final Report on the Paraprofessional Rurally Oriented Family Home Health Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, H. Clyde; Myer, Donna Foster

    This instructor's resource guide, one in a series of products from a project to develop an associate degree program for paraprofessional rural family health promoters, deals with teaching chemistry for the life sciences. Covered in the first section of the volume are the role of chemistry in rural health promotional training, general objectives…

  7. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Near Zero Maine Home II - Vassalboro, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Vassalboro, Maine, that scored HERS 35 without PV and HERS 11 with PV. This 1,200 ft2 home has 10.5-inch-thick double-walls with 3 layers of mineral wool batt insulation, an R-20 insulated slab, R-70 cellulose in the attic, extensive air sealing, a mini-split heat pump, an heat recovery ventilator, solar water heating, LED lighting, 3.9 kWh PV, and triple-pane windows.

  8. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Cobblestone Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Cobblestone Homes of Freeland,MI quest to understand building science led to construction in 2010 of the "Vision Zero Project," a demonstration home that has earned a DOE Builders Challenge certification and achieved a HERS index of -4 with photovoltaics and 37 without PV.

  9. College Talk and the Rural Economy: Shaping the Educational Aspirations of Rural, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieken, Mara Casey

    2016-01-01

    The college-going rates of rural students lag behind those of more urban students, a gap likely due, in part, to rural students' lower educational aspirations. These lower aspirations appear to be tied to the dilemma that higher education presents for many rural students: whether to remain in their rural home, working in traditional trades and…

  10. Extension and Home-Based Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loker, Suzanne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Includes "Building Home Businesses in Rural Communities" (Loker et al.); "Home-Based Business...A Means to Economic Growth in Rural Areas" (Bastow-Shoop et al.); "Business Not As Usual" (Millar, Mallilo); and "Economic Options for Farm Families" (Williams). (SK)

  11. Progress in PV:BONUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaeth, James J.; Pierce, Lizana K.

    1996-01-01

    The PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) program, to develop photovoltaic products and the associated infrastructure for a sustainable photovoltaic market in the building sector, has attracted a variety of promising projects ranging from integrated modular homes, rooftop integrated photovoltaic systems, dispatchable peak shaving systems, alternating-current module, photovoltaic glazing systems, and curtain wall systems. The mutual commitment by the Department of Energy and the program recipients has inspired diverse partnerships among manufacturers, utilities, construction companies, and universities for the development of niche markets for building-integrated photovoltaics. Many of the photovoltaic systems are currently being demonstrated with market campaigns underway to commercialize these innovative renewable energy, building-integrated products.

  12. Progress in PV:BONUS project

    SciTech Connect

    Spaeth, J.J.; Pierce, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    The PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) program, to develop photovoltaic products and the associated infrastructure for a sustainable photovoltaic market in the building sector, has attracted a variety of promising projects ranging from integrated modular homes, rooftop integrated photovoltaic systems, dispatchable peak shaving systems, alternating-current module, photovoltaic glazing systems, and curtain wall systems. The mutual commitment by the Department of Energy and the program recipients has inspired diverse partnerships among manufacturers, utilities, construction companies, and universities for the development of niche markets for building-integrated photovoltaics. Many of the photovoltaic systems are currently being demonstrated with market campaigns underway to commercialize these innovative renewable energy, building-integrated products. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  14. Pressure-equalizing PV assembly and method

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-10-26

    Each PV assembly of an array of PV assemblies comprises a base, a PV module and a support assembly securing the PV module to a position overlying the upper surface of the base. Vents are formed through the base. A pressure equalization path extends from the outer surface of the PV module, past the PV module, to and through at least one of the vents, and to the lower surface of the base to help reduce wind uplift forces on the PV assembly. The PV assemblies may be interengaged, such as by interengaging the bases of adjacent PV assemblies. The base may include a main portion and a cover and the bases of adjacent PV assemblies may be interengaged by securing the covers of adjacent bases together.

  15. New therapeutic approaches in PV

    PubMed Central

    Falchi, Lorenzo; Newberry, Kate J.; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Polycytemia vera (PV) is one of the three Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Clinically, PV is an indolent disease but its course can be complicated by arterial and venous vascular accidents, evolution to myelofibrosis or leukemic transformation. Treatment of PV is, therefore, aimed at preventing such acute complications. The cornerstone of therapy of low-risk patients remains strict control of cardiovascular risk factors, the use of phlebotomy and low dose aspirin. Higher risk patients should also receive cytoreductive treatments. Hydroxyurea and interferon-α represent standard first-line options for newly diagnosed high-risk PV patients. Recommendations for patients who fail these therapies are less clearly defined. The discovery of a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (V617F) in almost all cases of PV has prompted the development of molecularly targeted agents for the treatment of these patients. In this review we will discuss key clinical aspects, the current therapeutic armamentarium and data on the use of novel agents in patients with PV. PMID:26297275

  16. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  17. Renewable Energy in Rural Southeastern Arizona: Decision Factors: A Comparison of the Consumer Profiles of Homeowners Who Purchased Renewable Energy Systems With Those Who Performed Other Home Upgrades or Remodeling Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Wayne Eliot

    Arizona has an abundant solar resource and technologically mature systems are available to capture it, but solar energy systems are still considered to be an innovative technology. Adoption rates for solar and wind energy systems rise and fall with the political tides, and are relatively low in most rural areas in Arizona. This thesis tests the hypothesis that a consumer profile developed to characterize the adopters of renewable energy technology (RET) systems in rural Arizona is the same as the profile of other area residents who performed renovations, upgrades or additions to their homes. Residents of Santa Cruz and Cochise Counties who had obtained building permits to either install a solar or wind energy system or to perform a substantial renovation or upgrade to their home were surveyed to gather demographic, psychographic and behavioristic data. The data from 133 survey responses (76 from RET adopters and 57 from non-adopters) provided insights about their decisions regarding whether or not to adopt a RET system. The results, which are statistically significant at the 99% level of confidence, indicate that RET adopters had smaller households, were older and had higher education levels and greater income levels than the non-adopters. The research also provides answers to three related questions: First, are the energy conservation habits of RET adopters the same as those of non-adopters? Second, what were the sources of information consulted and the most important factors that motivated the decision to purchase a solar or wind energy system? And finally, are any of the factors which influenced the decision to live in a rural area in southeastern Arizona related to the decision to purchase a renewable energy system? The answers are provided, along with a series of recommendations that are designed to inform marketers and other promoters of RETs about how to utilize these results to help achieve their goals.

  18. Using Observational Data to Estimate the Effect of Hand Washing and Clean Delivery Kit Use by Birth Attendants on Maternal Deaths after Home Deliveries in Rural Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Seward, Nadine; Prost, Audrey; Copas, Andrew; Corbin, Marine; Li, Leah; Colbourn, Tim; Osrin, David; Neuman, Melissa; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, puerperal sepsis accounts for an estimated 8–12% of maternal deaths, but evidence is lacking on the extent to which clean delivery practices could improve maternal survival. We used data from the control arms of four cluster-randomised controlled trials conducted in rural India, Bangladesh and Nepal, to examine associations between clean delivery kit use and hand washing by the birth attendant with maternal mortality among home deliveries. Methods We tested associations between clean delivery practices and maternal deaths, using a pooled dataset for 40,602 home births across sites in the three countries. Cross-sectional data were analysed by fitting logistic regression models with and without multiple imputation, and confounders were selected a priori using causal directed acyclic graphs. The robustness of estimates was investigated through sensitivity analyses. Results Hand washing was associated with a 49% reduction in the odds of maternal mortality after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.51, 95% CI 0.28–0.93). The sensitivity analysis testing the missing at random assumption for the multiple imputation, as well as the sensitivity analysis accounting for possible misclassification bias in the use of clean delivery practices, indicated that the association between hand washing and maternal death had been over estimated. Clean delivery kit use was not associated with a maternal death (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 0.62–2.56). Conclusions Our evidence suggests that hand washing in delivery is critical for maternal survival among home deliveries in rural South Asia, although the exact magnitude of this effect is uncertain due to inherent biases associated with observational data from low resource settings. Our findings indicating kit use does not improve maternal survival, suggests that the soap is not being used in all instances that kit use is being reported. PMID:26295838

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Boulder ZED Design Build - Boulder, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Boulder, Colorado, that scored HERS 38 without PV and 0 with PV. This 2,504 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls, superior insulation a ground-source heat pump, ERV, and triple-pane windows.

  20. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Leganza Residence - Greenbank, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Greenbank, Washington that scored HERS 37 without PV and a -5 with PV. This 1,955 ft2 custom home has 6.5-inch structural insulated panel (SIPs) walls, a 10.25-inch SIPS roof, an R-20 insulated slab, a 2-ton ground source heat pump, radiant floor heat, 7.1 kWh PV, and triple-pane windows.

  1. Early Childhood Education at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Mary JoAnn

    Outlined is a Title III early childhood at home project which involves a team approach to the education of 40 handicapped and 75 nonhandicapped rural, disadvantaged children, their parents, and/or babysitters in West Virginia. It is noted that four teams consisting of a teacher and paraprofessionals visit homes to instruct baby sitters or parents…

  2. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Promethean Homes — Gross-Shepard Residence, Charlottesville, VA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This is the first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home for this builder, who earned a Custom Builder honor in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The home included rigid mineral wool board insulation over house wrap and plywood on the 2x6 advanced framed walls, achieving HERS 33 without PV.

  3. DOE ZERH Case Study: Carl Franklin Homes, L.C./Green Extreme Homes, CDC, McKinley Project, Garland TX

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the hot-humid climate that got a HERS 56 without PV or HERS 26 with PV, with 4.5” SIP walls and 8.5” SIP roof; uninsulated slab; ductless minisplit heat pump 15.5 SEER, and tankless hot water.

  4. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  5. Lightweight flexible rooftop PV module

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M.; Ovshinsky, H.C.; Whelan, K.

    1994-12-31

    Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) and United Solar Systems Corp. (United Solar) are developing lightweight, flexible photovoltaic modules that can replace conventional roofing materials and be economically and aesthetically integrated into residential and commercial buildings. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency multi-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible, stainless steel substrates. Two types of products 1 ft by 10 ft overlapping PV shingles and 1.3 ft by 20 ft PV roof panels are being developed by United Solar and ECD, respectively. United Solar`s shingle type design uses a roof mounting procedures similar to those used with conventional asphalt shingles, while ECD`s PV panel uses mounting procedures conforming to metal roof systems. Thus, they can be installed on roof sheathings, replacing ordinary shingles or metal roofing panels, on a standard wood roof construction.

  6. Comparison of Pyranometers vs. PV Reference Cells for Evaluation of PV Array Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, L.; Gostein, M.; Emery, K.

    2012-09-01

    As the photovoltaics (PV) industry has grown, the need for accurately monitoring the solar resource of PV power plants has increased. Historically, the PV industry has relied on thermopile pyranometers for irradiance measurements, and a large body of historical irradiance data taken with pyranometers exists. However, interest in PV reference devices is increasing. In this paper, we discuss why PV reference devices are better suited for PV applications, and estimate the typical uncertainties in irradiance measurements made with both pyranometers and PV reference devices. We assert that the quantity of interest in monitoring a PV power plant is the equivalent irradiance under the IEC 60904-3 reference solar spectrum that would produce the same electrical response in the PV array as the incident solar radiation. For PV-plant monitoring applications, we find the uncertainties in irradiance measurements of this type to be on the order of +/-5% for thermopile pyranometers and +/-2.4% for PV reference devices.

  7. The use of home-based therapy with ready-to-use therapeutic food to treat malnutrition in a rural area during a food crisis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When the international community declared a famine in Malawi in January 2006, emergency food aid reached only populations with pre-existing health care services. To treat the widespread childhood malnutrition in Machinga district, a rural area lacking health care facilities, in February 2006 five ou...

  8. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  9. Critical Home-Based Challenges Inhibiting Effective Participation of Pupils in Rural Public Primary Schools in Narok North Sub-County, Narok County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanik, Kantim; Orodho, John Aluko

    2016-01-01

    The thrust of this study was to examine the critical challenges inhibiting effective participation in education by pupils from rural public primary schools in Central Division, Narok North Sub-County, in Narok County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research design. Combinations of stratified and purposive sampling…

  10. "Can We Send Some of the Money Back Home to Our Families?" Tensions of Transition in an Early Intervention Program for Rural Appalachian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Ruby

    This paper explores issues surrounding the interplay of college preparation, financial assistance, cultural norms, and transition to college for Appalachian first-generation college students from low-income rural families. The Robinson Scholars Program aims to significantly improve the college-going rate in 29 counties in eastern Kentucky. The…

  11. Potential for the use of photovoltaic systems in agricultural production and rural sector of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Neyeloff, S.

    1983-12-01

    A field study was conducted in Colombia, South America, to determine the possible market for PV power systems in rural areas. It was found that a sizeable market exists in the areas of coffee processing, beef cattle watering, domestic uses, rural telephones and rural health stations.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: New Town Builders — The ArtiZEN Plan, Denver, CO

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The Grand Winner in the Production Builder category of the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, this builder plans to convert all of its product lines to DOE Zero Energy Ready Home construction by the end of 2015. This home achieves HERS 38 without photovoltaics (PV) and HERS -3 with 8.0 kW of PV.

  13. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  14. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  15. The contribution of counselling in hospital and home-based care in a small town and surrounding rural area in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Jordan, I B; Haworth, A

    1995-01-01

    In early 1991 in Zambia, Mansa General Hospital hosted Luapula Province's first training course for counselors of patients with AIDS and their families. Physicians and nurses soon saw that counseling made their work easier. Counseling helped the clients and their families and affected the behavior of the providers. The counselors have made it easier for hospital providers to discuss AIDS. Several months passed after counseling was implemented before a specific room for counseling was established to preserve privacy. The counselors provide pre- and post-test counseling. They meet weekly to share problems and concerns and to review counseling content so they can learn from each other. Since some patients live too far from the hospital, four counselors have joined the home-based care team (nurse, clinical officer, laboratory assistant, and physician). Home-based teams help HIV-positive spouses, widows about to lose all their property to the late husband's relatives, and family members providing for orphaned children. Community counseling or community education for transformation eventually replaced the hospital-centered home-based care model that ignored the community and its resources. The local health educator facilitated this transition. This model provided information to chiefs and headmen and helped them to learn how HIV/AIDS affects individuals. Teachers, social workers, and church workers were later also targeted as community leaders. The second training course in Mansa was established to train counselors who would then be resource persons to local institutions or within their own communities. Training of social workers and teachers relieves the home-based care team of the counseling burden. Thus, the counseling program evolved into a multi-nodal network made of resources from the hospital, health center, and community.

  16. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  17. Heritage Park Facilities PV Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hobaica, Mark

    2013-09-26

    Project Objective: To procure a photovoltaic array (PV) system which will generate approximately 256kW of power to be used for the operations of the Aquatic Complex and the adjacent Senior Facility at the Heritage Park. This project complies with the EERE’s work and objectives by promoting the development and deployment of an energy system that will provide current and future generations with clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy.

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Healthy Efficient Homes - Spirit Lake, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Spirit Lake, Iowa, that scored HERS 41 without PV and HERS 28 with PV. This 3,048 ft2 custom home has advanced framed walls filled with 1.5 inches closed-cell spray foam, a vented attic with spray foam-sealed top plates and blown fiberglass over the ceiling deck. R-23 basement walls are ICF plus two 2-inch layers of EPS. The house also has a mini-split heat pump, fresh air fan intake, and a solar hot water heater.

  19. Rural Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  20. Imagine Homes New Construction Occupied Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Stecher, Dave; Rapport, Ari; Allison, Katherine

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the research findings of a long-term monitoring plan to evaluate the performance of an energy-efficient home constructed in 2010 in San Antonio, Texas. Monitoring of the energy use, energy generation, and temperature conditions for this project occurred between July 2010 and October 2011. The home achieves a source energy savings of 32% without the installed photovoltaic (PV) system and 44% savings with the PV system contribution relative to the Building America House Simulation Protocols. This report summarizes the research findings related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system performance, estimated and actual energy use of key subsystems, electricity generation by the PV system, and performance of the solar thermal domestic hot water system.

  1. Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nursing Homes Basic Facts & Information Nursing homes have changed ... physical health and/or mental disabilities. Is a Nursing Home Right for You? Almost half of all ...

  2. Impact of Text Message Reminders on Caregivers’ Adherence to a Home Fortification Program Against Child Anemia in Rural Western China: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huan; Sun, Shuai; Sylvia, Sean; Yue, Ai; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test whether text message reminders sent to caregivers improve the effectiveness of a home micronutrient fortification program in western China. Methods. We carried out a cluster-randomized controlled trial in 351 villages (clusters) in Shaanxi Province in 2013 and 2014, enrolling children aged 6 to 12 months. We randomly assigned each village to 1 of 3 groups: free delivery group, text messaging group, or control group. We collected information on compliance with treatments and hemoglobin concentrations from all children at baseline and 6-month follow-up. We estimated the intent-to-treat effects on compliance and child anemia using a logistic regression model. Results. There were 1393 eligible children. We found that assignment to the text messaging group led to an increase in full compliance (marginal effect = 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.16) compared with the free delivery group and decrease in the rate of anemia at end line relative to the control group (marginal effect = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.12, −0.01), but not relative to the free delivery group (marginal effect = −0.03; 95% CI = −0.09, 0.03). Conclusions. Text messages improved compliance of caregivers to a home fortification program and children’s nutrition. PMID:27077354

  3. Uptake of Home-Based HIV Testing, Linkage to Care, and Community Attitudes about ART in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Descriptive Results from the First Phase of the ANRS 12249 TasP Cluster-Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Okesola, Nonhlanhla; Tanser, Frank; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Rekacewicz, Claire; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2015 WHO recommendation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all immediately following HIV diagnosis is partially based on the anticipated impact on HIV incidence in the surrounding population. We investigated this approach in a cluster-randomised trial in a high HIV prevalence setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal. We present findings from the first phase of the trial and report on uptake of home-based HIV testing, linkage to care, uptake of ART, and community attitudes about ART. Methods and Findings Between 9 March 2012 and 22 May 2014, five clusters in the intervention arm (immediate ART offered to all HIV-positive adults) and five clusters in the control arm (ART offered according to national guidelines, i.e., CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/μl) contributed to the first phase of the trial. Households were visited every 6 mo. Following informed consent and administration of a study questionnaire, each resident adult (≥16 y) was asked for a finger-prick blood sample, which was used to estimate HIV prevalence, and offered a rapid HIV test using a serial HIV testing algorithm. All HIV-positive adults were referred to the trial clinic in their cluster. Those not linked to care 3 mo after identification were contacted by a linkage-to-care team. Study procedures were not blinded. In all, 12,894 adults were registered as eligible for participation (5,790 in intervention arm; 7,104 in control arm), of whom 9,927 (77.0%) were contacted at least once during household visits. HIV status was ever ascertained for a total of 8,233/9,927 (82.9%), including 2,569 ascertained as HIV-positive (942 tested HIV-positive and 1,627 reported a known HIV-positive status). Of the 1,177 HIV-positive individuals not previously in care and followed for at least 6 mo in the trial, 559 (47.5%) visited their cluster trial clinic within 6 mo. In the intervention arm, 89% (194/218) initiated ART within 3 mo of their first clinic visit. In the control arm, 42.3% (83/196) had a CD4 count

  4. The Relationship between Peer Victimization and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptomatology in a Rural Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, James W.; Oehler, Judy; Capaccioli, Kristen

    2010-01-01

    Peer victimization (PV) has been associated with a number of negative psychological sequelae. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between PV and the symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder, and no studies to date have examined this relationship in a rural sample. Adapted versions of the SEQ-SR and the TSCC were used to…

  5. PV output smoothing with energy storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2012-03-01

    This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

  6. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  7. Home sweet medical home.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2014-11-01

    Starting with a solid primary care foundation, the patient-centered medical home has become a hot commodity for making health care more efficient and effective and less fragmented and costly. Whether the enhanced primary care model lives up to its promise is still up for debate, based on the available research. Still, policymakers, payers, and physician practices are increasingly taking the bet.

  8. The social construction of identity in HIV/AIDS home-based care volunteers in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Thirusha; Sliep, Yvonne; Dageid, Wenche

    2012-01-01

    Home-based care volunteer (HBCV) identity and how it is shaped was the main focus of the study. Fifteen HBCVs were interviewed about their work and personal life stories and then interviewed reflectively using a narrative interviewing style. Specific attention was paid to contextual meta-narratives and social field narratives in understanding the women's stories. Findings indicate that social field narratives of the women's stories were dominated by negative aspects of gender, poverty and socio-political factors. These were seen to coincide with the 'feminisation of responsibility' in this context effectively coercing the women into agency which manifested as their home-based care work. Meta-narratives influencing the women's lives were dominated by stories of communal motherhood, aspirations to service-oriented work and religious beliefs and commitment. The question of how it is possible for women who are seemingly constrained by oppressive narratives to voluntarily engage in community participation was answered in the women's personal life stories about being compassionate, hopeful, helpful and ambitious and having initiative. These characteristics collectively pointed to personal agency. Exploring connections between the different aspects of identity and context revealed that the women made sense of their community participation through their personal identities as strong and loving mothers. Connections between volunteer personal identity, agency and volunteer group identity were explored to make sense of the link between HBCV identity and volunteerism. The mother identity, encompassing personal agency (strength or power) and love (the meta-narrative of communal motherly love), was salient in influencing community participation of the group.

  9. Ensuring Quality of PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Sample, T.; Yamamichi, M.; Kondo, M.; Doi, T.; Otani, K.; Amano, J.

    2011-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) customers need to have confidence in the PV modules they purchase. Currently, no test can quantify a module's lifetime with confidence, but stress tests are routinely used to differentiate PV product designs. We suggest that the industry would be strengthened by using the wisdom of the community to develop a single set of tests that will help customers quantify confidence in PV products. This paper evaluates the need for quality assurance (QA) standards and suggests a path for creating these. Two types of standards are needed: 1) QA of the module design and 2) QA of the manufacturing process.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  11. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  12. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  13. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  14. DOE ZERH Case Study: High Performance Homes, Chamberlain Court #75, Gettysburg, PA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the cold climate that got a HERS 37 without PV, or HERS 23 with PV, with R-24 SIP walls, Basement with R-10 under slab, and R-15 unfaced batt on walls, sealed attic with R-49 ocsf under roof deck; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  15. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  16. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  17. Design of a Net-Metering and PV Exhibit for the 2005 Solar Decathlon

    SciTech Connect

    Wassmer, M.; Warner, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the 2005 Solar Decathlon competition, 19 collegiate teams will design, build, and operate grid-independent homes powered by photovoltaic (PV) arrays on the National Mall. The prominence of grid-interconnected systems in the marketplace has provided the impetus for the development of a net-metering exhibit to be installed and operated during the competition. The exhibit will inform the visiting public about PV basics and appropriate alternatives to grid-independent systems. It will consist of four interactive components. One will be designed to educate people about the principles of net metering using a small PV array, a grid-interactive inverter, and a variable load. Additional components of the exhibit will demonstrate the effects of orientation, cloud cover, and nighttime on performance. The nighttime component will discuss appropriate storage options for different applications.

  18. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Pulte Homes, Las Vegas, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The builder teamed with Building Science Corporation to design HERS-54 homes with high-efficiency HVAC with ducts in conditioned space, jump ducts, and a fresh air intake; advanced framed walls; low-e windows; and PV roof tiles.

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Nexus EnergyHomes, Frederick, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This urban infill community with 24 duplexes, 19 townhomes, and 7 single-family homes features SIP walls, geothermal heat pumps, solar PV, and a proprietary energy management system. The builder won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  20. Nursing homes in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Leung-Wing; Chi, Iris

    2008-05-01

    China will face a dramatic transition from a young to an aged society in the coming 30 to 40 years. In 2000, there were 88,110,000 persons aged 65 years and older, which represented 7% of the population. This percentage is projected to increase to 23% in 2050. Regarding health and long-term care for older adults, the current challenge is to build a comprehensive system of care for older adults. Nursing home care is an inevitable care model for frail older adults in China, which is largely sponsored by the government of China with contributions from some nongovernment organizations and private investors. China is a large country. Within the country, long-term care varies greatly between rural and urban areas, and among the different economic developing areas. In urban and better-developed areas, the range of services exists; however, in rural and less-developed areas, the range of services is limited. The "Star Light Program" and "Beloved Care Engineering" were recent government initiatives to improve aged care. They were launched in 2001 and have dramatically increased the number of both senior centers and nursing homes for older adults. While the quantity of nursing homes is still inadequate with an additional mismatch problem between the supply and demand, the quality of care in most nursing homes is suboptimal. At present, most administrative and frontline workers in nursing homes have received little training in elder care. There is a need for good-quality structured training in long-term care for all types of staff. Moreover, quality standard for care, including standard setting, assessment, and monitoring, is an important issue and needs substantial improvement for nursing homes in China. Currently, 1.5% of older people live in nursing homes and apartments for older people. Because of the peculiar 4-2-1 family structure in China, we expect the prevalence of nursing home placement of older adults will increase in the coming years. The government of China has

  1. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Kristen D.; Soneja, Sutyajeet I.; Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Checkley, William; Katz, Joanne; Breysse, Patrick N.; Tielsch, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT) studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5), boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I) and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001). Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES) and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS) altered Envirofit stove (NAES), produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized—an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove—a trade-off that may have implications for acceptability of

  2. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kristen D; Soneja, Sutyajeet I; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Checkley, William; Katz, Joanne; Breysse, Patrick N; Tielsch, James M

    2015-07-01

    Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT) studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5), boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I) and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001). Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES) and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS) altered Envirofit stove (NAES), produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized--an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove--a trade-off that may have implications for acceptability of the

  3. Indoor Particulate Matter Concentration, Water Boiling Time, and Fuel Use of Selected Alternative Cookstoves in a Home-Like Setting in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kristen D; Soneja, Sutyajeet I; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Checkley, William; Katz, Joanne; Breysse, Patrick N; Tielsch, James M

    2015-07-07

    Alternative cookstoves are designed to improve biomass fuel combustion efficiency to reduce the amount of fuel used and lower emission of air pollutants. The Nepal Cookstove Trial (NCT) studies effects of alternative cookstoves on family health. Our study measured indoor particulate matter concentration (PM2.5), boiling time, and fuel use of cookstoves during a water-boiling test in a house-like setting in rural Nepal. Study I was designed to select a stove to be used in the NCT; Study II evaluated stoves used in the NCT. In Study I, mean indoor PM2.5 using wood fuel was 4584 μg/m3, 1657 μg/m3, and 2414 μg/m3 for the traditional, alternative mud brick stove (AMBS-I) and Envirofit G-series, respectively. The AMBS-I reduced PM2.5 concentration but increased boiling time compared to the traditional stove (p-values < 0.001). Unlike AMBS-I, Envirofit G-series did not significantly increase overall fuel consumption. In Phase II, the manufacturer altered Envirofit stove (MAES) and Nepal Nutrition Intervention Project Sarlahi (NNIPS) altered Envirofit stove (NAES), produced lower mean PM2.5, 1573 μg/m3 and 1341 μg/m3, respectively, relative to AMBS-II 3488 μg/m3 for wood tests. The liquid propane gas stove had the lowest mean PM2.5 concentrations, with measurements indistinguishable from background levels. Results from Study I and II showed significant reduction in PM2.5 for all alternative stoves in a controlled setting. In study I, the AMBS-I stove required more fuel than the traditional stove. In contrast, in study II, the MAES and NAES stoves required statistically less fuel than the AMBS-II. Reductions and increases in fuel use should be interpreted with caution because the composition of fuels was not standardized--an issue which may have implications for generalizability of other findings as well. Boiling times for alternative stoves in Study I were significantly longer than the traditional stove--a trade-off that may have implications for acceptability of the

  4. Revitalizing the Rural Economy for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Home to 65 million people, rural America is no longer insulated from national and international events. Once dependent entirely upon agriculture and natural resource industries, today rural America relies upon manufacturing and service industries. Jobs and other income opportunities in rural America must respond to global business cycles and…

  5. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Rural Development, Greenfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This builder worked with Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings to design affordable HERS-8 homes (60 w/o PV), with double-stud walls heavy insulation, low-load sealed-combustion gas space heaters, triple-pane windows, solar water heating, and PV

  6. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  7. Performance House -- A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on a test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 'Performance House' was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the 'Performance House' were not cutting-edge, but simply 'best practices practiced'. The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  8. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  9. Impact of combining intermittent preventive treatment with home management of malaria in children less than 10 years in a rural area of Senegal: a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Current malaria control strategies recommend (i) early case detection using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), (ii) pre-referral rectal artesunate, (iii) intermittent preventive treatment and (iv) impregnated bed nets. However, these individual malaria control interventions provide only partial protection in most epidemiological situations. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the potential benefits of integrating several malaria interventions to reduce malaria prevalence and morbidity. Methods A randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the impact of combining seasonal intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) with home-based management of malaria (HMM) by community health workers (CHWs) in Senegal. Eight CHWs in eight villages covered by the Bonconto health post, (South Eastern part of Senegal) were trained to diagnose malaria using RDT, provide prompt treatment with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria cases and pre-referral rectal artesunate for complicated malaria occurring in children under 10 years. Four CHWs were randomized to also administer monthly IPTc as single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ) in the malaria transmission season, October and November 2010. Primary end point was incidence of single episode of malaria attacks over 8 weeks of follow up. Secondary end points included prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, and prevalence of anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. The study protocol was approved by the Senegalese National Ethical Committee (approval 0027/MSP/DS/CNRS, 18/03/2010). Results A total of 1,000 children were enrolled. The incidence of malaria episodes was 7.1/100 child months at risk [95% CI (3.7-13.7)] in communities with IPTc + HMM compared to 35.6/100 child months at risk [95% CI (26.7-47.4)] in communities with only HMM (aOR = 0.20; 95

  10. Bookmobile Provides Home-Schoolers with Regular Library Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Annette

    1996-01-01

    The bookmobile of Lancaster County Library (Pennsylvania) provides library services to the home schooled children of isolated, rural communities. Home schooling and bookmobile usage have increased proportionally, and bookmobiles act as "library periods" for the home schooled, provide materials to support curricula, and supply recreational reading.…

  11. Ambiguous Spaces for Troubled Youth: Home, Therapeutic Institution or School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina; Reimers, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In Sweden and elsewhere, students permanently excluded from school are removed from their local environment, and sometimes their parental home, and moved to a rural residential care home. Thus "home" and "school" are clearly considered places where problems exist, but it is the young people themselves who are scrutinised and…

  12. High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System, Phase 1 Update: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.; Narang, D.

    2012-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners have begun work on a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale photovoltaics (PV). Building upon the APS Community Power Project -- Flagstaff Pilot, this project will analyze the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes as well as large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters are being designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models will be used to analyze the impacts of the PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/var control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2011 IEEE PVSC conference that introduces the project and describes some of the preliminary consideration, as well as project plans and early results. This paper gives a status update of the project and presents selected results from Phase 2 of the project. It discusses baseline feeder modeling, load allocation, data acquisition, utility-scale PV integration, preliminary model validation, and plans for future phases.

  13. Home Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help Related Topics Assisted Living Community-Based Care Nursing Homes Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Home Care Basic Facts & Information Role of Health Care Professionals in Home Care Your physician is the leader ...

  14. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  15. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  16. Jebel Ali Hotel PV lighting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, M.

    1984-05-01

    A large stand-alone PV lighting project was installed in June 1983 at the Jebel Ali Hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. A high mast lighting system provides illumination for a 130 meter diameter traffic roundabout. The high mast system is powered by a 15 kilowatt peak array of Mobil Solar ribbon PV modules. Along the 700 meter access road leading to the hotel entrance, twenty-one PV powered streetlights provide low-level lighting. Each streetlight consists of a 20 watt fluorescent tube powered by two 35 Wp modules. Operation of both systems is completely automatic. Design, installation, and operating experience to date are reviewed.

  17. [Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sherry Freeland, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on rural education focuses on the unique characteristics and problems of rural schools, and discusses how the "top down" and "one size fits all" nature of the last decade of reforms has not taken these into account. To better address the situation of rural and small schools, various strategies are offered that involve distance…

  18. Rural Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jess

    To be scientific, rural sociology must have a distinctive conceptual basis; therefore, defining "rural" has long been a major concern of rural sociologists. Recently faced with similar problems, political economists have revitalized the field of urban sociology by looking beyond the city to the social production of spatial forms under capitalism.…

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Montlake Modern - Seattle, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Seattle, WA, that scored HERS 42 without PV and a -1 with PV. This 3,192 ft2 custom home has 6-inch SIP walls, a 12-inch SIP roof, an R-28 ICF-insulated foundation slab edge with R-20 rigid foam under the slab; an air-to-water heat pump plus radiant floor heat; 100% LED lighting; filtered-fan-powered fresh air intake; triple-pane windows, 9.7 kWh PV for electric car charging station.

  20. The Effect of Home Visiting and Home Safety on Children's School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schull, Christine Pegorraro; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four children from a rural county in the state of Maryland, USA, were followed longitudinally from birth until kindergarten entry, tracking their participation in a home visiting program designed to enhance parent child interaction and school readiness. Results suggest that duration of home visiting had a positive, direct…

  1. PV Module Reliability Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its PV module reliability research. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed and recent publications are listed.

  2. Distributed PV Adoption in Maine Through 2021

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Sigrin, Ben

    2015-11-06

    NREL has used its dSolar (distributed solar) model to generate low-medium-high estimates of distributed PV adoption in Maine through 2021. This presentation gives a high-level overview of the model and modeling results.

  3. Rural and Remote Food Environments and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hansen, Anush Y; Hartley, David

    2015-03-01

    Within most developed countries, rural residents are more likely to be obese and overweight compared to their urban counterparts. Studies of specific rural communities have found that the limited availability of healthy foods in the community and home as well as individual characteristics and preferences contribute to poor diet and overweight. The rural food environment is varied and may be affected by climate, regional and cultural preferences, transportation access, and remoteness among other factors. Given this diversity and the vulnerabilities of rural residents, who are more likely to have low-income, substandard housing or low educational attainment compared to their urban counterparts, policy and programmatic interventions should target specific needs and communities. This review will describe the rural community, home, and individual food environments and what is known about their roles in healthy eating. PMID:26627089

  4. PV array simulator development and validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Lucca, Roberto; Deuel, Don

    2010-06-01

    The ability to harvest all available energy from a photovoltaic (PV) array is essential if new system developments are to meet levelized cost of energy targets and achieve grid parity with conventional centralized utility power. Therefore, exercising maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, dynamic irradiance condition operation and startup and shutdown routines and evaluating inverter performance with various PV module fill-factor characteristics must be performed with a repeatable, reliable PV source. Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with Ametek Programmable Power to develop and demonstrate a multi-port TerraSAS PV array simulator. The simulator will replicate challenging PV module profiles, enabling the evaluation of inverter performance through analyses of the parameters listed above. Energy harvest algorithms have traditionally implemented methods that successfully utilize available energy. However, the quantification of energy capture has always been difficult to conduct, specifically when characterizing the inverter performance under non-reproducible dynamic irradiance conditions. Theoretical models of the MPPT algorithms can simulate capture effectiveness, but full validation requires a DC source with representative field effects. The DC source being developed by Ametek and validated by Sandia is a fully integrated system that can simulate an IV curve from the Solar Advisor Model (SAM) module data base. The PV simulator allows the user to change the fill factor by programming the maximum power point voltage and current parameters and the open circuit voltage and short circuit current. The integrated PV simulator can incorporate captured irradiance and module temperature data files for playback, and scripted profiles can be generated to validate new emerging hardware embedded with existing and evolving MPPT algorithms. Since the simulator has multiple independent outputs, it also has the flexibility to evaluate an inverter with multiple

  5. PV System Energy Evaluation Method (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes a comparison of the "predicted" energy (based on historical weather data) with the "expected" energy (based on the measured weather data) to determine whether a PV system is performing as modeled in order to verify the accuracy of a model. A key factor in defining this energy test is determining the test boundary so that weather variations are not inadvertently included in what is considered to be PV system performance.

  6. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  7. PV Working with Industry, 2nd Quarter, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Moon, S.

    2000-06-29

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Second Quarter, 2000, issue is titled ``Our Shared PV Future''. It contains a review of several important PV-related meetings held in the prior three months: the NCPV Program Review, the 16 European PV Conference, and year-2000 Earth Day activities in Denver, CO. The editorialist is Paul Maycock, Publisher of PV News.

  8. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  9. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... Often, home health care nurses will come to your home to give you the medicine. Sometimes, a family member, a friend, or ...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN...

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Amaris Custom Homes, St. Paul, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    For this project, Amaris worked with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team, NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, to develop the first Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) in Minnesota's cold climate using reasonable, cost-effective, and replicable construction materials and practices. The result is a passive solar, super-efficient 3542-ft2 walkout ranch-style home with all the creature comforts. Along with meeting ZERH standards, Amaris also achieved certifications for Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design for Homes v4, MN Green Path Emerald, and a Builders Association of the Twin Cities Reggie Award of Excellence. The home achieves a HERS score of 41 without photovoltaics; with PV, the home achieves a HERS score of 5.

  12. Home Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, William M.; And Others

    Cases that address the issue of home schooling are summarized in this report. Organized chronologically, each case description includes quoted material from the court ruling. Issues involve parent actions regarding compulsory student enrollment, parent qualifications for home teaching, student certification, church-state separation, constitutional…

  13. PV performance modeling workshop summary report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Tasca, Coryne Adelle; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2011-05-01

    During the development of a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project, predicting expected energy production from a system is a key part of understanding system value. System energy production is a function of the system design and location, the mounting configuration, the power conversion system, and the module technology, as well as the solar resource. Even if all other variables are held constant, annual energy yield (kWh/kWp) will vary among module technologies because of differences in response to low-light levels and temperature. A number of PV system performance models have been developed and are in use, but little has been published on validation of these models or the accuracy and uncertainty of their output. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, Sandia National Laboratories organized a PV Performance Modeling Workshop in Albuquerque, New Mexico, September 22-23, 2010. The workshop was intended to address the current state of PV system models, develop a path forward for establishing best practices on PV system performance modeling, and set the stage for standardization of testing and validation procedures for models and input parameters. This report summarizes discussions and presentations from the workshop, as well as examines opportunities for collaborative efforts to develop objective comparisons between models and across sites and applications.

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Ferguson Design and Construction,Sagaponack, New York

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    The 6-bedroom home achieves a HERS score of 43 even before PV is installed and will cut utility bills dramatically for its owners. Water-savings faucets, LED lighting, and ENERGY STAR appliances add to energy savings. This home garnered a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the custom builder category.

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Durable Energy Builders - Houston, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Houston, Texas, that scored HERS 39 without PV and HERS 29 with PV. This 5,947 ft2 custom home has 11.5-inch ICF walls. The attic is insulated along the roof line with 5 to 7 inches of open-cell spray foam. Most of the home's drinking water is supplied by a 11,500-gallon rainwater cistern. Hurricane strapping connects the roof to the walls. The triple-pane windows are impact resistant. The foundation is a raised slab.

  16. PV production forecast in La Reunion Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, L.; Leboucher, V.; Garo, M.

    2010-09-01

    Photovoltaic power production is developing quickly in La Reunion (Indian Ocean). In order to integrate this fluctuating energy source into the network, reliable production forecasts are necessary from real time to day+3. Weather forecasts from standard models are in general inadequate, in particular due to too coarse resolution in this complex orography area. In this study, we use observations (Météo-France) and reanalysis (ERAinterim) fields to evaluate the potential predictability of PV production, for individual solar power plants and from the island aggregated point of view. This in particular allows to select the best weather predictors for PV production. The forecast quality of the selected fields was then established, in order to use only the interesting ones. Finally, NWPs are used to estimate which part of PV production predictability is accessible with state of the art weather forecasting models. This leads to requirements on temporal and spatial resolution of NWP to improve the forecast quality.

  17. Rural Agrobusiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treillon, Roland; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This publication describes the formation and evolution of rural agribusiness (RA) in the southern hemisphere as a precondition for improving the lives of families in rural communities, and focuses on RA endeavors created by development projects in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa. After a short introduction, the first section of this study…

  18. Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

  19. Developing standards for PV packaging materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, John; Kempe, Michael; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    The initial qualification standards for photovoltaic modules were designed to help develop a product that is safe, and able to survive reasonably long time periods when deployed in the field. To accomplish this, TC-82 of the International Electro-Technical Commission (IEC), developed and published module qualification standards (IEC 61215 for crystalline Si, IEC 61646 for thin films and IEC 62108 for concentrating modules) and a module safety standard (IEC 61730 -1 and 2). As PV has developed and the technology has become better understood, the properties of materials used in the module package play an increasingly important part in achieving long-term durability and safety. Certain basic properties are required of the materials in order for the modules to be safe and to be able to survive in the field for 25 years or more. Therefore Working Group 2 (Modules) of TC-82 began work to develop new material-level standards for PV that will utilize existing standards, whenever available, but tailored for characterizing the properties that are important for PV modules and modified to take into account the environmental conditions specific to PV applications. The goal is to provide a uniform approach to characterizing candidate materials, providing the necessary information to designers selecting materials for use in their PV products as well as to certification bodies assessing the quality and safety of the products made from these materials. This paper will describe the details of the effort underway to determine what PV material standards are necessary and the progress on developing those standards.

  20. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  1. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  2. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  3. Molecular diagnosis of a laboratory mouse papillomavirus (MusPV).

    PubMed

    Joh, Joongho; Jenson, A Bennett; Proctor, Mary; Ingle, Arvind; Silva, Kathleen A; Potter, Christopher S; Sundberg, John P; Ghim, Shin-je

    2012-12-01

    MusPV, a novel papillomavirus (PV) that naturally infects laboratory mice, was isolated and characterized from a colony of NMRI-Foxn1(nu)/Foxn1(nu) (nude) mice in India. Because MusPV may have been missed during routine pathogen screening of mice in colonies worldwide, a variety of detection methods are described to detect MusPV. The clinical and histologic lesions of productive MusPV infections fit PV-associated features, including papillomas, koilocytes within the stratum granulosum of the hyperplastic/acanthotic papillomatous epithelium, and the presence of intranuclear virus particles in koilocytotic cells visualized by electron microscopy. Antiserum against disrupted PV virions, isolated from another species (canine), identified conserved viral antigens in productively infected cells by immunohistochemistry. A rolling circle technique was used to amplify viral circular DNAs followed by endonuclease restriction enzyme digestion to determine the correct size of PV DNA. Consensus PV degenerative primers, My09/11, commonly used to detect many different types of PVs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), particularly mucosotropic HPVs, also identified MusPV and all rodent PVs tested. Since there was one nucleotide mismatch between the My09/11 primer set and the MusPV template, a new primer set, MusPV-My09/11, was designed to specifically detect MusPV in latent infections and spontaneous MusPV-induced papillomas. Southern blot analysis verified the presence of full size PV DNA in infected tissues. Virus-like particles (VLPs), generated from MusPV L1 genes, provided a substrate for serological testing of naturally and experimentally infected mice. In summary, a series of diagnostic assays were developed and validated to detect MusPV infection in skin tumors and serological response in laboratory mice. PMID:22796029

  4. Values Held by Office-Based and Home-Based Therapists in Northern New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, H. D.; McCain, Victoria M.

    1999-01-01

    In first study of values of rural mental-health professionals, the Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values were completed by 51 office-based psychotherapists and 87 home-based therapists from rural areas in three northern New England states. That home-based therapists would more highly value independence and goal orientation…

  5. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  6. Home Modification

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is important to consider certain safety modifications. Adaptations such as those in the following list can ... The importance of a Consumer Perspective in Home Adaptation of Alzheimer’s Households” (Chapter 6 pp 91-112) ...

  7. Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... up like a hospital. The staff provides medical care, as well as physical, speech and occupational therapy. ... relationships with residents. Some nursing homes have special care units for people with serious memory problems such ...

  8. Home Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... more flexible schedule and better health. More Flexible Schedule A person can choose the schedule for home ... treat. When prepared, this content included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about ...

  9. NREL PV System Performance and Standards Technical Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Osterwald, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the status and accomplishments during Fiscal Year (FY)2004 of the Photovoltaic (PV) System Performance & Standards Subtask, which is part of PV Systems Engineering Project (a joint NREL-Sandia project).

  10. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Homes, San Marcos, California

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Designed to produce as much energy as it uses, the ZeroHouse incorporates a PV system, R-15 fiberglass batts in walls, and slab-on-grade foundation. The builder ranked fifth in the nation on Builder Magazine’s 2012 Top 100 ranking of U.S. home builders based on number of housing starts, and won a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, The Adaptation Home, Geneva, IL

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  12. Home health care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skilled nursing - home care; Physical therapy - at home; Occupational therapy - at home; Discharge - home health care ... medicines that you may be taking. Physical and occupational therapists can make sure your home is set ...

  13. The Medical Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print ... home" for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a ...

  14. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Jones, Christian Birk

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  15. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  16. National solar technology roadmap: Film-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Brian

    2007-06-01

    Silicon photovoltaic (PV) technologies are addressed in two different technology roadmaps: Film-Silicon PV and Wafer-Silicon PV. This Film-Silicon PV roadmap applies to all silicon-film technologies that rely on a supporting substrate such as glass, polymer, aluminum, stainless steel, or metallurgical-grade silicon. Such devices typically use amorphous, nanocrystalline, fine-grained polycrystalline, or epitaxial silicon layers that are 1–20 μm thick.

  17. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  18. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  19. Supporting a Strong Sense of Purpose: Lessons from a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamah, Devora

    2011-01-01

    Many rural youth leave their small home towns, at least temporarily, to pursue education and work opportunities after high school. A strong sense of purpose will likely help these young people navigate their transition to adulthood away from the comforts of home. A case study of high school students in a remote rural county in the Pacific…

  20. Determination of Parameters of PV Concentrating System With Heliostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, R.; Norsoyan, A.; Dallakyan, V.

    2010-10-01

    The structure of PV concentrating system with heliostat is analyzed. The mathematical model of system consisting of PV concentrating module and heliostat is developed. With the use of developed mathematical model the optimal parameters of the system are determined. The results of this work can be used during the design of PV concentrating systems with heliostats.

  1. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  2. Beacons In Brief. P/PV In Brief. Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Susan; Farley, Chelsea

    2004-01-01

    This second issue in P/PV's "In Brief" series focuses on the San Francisco Beacon Initiative and P/PV's recently released evaluation results. The Beacon Initiative established after-school programs in eight public schools in low-income San Francisco neighborhoods. P/PV's 36-month evaluation examined key developmental and academic outcomes.…

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: The Imery Group — Proud Green Home, Serenbe, GA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The first certified Zero Energy Ready Home in Georgia was honored in the Custom Builder category of the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The 2,811-ft2, two-story custom home has 2x6 advanced framed walls filled with R-20 of open-cell spray foam, plus an R-6.6 insulated coated OSB sheathing. Also included is electronic monitoring equipment that tracks the PV, solar thermal water heater, ERV, mini-split heat pump with three indoor heads, solar water heater, and LED and CFL lighting.

  4. Interconnection Assessment Methodology and Cost Benefit Analysis for High-Penetration PV Deployment in the Arizona Public Service System

    SciTech Connect

    Baggu, Murali; Giraldez, Julieta; Harris, Tom; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Lisell, Lars; Narang, David

    2015-06-14

    In an effort to better understand the impacts of high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generators on distribution systems, Arizona Public Service and its partners completed a multi-year project to develop the tools and knowledge base needed to safely and reliably integrate high penetrations of utility- and residential-scale PV. Building upon the APS Community Power Project-Flagstaff Pilot, this project investigates the impact of PV on a representative feeder in northeast Flagstaff. To quantify and catalog the effects of the estimated 1.3 MW of PV that will be installed on the feeder (both smaller units at homes and large, centrally located systems), high-speed weather and electrical data acquisition systems and digital 'smart' meters were designed and installed to facilitate monitoring and to build and validate comprehensive, high-resolution models of the distribution system. These models are being developed to analyze the impacts of PV on distribution circuit protection systems (including coordination and anti-islanding), predict voltage regulation and phase balance issues, and develop volt/VAr control schemes. This paper continues from a paper presented at the 2014 IEEE PVSC conference that described feeder model evaluation and high penetration advanced scenario analysis, specifically feeder reconfiguration. This paper presents results from Phase 5 of the project. Specifically, the paper discusses tool automation; interconnection assessment methodology and cost benefit analysis.

  5. Encouraging PV Adoption in New Market-Rate ResidentialConstruction: A Critical Review of Program Experiences to Date

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-24

    In this paper, we review experiences with programs to support the deployment of photovoltaics (PV) in new, market-rate homes, drawing upon interviews with program managers around the country, project data, and publicly-available documentation on program design, impacts, and experiences. We focus on state clean energy funds, which have been established in 14 U.S. states to build markets for clean energy resources, as well as a select number of other state or local organizations whose activities are particularly noteworthy. We describe the types of programs implemented and their impacts to date, and discuss key issues and lessons learned for initiatives aimed at growing the new home market for PV.

  6. Snails home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  7. The Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeper, J. D.; And Others

    The impact of the Rural Alabama Pregnancy and Infant Health (RAPIH) Program was evaluated in relation to prenatal care, birth outcome measures, and several child health and home environment outcomes. Begun in 1983, RAPIH targets poor rural blacks in three of west-central Alabama's poorest counties, where economic conditions and infant mortality…

  8. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  9. Linking People with AIDS in Rural Communities: The Telephone Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Notes that rural people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have difficulty obtaining support. Describes development, implementation, and evaluation of model to bring support groups into homes of rural residents through six telephone group sessions. Describes goals of psychoeducational group being to increase information and social…

  10. La Belle Mort en Milieu Rural: a report of an ethnographic study of the good death for Quebec rural francophones.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Anne-Marie; Fillion, Lise; Wilson, Donna M; Thomas, Roger; Dumont, Serge

    2010-01-01

    An ethnographic study was undertaken in two rural areas of Quebec to conceptualize the good death. The findings reveal that a good quality of life for the dying person and his or her family and friends is essential for a good death. The resulting conceptual model emphasized four dimensions: physical, spiritual, social, and emotiona/psychological. These dimensions were determined to be similar to those discovered through a previous urban study, indicating that there may be considerable overlap between good deaths in rural and urban areas. Some findings of this Quebec French-language rural study were similar to those of an Alberta English-language rural study, indicating that rural people may have some common needs and interests with regard to the good death. As such, there could be some common elements of the good death that transcend culture or ethnicity. Chief among these is the desire of rural people to die at home or in their home communities.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: Amaris Homes, Fishers Circle, Vadnais Heights, MN

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 47 without PV or HERS 22 with PV, with 2x4 24” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam plus 3” ccsf in cavity, a slab on grade foundation with 2” rigid foam under and around slab, a vented attic with with 2” ccsf plus R-15 blown cellulose, a central heat pump and HRV.

  12. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mandalay Homes, Vision Hill Lot 1, Glendale, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the hot-dry climate that got a HERS 52 without PV, or HERS -2 with PV, with 2x6 16” on center walls with R-14 ocsf plus R-4 rigid exterior; slab on grade with R-8 slab edge; sealed attic with R-31 ocsf under roof deck; 92 AFUE furnace, 15 SEER AC, 100% LED.

  13. DOE ZERH Case Study: TC Legend Homes, Bellingham Power House, Bellingham, WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the marine climate that got HERS 34 without PV or HERS -12 with PV, with 6” SIP walls and 10” SIP roof; R-28 ICF around slab, R-20 rigid foam under slab; radiant floor heat and passive design; air-to-water heat pump COP 4.4; HRV; earth tube ventilation; triple-pane windows, 100% LED.

  14. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms are documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.

  15. PV_LIB Toolbox v. 1.3

    2015-12-09

    PV_LIB comprises a library of Matlab? code for modeling photovoltaic (PV) systems. Included are functions to compute solar position and to estimate irradiance in the PV system’s plane of array, cell temperature, PV module electrical output, and conversion from DC to AC power. Also included are functions that aid in determining parameters for module performance models from module characterization testing. PV_LIB is open source code primarily intended for research and academic purposes. All algorithms aremore » documented in openly available literature with the appropriate references included in comments within the code.« less

  16. Home Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Under the Guaranteed Watt Savers (GWS) system, plans for a new home are computer analyzed for anticipated heat loss and gain. Specifications are specifically designed for each structure and a Smart- House Radiant Barrier is installed. Designed to reflect away 95% of the Sun's radiant energy, the radiant barrier is an adaptation of an aluminum shield used on Apollo spacecraft. On completion of a home, technicians using a machine, check for air tightness, by creating a vacuum in the house and computer calculations that measure the amount of air exchanged. A guarantee that only the specified number kilowatt hours will be used is then provided.

  17. Rural Health Information Hub

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic ... toolkits like the Services Integration Toolkit in the Rural Community Health Gateway . Finding Statistics & Data Learn how to ...

  18. Cascaded Microinverter PV System for Reduced Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bellus, Daniel R.; Ely, Jeffrey A.

    2013-04-29

    In this project, a team led by Delphi will develop and demonstrate a novel cascaded photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using advanced components. This approach will reduce the cost and improve the performance of medium and large-sized PV systems. The overall project objective is to develop, build, and test a modular 11-level cascaded three-phase inverter building block for photovoltaic applications and to develop and analyze the associated commercialization plan. The system will be designed to utilize photovoltaic panels and will supply power to the electric grid at 208 VAC, 60 Hz 3-phase. With the proposed topology, three inverters, each with an embedded controller, will monitor and control each of the cascade sections, reducing costs associated with extra control boards. This report details the final disposition on this project.

  19. Joint U.S./Brazilian hybrid power system (wind-PV-diesel) on Marajo Island

    SciTech Connect

    Leboeuf, C.; Taylor, R.W.; Corbus, D.; Moszkowicz, M.; Lima, J.; Ribeiro, C.

    1995-09-01

    A cooperative renewable energy project is underway between the U.S. Department of Energy (through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL), and the Federal Republic of Brazil (through the Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, CEPEL). The objectives of this joint US/Brazilian program are to establish technical, institutional, and economic confidence in using renewable energy systems to meet the needs of the people of rural Brazil, to build ongoing partnerships beneficial to both countries, and to demonstrate the potential for large-scale rural electrification through the use of renewable energy systems. Phase 1 of this program resulted in the deployment of more than 700 photovoltaic (PV) electric lighting systems in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceara. Phase 2 of the program extends the pilot project into six additional Brazilian states and demonstrates a wider variety of stand-alone end uses, including the use of wind electric power generation for selected sites and applications. Additionally, Phase 2 also includes the development of two hybrid village power systems, including one comprising PV, wind, battery, and diesel power sources. This paper focuses on this hybrid system, which is located in the Amazon River delta.

  20. Nursing Home Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    Nursing home checklist Name of nursing home: ____________________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________________________ Phone number: __________________________________________________________ Date of visit: _____________________________________________________________ Basic information Yes No Notes Is the nursing home Medicare certified? Is the nursing ...

  1. The Performance House - A Cold Climate Challenge Home

    SciTech Connect

    Puttagunta, S.; Grab, J.; Williamson, J.

    2013-08-01

    Working with builder partners on test homes allows for vetting of whole-house building strategies to eliminate any potential unintended consequences prior to implementing these solution packages on a production scale. To support this research, CARB partnered with Preferred Builders Inc. on a high-performance test home in Old Greenwich, CT. The philosophy and science behind the 2,700 ft2 "Performance House" was based on the premise that homes should be safe, healthy, comfortable, durable, efficient, and adapt with the homeowners. The technologies and strategies used in the "Performance House" were not cutting-edge, but simply "best practices practiced". The focus was on simplicity in construction, maintenance, and operation. When seeking a 30% source energy savings targets over a comparable 2009 IECC code-built home in the cold climate zone, nearly all components of a home must be optimized. Careful planning and design are critical. To help builders and architects seeking to match the performance of this home, a step-by-step guide through the building shell components of DOE's Challenge Home are provided in a pictorial story book. The end result was a DOE Challenge Home that achieved a HERS Index Score of 20 (43 without PV, the minimum target was 55 for compliance). This home was also awarded the 2012 HOBI for Best Green Energy Efficient Home from the Home Builders & Remodelers Association of Connecticut.

  2. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  3. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This presentation of suggested layouts and specifications for home economics facilities has been prepared to be of service to school boards, architects, teachers, and administrators who are planning new schools or making renovations to existing structures. Room layouts are shown for a foods and nutrition room, or the foods and nutrition area of a…

  4. Home Modifications

    MedlinePlus

    ... use, and flexible enough to be adapted for special needs. Back to top Evaluating Your Needs Before any changes are made to the home, evaluate your current and future needs room by room. Once you have explored all areas, make a list of potential problems and solutions. ...

  5. Periplasmic glucans of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae.

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, P; Fournet, B; Bohin, J P

    1994-01-01

    We report the initial characterization of glucans present in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (strain R32). These compounds were found to be neutral, unsubstituted, and composed solely of glucose. Their size ranges from 6 to 13 glucose units/mol. Linkage studies and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses demonstrated that the glucans are linked by beta-1,2 and beta-1,6 glycosidic bonds. In contrast to the periplasmic glucans found in other plant pathogenic bacteria, the glucans of P. syringae pv. syringae are not cyclic but are highly branched structures. Acetolysis studies demonstrated that the backbone consists of beta-1,2-linked glucose units to which the branches are attached by beta-1,6 linkages. These periplasmic glucans were more abundant when the osmolarity of the growth medium was lower. Thus, P. syringae pv. syringae appears to synthesize periplasmic glucans in response to the osmolarity of the medium. The structural characteristics of these glucans are very similar to the membrane-derived oligosaccharides of Escherichia coli, apart from the neutral character, which contrasts with the highly anionic E. coli membrane-derived oligosaccharides. PMID:7961404

  6. PV Manufacturing R&D Project -- Trends in the U.S. PV Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K. E.; Mitchell, R. L.; Bower, W. I.; King, R.

    2005-01-01

    To foster continued growth in the U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMR&D) Project--a partnership with U.S. PV industry participants to perform cost-shared manufacturing research and development. Throughout FY 2004, PVMR&D managed fourteen subcontracts across the industry. The impact of PVMR&D is quantified by reductions in direct module manufacturing costs, scale-up of existing PV production capacity, and accrual of cost savings to the public and industry. An analysis of public and industry investment shows that both recaptured funds by mid-1998 based on estimated manufacturing cost savings from PVMR&D participation. Since project inception, total PV manufacturing capacity has increased from 14 MW to 201 MW at the close of 2003, while direct manufacturing costs declined from $5.55/W to $2.49/W. These results demonstrate continued progress toward the overriding goals of the PVMR&D project.

  7. Energy balance of the global photovoltaic (PV) industry--is the PV industry a net electricity producer?

    PubMed

    Dale, Michael; Benson, Sally M

    2013-04-01

    A combination of declining costs and policy measures motivated by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction and energy security have driven rapid growth in the global installed capacity of solar photovoltaics (PV). This paper develops a number of unique data sets, namely the following: calculation of distribution of global capacity factor for PV deployment; meta-analysis of energy consumption in PV system manufacture and deployment; and documentation of reduction in energetic costs of PV system production. These data are used as input into a new net energy analysis of the global PV industry, as opposed to device level analysis. In addition, the paper introduces a new concept: a model tracking energetic costs of manufacturing and installing PV systems, including balance of system (BOS) components. The model is used to forecast electrical energy requirements to scale up the PV industry and determine the electricity balance of the global PV industry to 2020. Results suggest that the industry was a net consumer of electricity as recently as 2010. However, there is a >50% that in 2012 the PV industry is a net electricity provider and will "pay back" the electrical energy required for its early growth before 2020. Further reducing energetic costs of PV deployment will enable more rapid growth of the PV industry. There is also great potential to increase the capacity factor of PV deployment. These conclusions have a number of implications for R&D and deployment, including the following: monitoring of the energy embodied within PV systems; designing more efficient and durable systems; and deploying PV systems in locations that will achieve high capacity factors.

  8. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  9. Rural Schools Market Selves to Survive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In rural parts of the nation, such as McCool Junction, Nebraska, schools are taking creative steps to lure new students to local schools in their quests to keep those schools open and their communities intact. Elsewhere, towns and school districts in Kansas are giving away plots of land for home sites. Districts in Kansas are drawing new students…

  10. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  11. Home Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nakmaura, H.; Wu, C.; Rydelek, P.; Kachi, M.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed an automated system for analyzing Hi-net seismograms for earthquake early warning (EEW) in Japan. Because of limitations imposed by station spacing, our system generally cannot issue an EEW to areas within about 30 km distance of the earthquake's hypocenter. We estimate that about 10 times the number of stations would be needed to issue an EEW in these areas, but the overhead would be cost prohibitive for governmental agencies. The practical deployment of EEW in Japan has started in October, 2007 and millions of people are expected to purchase and install the receiving/alarm unit of EEW. Since most of these units are connected to internet and equipped with a CPU and memory, we realized that the addition of an inexpensive seismometer and digitizer would transform the receiver into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer; these modifications only cost about $20. The home seismometer can help to generate alerts at the time of the occurrence of a large local earthquake by using locally observed data. Also, home seismograms can be used to estimate the amplification factor in sedimentary layers, which will be used to determine the site correction for shaking intensity by comparing the waveform data from the home seismometer against those from nearby Hi-net or K-NET stations. This amplification factor, which is essentially the basis of a shake-map with very-high spatial resolution, will help to establish a safety index of houses/buildings for large earthquakes, since a structure located at a site with large seismic amplification can be damaged more seriously than those with small amplification factors. The installation of home seismometers will create an extremely dense seismic network that is without precedence. We are developing an automatic system that collects waveform data from all home seismometer installations, calculates earthquake parameters in real-time, and then sends back alarms signals based on computed

  12. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  13. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  14. Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Home Health Care Home health care helps older adults live independently for as long ... need for long-term nursing home care. Home health care may include occupational and physical therapy, speech therapy, ...

  15. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Shore Road Project - Old Greenwich, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready Home in Old Greenwich, CT, that scored HERS 40 without PV and HERS 27 with PV. This 4,100 ft2 custom home has 13-inch ICF basement walls and 11-inch ICF above-grade walls with a closed-cell spray foam-insulated roof deck, and a continuously running ERV. The house has a dual-fuel heat pump, an instantaneous condensing water heater, and 4.5-kW solar shingles.

  16. [Home Treatment].

    PubMed

    Widmann, F; Bachhuber, G; Riedelsheimer, A; Schiele, A; Ullrich, S; Kilian, R; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2016-01-01

    Home Treatment (HT) means acute psychiatric treatment in the patient's usual environment. Conceptually, HT is to be differentiated from other home-based services: It is limited with regard to duration and multiprofessional (e. g. psychiatrist plus psychiatric nursing staff plus social worker); the "24/7"-accessibility is frequently provided by the corresponding background hospital infrastructure. Target group are acutely mentally ill persons with an indication to inpatient treatment, who are willing to cooperate, and absence of endangerment to self and others. In contrast to the Scandinavian and many Anglophone countries where nationwide HT services are delivered, there are not many HT sites in Germany so far. Consequently, empirical data concerning HT in Germany is scarce. In summary, international studies show equivalent effects on psychopathological measures compared to inpatient treatment, reductions with regard to inpatient days, higher patient satisfaction and a trend towards cost-effectivity. PMID:26878432

  17. Rural Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are 10 papers resulting from a workshop, involving representatives from 33 state developmental disabilities councils, designed to examine common problems and issues confronting developmentally disabled citizens in rural areas. Entries include the following titles and authors: "Who, What, and Where--Studying Prevalence of Developmental…

  18. Real Power and Reactive Power Control of a Three-Phase Single-Stage-PV System and PV voltage Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huijuan; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Irminger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems with power electronic interfaces can provide both real and reactive power to meet power system needs with appropriate control algorithms. This paper presents the control algorithm design for a three-phase single-stage grid-connected PV inverter to achieve either maximum power point tracking (MPPT) or a certain amount of real power injection, as well as the voltage/var control. The switching between MPPT control mode and a certain amount of real power control mode is automatic and seamless. Without the DC-to-DC booster stage, PV DC voltage stability is an important issue in the control design especially when the PV inverter is operating at maximum power point (MPP) with voltage/var control. The PV DC voltage collapse phenomenon and its reason are discussed. The method based on dynamic correction of the PV inverter output is proposed to ensure PV DC voltage stability. Simulation results of the single-stage PV system during system disturbances and fast solar irradiation changes confirm that the proposed control algorithm for single-stage PV inverters can provide appropriate real and reactive power services and ensure PV DC voltage stability during dynamic system operation and atmospheric conditions.

  19. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  20. Palliative Care in Rural Minnesota: Findings from Stratis Health's Minnesota Rural Palliative Care Initiative.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Deb; Shearer, Janelle; Weng, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care, which involves managing symptoms, controlling pain and addressing stress caused by a chronic or terminal illness, has been shown to keep patients out of the hospital and allow them to stay home and live more comfortably with their illness. Typically, it is provided by an interdisciplinary team led by a physician trained in palliative medicine. Rural areas have not always had access to such specialists. Yet, today, rural health care organizations are finding ways to create palliative care programs that meet the needs of their chronically ill and aging populations. This article describes a six-year initiative led by Stratis Health to advance palliative care in rural Minnesota. It highlights the work of FirstLight Health System in Mora and describes Stratis Health's Rural Palliative Care Measurement Pilot Project, an effort to develop and test measures for evaluating rural palliative care programs.

  1. PV-MCT working standard radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, George P.; Podobedov, V. B.

    2012-06-01

    Sensitive infrared working-standard detectors with large active area are needed to extend the signal dynamic range of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) pyroelectric transfer-standards used for infrared spectral power responsivity calibrations. Increased sensitivity is especially important for irradiance mode responsivity measurements. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the NIST used pyroelectric transfer-standards is about 8 nW/Hz1/2, equal to a D*= 5.5 x 107 cm Hz1/2/W. A large-area photovoltaic HgCdTe (PV-MCT) detector was custom made for the 2.5 μm to 11 μm wavelength range using a 4-stage thermoelectric cooler. At least an order of magnitude lower NEP was expected than that of the pyroelectric transfer-standards to measure irradiance. The large detector area was produced with multiple p-n junctions. The periodical, multiple-junction structure produced a spatial non-uniformity in the detector response. The PV-MCT radiometer was characterized for spatial non-uniformity of response using different incident beam sizes to evaluate the uncertainty component caused by the spatial non-uniformity. The output voltage noise and also the current and voltage responsivities were evaluated at different signal gains and frequencies. The output voltage noise was decreased and the voltage responsivity was increased to lower the NEP of the radiometer. The uncertainty of the spectral power responsivity measurements was evaluated. It is recommended to use a bootstrap type trans-impedance amplifier along with a cold field-of-view limiter to improve the NEP of the PV-MCT radiometer.

  2. Long-Term Performance of the SERF PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.

    2003-05-01

    This paper provides the changes in performance ratings of two photovoltaic (PV) systems located on the roof of the Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) building at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. For the period of May 1994 to April 2002, the performance rating of the two PV systems decreased at the rate of 1% per year. Most of the changes in performance rating are attributed to changes in the performance of the PV arrays. But about a fifth of the observed changes were from the inverter not tracking the peak-power as effectively as the PV arrays aged.

  3. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  4. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

  5. Rural as Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.

    This essay explains two ways in which "the rural" serves as context. The common way interprets the rural lifeworld as an impediment to certain projects and goals, thus framing "the rural" as a subjugated and diminished reality. The other way is called "the rural circumstance" in order to situate the rural lifeworld as a center of attention, not as…

  6. Teaching in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woofter, Thomas Jackson

    Published in 1917, this book overviews rural schooling during the early 1900s and was written to address the problems of rural teaching and to serve as an introductory guide for rural teachers. Specifically, the book aimed to bring attention to the needs of rural life and the possible contributions of the rural school, to describe effective…

  7. Rural Library Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, Bernard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Five articles present an overview of trends and issues affecting rural libraries. The areas discussed include the status of rural library services; outreach programs; the role of library cooperation in the support of rural library service; the development of rural information centers; and political marketing of the rural library. (CLB)

  8. Application of photovoltaic electric power to the rural education/communication needs of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabraal, A.; Delansanta, D.; Burrill, G.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability (i.e., cost competitiveness and reliability) of photovoltaic (PV) power systems for rural applications in developing countries is considered. Potential application sectors include health delivery, education and communication where small amounts of electricity are needed to meet critical needs.

  9. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  10. DOE ZERH Case Study: Clifton View Homes, Marine Drive and Port Hadlcok, Coupeville and Port Hadlock WA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of two DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom homes in the marine climate that got HERS 39 and 38 without PV or HERS 2-12 and -9 with PV, with 6.5” SIP walls and 10.25” SIP roof; 11.75 ICF around slab, R-20 rigid foam under slab; radiant floor heat and passive design; air-to-water heatpump, fresh air intake with fan, triple-pane windows, 100% LED.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: KB Home, Double ZeroHouse 3.0, El Dorado Hill, CA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that got a HERS 44 without PV, or HERS -2 with PV, with 2x4 walls 16” on center walls with R-15 cavity plus 1” EPS exterior rigid foam, slab on grade with R-10 slab edge; unvented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass netted to underside of roof deck; 19 SEER heat pump; heat pump water heater; 100% LED.

  12. Once an Outsider, Always an Outsider? The Accessibility of the Dutch Rural Housing Market among Locals and Non-Locals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Groot, Carola; Daalhuizen, Femke B. C.; van Dam, Frank; Mulder, Clara H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most pressing questions in the rural gentrification literature is whether rural residents face difficulties in finding a home within their locality due to the influx of more wealthy newcomers. In this paper, we investigate the extent to which intended local movers and intended non-local movers have realised their rural residential…

  13. DOE ZERH Case Study: Addison Homes, Cobbler Lane, Simpsonville, SC

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the mixed humid climate that got a HERS 41 without PV, with 2x4 16” on-center walls with 1 inch rigid foam, a sealed conditioned crawl space insulated on inside with 2 inches poly iso, a vented attic with R-38 blown fiberglass, a central heat pump with fresh air intake.

  14. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  15. Medicaid and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Websites & Tools Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  16. Medicare and Rural Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... in rural areas. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) – CMMI, also known as the CMS Innovation ...

  17. Rural Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gateway Evidence-based Toolkits Rural Health Models & Innovations Supporting Rural Community Health Tools for Success Am ... Tools Maps Funding & Opportunities News Events Models and Innovations About This Guide Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics ...

  18. National Rural Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Equity Conference recap SRHA Leadership Conference Rural Hospital Innovation Summit NRHA HIT webinars & resources Webinars Publications & News ... San Diego, CA May 9-12 Rural Hospital Innovation Summit San Diego, CA May 9 Rural Medical ...

  19. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  20. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  1. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  2. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  3. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... into account variables like the terrain, whether the patient's home is located in an urban or rural... chapter. (ii) For support services furnished by an independent ESRD facility, Medicare pays on the...

  4. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... into account variables like the terrain, whether the patient's home is located in an urban or rural... independent ESRD facility, Medicare pays on the basis of reasonable charges that are related to costs...

  5. 42 CFR 414.330 - Payment for home dialysis equipment, supplies, and support services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... into account variables like the terrain, whether the patient's home is located in an urban or rural... chapter. (ii) For support services furnished by an independent ESRD facility, Medicare pays on the...

  6. Molecular detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Burkholderia glumae in infected rice seeds and leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful for plant pathogen detection. In the present study, multiplex PCR and SYBR green real-time PCR were developed to facilitate simultaneous detection of three important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and Bur...

  7. LWR-PV damage estimate methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wagschal, J.J.; Maerker, R.E.; Broadhead, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A credible estimate of the pressure vessel lifetime due to neutron-induced embrittlement is studied. The first step toward this goal is the accurate prediction of fluence and neutron energy spectrum at the pressure vessel. This, in turn, is obtained from least squares unfolding techniques of dosimetry measurements at a surveillance position, transport calculations, and a translation of information obtained at the surveillance position to the damage position. Including a prototypic neutron field like the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly, in which measurements are performed to serve as benchmarks for the LWR-PV surveillance dosimetry program, involves the use of approximate calculational methods. These approximate methods are supplemented by correction factors also known as calculational bias factors, the proper utilization of which requires estimated uncertainties of these biases as well. The source of a few biases for the PCA and some biases and correlations for the group fluxes at two PCA locations are presented.

  8. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  9. Electrochemical Approaches to PV Busbar Application

    SciTech Connect

    Pankow, J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Busbars are an integral component of any thin-film photovoltaic module and must be easy and quick to apply by PV manufacturers, as well as provide long-term reliability in deployed modules. Potential reliability issues include loss of adhesion and delamination, chemical instability under current collection conditions (electromigration or corrosion), compatibility of material and application method with subsequent encapsulation steps. Several new and novel busbar materials and application methods have been explored, including adhering metal busbars with various one- and two-part conductive epoxies or conductive adhesive films, ultrasonic bonding of metal busbar strips, and bonding of busbar strips using low-temperature solders. The most promising approach to date has been the direct application of metal busbars via various electrochemical techniques, which offers a variety of distinct advantages.

  10. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  11. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  12. Staying safe at home

    MedlinePlus

    Carbon monoxide safety; Electrical safety; Furnace safety; Gas appliance safety; Water heater safety ... inside the home and outside the home: Put gas and charcoal grills well away from your home, ...

  13. Home Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    Home care is care that allows a person with special needs stay in their home. It might be for people who are getting ... chronically ill, recovering from surgery, or disabled. Home care services include Personal care, such as help with ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  15. Exercise at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Divisions Home Health Insights Exercise Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  16. Commercial dissemination approaches for solar home systems

    SciTech Connect

    Terrado, E.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the issue of providing solar home systems to primarily rural areas from the perspective of how to commercialize the process. He considers two different approaches, one an open market approach and the other an exclusive market approach. He describes examples of the exclusive market approach which are in process in Argentina and Brazil. Coming from a banking background, the business aspects are discussed in detail. He points out the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches toward developing such systems.

  17. Lessons Learned from the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D and Thin Film PV Partnership Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.; Mitchell, R.; Zweibel, K.

    2006-09-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program initiates new cost-shared solar energy R&D under the Solar America Initiative (SAI), it is useful to analyze the experience gained from cost-shared R&D projects that have been funded through the program to date. This report summarizes lessons learned from two DOE-sponsored photovoltaic (PV) projects: the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology/PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMaT/PVMR&D) project and the Thin-Film PV Partnership project. During the past 10-15 years, these two projects have invested roughly $330 million of government resources in cost-shared R&D and leveraged another $190 million in private-sector PV R&D investments. Following a description of key findings and brief descriptions of the PVMaT/PVMR&D and Thin-Film PV Partnership projects, this report presents lessons learned from the projects.

  18. Economic Analysis of a Brackish Water Photovoltaic-Operated (BWRO-PV) Desalination System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Karaghouli, A.; Kazmerski, L. L.

    2010-10-01

    The photovoltaic (PV)-powered reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination system is considered one of the most promising technologies in producing fresh water from both brackish and sea water, especially for small systems located in remote areas. We analyze the economic viability of a small PV-operated RO system with a capacity of 5 m3/day used to desalinate brackish water of 4000 ppm total dissolve solids, which is proposed to be installed in a remote area of the Babylon governorate in the middle of Iraq; this area possesses excellent insolation throughout the year. Our analysis predicts very good economic and environmental benefits of using this system. The lowest cost of fresh water achieved from using this system is US $3.98/ m3, which is very reasonable compared with the water cost reported by small-sized desalination plants installed in rural areas in other parts of the world. Our analysis shows that using this small system will prevent the release annually of 8,170 kg of CO2, 20.2 kg of CO, 2.23 kg of CH, 1.52 kg of particulate matter, 16.41 kg of SO2, and 180 kg of NOx.

  19. Rural and Rural Farm Population: 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1989

    1989-01-01

    An estimated 64,798,000 persons, or 25% of the population of the United States, lived in rural areas in 1988. Rural areas include open countryside and places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants not in the suburbs of large cities. This report presents demographic data on the rural population, pointing out that comparison with 1987 data suggests a…

  20. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  1. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  2. Poor air quality in homes of Medicare recipients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morin, Philip C; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Abraham, Jerrold L; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2014-06-01

    Poor air quality has been associated with chronic illness such as diabetes. This can be of particular importance for older adults with diabetes and other chronic conditions who spend most of their time indoors. The purpose of this study was to assess home air quality and residents' awareness and concerns about air quality in rural underserved areas of upstate New York. Implications for home care clinicians are discussed. PMID:24887272

  3. Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) PV integration study.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Abraham; Mousseau, Tom

    2011-08-01

    This report investigates the effects that increased distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation would have on the Kauai Island Utility Co-op (KIUC) system operating requirements. The study focused on determining reserve requirements needed to mitigate the impact of PV variability on system frequency, and the impact on operating costs. Scenarios of 5-MW, 10-MW, and 15-MW nameplate capacity of PV generation plants distributed across the Kauai Island were considered in this study. The analysis required synthesis of the PV solar resource data and modeling of the KIUC system inertia. Based on the results, some findings and conclusions could be drawn, including that the selection of units identified as marginal resources that are used for load following will change; PV penetration will displace energy generated by existing conventional units, thus reducing overall fuel consumption; PV penetration at any deployment level is not likely to reduce system peak load; and increasing PV penetration has little effect on load-following reserves. The study was performed by EnerNex under contract from Sandia National Laboratories with cooperation from KIUC.

  4. Point-of-use interventions to decrease contamination of drinking water: a randomized, controlled pilot study on efficacy, effectiveness, and acceptability of closed containers, Moringa oleifera, and in-home chlorination in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-05-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high.

  5. Point-of-Use Interventions to Decrease Contamination of Drinking Water: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study on Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Acceptability of Closed Containers, Moringa oleifera, and In-home Chlorination in Rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high. PMID:20439952

  6. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  7. What Is Rural? Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  8. Rural Economies and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Dennis

    Both the rural economy and the disability community in rural areas can benefit from a recognition that they are mutually dependent. With the decline of rural America, the economic base underpinning all aspects of disability support systems is weakening. In addition, rural disability services often are compartmentalized along functional lines with…

  9. Adjustments in Rural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Howard A., Ed.

    This 1937 compilation of articles covers a wide range of problems within the scope of rural public education. The rural education issues discussed fall under the following general headings: (1) professional leadership; (2) rural school supervision; (3) staff training; (4) rural school district organization; (5) physical plants and equipment; and…

  10. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    SciTech Connect

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  11. Photovoltaic (PV) Impact Assessment for Very High Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Danling; Mather, Barry A.; Seguin, Richard; Hambrick, Joshua; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a granular approach for investigating the impacts of very high photovoltaic (PV) generation penetration. Studies on two real-world distribution feeders connected to PV plants are presented. The studies include both steady-state and time-series power flow analyses, which include the effects of solar variability. The goal of the study is to predict the effects of increasing levels of PV generation as it reaches very high penetration levels. The loss and return of generation with and without regulation is simulated to capture short-term problems such as voltage fluctuations. Impact results from the analyses are described along with potential mitigations.

  12. Rural experiences.

    PubMed

    Mazibuko, R; Mckenzie, A; Schneider, H

    1989-01-01

    Primary health care nurses (PHCNs) in South Africa must complete a 1 year training program. After this training, they provide health care in clinics or a hospital outpatient department. Working conditions in the clinics, particularly rural clinics, are less than optimal. There are either not enough buildings and/or existing structures are deteriorating. Further the clinics often lack drugs and supplies. Moreover poorly trained staff work long hours because there are not enough well trained staff. In addition, the PHCNs and their places of employment are often in remote areas where communication and referral systems are poor. This results in gradual deterioration of the PHCNs' skills. To be perceived as clinically competent, PHCNs need to provide quality curative care which, once perceived as competent, will allow them to provide primary health care. Clinic managers must support pHCNs by allowing them time to take part in continued learning activities such as an apprenticeship system or inservice training aided by local physicians. Clients or colleagues tend to see PHCNs either as miniphysicians or as a threat to physicians. Yet, since they operate clinics as well as provide comprehensive care, their skills are not as narrow as those of miniphysicians. Further few physicians wish to provide care in clinics or rural areas. Besides regulations do not allow the territory of physicians to be invaded. On the other hand, some physicians even consult PHCNs which sometimes distances them from other nurses. Thus it is important for PHCNs not to develop an attitude that they are better than nurses. At the same time, health workers need to recognize the skills of PHCNs and promote them. In fact, their value is indeed being recognized as evidenced by the increase in PHCN training schools. Eventually, as their numbers grow, PHCNs will be able to control their future.

  13. 3-Port Single-Stage PV & Battery Converter Improves Efficiency and Cost in Combined PV/Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bundschuh, Paul

    2013-03-23

    Due to impressive cost reductions in recent years, photovoltaic (PV) generation is now able to produce electricity at highly competitive prices, but PV’s inherent intermittency reduces the potential value of this energy. The integration of battery storage with PV will be transformational by increasing the value of solar. Utility scale systems will benefit by firming intermittency including PV ramp smoothing, grid support and load shifting, allowing PV to compete directly with conventional generation. For distributed grid-tied PV adding storage will reduce peak demand utility charges, as well as providing backup power during power grid failures. The largest long term impact of combined PV and battery systems may be for delivering reliable off-grid power to the billions of individuals globally without access to conventional power grids, or for billions more that suffer from daily power outages. PV module costs no longer dominate installed PV system costs. Balance-of-System (BOS) costs including the PV inverter and installation now contribute the majority of installed system costs. Battery costs are also dropping faster than installation and battery power converter systems. In each of these separate systems power converters have become a bottleneck for efficiency, cost and reliability. These bottlenecks are compounded in hybrid power conversion systems that combine separate PV and battery converters. Hybrid power conversion systems have required multiple power converters hardware units and multiple power conversion steps adding to efficiency losses, product and installation costs, and reliability issues. Ideal Power Converters has developed and patented a completely new theory of operation for electronic power converters using its indirect EnergyPacket Switching™ topology. It has established successful power converter products for both PV and battery systems, and its 3-Port Hybrid Converter is the first product to exploit the topology’s capability for the

  14. Evaluation of PV Module Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, John; Silverman, Timothy; Miller, David C.; McNutt, Peter; Kempe, Michael; Deceglie, Michael

    2015-06-14

    This paper describes an effort to inspect and evaluate PV modules in order to determine what failure or degradation modes are occurring in field installations. This paper will report on the results of six site visits, including the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Hedge Array, Tucson Electric Power (TEP) Springerville, Central Florida Utility, Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), the TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification. TEP Solar Test Yard, and University of Toledo installations. The effort here makes use of a recently developed field inspection data collection protocol, and the results were input into a corresponding database. The results of this work have also been used to develop a draft of the IEC standard for climate and application specific accelerated stress testing beyond module qualification.

  15. Solar power-desalination PV*ED system

    SciTech Connect

    Kvajic, G.

    1980-12-01

    Photovoltaic-electrodialysis, PV*ED, power-desalination system is studied in which the seawater feed is heated in the PV-cells. Under simplified assumptions of a constancy of thermal PV efficiency and conversion factor of 0.5 for ED brakish water system, it is found that maximum potable water production per unit of insolation depends strongly on the temperature of seawater feed and the concentration factor of the optical collector. By varying these two parameters of the PV*ED system, it seems possible that one could control the ratio of power to water production within a large range so that various potential demands for power and water could be met.

  16. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-01-01

    When designing a photovoltaic (PV) system for northern climates, the prospective installation should be evaluated with respect to the potentially detrimental effects of snow preventing solar radiation from reaching the PV cells. The extent to which snow impacts performance is difficult to determine because snow events also increase the uncertainty of the solar radiation measurement, and the presence of snow needs to be distinguished from other events that can affect performance. This paper describes two instruments useful for evaluating PV system performance losses from the presence of snow: (1) a pyranometer with a heater to prevent buildup of ice and snow, and (2) a digital camera for remote retrieval of images to determine the presence of snow on the PV array.

  17. Market impact of a large-scale PV buildings program

    SciTech Connect

    Rannels, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    This paper explores the rapidly changing solar technologies market and the potential impact of a new Federally sponsored Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSRI) designed to encourage the domestic market for solar building technologies. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has reached a critical point in its development. Over the course of this decade, the PV industry has experienced tremendous growth through greater technology efficiency, the introduction of new solar technology applications (PV shingles, facades, etc.), and lower production costs. In order to achieve its full commercial potential, significant improvements are still needed along with the removal of existing market barriers. DOE`s analysis of the impact of the MSRI indicates that it could significantly reduce the cost of PV technology and improve efficiencies through manufacturing economies of scale, market experience, and industry competition.

  18. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  19. Time-dependent first-principles approaches to PV materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    2013-12-10

    Computational scheme for designing photovoltaic (PV) materials is presented. First-principles electron dynamics of photo-excitation and subsequent electron-hole splitting is performed based on the time-dependent density functional theory. Photo-induced enhancement of dipole moment was observed in a polar crystal and a donor-acceptor molecular pair. These experiences will pave a way to design PV material from first-principles simulations.

  20. NREL PV working with industry, Third quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S.; Cook, G.

    1998-12-04

    This quarterly report encourages cooperative R and D by providing the US PV industry with information on activities and capabilities of the laboratories. This issue contains information on the CIS and CdTe R and D teams, an editorial by Richard King on the stand-out accomplishments of the PV Program, and an overview of the NCPV Program Review Meeting highlighting the strength of US photovoltaics.

  1. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Designing new solar projects to be 'microgrid-ready' enables the U.S. DoD, other federal agencies, and the private sector to plan future microgrid initiatives to utilize solar PV as a generating resource. This fact sheet provides background information with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  2. pV3-Gold Visualization Environment for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa L.

    1997-01-01

    A new visualization environment, pV3-Gold, can be used during and after a computer simulation to extract and visualize the physical features in the results. This environment, which is an extension of the pV3 visualization environment developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with guidance and support by researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center, features many tools that allow users to display data in various ways.

  3. Towards a PV-θ view of the general circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Brian J.

    1991-09-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in using isentropic coordinates and Rossby-Ertel potential vorticity (PV) for diagnosing the behaviour of middle latitude synoptic systems. Such a PV-θ analysis may also prove important in providing insight into the global circulation of the atmosphere. Apart from the isentropic diagnostic of D. Johnson and collaborators, some quasi-geostrophic studies and recent studies of stratospheric behaviour, there has been little work in this area and our present understanding is very limited. The object of the present paper is to stimulate such studies by presenting some initial results from continuing research. A three-fold division of the atmosphere is discussed. The "Overworld" is the region encompassed by isentropic surfaces that are everywhere above the tropopause. In the "Middleworld", the region with isentropes crossing the tropopause but not striking the Earth's surface, the isentropic zonal and time mean of PV exhibits interesting regions of enhanced and diminished gradients. The isentropic transient eddy advection of PV exhibits a dipolar distribution about the tropopause, suggestive of PV mixing. The marked PV signature of the Asian summer monsoon on one particular Middleworld isentrope is shown and the mean isentropic advection of PV shows interesting features. For the "Underworld", in which isentropic surfaces intercept the surface of the Earth, a PV-θ analysis yields a novel constraint linking low-level drag and diabatic heating. This constraint links "westerlies" and "cooling", and "easterlies" and "heating" in some average sense. The result is discussed in terms of the Southern Hemisphere strong surface westerlies and the circulation associated with the Asian summer and winter monsoons.

  4. Towards a PV-θ view of the general circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Brian J.

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in using isentropic coordinates and Rossby-Ertel potential vorticity (PV) for diagnosing the behaviour of middle latitude synoptic systems. Such a PV-θ analysis may also prove important in providing insight into the global circulation of the atmosphere. Apart from the isentropic diagnostic of D. Johnson and collaborators, some quasi-geostrophic studies and recent studies of stratospheric behaviour, there has been little work in this area and our present understanding is very limited. The object of the present paper is to stimulate such studies by presenting some initial results from continuing research. A three-fold division of the atmosphere is discussed. The "Overworld" is the region encompassed by isentropic surfaces that are everywhere above the tropopause. In the "Middleworld", the region with isentropes crossing the tropopause but not striking the Earth's surface, the isentropic zonal and time mean of PV exhibits interesting regions of enhanced and diminished gradients. The isentropic transient eddy advection of PV exhibits a dipolar distribution about the tropopause, suggestive of PV mixing. The marked PV signature of the Asian summer monsoon on one particular Middleworld isentrope is shown and the mean isentropic advection of PV shows interesting features. For the "Underworld", in which isentropic surfaces intercept the surface of the Earth, a PV-θ analysis yields a novel constraint linking lowlevel drag and diabatic heating. This constraint links "westerlies" and "cooling", and "easterlies" and "heating" in some average sense. The result is discussed in terms of the Southern Hemisphere strong surface westerlies and the circulation associated with the Asian summer and winter monsoons.

  5. WHAT PEOPLE CAN DO ABOUT RURAL CIVIL DEFENSE, NOTES FOR SPEAKERS AND WRITERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    CIVIL DEFENSE PREPAREDNESS IS A FACTOR RURAL PEOPLE NEED TO CONSIDER IN ALL THEIR FARM, HOME, AND BUSINESS PLANNING. NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND THE POSSIBILITY OF NUCLEAR ATTACK ARE FACTS THAT AMERICANS CANNOT IGNORE. THIS DOCUMENT PRESENTS THE BASIC ELEMENTS OF A CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM FOR PEOPLE IN RURAL AREAS WHICH INCLUDE--(1) THE DANGERS OF FALLOUT,…

  6. Presence of a Community Health Center and Uninsured Emergency Department Visit Rates in Rural Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…

  7. The Complex Decision-Making Processes of Rural Emerging Adults: Counseling beyond Dualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Rural adolescents approach the transition out of high school with individual concerns about making an emotionally or financially expensive "mistake," family concerns about young people leaving home, and national and local concerns about declining rural economies and out-migration. The literature concerning this topic considers factors…

  8. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K.; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C.; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K.; Attfield, Kathleen R.; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T.; Williams, Seymour G.; Blackley, David J.; Kirking, Hannah L.; Patel, Monita R.; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S.; Barskey, Albert E.; Zarecki, Shauna L. Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N.; Maxwell, T. Nikki; Hagan, Jose E.; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M.; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities. PMID:27268508

  9. Improvement Efforts in Rural Schools: Experiences of Nine Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Linda; Christianson, Megan Davis; Hague Angus, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Low-performing schools in rural settings can face challenges common to all struggling schools, such as low student motivation and maintaining a qualified teaching staff. However, aspects of rural schools' settings, such as the distance from urban areas and the commute between the schools and the students' and teachers' homes, can exacerbate the…

  10. Secondary Infections with Ebola Virus in Rural Communities, Liberia and Guinea, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Lindblade, Kim A; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Keita, Sakoba; Diallo, Boubakar; Kateh, Francis; Amoah, Aurora; Nagbe, Thomas K; Raghunathan, Pratima; Neatherlin, John C; Kinzer, Mike; Pillai, Satish K; Attfield, Kathleen R; Hajjeh, Rana; Dweh, Emmanuel; Painter, John; Barradas, Danielle T; Williams, Seymour G; Blackley, David J; Kirking, Hannah L; Patel, Monita R; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S; Barskey, Albert E; Zarecki, Shauna L Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N; Maxwell, T Nikki; Hagan, Jose E; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M; Marston, Barbara; Dahl, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Persons who died of Ebola virus disease at home in rural communities in Liberia and Guinea resulted in more secondary infections than persons admitted to Ebola treatment units. Intensified monitoring of contacts of persons who died of this disease in the community is an evidence-based approach to reduce virus transmission in rural communities.

  11. Interpersonal Competence Configurations, Attachment to Community, and Residential Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrin, Robert A.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Meece, Judith L.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents who grow-up in rural areas often experience a tension between their attachment to the rural lifestyle afforded by their home community and a competing desire to gain educational, social, and occupational experiences that are only available in metropolitan areas. While these diverging pressures are well-documented, there is little…

  12. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Home Visits for Early Elementary Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, James A.; Mann, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the benefits of home visitation in relation to children's success in school from kindergarten to second grade. The participants were 26 early elementary (K-2) teachers in a rural, Midwestern school district. Participants completed a survey after a home visit at the beginning of…

  14. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  15. Draft genome sequences of three Xanthomonas translucens pathovar reference strains (pv. arrhenatheri, pv. poae and pv. phlei) with different specificities for forage grasses.

    PubMed

    Hersemann, Lena; Wibberg, Daniel; Widmer, Franco; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Kölliker, Roland

    2016-01-01

    As causal agents of bacterial wilt in pastures and meadows, bacteria of the species Xanthomonas translucens are a serious issue in forage grass production. So far, only little is known about host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level and the lack of comprehensive genome data impeded targeted breeding strategies towards resistant forage grass cultivars. Here we announce the draft genome sequences of three grass-pathogenic Xanthomonas translucens pathotype strains, i.e. pv. arrhenatheri LMG 727, pv. poae LMG 728 and pv. phlei LMG 730 isolated from Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P. Beauv. ex J. Presl & C. Presl (Switzerland), Poa trivialis L. (Switzerland) and Phleum pratense L. (Norway), respectively. The genomes of all three strains revealed a non-canonical type III secretion system and a set of 22 type III effectors as common virulence-related traits. Distinct inter-pathovar differences were observed for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster and the presence of nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:27536340

  16. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  17. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  18. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    PubMed

    El-Helw, Hadi M; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  19. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton). PMID:26745347

  20. Review of PV Inverter Technology Cost and Performance Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2006-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has a major responsibility in the implementation of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has a major role in supporting inverter development, characterization, standards, certifications, and verifications. The Solar Energy Technologies Program recently published a Multiyear Technical Plan, which establishes a goal of reducing the Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) for photovoltaic (PV) systems to $0.06/kWh by 2020. The Multiyear Technical Plan estimates that, in order to meet the PV system goal, PV inverter prices will need to decline to $0.25-0.30 Wp by 2020. DOE determined the need to conduct a rigorous review of the PV Program's technical and economic targets, including the target set for PV inverters. NREL requested that Navigant Consulting Inc.(NCI) conduct a review of historical and projected cost and performance improvements for PV inverters, including identification of critical barriers identified and the approaches government might use to address them.

  1. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System

    PubMed Central

    El-Helw, Hadi M.; Al-Hasheem, Mohamed; Marei, Mostafa I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) converter for Photovoltaic (PV) arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O) Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system. PMID:27560138

  2. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  3. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  4. Residential Solar PV Systems in the Carolinas: Opportunities and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Bandar Jubran; Holt, Kyra Moore; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Pratson, Lincoln

    2016-02-16

    This paper presents a first-order analysis of the feasibility and technical, environmental, and economic effects of large levels of solar photovoltaic (PV) penetration within the services areas of the Duke Energy Carolinas (DEC) and Duke Energy Progress (DEP). A PV production model based on household density and a gridded hourly global horizontal irradiance data set simulates hourly PV power output from roof-top installations, while a unit commitment and real-time economic dispatch (UC-ED) model simulates hourly system operations. We find that the large generating capacity of base-load nuclear power plants (NPPs) without ramping capability in the region limits PV integration levels to 5.3% (6510 MW) of 2015 generation. Enabling ramping capability for NPPs would raise the limit of PV penetration to near 9% of electricity generated. If the planned retirement of coal-fired power plants together with new installations and upgrades of natural gas and nuclear plants materialize in 2025, and if NPPs operate flexibly, then the share of coal-fired electricity will be reduced from 37% to 22%. A 9% penetration of electricity from PV would further reduce the share of coal-fired electricity by 4-6% resulting in a system-wide CO2 emissions rate of 0.33 to 0.40 tons/MWh and associated abatement costs of 225-415 (2015$ per ton).

  5. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  6. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  7. Lightweight PV Inverters: Dual Bi-Directional IGBTs Modules Enables Breakthrough PV Inverter Using Current Modulation Topology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-30

    Solar ADEPT Project: PV inverters convert DC power generated by modules into usable AC power. IPC’s initial 30kW 94lb. PV inverter reduces the weight of comparable 30kW PV inverters by 90%—reducing the cost of materials, manufacturing, shipping, and installation. With ARPA-E support, new bi-directional silicon power switches will be developed, commercialized, and utilized in IPC’s next-generation PV inverter. With these components, IPC will produce 100kW inverters that weight less than 100lb., reducing the weight of conventional 3,000lb. 100kW inverters by more than 95%. The new power switches will cut IPC’s $/W manufacturing cost in half, as well as further reduce indirect shipping and installation costs.

  8. Home Economics Curricula in Pakistan: Time for Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeed, Fouzia; McClelland, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Most home economics in Pakistan focuses on women's homemaking skills (food preparation, clothing, interior design), not career orientation; it caters to upper/middle class needs and traditional roles. Rural/lower class women's needs (agricultural production, nutrition, hygiene, family planning) are not generally served. (SK)

  9. Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio (Pistacia vera).

    PubMed

    Giblot-Ducray, Danièle; Marefat, Alireza; Gillings, Michael R; Parkinson, Neil M; Bowman, John P; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Taylor, Cathy; Facelli, Evelina; Scott, Eileen S

    2009-12-01

    Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic status of the X. translucens pathogenic to pistachio. DNA-DNA hybridization provided a clear classification, at the species level, of the pistachio pathogen as a X. translucens. In the gyrB-based phylogeny, strains of the pistachio pathogen clustered among the X. translucens pathovars as two distinct lineages. Integron screening revealed that the cassette arrays of strains of the pistachio pathogen were different from those of other Xanthomonas species, and again distinguished two groups. Together with previously reported pathogenicity data, these results confirm that the pistachio pathogen is a new pathovar of X. translucens and allow hypotheses about its origin. The proposed name is Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov.

  10. All-AC, building integrated PV system for mass deployment of residential PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cammack, Kevin; Augenbraun, Joe; Sun, Dan

    2011-05-17

    Project Objective: Solar Red is developing novel PV installation methods and system designs that lower costs dramatically and allow seamless integration into the structure of any sloped roof using existing construction tools and processes. The overall objective of this project is to address the greatest barriers to massive adoption of residential and small commercial rooftop solar – scalability of installation and total cost of ownership - by moving Solar Red’s snap-in/snap-out PV installation method from the pre-prototype design phase to the development and construction of a deployed prototype system. Financial Summary: Funded through ARRA, DOE and Match Funding Original Project Budget: $229,310 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $79,310 Actual Cost: $216,598 o DOE/ARRA Funding: $150,000 o Match Funding: $120,087 Project Summary: Develop snap-in/snap-out mounting system for low-cost, thin-film solar panels – Lower installation cost – Lower sales costs – Lower training/expertise barriers

  11. Headed for rural practice.

    PubMed

    Homan, C

    1994-07-01

    Too often, training programs can overlook the needs and ignore the perspectives of their trainees. In this paper, Dr Chris Homan provides a personal view on the issues facing young graduates considering a career in rural practice. Chris is a senior rural trainee based at the Rural Training Unit in Toowoomba, Queensland. He is the trainee representative to the Board of the Faculty of Rural Medicine, as well as the founding Co-Chairperson of the Australian Rural Doctor Trainees Association. This grass roots, sociopolitical association aims to optimise training for rural practice. PMID:8060286

  12. Rural Policies for the 1990s. Rural Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia B., Ed.; Christenson, James A., Ed.

    Written by some of the foremost experts on rural America, this book focuses on policy-relevant research on the problems of rural areas. In each chapter, rural policy needs are identified by examining the flow of events and rural sociology of the 1980s. Chapters are: (1) "Critical Times for Rural America: The Challenge for Rural Policy in the…

  13. Home Energy Assessments

    ScienceCinema

    Dispenza, Jason

    2016-07-12

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  14. Home Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Dispenza, Jason

    2010-01-01

    A home energy assessment, also known as a home energy audit, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time. This video shows some of the ways that a contractor may test your home during an assessment, and helps you understand how an assessment can help you move toward energy savings. Find out more at: http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/energy_audits/index.cfm/mytopic=11160

  15. Parent Socialization, Family Economic Well-Being, and Toddlers' Cognitive Development in Rural Paraguay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann M. Berghout; Blevins-Knabe, Belinda; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta; Park, Kyung-Eun; Bayley, Bruce; Christensen, Matthew; Leavitt, Spencer; Merrill, Junius; Taylor, Denise; George, Anne Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the specific factors relative to healthy socialization and economic well-being that predicted toddler mental development in rural Paraguay. Thirty toddlers and their primary caregivers were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) to…

  16. Semantic home video categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Young Bok; De Neve, Wesley; Ro, Yong Man

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, a strong need exists for the efficient organization of an increasing amount of home video content. To create an efficient system for the management of home video content, it is required to categorize home video content in a semantic way. So far, a significant amount of research has already been dedicated to semantic video categorization. However, conventional categorization approaches often rely on unnecessary concepts and complicated algorithms that are not suited in the context of home video categorization. To overcome the aforementioned problem, this paper proposes a novel home video categorization method that adopts semantic home photo categorization. To use home photo categorization in the context of home video, we segment video content into shots and extract key frames that represent each shot. To extract the semantics from key frames, we divide each key frame into ten local regions and extract lowlevel features. Based on the low level features extracted for each local region, we can predict the semantics of a particular key frame. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with home video sequences, labeled by concepts part of the MPEG-7 VCE2 dataset. To verify the usefulness of the proposed home video categorization method, experiments were performed with 70 home video sequences. For the home video sequences used, the proposed system produced a recall of 77% and an accuracy of 78%.

  17. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  18. National Nursing Home Survey

    Cancer.gov

    The National Nursing Home Survey provides includes characteristics such as size of nursing home facilities, ownership, Medicare/Medicaid certification, occupancy rate, number of days of care provided, and expenses.

  19. Falls in Nursing Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for health care providers. Learn More Falls in Nursing Homes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... 5 Why do falls occur more often in nursing homes? Falling can be a sign of other ...

  20. Rural Youths' Images of the Rural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Following the cultural turn within the social sciences, recent debates on how to conceptualise "the rural" have focused on "rurality" as a phenomenon produced by processes of social construction. This paper presents an empirical account of the outcome of these social construction processes through an analysis of how teenagers in a remote rural…

  1. Rural Education: Learning to Be Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper draws on research which began in 2006 with students in a graduate course on rural education. Its purpose was to find out what graduate students saw as current issues of rural education, how that compared to the literature, and what they thought supporting agencies such as government and universities needed to be doing to…

  2. ANIMATION RURALE: Education for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulton, Jeanne Marie

    Information gathered via literature review, interview, and personal observation was used to examine the effectiveness of animation rurale programs in Senegal and Niger, French West Africa. Identifiable animation rurale assumptions tested as applicable to Senegal and Niger were: nationwide development programs at the grass roots level can be…

  3. Parents' Perceptions of the Rural School Bus Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Rob; Howley, Aimee

    2005-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study of the perceptions of parents about the experience of long bus rides on their children. Twenty-six parents, whose homes were located on the longest bus route in a rural Midwestern school district, provided interviews regarding the experiences of a total of 37 students. In the analysis of the interview…

  4. Maternal Conjugal Multiplicity and Child Development in Rural Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Melanie; Hudgins, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Using field-based observations and standardized measures of the home environment and child development, the authors followed 59 rural Jamaican women and their offspring from birth to age 5. The findings suggest that conjugal multiplicity, a female reproductive pattern characterized by multiple unions, maternal unmarried status, and absent father,…

  5. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  6. Relaxation Theory for Rural Youth. Research Bulletin No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.

    This document synthesizes research findings to formulate a theory to guide relaxation training in educational settings, particularly rural schools. Young people experience many intense life events that require coping skills or relaxation. Family-related stress factors include instability in the home, lack of a support system, conflicting values,…

  7. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  8. Uninsured Rural Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

  9. Think Rural Means Isolated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The benefits of distance education have made converts out of many rural school administrators. Through communication satellites, schools can gain access to the most advanced courses for students and staff while maintaining their rural characteristics and personal touch. Sidebars present a glossary and one rural New York school's experience with…

  10. Agriculture and Rural Viability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    Agriculture and the rural economic bases in mining, fisheries, forestry, and natural resource extraction are experiencing major social and economic changes. The farm and rural crises of the 1980s are not short-term aberrations, but symptoms of long-term trends that were partially hidden by the relatively good times for agriculture and rural areas…

  11. Reaching Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

  12. Rural volunteer ombudsman programs.

    PubMed

    Netting, E F; Hinds, H N

    1989-12-01

    We examine benefits and difficulties surrounding the effective implementation of a long-term care volunteer ombudsman program in a rural setting. Discussion focuses on the uniqueness of each rural community and potential strategies that can be mixed and matched to meet individual community needs. We consider implications for the development and implementation of ombudsman programs in rural areas.

  13. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f,more » ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.« less

  14. Planar holographic spectrum-splitting PV module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Zhang, Deming; Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan M.; Luscombe, Christine K.; Shaheen, Sean E.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2012-10-01

    A design is presented for a planar spectrum-splitting photovoltaic (PV) module using Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs). A repeating array of HOEs diffracts portions of the solar spectrum onto different PV materials arranged in alternating strips. Several combinations of candidate PV materials are explored, and theoretical power conversion efficiency is quantified and compared for each case. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG) film, an inexpensive material which is easily encapsulated directly into the panel. If desired, the holograms can focus the light to achieve concentration. The side-by-side split spectrum layout has advantages compared to a stacked tandem cell approach: since the cells are electrically isolated, current matching constraints are eliminated. Combinations of dissimilar types of cells are also possible: including crystalline, thin film, and organic PV cells. Configurations which yield significant efficiency gain using relatively inexpensive PV materials are of particular interest. A method used to optimize HOE design to work with a different candidate cells and different package aspect ratios is developed and presented. (Aspect ratio is width of the cell strips vs. the thickness of the panel) The relationship between aspect ratio and HOE performance properties is demonstrated. These properties include diffraction efficiency, spectral selectivity, tracking alignment sensitivity, and uniformity of cell illumination.

  15. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Estimation of PV energy production based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, G.

    2015-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is an attractive source of power for systems without connection to power grid. Because of seasonal variations of solar radiation, design of such a power system requires careful analysis in order to provide required reliability. In this paper we present results of three-year measurements of experimental PV system located in Poland and based on polycrystalline silicon module. Irradiation values calculated from results of ground measurements have been compared with data from solar radiation databases employ calculations from of satellite observations. Good convergence level of both data sources has been shown, especially during summer. When satellite data from the same time period is available, yearly and monthly production of PV energy can be calculated with 2% and 5% accuracy, respectively. However, monthly production during winter seems to be overestimated, especially in January. Results of this work may be helpful in forecasting performance of similar PV systems in Central Europe and allow to make more precise forecasts of PV system performance than based only on tables with long time averaged values.

  17. Home Schooling Goes Mainstream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Milton

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that while home schooling may have particular appeal to celebrities, over the last decade families of all kinds have embraced the practice for widely varying reasons: no longer is home schooling exclusive to Christian fundamentalism and the countercultural Left. Along with growing acceptance of home schooling nationally has…

  18. Home Economics Unlimited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dopkin, Doris

    This publication advocates the teaching of home economics to both boys and girls, and describes some home economics programs that provide meaningful learning experiences for students of both sexes. The philosophy and legal considerations behind teaching home economics to boys are examined. Changing life styles and social pressures are considered.…

  19. Healthy Homes Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Lyon, Melinda; Russ, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Extension is focusing on healthy homes programming. Extension educators are not qualified to diagnose consumers' medical problems as they relate to housing. We cannot give medical advice. Instead, we can help educate consumers about home conditions that may affect their well-being. Extension educators need appropriate healthy homes tools to…

  20. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the

  1. Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2004-06-01

    ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the

  2. Rural long-term care work, gender, and restructuring.

    PubMed

    Leach, Belinda; Joseph, Gillian

    2011-06-01

    Restructuring--the introduction of changes that alter the way health care is delivered for maximum efficiency and least cost--layered with rurality and with rural gender ideologies and practices, results in rural long-term care settings that have particular consequences for the women working in them, and for the residents and communities that they serve. This research investigated how rurality affects the implementation of patient classification in Ontario long-term care homes. Methods involved interviews and focus groups with front-line long-term care workers, administrators, and key participants. The findings revealed that rural long-term care delivery takes place when a restructured work environment intersects with gender ideologies and practices that take on particular characteristics when developed and sustained in a rural context. These factors shape the labor market and working conditions for rural women. We argue that this produces a uniquely rural experience for long-term care workers and conclude that those implementing classification systems must consider contextual factors as well as practical and financial exigencies. PMID:24650670

  3. Photovoltaic Module Simulink Model for a Stand-alone PV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chen; Ming, Zhu

    Photovoltaic(PV) Module is indispensable of a stand-alone PV system. In this paper, a one-diode equivalent circuit-based versatile simulation model in the form of masked block PV module is proposed. By the model, it is allowed to estimate behavior of PV module with respect changes on irradiance intensity, ambient temperature and parameters of the PV module. In addition, the model is capable of function of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) which can be used in the dynamic simulation of stand-alone PV systems.

  4. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  5. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  6. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  7. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  8. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  9. Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minyard, Glen E.; Lambarski, Timothy J.

    1997-02-01

    The Design, Fabrication and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems contract is a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) cost-shared contract under Phase 4A1 for Product Driven Systems and Component Technologies. Phase 4A1 has the goals to improve the cost-effectiveness and manufacturing efficiency of PV end-products, optimize manufacturing and packaging methods, and generally improve balance-of-system performance, integration and manufacturing. This contract has the specific goal to reduce the installed PV system life cycle costs to the customer with the ultimate goal of increasing PV system marketability and customer acceptance. The specific objectives of the project are to develop certified, standardized, modular, pre-engineered products lines of our main stand-alone systems, the Modular Autonomous PV Power Supply (MAPPS) and PV-Generator Hybrid System (Photogenset). To date, we have designed a 200 W MAPPS and a 1 kW Photogenset and are in the process of having the MAPPS certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL Listed) and approved for hazardous locations by Factory Mutual (FM). We have also developed a manufacturing plan for product line expansion for the MAPPS. The Photogenset will be fabricated in February 1997 and will also be UL Listed. Functionality testing will be performed at NREL and Sandia with the intentions of providing verification of performance and reliability and of developing test-based performance specifications. In addition to an expansion on the goals, objectives and status of the project, specific accomplishments and benefits are also presented in this paper.

  10. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  11. Toward integrated PV panels and power electronics using printing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ababei, Cristinel; Yuvarajan, Subbaraya; Schulz, Douglas L.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, we review the latest developments in the area of printing technologies with an emphasis on the fabrication of control-embedded photovoltaics (PV) with on-board active and passive devices. We also review the use of power converters and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuits with PV panels. Our focus is on the investigation of the simplest implementations of such circuits in view of their integration with solar cells using printing technologies. We see this concept as potentially enabling toward further cost reduction. Besides a discussion as to feasibility, we shall also present some projections and guidelines toward possible integration. (author)

  12. Amp-hour counting control for PV hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.D.; Thompson, B.

    1997-06-01

    The performance of an amp-hour (Ah) counting battery charge control algorithm has been defined and tested using the Digital Solar Technologies MPR-9400 microprocessor based PV hybrid charge controller. This work included extensive field testing of the charge algorithm on flooded lead-antimony and valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries. The test results after one-year have demonstrated that PV charge utilization, battery charge control, and battery state of charge (SOC) has been significantly improved by providing maximum charge to the batteries while limiting battery overcharge to manufacturers specifications during variable solar resource and load periods.

  13. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  14. Progress Toward Sequestering Carbon Nanotubes in PmPV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Sequestration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in molecules of poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-diocty-loxy-p-phenylenevinylene) [PmPV] is a candidate means of promoting dissolution of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into epoxies for making strong, lightweight epoxy-matrix/carbon-fiber composite materials. Bare SWNTs cannot be incorporated because they are not soluble in epoxies. In the present approach, one exploits the tendency of PmPV molecules to wrap themselves around SWNTs without chemically bonding to them.

  15. Outdoor PV Module Degradation of Current-Voltage Parameters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. M.; Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module degradation rate analysis quantifies the loss of PV power output over time and is useful for estimating the impact of degradation on the cost of energy. An understanding of the degradation of all current-voltage (I-V) parameters helps to determine the cause of the degradation and also gives useful information for the design of the system. This study reports on data collected from 12 distinct mono- and poly-crystalline modules deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Most modules investigated showed < 0.5%/year decrease in maximum power due to short-circuit current decline.

  16. PV cell and module performance measurement capabilities at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Rummel, S.; Emery, K.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.; Anderberg, A.; Dunlavy, D.; Ottoson, L.

    1998-09-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Cell and Module Performance Characterization team at NREL supports the entire photovoltaic community by providing: secondary calibrations of photovoltaic cells and modules; efficiency measurements with respect to a given set of standard reporting conditions; verification of contract efficiency milestones; and current versus voltage (I-V) measurements under various conditions of temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Support is also provided to in-house programs in device fabrication, module stability, module reliability, PV systems evaluations, and alternative rating methods by performing baseline testing, specialized measurements and other assistance when required. The I-V and spectral responsivity equipment used to accomplish these tasks are described in this paper.

  17. Quantifying PV module microclimates and translation into accelerated weathering protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.

    2014-10-01

    Long term reliability is not well addressed by current standards for PV modules or components, and developing accelerated weathering stress protocols to test the resistance of key components to wear-out is an active area of research. A first step is to understand and quantify the range of actual stresses modules will encounter in the various mounting configurations and in-service environments. In this paper, we use real-world data to benchmark PV module service environments in hot/dry, hot/wet, and temperate environments, with subsequent analysis to translate the microclimate data into a portfolio of practical weathering instrument settings.

  18. Eldercare at Home: Choosing a Nursing Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... at home. Problems such as frequent incontinence, dangerous wandering, inability to sleep at night (a disrupted sleep - ... a security system to prevent confused residents from wandering out of the building? Are there accessible outdoor ...

  19. Human rabies in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M; Ahmed, K; Bulbul, T; Hossain, S; Rahman, A; Biswas, M N U; Nishizono, A

    2012-11-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in Bangladesh, where most of the population live in rural areas. However, there is little epidemiological information on rabies in rural Bangladesh. This study was conducted in 30 upazilas (subdistricts) covering all six divisions of the country, to determine the levels of rabies and animal bites in Bangladesh. The total population of these upazilas was 6 992 302. A pretested questionnaire was used and data were collected by interviewing the adult members of families. We estimated that in Bangladesh, 166 590 [95% confidence interval (CI) 163 350-170 550] people per year are bitten by an animal. The annual incidence of rabies deaths in Bangladesh was estimated to be 1·40 (95% CI 1·05-1·78)/100 000 population. By extrapolating this, we estimated that 2100 (95% CI 1575-2670) people die annually from rabies in Bangladesh. More than three-quarters of rabies patients died at home. This community-based study provides new information on rabies epidemiology in Bangladesh.

  20. Joining Rural Development Theory and Rural Education Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Karl N. Stauber proposes three goals for rural development policy: helping the rural middle class survive, reducing concentrated rural poverty, and sustaining and improving the quality of the natural environment. In contrast to other visions, he advises policy that focuses on rural places rather than rural economic sectors such as agriculture,…

  1. Validating Savings Claims of Cold Climate Zero Energy Ready Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.; Puttagunta, S.

    2015-06-01

    This report details the validation methods used to analyze consumption at each of these homes. It includes a detailed end-use examination of consumptions from the following categories: 1) Heating, 2) Cooling, 3) Lights, Appliances, and Miscellaneous Electric Loads (LAMELS) along with Domestic Hot Water Use, 4) Ventilation, and 5) PV generation. A utility bill disaggregation method, which allows a crude estimation of space conditioning loads based on outdoor air temperature, was also performed and the results compared to the actual measured data.

  2. Long Way Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how students in rural parts of West Virginia spend up to four hours a day riding buses to far-flung schools, built as part of the state's consolidation drive. As a result, rural communities in West Virginia have fought back by filing lawsuits, electing their allies to school boards, and defeating pro-consolidation bond…

  3. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more

  4. Older Adults' Perceptions of Home Telehealth Services

    PubMed Central

    Brenčič, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702

  5. Comparison of three different methods of perturbing the potential vorticity field in mesoscale forecasts of Mediterranean heavy precipitation events: PV-gradient, PV-adjoint and PV-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vich, M.; Romero, R.; Richard, E.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.

    2010-09-01

    Heavy precipitation events occur regularly in the western Mediterranean region. These events often have a high impact on the society due to economic and personal losses. The improvement of the mesoscale numerical forecasts of these events can be used to prevent or minimize their impact on the society. In previous studies, two ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) based on perturbing the model initial and boundary conditions were developed and tested for a collection of high-impact MEDEX cyclonic episodes. These EPSs perturb the initial and boundary potential vorticity (PV) field through a PV inversion algorithm. This technique ensures modifications of all the meteorological fields without compromising the mass-wind balance. One EPS introduces the perturbations along the zones of the three-dimensional PV structure presenting the local most intense values and gradients of the field (a semi-objective choice, PV-gradient), while the other perturbs the PV field over the MM5 adjoint model calculated sensitivity zones (an objective method, PV-adjoint). The PV perturbations are set from a PV error climatology (PVEC) that characterizes typical PV errors in the ECMWF forecasts, both in intensity and displacement. This intensity and displacement perturbation of the PV field is chosen randomly, while its location is given by the perturbation zones defined in each ensemble generation method. Encouraged by the good results obtained by these two EPSs that perturb the PV field, a new approach based on a manual perturbation of the PV field has been tested and compared with the previous results. This technique uses the satellite water vapor (WV) observations to guide the correction of initial PV structures. The correction of the PV field intents to improve the match between the PV distribution and the WV image, taking advantage of the relation between dark and bright features of WV images and PV anomalies, under some assumptions. Afterwards, the PV inversion algorithm is applied to run

  6. Home range and travels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  7. An assessment of home remedy use by African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, E. L.; Taylor, S. D.; Shimp, L. A.; Semler, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    This analysis represents the first national look at family and individual use of home remedies by African Americans. The purpose is to examine home remedy usage by African-American individuals and their families and assess the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and home remedy usage for African-American families and African-American individuals. Using logistic regression, a secondary analysis of the National Survey on Black Americans (NSBA) data (N = 2107) was conducted to examine factors associated with home remedy use. Multivariate analysis indicated that parent's education, importance of religion, living with a grandparent, and living in a rural area were associated with families' use of home remedies. Age, gender, living with a grandparent, education, and geographic region were associated with individual home remedy use. The results of this research may provide insight to health care practitioners in their challenge of appropriately integrating self-care practices (i.e., home remedy use) and the use of the formal health care system among the patients that utilize both "scientific" and "folk" medical systems. When possible, treatment plans should be adapted to consider patients' demographics, health beliefs, and self-care practices. Health care providers should encourage patient and family involvement and dialogue regarding therapeutic approaches. As more information becomes available, health care practitioners will be better able to ascertain the possible health consequences of concurrent usage of home remedies and prescription drug therapies. PMID:10946530

  8. Rural Development Act of 1972: Staff Explanation of H. R. 12931, The Rural Development Act of 1972, As Passed by the Senate April 20, 1972. Committee Print, 92d Congress, 2d Session, April 21, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Designed to assist in the development of rural areas in the United States, the Rural Development Act of 1972 is divided into seven titles which are named and explicated in this "Staff Explanation". Titles of the Act are presented as follows: (1) Title I--Amendments to the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961 (28 amendments relative…

  9. Bloodroot: life stories of nurse practitioners in rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Debbie Rife

    2007-06-01

    This nursing research study was designed to reveal the life stories of nurse practitioners in rural Appalachia using storytelling and ballad elements of the culture. The researcher was born in a rural Appalachian community in Virginia and was summoned to return to the place of her birth, feeling an invisible kinship to land, blood ties to family, and a longing to honor rural nursing. Seven nurse practitioners from the same community shared their life stories. Using the heuristic phenomenological research method of Moustakas, the researcher became storyteller. The metaphor of bloodroot emerged as the unity of meaning for the life stories. The theme essences were revealed as interconnection: intricate patterns of rural Appalachian culture, intertwining relationships, interrelationships, and inner journey. "Brand New Home," an Appalachian bluegrass ballad, along with pictures of Appalachia, underpins and culminates this study as a creative synthesis. Implications for nursing practice, education, and research are included.

  10. Dynamic Model Validation of PV Inverters Under Short-Circuit Conditions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Bravo, R.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules have dramatically decreased in price in the past few years, spurring the expansion of photovoltaic deployment. Residential and commercial rooftop installations are connected to the distribution network; large-scale installation PV power plants (PVPs) have benefited from tax incentives and the low cost of PV modules. As the level penetration of PV generation increases, the impact on power system reliability will also be greater. Utility power system planners must consider the role of PV generation in power systems more realistically by representing PV generation in dynamic stability analyses. Dynamic models of PV inverters have been developed in the positive sequence representation. NREL has developed a PV inverter dynamic model in PSCAD/EMTDC. This paper validates the dynamic model with an actual hardware bench test conducted by Southern California Edison's Distributed Energy Resources laboratory. All the fault combinations -- symmetrical and unsymmetrical -- were performed in the laboratory. We compare the simulation results with the bench test results.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Strains Associated with Walnut Blight in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Higuera, Gastón; González-Escalona, Narjol; Véliz, Camila; Vera, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis is an important pathogen responsible for walnut blight outbreaks globally. Here, we report four draft genome sequences of X. arboricola pv. juglandis strains isolated from Chilean walnut trees. PMID:26450732

  12. Draft genome sequences of five Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains isolated in France.

    PubMed

    Cunty, Amandine; Cesbron, Sophie; Briand, Martial; Carrère, Sébastien; Poliakoff, Françoise; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidifoliorum causes necrotic spots on the leaves of Actinidia deliciosa and Actinidia chinensis. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum has been detected in New Zealand, Australia, France and Spain. Four lineages were previously identified within the P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum species group. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of five strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum representative of lineages 1, 2 and 4, isolated in France. The whole genomes of strains isolated in New Zealand, representative of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum lineages 1 and 3, were previously sequenced. The availability of supplementary P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum genome sequences will be useful for developing molecular tools for pathogen detection and for performing comparative genomic analyses to study the relationship between P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum and other kiwifruit pathogens, such as P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:27237113

  13. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, B.

    2013-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module I-V curves were measured at Florida, Colorado, and Oregon locations to provide data for the validation and development of models used for predicting the performance of PV modules.

  14. Rural Stress: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas D.; McIntire, Walter G.

    A comparison between the common myths of "rural existence" and the documented realities of rural living explodes the myth that rural living is generally stress free, shows that life stress in rural settings can have deleterious effects on the function of individual and family, and provides a basis for exploring some implications of rural stress…

  15. Office of Rural Health Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... focusing on the impact regulations may have on rural communities.   Rural Hospital Programs More information on FORHP Rural ... Grant and Small Rural Hospital Transitions Project (SRHT).   Rural Community Programs More information on FORHP programs focused on ...

  16. Rural Students in Washington State: STEM as a Strategy for Building Rigor, Postsecondary Aspirations, and Relevant Career Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Barbara; Bornemann, Greta; Lydon, Cheryl; West, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    In rural settings, leaving for college can mean a young person's first step in leaving home forever (Sherman & Sage, 2011). That presents a serious challenge for college recruiters as they ask parents from Indian reservations or close-knit Hispanic or rural farming communities to allow their children to consider postsecondary opportunities. In…

  17. National Rural Communities Facilities Assessment Study. Report on the Conference (Austin, Texas, December 13-15, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rural Center, Washington, DC.

    An 18-month National Rural Community Facilities Assessment Study, commissioned by the Farmers Home Administration and conducted by Abt Associates, Inc. will assess community facilities serving rural populations and identify the types and extent of investment in facilities necessary to provide an adequate flow of services to these populations. In…

  18. Introducing handheld computers into home care.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Lloyd; Quinn, Holly; Kerry, June; Brown, Katherine Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2009, Bayshore Home Health (BHH) provided tablet computers to 75 home care nurses working in Barrie, Ont. The devices were equipped with an embedded evidence-based documentation system and loaded with decision-making supports such as drug reference databases. The technology was designed to facilitate client assessment, care planning and evaluation at the point of care. This article documents the experience of implementing handheld computers in a home care setting and presents the lessons learned from the perspectives of the BHH executive team and front-line nurses. These groups were asked to complete online surveys, developed by the BHH research and evaluation steering committee, to assess the impact of the implementation on the organization, its nurses and its clients. An analysis of the feedback indicated support for the implementation. However, both groups had concerns about the capability of the hardware and software to meet the needs of decentralized home care nurses working in both urban and rural areas. Front-line nurses also identified the impact of handheld computers on the time required for charting and on the nurse-client relationship as areas of concern.

  19. Nursing home employee attitudes towards AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sarvela, P D; Moore, J R

    1989-01-01

    This article examines nursing home employee attitudes toward issues related to AIDS and is based on data collected from 343 employees from 13 nursing homes in rural, small towns in sourthern Illinois during the spring of 1988. Results suggested that a large majority of the employees had negative attitudes toward people with AIDS. For example, 67% of the sample indicated that it was more important to limit the spread of AIDS rather than to protect the rights of people with AIDS. Furthermore, 42% suggested that AIDS patients should be sent to sanitariums to protect others from AIDS. Greater than half of the sample (56%) responded that they would feel uncomfortable around people with AIDS. About one third (32%) felt that being around someone with AIDS would put their health in danger, and 21% would be afraid to even take care of a family member with AIDS. With regard to job-specific AIDS attitudes, 51% indicated that health-care workers should be able to refuse to work with AIDS patients, and another 46% felt that hospitals and nursing homes should be able to refuse to admit people with AIDS. In addition to these and other results, this article presents a brief discussion concerning possible educational strategies which might be implemented in this setting to reduce the negative attitudes of these employees. Considerations are also presented for nursing home administrators, who face the problem of developing effective policies for dealing with the rising number of AIDS patients who will be admitted to their facilities.

  20. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report: Ground Fault Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We have examined ground faults in PhotoVoltaic (PV) arrays and the efficacy of fuse, current detection (RCD), current sense monitoring/relays (CSM), isolation/insulation (Riso) monitoring, and Ground Fault Detection and Isolation (GFID) using simulations based on a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis SPICE ground fault circuit model, experimental ground faults installed on real arrays, and theoretical equations.

  1. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  2. Genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Patil, Prabhu B

    2012-05-01

    We report the 4.94-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight disease in pomegranate. The draft genome will aid in comparative genomics, epidemiological studies, and quarantine of this devastating phytopathogen. PMID:22493202

  3. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  4. Recent advances in PV systems technology development in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, M.; Grottke, M.; Weiss, I.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of the photovoltaics (PV) systems technology development were to study several aspects of plant design, monitoring, control, operation, and management of different types of photovoltaic plants. Unsolved problems were to be identified and analysed, and guidelines to improve the monitoring system were to be developed. Principal studies are summarized.

  5. Opportunities and Challenges for Power Electronics in PV Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Deline, C.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.

    2011-02-01

    The presentation describes the value of adding DC converters and other power electronics to modules to improve their output even when shading or bad cells would otherwise decrease the module output. The presentation was part of a workshop sponsored by ARPA-E exploring the opportunities for power electronics to support PV applications.

  6. National solar technology roadmap: Wafer-silicon PV

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2007-06-01

    This report applies to all bulk-silicon-based PV technologies, including those based on Czochralski, multicrystalline, float-zone wafers, and melt-grown crystals that are 100 μm or thicker, such as ribbons, sheet, or spheral silicon.

  7. PV industry growth and module reliability in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenvidhya, Dhirayut; Seapan, Manit; Sangpongsanont, Yaowanee; Chenvidhya, Tanokkorn; Limsakul, Chamnan; Songprakorp, Roongrojana

    2015-09-01

    The PV applications in Thailand are now installed more than 1.2 GWp cumulatively. It is due to the National Renewable Energy Program and its targets. In the latest Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP), the PV electricity production target has increased from 2 GWp to 3 GWp. With this rapid growth, customers and manufacturers seek for module standard testing. So far over one thousands of PV modules per annum have been tested since 2012. The normal tests include type approval test according to TIS standard, acceptance test and testing for local standard development. For type test, the most module failure was found during damp heat test. For annual evaluation test, the power degradation and delamination of power was found between 0 to 6 percent from its nameplate after deployment of 0 to 5 years in the field. For thin-film module, the degradation and delamination was found in range of 0 to 13 percent (about 5 percent on average) from its nameplate for the modules in operation with less than 5 years. However, for the PV modules at the reference site on campus operated for 12 years, the power degradation was ranging from 10 to 15 percent. Therefore, a long term performance assessment needs to be considered to ensure the system reliability.

  8. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  9. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  10. Insights into xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri biofilm through proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. a. pv. citri) causes citrus canker that can result in defoliation and premature fruit drop with significant production losses worldwide. Biofilm formation is an important process in bacterial pathogens and several lines of evidence suggest that in X. a. pv. citri this process is a requirement to achieve maximal virulence since it has a major role in host interactions. In this study, proteomics was used to gain further insights into the functions of biofilms. Results In order to identify differentially expressed proteins, a comparative proteomic study using 2D difference gel electrophoresis was carried out on X. a. pv. citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells. The biofilm proteome showed major variations in the composition of outer membrane proteins and receptor or transport proteins. Among them, several porins and TonB-dependent receptor were differentially regulated in the biofilm compared to the planktonic cells, indicating that these proteins may serve in maintaining specific membrane-associated functions including signaling and cellular homeostasis. In biofilms, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase with a major role in exopolysaccharide production and the non-fimbrial adhesin YapH involved in adherence were over-expressed, while a polynucleotide phosphorylase that was demonstrated to negatively control biofilm formation in E. coli was down-regulated. In addition, several proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and stabilization were up-regulated in biofilms. Interestingly, some proteins related to energy production, such as ATP-synthase were down-regulated in biofilms. Moreover, a number of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were differentially expressed. In addition, X. a. pv. citri biofilms also showed down-regulation of several antioxidant enzymes. The respective gene expression patterns of several identified proteins in both X. a. pv. citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated by quantitative

  11. Facilitating home birth.

    PubMed

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised. PMID:26320334

  12. DOE Request for Information (RFI) DE-FOA-0000153 PV Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-02-01

    This draft report summarizes the results of the U.S. Department of Energy PV Manufacturing Request for Information (RFI), DE-FOA-0000153, that was released in September 2009. The PV Manufacturing Initiative is intended to help facilitate the development of a strong PV manufacturing industry in the United States.

  13. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  14. Characterizing PvARP, a novel Plasmodium vivax antigen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax continues to be the most widely distributed malarial parasite species in tropical and sub-tropical areas, causing high morbidity indices around the world. Better understanding of the proteins used by the parasite during the invasion of red blood cells is required to obtain an effective vaccine against this disease. This study describes characterizing the P. vivax asparagine-rich protein (PvARP) and examines its antigenicity in natural infection. Methods The target gene in the study was selected according to a previous in silico analysis using profile hidden Markov models which identified P. vivax proteins that play a possible role in invasion. Transcription of the arp gene in the P. vivax VCG-1 strain was here evaluated by RT-PCR. Specific human antibodies against PvARP were used to confirm protein expression by Western blot as well as its subcellular localization by immunofluorescence. Recognition of recombinant PvARP by sera from P. vivax-infected individuals was evaluated by ELISA. Results VCG-1 strain PvARP is a 281-residue-long molecule, which is encoded by a single exon and has an N-terminal secretion signal, as well as a tandem repeat region. This protein is expressed in mature schizonts and is located on the surface of merozoites, having an apparent accumulation towards their apical pole. Sera from P. vivax-infected patients recognized the recombinant, thereby suggesting that this protein is targeted by the immune response during infection. Conclusions This study showed the characterization of PvARP and its antigenicity. Further assays orientated towards evaluating this antigen’s functional importance during parasite invasion are being carried out. PMID:23688042

  15. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  16. Geographic smoothing of solar PV: Results from Gujarat

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, Kelly; Apt, Jay

    2015-09-24

    We examine the potential for geographic smoothing of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation using 13 months of observed power production from utility-scale plants in Gujarat, India. To our knowledge, this is the first published analysis of geographic smoothing of solar PV using actual generation data at high time resolution from utility-scale solar PV plants. We use geographic correlation and Fourier transform estimates of the power spectral density (PSD) to characterize the observed variability of operating solar PV plants as a function of time scale. Most plants show a spectrum that is linear in the log–log domain at high frequencies f, ranging from f-1.23 to f-1.56 (slopes of -1.23 and -1.56), thus exhibiting more relative variability at high frequencies than exhibited by wind plants. PSDs for large PV plants have a steeper slope than those for small plants, hence more smoothing at short time scales. Interconnecting 20 Gujarat plants yields a f-1.66 spectrum, reducing fluctuations at frequencies corresponding to 6 h and 1 h by 23% and 45%, respectively. Half of this smoothing can be obtained through connecting 4-5 plants; reaching marginal improvement of 1% per added plant occurs at 12-14 plants. The largest plant (322 MW) showed an f-1.76 spectrum. Furthermore, this suggests that in Gujarat the potential for smoothing is limited to that obtained by one large plant.

  17. Ex post and ex ante willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Cho-Min-Naing; Lertmaharit, S; Kamol-Ratanakul, P; Saul, A J

    2000-03-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in two villages in Myanmar. Kankone (KK) village has a rural health center (RHC) and Yae-Aye-Sann (YAS) is serviced by community health worker (CHW). The objectives were to assess WTP for the ICT Malaria Pf/Pv test kit and to determine factors affecting the WTP. In both villages WTP was assessed in two different conditions, ex post and ex ante. The ex post WTP was assessed at an RHC in the KK village and at the residence of a CHW in the YAS village on patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria. The ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews in both villages on people with a prior history of malaria. Ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis was used to analyze factors affecting WTP. The WTP was higher in ex post conditions than ex ante in both villages. WTP was significantly positively associated with the average monthly income of the respondents and severity of illness in both ex post and ex ante conditions (p < 0.001). Distance between the residence of the respondents and the health center was significantly positively associated (p < 0.05) in the ex ante condition in a household survey of YAS village. Traveling time to RHC had a negative relationship with WTP (p < 0.05) in the ex post condition in the RHC survey in KK village.

  18. Home hemodialysis needs you!

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M; Schatell, Dori; Walker, Rachael

    2015-04-01

    This special supplement of Hemodialysis International focuses on home hemodialysis (HD). It has been compiled by a group of international experts in home HD who were brought together throughout 2013-2014 to construct a home HD "manual." Drawing upon both the literature and their own extensive expertise, these experts have helped develop this supplement that now stands as an A-to-Z guide for any who may be unfamiliar or uncertain about how to establish and maintain a successful home HD program. PMID:25925822

  19. [Home enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Virgili, N; Vilarasau, M C

    1999-04-01

    Enteral nutrition in the home is applied to stabilized patients who do not require hospitalization or to chronically ill patients who can stay in their homes. However, ensuring the correct administration of this treatment requires a coordinated, expert multidisciplinary team. This article reviews the conditions for use of enteral nutrition in the home, the means of access, the nutritional formulas, the administrative technique, and the complications enteral nutrition in the home may present. Furthermore, the composition and characteristics of the multidisciplinary team which will be in charge of carrying out this treatment is discussed.

  20. Ozark Mountain solar home

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1998-03-01

    If seeing is believing, Kyle and Christine Sarratt are believers. The couple has been living in their passive solar custom home for almost two years, long enough to see a steady stream of eye-opening utility bills and to experience the quality and comfort of energy-efficient design. Skeptical of solar homes at first, the Sarratts found an energy-conscious designer that showed them how they could realize their home-building dreams and live in greater comfort while spending less money. As Kyle says, {open_quotes}We knew almost nothing about solar design and weren`t looking for it, but when we realized we could get everything we wanted in a home and more, we were sold.{close_quotes} Now the couple is enjoying the great feeling of solar and wood heat in the winter, natural cooling in the summer and heating/cooling bills that average less than $20/month. The Sarratts` home overlooks a large lake near the town of Rogers, tucked up in the northwest corner of Arkansas. It is one of three completed homes out of 29 planned for the South Sun Estates subdivision, where homes are required by covenant to incorporate passive solar design principles. Orlo Stitt, owner of Stitt Energy Systems and developer of the subdivision, has been designing passive solar, energy-efficient homes for twenty years. His passive solar custom home development is the first in Arkansas.