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Sample records for pwr cold leg

  1. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  2. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  5. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  6. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties.

  7. Thermal mixing tests in a semiannular downcomer with interacting flows from cold legs: International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomisto, H; Mustonen, P

    1986-10-01

    This report describes the test facility and test program for studying thermal mixing of high-pressure injection (HPI) water in the two-fifths scale model of three cold legs, semiannular downcomer and lower plenum of a pressurized water reactor. This test series has been carried out by mutual agreement on the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) information exchange between the US Nuclear Regulation Commission and Imatran Voima Oy. The test facility was originally designed to model the Finnish Loviisa plant but it was redesigned and modified for this test program. The facility can be operated at atmospheric pressure with loop and HPI flows from different cold legs in the area of interest to PTS. Transparent materials were used to allow flow visualization during the tests. The choice of transparent materials limit the upper temperature to 75/sup 0/C. The full buoyancy effect was induced by salt addition and the HPI temperature was used as a tracer. The test matrix consists of 20 tests. The varied parameters were flow rates and the number and configuration of cold legs with HPI and loop flows. Four tests were done with decreasing loop flow temperature to simulate primary flows during steam line breaks.

  8. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  9. SPACE code simulation of cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS integral test

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J.; Kim, K. D.

    2012-07-01

    SPACE code is a system analysis code for pressurized water reactors. This code uses a two-fluid and three-field model. For a few years, intensive validations have been performed to secure the prediction accuracy of models and correlations for two-phase flow and heat transfer. Recently, the code version 1.0 was released. This study is to see how well SPACE code predicts thermal hydraulic phenomena of an integral effect test. The target experiment is a cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS facility, which has the same two-loop features as APR1400. Predicted parameters were compared with experimental observations. (authors)

  10. Human thermal responses during leg-only exercise in cold water.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1987-01-01

    1. Exercise during immersion in cold water has been reported by several authors to accelerate the rate of fall of core temperature when compared with rates seen during static immersion. The nature of the exercise performed, however, has always been whole-body in nature. 2. In the present investigation fifteen subjects performed leg exercise throughout a 40 min head-out immersion in water at 15 degrees C. The responses obtained were compared with those seen when the subjects performed an identical static immersion. 3. Aural and rectal temperatures were found to fall by greater amounts during static immersion. 4. It is concluded that 'the type of exercise performed' should be included in the list of factors which affect core temperature during cold water immersion. PMID:3443951

  11. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen; Zhou, Bangxin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T-L and L-T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T-L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L-T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L-T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant.

  12. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  13. Possible quantum phase manipulation of a two-leg ladder in mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Irwin, Kyle; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2013-03-01

    The recent realization of mixed-dimensional systems of cold atoms has attracted much attention from both experimentalists and theorists. In this article we investigate a two-species Fermi atom mixture: one species of atom exists in two hyperfine states and is confined to move in a two-leg ladder, interacting with an on-site interaction, and the other moves freely in a two-dimensional square lattice that contains the two-leg ladder. The two species of atoms interact via an on-site interaction on the ladder. In the limit of weak interspecies interactions, the two-dimensional gas can be integrated out, leading to an effective long-range mediated interaction in the ladder, generated by the on-site interspecies interaction. We show that the form of the mediated interaction can be controlled by the density of the two-dimensional gas and that it enhances the charge-density wave instability in the two-leg ladder after the renormalization-group transformation. Parametrizing the phase diagram with various experimentally controllable quantities, we discuss the possible tuning of the macroscopic quantum many-body phases of the two-leg ladder in this mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atom system.

  14. A Study on the Conceptual Design of a 1,500 MWe Passive PWR with Annular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kwi Lim Lee; Soon Heung Chang

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the preliminary conceptual design of a 1500 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with annular fuel has been performed. This design is derived from the AP1000 which is a 1000 MWe PWR with two-loop. However, the present design is a 1500 MWe PWR with three-loop, passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. The preliminary design parameters of this reactor have been determined through simple relation to those of AP1000 for reactor, reactor coolant system, and passive safety injection system. Using the MATRA code, we analyze the core designs for two alternatives on fuel assembly types: solid fuel and annular fuel. The performance of reactor cooling systems is evaluated through the accident of the cold leg break in the core makeup tank loop by using MARS2.1 code. This study presents the developmental strategy, preliminary design parameters and safety analysis results. (authors)

  15. Pressurized thermal shock: TEMPEST computer code simulation of thermal mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a pressurized water reactor. [Creare 61 and 64

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Trent, D.S.

    1984-04-01

    The TEMPEST computer program was used to simulate fluid and thermal mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a pressurized water reactor under emergency core cooling high-pressure injection (HPI), which is of concern to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) problem. Application of the code was made in performing an analysis simulation of a full-scale Westinghouse three-loop plant design cold leg and downcomer. Verification/assessment of the code was performed and analysis procedures developed using data from Creare 1/5-scale experimental tests. Results of three simulations are presented. The first is a no-loop-flow case with high-velocity, low-negative-buoyancy HPI in a 1/5-scale model of a cold leg and downcomer. The second is a no-loop-flow case with low-velocity, high-negative density (modeled with salt water) injection in a 1/5-scale model. Comparison of TEMPEST code predictions with experimental data for these two cases show good agreement. The third simulation is a three-dimensional model of one loop of a full size Westinghouse three-loop plant design. Included in this latter simulation are loop components extending from the steam generator to the reactor vessel and a one-third sector of the vessel downcomer and lower plenum. No data were available for this case. For the Westinghouse plant simulation, thermally coupled conduction heat transfer in structural materials is included. The cold leg pipe and fluid mixing volumes of the primary pump, the stillwell, and the riser to the steam generator are included in the model. In the reactor vessel, the thermal shield, pressure vessel cladding, and pressure vessel wall are thermally coupled to the fluid and thermal mixing in the downcomer. The inlet plenum mixing volume is included in the model. A 10-min (real time) transient beginning at the initiation of HPI is computed to determine temperatures at the beltline of the pressure vessel wall.

  16. Leg pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - leg; Aches - leg; Cramps - leg ... Leg pain can be due to a muscle cramp (also called a charley horse ). Common causes of ... a long time An injury can also cause leg pain from: A torn or overstretched muscle ( strain ) ...

  17. A study of thermal stratification in the cold legs during the subcooled blowdown phase of a loss of coolant accident in the OSU APEX thermal hydraulic testing facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Wachs, D. M.

    1998-11-04

    Thermal stratification, which has been linked to the occurrence of pressurized thermal shock (PTS), is observed to occur during the early stages of simulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAS) in the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (OSU APEX) Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility. The OSU APEX Test Facility is a scaled model of the Westinghouse AP600 nuclear power plant. Analysis of the OSU APEX facility data has allowed the determination of an onset criteria for thermal stratification and has provided support for the postulated mechanisms leading to thermal stratification. CFX 4.1, a computational fluid dynamics code, was used to generate a model of the cold legs and the downcomer that described the phenomena occurring within them. Some mixing phenomena were predicted that lead to non-uniformity between the two cold legs attached to the steam generator on the side of the facility containing the Passive Residual Heat Removal (PRHR) injection system. The stratification was found to be two phase and unlikely to be a factor in PTS.

  18. High Cycle Thermal Fatigue in French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blondet, Eric; Faidy, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Different fatigue-related incidents which occurred in the world on the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system (SIS, RHR, CVC) have led EDF to search solutions in order to avoid or to limit consequences of thermodynamic phenomenal (Farley-Tihange, free convection loop and stratification, independent thermal cycling). Studies are performed on mock-up and compared with instrumentation on nuclear power stations. At the present time, studies allow EDF to carry out pipe modifications and to prepare specifications and recommendations for next generation of nuclear power plants. In 1998, a new phenomenal appeared on RHR system in Civaux. A crack was discovered in an area where hot and cold fluids (temperature difference of 140 deg. C) were mixed. Metallurgic studies concluded that this crack was caused by high cycle thermal fatigue. Since 1998, EDF is making an inventory of all mixing areas in French PWR on basis of criteria. For all identified areas, a method was developed to improve the first classifying and to keep back only potential damage pipes. Presently, studies are performing on the charging line nozzle connected to the reactor pressure vessel. In order to evaluate the load history, a mock-up has been developed and mechanical calculations are realised on this nozzle. The paper will make an overview of EDF conclusions on these different points: - dead legs and vortex in a no flow connected line; - stratification; - mixing tees with high {delta}T. (authors)

  19. Venogram - leg

    MedlinePlus

    Phlebogram - leg; Venography - leg ... into a vein in the foot of the leg being looked at, so that an intravenous (IV) ... vein. A tourniquet may be placed on your leg so the dye flows into the deeper veins. ...

  20. Restless Legs

    MedlinePlus

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) causes a powerful urge to move your legs. Your legs become uncomfortable when you are lying down or ... crawling, tingling, or burning sensation. Moving makes your legs feel better, but not for long. RLS can ...

  1. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  2. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  3. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... on film. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the leg can be created by adding the slices together. ...

  4. Aminopeptidase activity by spoilage bacteria and its relationship to microbial load and sensory attributes of poultry legs during aerobic cold storage.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2010-02-01

    The shelf life of poultry legs stored aerobically and the possible role of the aminopeptidase activity of gram-negative bacteria (p-nitroaniline test) as a predictor of poultry spoilage were evaluated on the basis of microbiological and sensory parameters. Chicken legs (n = 30) obtained immediately after evisceration in a local poultry processing plant were kept under aerobic refrigeration (4 +/- 1 degrees C) for 7 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic bacteria and psychrotrophs) and sensory (odor, color, and general acceptability on a hedonic scale of 1 to 9) parameters and aminopeptidase activity (absorbance at 390 nm [A(390)]) determinations were performed after 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of storage. Aerobic plate counts of 7 log CFU/g and a score of 6 for general acceptability were used as indicators of the end point of shelf life. Strong correlations (r > or = 0.76; P < 0.001) were obtained between bacterial counts, hedonic scores, and A(390) values. Samples were judged as unacceptable (shelf-life end point) after 2 and 4 days on the basis of sensory and microbiological analyses, respectively. A(390) values of 0.52 and 0.89 (corresponding to p-nitroaniline concentrations of 6.25 and 10.7 microg/ml, respectively) are proposed as the upper limits for acceptability on the basis of sensory and microbiological determinations, respectively. However, these recommendations are based on a small set of samples, and their general application is yet to be verified.

  5. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  6. Peripheral artery disease - legs

    MedlinePlus

    ... legs; Arterial insufficiency of the legs; Recurrent leg pain and cramping; Calf pain with exercise ... The main symptoms of PAD are pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or ... or thighs. These symptoms most often appear during walking or ...

  7. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your legs are made up of bones, blood vessels, muscles, and other connective tissue. They are important for motion ... falling, or having an accident can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint ...

  8. PWR depressurization analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Knudson, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Early containment failure resulting from direct containment heating (DCH) has been identified as a potential contributor to the risk of operating a pressurized water reactor (PWR). One important factor needed to evaluate the contribution of DCH to risk is the conditional probability that, given a core melt, the primary system will be at high pressure when the reactor vessel lower head fails. Two mechanisms that could reduce the pressure during a station blackout core melt accident are discussed. First, natural circulation in the reactor coolant system (RCS) could cause a temperature-induced failure of the RCS pressure boundary, which could result in unintentional (without operator action) depressurization. Second, plant operators could open relief valves in an attempt to intentionally depressurize the RCS prior to. lower head failure. Results from analytical studies of these two depressurization mechanisms for select PWRs are presented.

  9. PWR depressurization analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Knudson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Early containment failure resulting from direct containment heating (DCH) has been identified as a potential contributor to the risk of operating a pressurized water reactor (PWR). One important factor needed to evaluate the contribution of DCH to risk is the conditional probability that, given a core melt, the primary system will be at high pressure when the reactor vessel lower head fails. Two mechanisms that could reduce the pressure during a station blackout core melt accident are discussed. First, natural circulation in the reactor coolant system (RCS) could cause a temperature-induced failure of the RCS pressure boundary, which could result in unintentional (without operator action) depressurization. Second, plant operators could open relief valves in an attempt to intentionally depressurize the RCS prior to. lower head failure. Results from analytical studies of these two depressurization mechanisms for select PWRs are presented.

  10. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method. PMID:8478826

  11. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method.

  12. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  13. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-09-17

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B&W 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001).

  14. Study on the Accidental Rupture of Hot Leg or Surge Line in SBO Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kun Zhang; Xuewu Cao

    2006-07-01

    The postulated total station blackout accident (SBO) of PWR NPP with 600 MWe in China is analyzed as the base case using SCDAP/RELAP5 code. Then the hot leg or surge line are assumed to rupture before the lower head of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) ruptures, and the progressions are analyzed in detail comparing with the base case. The results show that the accidental rupture of hot leg or surge line will greatly influence the progression of accident. The probability of hot leg or surge line rupture in intentional depressurization is also studied in this paper, which provides a suggestion to the development of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMG). (authors)

  15. PWR fuel behavior: lessons learned from LOFT. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the experience with the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) fuel during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), operational and overpower transient tests and steady-state operation is presented. LOFT provides unique capabilities for obtaining pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel behavior information because it features the representative thermal-hydraulic conditions which control fuel behavior during transient conditions and an elaborate measurement system to record the history of the fuel behavior.

  16. Physics of hydride fueled PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganda, Francesco

    The first part of the work presents the neutronic results of a detailed and comprehensive study of the feasibility of using hydride fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The primary hydride fuel examined is U-ZrH1.6 having 45w/o uranium: two acceptable design approaches were identified: (1) use of erbium as a burnable poison; (2) replacement of a fraction of the ZrH1.6 by thorium hydride along with addition of some IFBA. The replacement of 25 v/o of ZrH 1.6 by ThH2 along with use of IFBA was identified as the preferred design approach as it gives a slight cycle length gain whereas use of erbium burnable poison results in a cycle length penalty. The feasibility of a single recycling plutonium in PWR in the form of U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 has also been assessed. This fuel was found superior to MOX in terms of the TRU fractional transmutation---53% for U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 versus 29% for MOX---and proliferation resistance. A thorough investigation of physics characteristics of hydride fuels has been performed to understand the reasons of the trends in the reactivity coefficients. The second part of this work assessed the feasibility of multi-recycling plutonium in PWR using hydride fuel. It was found that the fertile-free hydride fuel PuH2-ZrH1.6, enables multi-recycling of Pu in PWR an unlimited number of times. This unique feature of hydride fuels is due to the incorporation of a significant fraction of the hydrogen moderator in the fuel, thereby mitigating the effect of spectrum hardening due to coolant voiding accidents. An equivalent oxide fuel PuO2-ZrO2 was investigated as well and found to enable up to 10 recycles. The feasibility of recycling Pu and all the TRU using hydride fuels were investigated as well. It was found that hydride fuels allow recycling of Pu+Np at least 6 times. If it was desired to recycle all the TRU in PWR using hydrides, the number of possible recycles is limited to 3; the limit is imposed by positive large void reactivity feedback.

  17. The swollen leg.

    PubMed

    Young, J R

    1977-01-01

    Systemic causes of leg edema include idiopathic cyclic edema, heart failure, cirrhosis, nephrosis and other hypoproteinemic states. Lymphedema may be primary, or secondary to neoplasm, lymphangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis and, rarely (in the U.S.), filariasis. Thrombophlebitis and chronic venous insufficiency are not uncommon causes. Finally, infection, ischemia, lipedema, vascular anomalies, tumors and trauma can be responsible for the swollen leg.

  18. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Painless swelling may affect both legs and may include the calves or ... of gravity makes the swelling most noticeable in the lower ...

  19. On the Application of CFD Modeling for the Prediction of the Degree of Mixing in a PWR During a Boron Dilution Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Lycklama, Jan-Aiso; Hoehne, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    In a Pressurized Water Reactor, negative reactivity is present in the core by means of Boric acid as a soluble neutron absorber in the coolant water. During a so-called Boron Dilution Transient (BDT), a de-borated slug of coolant water is transported from the cold leg into the reactor vessel, and the borated coolant water is diluted by mixing with this un-borated water. The resulting decrease in the boron concentration leads to an insertion of positive reactivity in the core, which may lead to a reactivity excursion. The associated power peak may damage the fuel rods. The mixing of borated and un-borated water in downcomer and lower plenum is an important process, because it mitigates the degree of reactivity insertion. In the present study the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for the prediction of this mixing of un-borated with borated water in the RPV has been assessed. The analyses have been compared with the measurement data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) experiment. The ROCOM test facility represents the primary cooling system of a KONVOI type of PWR (1300 MW{sub el}). In spite of the complicated spatial, temporal, and geometrical aspects of the flow in the RPV, the agreement between the calculated and the experimental data is good. The CFD model tends to slightly under predict the degree of mixing in the RPV resulting in a slight under-prediction of the boron concentration at the core. (authors)

  20. Reprint of : Current drag in two leg quantum ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    A two-leg ladder of either interacting bosons or tightly bound cooper pairs is investigated when a supercurrent is forced in one of the legs of the ladder. The two legs of the ladder are connected by a tunneling term. Using a bosonization representation of such an interacting ladder we show that up to a certain critical current the current in the first wire induces an identical supercurrent in the second wire. When this threshold is exceeded vortices are formed in the system and the current in the second wire reduces even if the driving current increases. Potential applications to condensed matter or cold atomic systems are discussed.

  1. Restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they sleep. This condition is called periodic limb movement disorder. All of these symptoms make it hard to ... treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an update for 2012: practice parameters ...

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  3. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  4. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  5. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  6. [List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Spoljar, Sanja

    2013-10-01

    Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future

  7. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  9. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  10. [Leg ulcer: conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Fradique, Caldeira; Pupo, Alexandra; Quaresma, Luísa; Palma-Rosa, Ana; Fernandes, Mário; Silva, Gualdino; Almeida, Heitor; Diogo, Cláudia; Pinho, Ana Catarina

    2011-01-01

    During 16 years 202 patients with leg ulcer have been studied prospectively. Whenever possible, cure has been obtained in ambulatory, which was the main objective. Surgery was preferentially made after the cure of the ulcer. From the 202 patients, 166 have made a prolonged follow-up. Cure in ambulatory has been obtained in 91% of the patients. We stress the importance of the direct control of all the treatment by the responsible doctor.

  11. Stable walking with asymmetric legs.

    PubMed

    Merker, Andreas; Rummel, Juergen; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-12-01

    Asymmetric leg function is often an undesired side-effect in artificial legged systems and may reflect functional deficits or variations in the mechanical construction. It can also be found in legged locomotion in humans and animals such as after an accident or in specific gait patterns. So far, it is not clear to what extent differences in the leg function of contralateral limbs can be tolerated during walking or running. Here, we address this issue using a bipedal spring-mass model for simulating walking with compliant legs. With the help of the model, we show that considerable differences between contralateral legs can be tolerated and may even provide advantages to the robustness of the system dynamics. A better understanding of the mechanisms and potential benefits of asymmetric leg operation may help to guide the development of artificial limbs or the design novel therapeutic concepts and rehabilitation strategies.

  12. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  13. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  14. Tension leg platform system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.B.

    1983-12-20

    A tension leg platform system for use in drilling wellbores into the floor of an offshore body of water. Includes in the system is a buoyancy control vessel having a plurality of pull down cables attached thereto which extend to the ocean floor. A plurality of spaced apart anchors disposed at the ocean floor are positioned to receive the lower ends of the respective pull down cables. A submergible hull slidably engages the respective hold down cables such that the hull can be controllably lowered to the ocean floor whereby a canopy carried on the hull will cover an uncontrollably flowing well to conduct the effluent to the water's surface.

  15. Exertional Leg Pain.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-02-01

    Exertional leg pain is a common condition seen in runners and the general population. Given the broad differential diagnosis of this complaint, this article focuses on the incidence, anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of common causes that include medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial bone stress injury, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, arterial endofibrosis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, and entrapment of the common peroneal, superficial peroneal, and saphenous nerves. Successful diagnosis of these conditions hinges on performing a thorough history and physical examination followed by proper diagnostic testing and appropriate management. PMID:26616179

  16. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  17. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest Drinking ...

  18. [Restless-legs syndrome].

    PubMed

    Karroum, E; Konofal, E; Arnulf, I

    2008-01-01

    Restless-legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder, characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs usually accompanied or caused by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations. It begins or worsens during periods of rest or inactivity, is partially or totally relieved by movements and is exacerbated or occurs at night and in the evening. RLS sufferers represent 2 to 3% of the general population in Western countries. Supportive criteria include a family history, the presence of periodic-leg movements (PLM) when awake or asleep and a positive response to dopaminergic treatment. The RLS phenotypes include an early onset form, usually idiopathic with a familial history and a late onset form, usually secondary to peripheral neuropathy. Recently, an atypical RLS phenotype without PLM and l-DOPA resistant has been characterized. RLS can occur in childhood and should be distinguished from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, growing pains and sleep complaints in childhood. RLS should be included in the diagnosis of all patients consulting for sleep complaints or discomfort in the lower limbs. It should be differentiated from akathisia, that is, an urge to move the whole body without uncomfortable sensations. Polysomnographic studies and the suggested immobilization test can detect PLM. Furthermore, an l-DOPA challenge has recently been validated to support the diagnosis of RLS. RLS may cause severe-sleep disturbances, poor quality of life, depressive and anxious symptoms and may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In most cases, RLS is idiopathic. It may also be secondary to iron deficiency, end-stage renal disease, pregnancy, peripheral neuropathy and drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The small-fiber neuropathy can mimic RLS or even trigger it. RLS is associated with many neurological and sleep disorders including Parkinson's disease, but does not predispose to these diseases. The pathophysiology of RLS includes an altered brain

  19. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  20. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.

    1993-05-01

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239).

  1. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  2. Leg discomfort: beyond the joints.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Although simple characterization of discomfort as cramps, heaviness, shooting pains, and so forth can be misleading, history and examination are key to accurate diagnosis. Absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses strongly suggests peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and the presence of either pulse makes PAD less likely. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are a common cause of lower extremity myalgias. Restless legs syndrome causes nocturnal discomfort but must be distinguished from confounding“mimics." Neurologic causes of leg symptoms include lumbar spinal stenosis, radiculopathy, distal symmetric polyneuropathy, and entrapment neuropathy. Many common causes of leg discomfort can be managed conservatively.

  3. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  4. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... been tried for colds, such as vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea. Talk to your health care ... nih.gov/pubmed/22962927 . Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...

  5. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  6. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs. PMID:27512466

  7. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miletić, Vladimir; Relja, Maja

    2011-12-01

    Being of the most frequent causes of insomnia, which in the end leads to chronic fatigue, inadequate performance of daily activities, and serious disruption of quality of living, restless legs syndrome (RLS) is nowadays not only a serious medical problem but a socio-economical one as well. Prevalence of the disorder in general population is estimated at 5 to 15%. Family history is positive in over 50% of idiopathic RLS patients which points to genetic basis of the disorder. The characteristics of the secondary or acquired form of RLS are symptoms that start later in life as well as a rapid progression of the disease. On the other hand, idiopathic RLS more often starts at a younger age and the prognoses are better. Over twenty disorders and conditions are brought in connection with secondary RLS. Although the cause of primary RLS is still unknown, there is a strong connection between central metabolism of iron as well as dopamine levels and RLS manifestation. A differential diagnosis of RLS includes a wide specter of motor and sensory disorders. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and the history of disease. To correctly diagnose idiopathic RLS one must first eliminate secondary causes of RLS and then also exclude any disorders with clinical features that mimic those of RLS. It has been estimated that some 20 to 25% of patients need pharmacological therapy. Best initial therapy is the application of nonergot dopamine agonists. Anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and opioides can be given to patients who are refractory to dopaminergic therapy, those suffering from RLS with emphasized painful sensory component and those with RLS connected with insomnia.

  8. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  9. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  10. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  11. Radiation of anginal pain to the legs.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A

    1986-02-01

    Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes.

  12. [Martorell Hypertensive Ischaemic Leg Ulcer].

    PubMed

    Nobbe, S; Hafner, J

    2015-10-01

    Martorell hypertensive ischaemic leg ulcer (HYTILU) represents an important differential diagnosis of painful leg ulcerations. Stenotic subcutaneous arteriolosclerosis in patients with long-standing arterial hypertension finally leads to skin infarction. The typical histological changes are very similar in Martorell HYTILU and calciphylaxis. This raises the hypothesis that the two entities may have a common pathogenesis. Martorell HYTILU presents as an extremely painful ulcer that is regularly located at the laterodorsal lower leg or at the Achilles tendon. Because of its inflammatory and violaceous wound edges and its tendency to progression, clinicians unaware of the diagnosis Martorell HYTILU might misdiagnose pyoderma gangrenosum or necrotising cutaneous vasculitis start an immunosuppressive treatment and avoid surgical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Instead, necrosectomy and split skin grafting are the treatment of choice for Martorell HYTILU.

  13. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  14. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  15. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  16. Proceedings: 2001 PWR/BWR Plant Chemistry Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2001 Plant Chemistry Conference, which brought together approximately 100 industry representatives to discuss experiences and issues regarding nuclear plant chemistry at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  17. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  18. FAQs on leg ulcer care.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene; King, Brenda; Knight, Susan; Keynes, Milton

    In a webchat on leg ulcer management issues, hosted by Nursing Times, participants raised three key areas of care: the role of healthcare assistants in compression bandaging; reporting and investigating damage caused by compression therapy; and recommendations for dressings to be used under compression. This article discusses each of these in turn.

  19. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  20. A comparison of the CHF between tubes and annuli under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Herer, C.

    1995-09-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) tests were carried out in three tubes with inside diameters of 8, 13, and 19.2 mm and in two annuli with an inner tube of 9.5 mm and an outer tube of 13 or 19.2 mm. All axial heat flux distributions in the test sections were uniform. The coolant fluid was Refrigerant 12 (Freon-12) under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions (equivalent water conditions - Pressure: 7 to 20 MPa, Mass Velocity: 1000 to 6000 kg/m2/s, Local Quality: -75% to +45%). The effect of tube diameter is correlated for qualities under 15%. The change from the tube to the annulus configuration is correctly taken into account by the equivalent hydraulic diameter. Useful information is also provided concerning the effect of a cold wall in an annulus.

  1. The one-leg standing radiograph

    PubMed Central

    Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis was evaluated using the joint space width and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) radiographic classification. The t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean medial joint space width found in the one-leg and in the both-legs standing view were measured at 1.8 mm and 2.4 mm, respectively (p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.7). 33%, 47.4% and 23.1% of the knees diagnosed with a KL grade of I, II and III in the both-legs standing views were changed to KL grade II, III and IV in the one-leg standing views, respectively. No changes for KL IV osteoarthritis diagnoses have been found between both- and one-leg standing views. Conclusions One-leg standing radiographs better represent joint space width than both-legs standing radiographs. 32% of both-legs standing radiographs have changed the KL grading to a more severe grade than that in the one-leg standing radiographs. Cite this article: P. Pinsornsak, K. Naratrikun, S. Kanitnate, T. Sangkomkamhang. The one-leg standing radiograph: An improved technique to evaluate the severity of knee osteoarthritis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:436–441. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.BJR-2016-0049.R1. PMID:27683299

  2. Simulation of 1% hot leg SBLOCA with TRACE5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Veru, G.

    2012-07-01

    During a Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) transient, depressurization can be slow enough to delay the Accumulators (ACC) entry for a long time. Actuation of High Pressure Injection (HPI) system is then necessary in order to maintain the core temperature low enough to avoid core boil off, and consequently avoiding the core level to fall below fuel rods level, thus producing a temperature trip in the fuel cladding. In this frame, the OECD/NEA ROSA Project Test 1.2 (SB-HL-17 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)) has been simulated using the thermal-hydraulic code TRACES. Test 1.2 was performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproducing a 1% hot leg SBLOCA in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A comparison between experimental and the main simulated variables was performed to study the effect of important parameters (liquid stratification, geometry and size) to model the break. Finally, in an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) failure scenario, loss of coolant is large enough to produce core boil-off and a Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) excursion. With this purpose a sensitivity analysis varying the HPI mass flow rate has been performed covering the range between HPI actuation and failure. (authors)

  3. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of cold intolerance are: Anemia Anorexia nervosa Blood vessel problems, such as Raynaud phenomenon Chronic severe illness General poor health Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ) Problem with the hypothalamus (a part ...

  4. Bacteriology of chronic leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Lookingbill, D P; Miller, S H; Knowles, R C

    1978-12-01

    The quantitative bacteriology of 13 chronic leg ulcers was sequentially assessed by both swab and biopsy culture techniques, and the effect of either a 10% benzoyl peroxide lotion or placebo lotion was evaluated. There was good correlation between the swab and biopsy culture techniques in 12 of the 17 instances where simultaneous swabs and biopsies were done. Though the benzoyl peroxide did not favorably affect the bacterial flora, ulcer healing did appear to correlate with quantitative bacterial counts. THREE of five ulcers containing fewer than 10(5) organisms per gram of tissue or per centimeter of ulcer surface area healed, while none of eight ulcers containing more than 10(5) organisms healed. Quantitative bacteriological measurements can serve as useful tools in evaluating healing of leg ulcers.

  5. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations. Symptoms predominantly occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Recent European epidemiological studies reported an overall prevalence of RLS up to 10%, with a female preponderance. The prevalence rates reported in south-eastern Europe are lower, as are those in Asiatic populations. Although the aetiopathogenesis of RLS is still unknown, the rapid and dramatic improvement of RLS with dopaminergic compounds suggests a dopaminergic system dysfunction as the basic mechanism. Extensive data are available for l-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists, especially for pramipexole and ropinirole. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in RLS cases that present intermittent symptoms. PMID:20123560

  6. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. PMID:27079737

  7. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  8. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Urine-drainage leg bags: an overview.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary

    This article looks at leg bags from the perspective of the clinical guidance available, published research, review papers, the diverse nature of products available, and their use with catheters, sheaths or urinals. The part that leg bags play in catheter-associated urinary tract infection control is addressed. Other aspects of catheter safety are discussed, including the avoidance of catheter traction. Variations in leg-bag structure including bag size, inlet tubing, tap, connector and backing, along with the reasons for selecting a particular leg bag are considered, along with the choice of either leg-bag straps or sleeves. The article concludes that, as a result of the variation of leg bags available, patients may require assistance and support from health professionals in finding the right leg bag for them.

  10. Static one-legged balance in soccer players during use of a lifted leg.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shigeki; Demura, Shinichi; Nagasawa, Yoshinori

    2010-08-01

    The goal was to describe static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg and to compare balance between the dominant and nondominant legs of soccer players. Participants were 17 male soccer players and 17 untrained male students (control). Balance ability was evaluated with four sway measures: sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway, medial-lateral sway, and high-frequency sway. Soccer players had smaller magnitude mean anterior-posterior and medial-lateral sway than untrained students. Although mean sway velocity and anterior-posterior sway were higher with the dominant leg than in the nondominant leg of the control group, there was no significant difference on any sway factor between the two legs of the soccer group. In conclusion, the soccer players were observed to have superior static one-legged balance during use of a lifted leg, and there is no difference in balance for the two legs in the soccer group.

  11. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  12. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  13. Proceedings: PWR Primary Startup/Shutdown Chemistry Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    This workshop summary outlines the proceedings of the EPRI-sponsored PWR Primary Startup/Shutdown Workshop held in San Antonio, Texas on April 25-27, 2000 to support the next revision of current EPRI PWR Chemistry Guidelines. Information was exchanged to assess the effectiveness of the guidelines. The workshop also helped identify issues needing further study before the next revision. Approximately 50 utility and industry representatives attended the workshop with utility personnel chairing four sessions. The workshop provided an opportunity for utility representatives to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of the existing PWR Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines: Volume 2, Revision 4. Potential improvements and additions to the Guidelines are outlined in this report.

  14. Characterization of running with compliant curved legs.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Yun; Clark, Jonathan E

    2015-07-07

    Running with compliant curved legs involves the progression of the center of pressure, the changes of both the leg's stiffness and effective rest length, and the shift of the location of the maximum stress point along the leg. These phenomena are product of the geometric and material properties of these legs, and the rolling motion produced during stance. We examine these aspects with several reduced-order dynamical models to relate the leg's design parameters (such as normalized foot radius, leg's effective stiffness, location of the maximum stress point and leg shape) to running performance (such as robustness and efficiency). By using these models, we show that running with compliant curved legs can be more efficient, robust with fast recovery behavior from perturbations than running with compliant straight legs. Moreover, the running performance can be further improved by tuning these design parameters in the context of running with rolling. The results shown in this work may serve as potential guidance for future compliant curved leg designs that may further improve the running performance.

  15. Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang; Junfu Lv; Guangxi Yue

    2009-05-15

    The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. PWR full-reactor coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, R.G.; Pessall, N.; Grand, T.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the current program is to identify and address all aspects of full system decontamination with the purpose of qualifying at least one process for PWR use. The objective of the current study is to provide baseline data on the performance of materials on the primary side after exposure to one cycle of the LOMI fault testing. This data supplements prior information obtained after exposure to three cycles of LOMI testing. The technical significance of this excursion will be determined in a subsequent task. The general corrosion characteristics of over 39 materials were evaluated for some combinations of material, type of specimen (coupon and creviced coupons), and loop velocity (0, 5, 20 and 150 ft/sec). At velocities of less than or equal to 20 ft/sec, sixteen types of specimens were employed to evaluate localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Specimens were examined after one cycle. Also included in this exposure were specimens added to provide more information on the effect of LOMI fault exposure one: (1) surface roughening of Stellite 156; (2) crevice corrosion of chromium plated 304 stainless steel with the open end gap increased from 3 to {approximately} 9 mils; (3) susceptibility of Inconel X-750 (HTH) to subsequent stress corrosion cracking, (4) loss of chromium plate from threads of 304 stainless steel bolts torqued into stainless steel collars; (5) crack initiation in an Alloy 600 tube known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking; and (6) surface alternation of stressed Inconel X-750 springs with the spring temper.

  17. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  18. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  19. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, JeongHoon; Kim, GaYul; Song, JiYeon

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM), and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI). Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen.

  20. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  1. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. PMID:27272316

  2. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  3. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different solutions, so…

  4. Enriched boric acid for PWR application: Cost evaluation study for a twin-unit PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.A.; Waters, R.M.; von Hollen, J.M.; Lamatia, L.A.; Bergmann, C.A.; Ditommaso, S.M. . Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.)

    1989-09-01

    In the nuclear industry boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant is used as a soluble reactivity control agent. Reactivity control in nuclear plants is also provided by neutron absorbing control rods. This neutron absorbing duty is distributed between the control rods and soluble boric acid in such a way as to provide the most economical split. Typically, the control rods take care of rapid reactivity changes and the boric acid handles the slower long term control of reactivity by varying the boric acid concentrations within the reactor coolant. In PWR reactor plants the dissolved boric acid is referred to as a soluble poison or chemical shim due to the high capacity for thermal neutron capture exhibited by the boron-10 isotope contained in the boric acid molecule. This slow reactivity change or chemical shim control would otherwise have to be performed using control rods, a much more expensive proposition. Reactivity changes are controlled by the B-10 isotope by virtue of its very high cross section (3837 barns) for thermal neutron absorption. However, natural boron contains only 20 atom percent of the B-10 isotope and essentially all the remaining 80 percent as the B-11 isotope. The B-11 isotope of cross section .005 barns is essentially of no use as a neutron absorber. Since B-11 makes up the bulk of the total boron present and contributes little to the nuclear operation it would seem logical to eliminate this isotope of boron from the boric acid molecule. In so doing boric acid concentration in operating PWR plants need only be a fraction of that existing to accomplish identical nuclear operations. However, to achieve the elimination of B-11 from NBA (Natural Boric Acid) an isotope separation must be performed. 4 refs., 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  6. Leg automaticity is stronger than arm automaticity during simultaneous arm and leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Endoh, Takashi; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that human locomotion is quadrupedal in nature. An automatic rhythm-generating system is thought to play a crucial role in controlling arm and leg movements. In the present study, we attempted to elucidate differences between intrinsic arm and leg automaticity by investigating cadence variability during simultaneous arm and leg (AL) cycling. Participants performed AL cycling with visual feedback of arm or leg cadence. Participants were asked to focus their attention to match the predetermined cadence; this affects the automaticity of the rhythm-generating system. Leg cadence variability was only mildly affected when the participants intended to precisely adjust either their arm or leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. In contrast, arm cadence variability significantly increased when the participants adjusted their leg cycling cadence to a predetermined value. These findings suggest that different neural mechanisms underlie the automaticities of arm and leg cycling and that the latter is stronger than the former during AL cycling.

  7. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159805.html Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold Healthy body temperature boosts ability of immune system ... proving Mom right: Your odds of avoiding a cold get better if you bundle up and stay ...

  8. Effects of Burnable Absorbers on PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. O'Leary; Dr. M.L. Pitts

    2000-08-21

    Burnup credit is an ongoing issue in designing and licensing transportation and storage casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF). To address this issue, in July 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Spent Fuel Project Office, issued Interim Staff Guidance-8 (ISG-8), Revision 1 allowing limited burnup credit for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in transport and storage casks. However, one of the key limitations for a licensing basis analysis as stipulated in ISG-8, Revision 1 is that ''burnup credit is restricted to intact fuel assemblies that have not used burnable absorbers''. Because many PWR fuel designs have incorporated burnable-absorber rods for more than twenty years, this restriction places an unnecessary burden on the commercial nuclear power industry. This paper summarizes the effects of in-reactor irradiation on the isotopic inventory of PWR fuels containing different types of integral burnable absorbers (BAs). The work presented is illustrative and intended to represent typical magnitudes of the reactivity effects from depleting PWR fuel with different types of burnable absorbers.

  9. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  10. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  11. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load.

  12. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load. PMID:25728581

  13. Chilling Out with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cold virus, but more than 200 viruses can cause colds. Because there are so many, ... to help you feel better. Take that, cold viruses! continue How Kids Catch Colds Mucus (say: MYOO- ...

  14. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  15. Why do flamingos stand on one leg?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew J; Williams, Sarah A

    2010-01-01

    A series of observational studies of captive Caribbean flamingos Phoenicopterus ruber were conducted to determine why flamingos rest on one leg. While frequently asked by the general public, this basic question has remained unanswered by the scientific community. Here we suggest that the latency of flamingos to initiate forward locomotion following resting on one leg is significantly longer than following resting on two, discounting the possibility that unipedal resting reduces muscle fatigue or enhances predatory escape. Additionally, we demonstrate that flamingos do not display lateral preferences at the individual or group levels when resting on one leg, with each bird dividing its resting time across both legs. We show that while flamingos prefer resting on one leg to two regardless of location, the percentage of birds resting on one leg is significantly higher among birds standing in the water than among those on land. Finally, we demonstrate a negative relationship between temperature and the percentage of observed birds resting on one leg, such that resting on one leg decreases as temperature rises. Results strongly suggest that unipedal resting aids flamingos in thermoregulation.

  16. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  17. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  18. Iron for restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Trotti, Lynn M; Bhadriraju, Srinivas; Becker, Lorne A

    2014-01-01

    Background Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic syndrome and is associated with iron deficiency in many patients. It is unclear whether iron therapy is effective treatment for RLS. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of iron supplementation (oral or intravenous) for patients with RLS. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); EMBASE (Jan 1995 to April 2011); PsycINFO (Jan 1995 to April 2011); and CINAHL (Jan 1995 to April 2011). Corresponding authors of included trials and additional members of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were contacted to locate additional published or unpublished trials. Selection criteria Controlled trials comparing any formulation of iron with placebo, other medications, or no treatment in adults diagnosed with RLS according to expert clinical interview or explicit diagnostic criteria. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted data and at least two authors assessed trial quality. We contacted trial authors for missing data. Main results Six studies (192 total subjects) were identified and included in this analysis. The quality of trials was variable. Our primary outcome was restlessness or uncomfortable leg sensations, which was quantified using the IRLS severity scale in four trials and another RLS symptom scale in a fifth trial. Combining data from the four trials using the IRLS severity scale, there was no clear benefit from iron therapy (mean difference in IRLS severity scores of -3.79, 95% CI: -7.68 to 0.10, p = 0.06). However, the fifth trial did find iron therapy to be beneficial (median decrease of 3 points in the iron group and no change in the placebo group on a 10 point scale of RLS symptoms, p = 0.01). Quality of life was improved in the iron group relative to placebo in some studies but not others. Changes in periodic limb movements were not different between groups

  19. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  20. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  1. Robotic inspection of PWR coolant pump casing welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.R.; Alford, J.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    As of January 1, 1995, the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate began requiring more thorough inspections of cast stainless-steel components in nuclear power plants, including pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor coolant pump (RCP) casings. The examination requirements are established by fracture mechanics analyses of component weldments and demonstrated test system detection capabilities. This may include full volumetric inspection or some portion thereof. Ringhals station is a four-unit nuclear power plant, owned and operated by the Swedish State Power Board, Vattenfall. Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor. Units 2, 3, and 4 are Westinghouse-designed PWRs, ranging in size from 795 to 925 MW. The RCP casings at the PWR units are made of cast stainless steel and contain four circumferential welds that require inspection. Due to the thickness of the casings at the weld locations and configuration and surface conditions on the outside diameter of the casings, remote inspection from the inside diameter of the pump casing was mandated.

  2. The nature and behavior of particulates in PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Bridle, D.A.; Butter, K.R.; Cake, P.; Comley, G.C.W.; Mitchell, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    A study of particle size distributions, nature and behavior of insoluble species carried by PWR coolants has been carried out over a four year period in Belgian reactors. Comparative data was obtained by the use of improved sampling systems designed to overcome the inadequacies of standard facilities. Coolant data is presented from commissioning and early operation of new plant to that in established PWR circuits. Results arising from reactors transients are also included, which refer to shutdown and start-up phases, power changes and scram situations. The information obtained includes chemical and radiochemical characteristics of particulates and their contribution to total activity carried by reactor coolant. The implications for plant operations are discussed. 16 refs., 55 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Prediction of Severe Accident Counter Current Natural Circulation Flows in the Hot Leg of a Pressurized Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Christopher F.

    2006-07-01

    During certain phases of a severe accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the core becomes uncovered and steam carries heat to the steam generators through natural circulation. For PWR's with U-tube steam generators and loop seals filled with water, a counter current flow pattern is established in the hot leg. This flow pattern has been experimentally observed and has been predicted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Predictions of severe accident behavior are routinely carried out using severe accident system analysis codes such as SCDAP/RELAP5 or MELCOR. These codes, however, were not developed for predicting the three-dimensional natural circulation flow patterns during this phase of a severe accident. CFD, along with a set of experiments at 1/7. scale, have been historically used to establish the flow rates and mixing for the system analysis tools. One important aspect of these predictions is the counter current flow rate in the nearly 30 inch diameter hot leg between the reactor vessel and steam generator. This flow rate is strongly related to the amount of energy that can be transported away from the reactor core. This energy transfer plays a significant role in the prediction of core failures as well as potential failures in other reactor coolant system piping. CFD is used to determine the counter current flow rate during a severe accident. Specific sensitivities are completed for parameters such as surge line flow rates, hydrogen content, as well as vessel and steam generator temperatures. The predictions are carried out for the reactor vessel upper plenum, hot leg, a portion of the surge line, and a steam generator blocked off at the outlet plenum. All predictions utilize the FLUENT V6 CFD code. The volumetric flow in the hot leg is assumed to be proportional to the square root of the product of normalized density difference, gravity, and hydraulic diameter to the 5. power. CFD is used to determine the proportionality constant in the range

  4. Leg stiffness: comparison between unilateral and bilateral hopping tasks.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Torsten; Sterzing, Thorsten; Wulf, Mathias; Horstmann, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Leg stiffness is a predictor of athletic performance and injury and typically evaluated during bilateral hopping. The contribution of each limb to bilateral leg stiffness, however, is not well understood. This study investigated leg stiffness during unilateral and bilateral hopping to address the following research questions: (1) does the magnitude and variability of leg stiffness differ between dominant and non-dominant legs? (2) Does unilateral leg stiffness differ from bilateral leg stiffness? and (3) Is bilateral leg stiffness determined by unilateral leg stiffness? Thirty-two physically active males performed repeated hopping tests on a force platform for each of the three conditions: bilateral hopping, unilateral hopping on the dominant leg, and unilateral hopping on the non-dominant leg. Leg stiffness was estimated as the ratio of the peak vertical force and the maximum displacement using a simple 1-D mass-spring model. Neither the magnitude nor variability of leg stiffness differed between dominant and non-dominant limbs. Unilateral leg stiffness was 24% lower than bilateral stiffness and showed less variability between consecutive hops and subjects. Unilateral leg stiffness explained 76% of the variance in bilateral leg stiffness. We conclude that leg stiffness estimates during unilateral hopping are preferable for intervention studies because of their low variability. PMID:24290613

  5. Modeling a nuclear reactor for experimental purposes. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, V T

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is a scale model of a commercial PWR and is as fully functional and operational as the generic commercial counterpart. LOFT was designed and built for experimental purposes as part of the overall NRC reactor safety research program. The purpose of LOFT is to assess the capability of reactor safety systems to perform their intended functions during occurrences of off-normal conditions in a commercial nuclear reactor. Off-normal conditions arising from large and small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), operational transients, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) were to be investigated. This paper describes the LOFT model of the generic PWR and summarizes the experiments that have been conducted in the context of the significant findings involving the complex transient thermal-hydraulics and the consequent effects on the commercial reactor analytical licensing techniques. Through these techniques the validity of the LOFT model as a scaled counterpart of the generic PWR is shown.

  6. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Carolyn; Ilas, Germina

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  7. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  8. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that 231Pa better than 237Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8% 233U enrichment and 7.6˜ 8% 231Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1% Δk/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53% Δk/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell ... you have restless legs syndrome caused by low iron, talk with your physician and do not attempt ...

  10. Support Leg Loading in Punt Kicking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kermond, John; Konz, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Maximum distance in football punt kicking is associated with a maximum force transfer to the ball rather than a maximum force transfer through the ground via the support leg. For maximum distance, tred lightly. (Author)

  11. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  12. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  13. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  14. Laser leg vein treatment: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victor; Domankevitz, Yacov

    2003-12-01

    Laser treatment of leg veins has been associated with a number of disadvantages, but the introduction of new devices has increased the role of lasers in the treatment of leg veins. This paper reviews the role of laser devices applied from the surface in the treatment of reticular and spider veins. Success is determined by the proper selection of wavelength, fluence, pulse duration, spot size, and number and frequency of treatments. PMID:14741827

  15. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C. PMID:27293297

  16. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  17. Bilateral leg edema in an older woman.

    PubMed

    Thaler, H W; Pienaar, S; Wirnsberger, G; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral leg edema is a frequent symptom in older people and an important concern in geriatric medicine. Further evaluation is frequently not performed and simple therapy with diuretics is prescribed. Particularly in older patients, long-term use of diuretics can lead to severe electrolyte imbalances, volume depletion, and falls. In this case report we want to focus the physicians' attention on the necessity to determine the cause and show a correspondingly effective treatment for bilateral leg edema in older people. A thorough approach is required to recognize diseases and to avoid adverse drug events as geriatric patients often show an atypical presentation or minor symptoms. The cause of swollen legs is often multifactorial; therefore, the patient's individual history and an appropriate physical examination are important. Depending on the clinical symptoms, evaluation including basic laboratory tests, urinalysis, chest radiography, and echocardiogram may be indicated. The most probable cause of bilateral edema in older patients is chronic venous insufficiency. Heart failure is also a common cause. Other systemic causes such as renal disease or liver disease are much rarer. Antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs can frequently cause leg edema, but the incidence of drug-induced leg swelling is unknown. With the help of this special case we tried to develop an approach to the diagnosis of symmetric leg edema in older patients, a problem frequently neglected in geriatric medicine.

  18. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  19. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  20. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... is that vitamin C can cure the common cold . However, research about this claim is conflicting. Although ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts. They do not protect against getting a ...

  1. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  2. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  3. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 US/Japanese PWR conservative LOCA prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Gruen, G E; Fisher, J E

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of a 200%, double-ended, cold-leg-break, loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) calculation using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code. The reactor system represented a typical United States/Japanese pressurized water reactor with a 15 x 15 fuel bundle arrangement 12-ft long, four loops, and cold-leg Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) Systems. Conservation boundary and initial conditions were used. Reactor power was 102% of the 3250 MWt rated power, decay heat was set to 120% of American Nuclear Society Standard 5.1, highest core lifetime values for power peaking and fuel stored energy were used, and the LOCA occurred simultaneously with a loss of offsite power. Best estimate assumptions were used for the break flow model, fuel rod heat transfer and metal-water reaction correlations, and steady-state fuel temperature profiles. A flow blockage model, having the capability to account for the effects of cladding ballooning or rupturing, was not used. Except for these best estimate assumptions, the boundary and initial conditions were consistent with those used in licensing calculations. Maximum fuel rod temperatures were 1380 K (2020/sup 0/F) and 1040 K (1410/sup 0/F) on the hottest evaluation model rod and hottest best estimate rod, respectively. The high reported values or fuel cladding temperature were a direct consequence of the conservative boundary and initial conditions used for the calculation, primarily the 2% overpower condition, the core decay heat assumption, and the degraded ECCS. The calculation demonstrated successful core reflooding before 1478 K (2200/sup 0/F) cladding temperature was exceeded on any fuel rod. 7 refs., 47 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Leg extension is an important predictor of paretic leg propulsion in hemiparetic walking.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Carrie L; Cheng, Jing; Kautz, Steven A; Neptune, Richard R

    2010-10-01

    Forward propulsion is a central task of walking that depends on the generation of appropriate anterior-posterior ground reaction forces (AP GRFs). The AP impulse (i.e., time integral of the AP GRF) generated by the paretic leg relative to the non-paretic leg is a quantitative measure of the paretic leg's contribution to forward propulsion and is variable across hemiparetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of propulsion generation in hemiparetic walking by identifying the biomechanical predictors of AP impulses. Three-dimensional kinematics and GRFs were recorded from 51 hemiparetic and 21 age-matched control subjects walking at similar speeds on an instrumented treadmill. Hierarchical regression models were generated for each leg to predict the AP impulse from independent biomechanical variables. Leg extension was a significant predictor and positively related to the propulsive impulse in the paretic, non-paretic and control legs. Secondarily, the hip flexor moment impulse was negatively related to the propulsive impulse. Also, the relationship of paretic and non-paretic ankle moments with the propulsive impulse depended on the paretic step ratio, suggesting the plantar flexor contribution to the propulsive impulse depends on leg angle. These results suggest that increasing paretic leg extension will increase propulsion. Increasing paretic plantar flexor output and decreasing paretic hip flexor output could also increase paretic leg propulsion. While increased pre-swing hip flexor output has been suggested to compensate for decreased plantar flexor output, such output may further impair propulsion by the paretic leg if it occurs too soon in the gait cycle.

  5. ACHILLES: Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    1. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA LIBRARY ACHILLES -Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase. 2. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMS N/A 3. CONTRIBUTOR AEA Technology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester DT2 8DH United Kingdom through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TEST FACILITY The most important features of the Achilles rig were the shroud vessel, which contained the test section, and the downcomer. These may be thought of as representing the core barrel and the annular downcomer in the reactor pressure vessel. The test section comprises a cluster of 69 rods in a square array within a circular shroud vessel. The rod diameter and pitch (9.5 mm and 12.6 mm) were typical of PWR dimensions. The internal diameter of the shroud vessel was 128 mm. Each rod was electrically heated over a length of 3.66 m, which is typical of the nuclear heated length in a PWR fuel rod, and each contained 6 internal thermocouples. These were arranged in one of 8 groupings which concentrated the thermocouples in different axial zones. The spacer grids were at prototypic PWR locations. Each grid had two thermocouples attached to its trailing edge at radial locations. The axial power profile along the rods was an 11 step approximation to a "chopped cosine". The shroud vessel had 5 heating zones whose power could be independently controlled. 5. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS The Achilles experiments investigated the heat transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor during the re-flood phase of a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The results provided data to validate codes and to improve modeling. Different types of experiments were carried out which included single phase cooling, re-flood under low flow conditions, level swell and re-flood under high flow conditions. Three series of experiments were performed. The first and the third used the same test section but the second used another test section, similar in

  6. ACHILLES: Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase

    2013-11-01

    1. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA LIBRARY ACHILLES -Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase. 2. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMS N/A 3. CONTRIBUTOR AEA Technology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester DT2 8DH United Kingdom through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TEST FACILITY The most important features of the Achilles rig were the shroud vessel, which contained the test section, and the downcomer. These maymore » be thought of as representing the core barrel and the annular downcomer in the reactor pressure vessel. The test section comprises a cluster of 69 rods in a square array within a circular shroud vessel. The rod diameter and pitch (9.5 mm and 12.6 mm) were typical of PWR dimensions. The internal diameter of the shroud vessel was 128 mm. Each rod was electrically heated over a length of 3.66 m, which is typical of the nuclear heated length in a PWR fuel rod, and each contained 6 internal thermocouples. These were arranged in one of 8 groupings which concentrated the thermocouples in different axial zones. The spacer grids were at prototypic PWR locations. Each grid had two thermocouples attached to its trailing edge at radial locations. The axial power profile along the rods was an 11 step approximation to a "chopped cosine". The shroud vessel had 5 heating zones whose power could be independently controlled. 5. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS The Achilles experiments investigated the heat transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor during the re-flood phase of a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The results provided data to validate codes and to improve modeling. Different types of experiments were carried out which included single phase cooling, re-flood under low flow conditions, level swell and re-flood under high flow conditions. Three series of experiments were performed. The first and the third used the same test section but the second used another test section

  7. 21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

  8. TRU transmutation in thorium-based heterogeneous PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kang-Mok; Lim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-07-01

    A thorium-based seed and blanket design concept for a conventional pressurized light water reactor (PWR) was proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance potential and fuel cycle economics. The KTF core was satisfied with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic design limit of conventional PWR, APR-1400. In order to evaluate transmutation capability of a thorium-based KTF core, U/Zr seed fuel mixed with 10% TRU which come from 1,000 MWe power reactor after 10 years decay was proposed and analyzed by transmutation indices such as D{sub j}, TEX and SR. KTF core showed an extended fuel cycle burnup; average burnup of seed was 79.5 MWd/kgHM and blanket was 94.6 MWd/kgHM. It means that residence time of TRU in the core could be long enough for transmutation when TRU is mixed in seed fuel. The amount of TRU production from conventional PWR could be transmuted in the KTF-TRU core, especially Am-241 isotope is remarkably transmuted by capture reaction. Even isotopes of curium were cumulated in the core during the burnup, however, KTF-TRU core could reduce the TRU in spent fuel by using well-thermalized neutron spectrum. Proliferation resistance potential of thorium based transmutation fuel is slightly increased. About 31% reduction of TRU amount was measured from reduced plutonium production from U-238. Total amount of Am-241 was reduced significantly, but total amount of minor actinide (MA) was reduced by 28% of its initial loading mass. (authors)

  9. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.

  10. RIA Limits Based On Commercial PWR Core Response To RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Charles L.; Mitchell, David B.; Slagle, William H.

    2006-07-01

    Reactivity insertion accident (RIA) limits have been under intense review by regulators since 1993 with respect to what should be the proper limit as a function of burnup. Some national regulators have imposed new lower limits while in the United States the limits are still under review. The data being evaluated with respect to RIA limits come from specialized test reactors. However, the use of test reactor data needs to be balanced against the response of a commercial PWR core in setting reasonable limits to insure the health and safety of the public without unnecessary restrictions on core design and operation. The energy deposition limits for a RIA were set in the 1970's based on testing in CDC (SPERT), TREAT, PBF and NSRR test reactors. The US limits given in radially averaged enthalpy are 170 cal/gm for fuel cladding failure and 280 cal/gm for coolability. Testing conducted in the 1990's in the CABRI, NSRR and IGR test reactors have demonstrated that the cladding failure threshold is reduced with burnup, with the primary impact due to hydrogen pickup for in-reactor corrosion. Based on a review of this data very low enthalpy limits have been proposed. In reviewing proposed limits from RIL-0401(1) it was observed that much of the data used to anchor the low allowable energy deposition levels was from recent NSRR tests which do not represent commercial PWR reactor conditions. The particular characteristics of the NSRR test compared to commercial PWR reactor characteristics are: - Short pulse width: 4.5 ms vs > 8 ms; - Low temperature conditions: < 100 deg. F vs 532 deg. F. - Low pressure environment: atmospheric vs {approx} 2200 psi. A review of the historical RIA database indicates that some of the key NSRR data used to support the RIL was atypical compared to the overall RIA database. Based on this detailed review of the RIA database and the response of commercial PWR core, the following view points are proposed. - The Failure limit should reflect local fuel

  11. Vertical Drop Of 21-Pwr Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic; A. Scheider; S.M. Bennett

    2001-01-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-PWR (pressurized-water reactor) Waste Package (WP) subjected to the 2-m vertical drop on an unyielding surface at three different temperatures. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities in two different WP components. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only.

  12. Conductivity of Doped Two-Leg Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eugene H.

    2001-02-12

    Recently, conductivity measurements were performed on the hole-doped two-leg ladder material Sr{sub 14-x} Ca{sub x}Cu {sub 24}O{sub 41} . In this work, we calculate the conductivity for doped two-leg ladders using a model of hole pairs forming a strongly correlated liquid. Quantum interference effects are handled using renormalization group methods. We find that our model can account for the low-energy features of the experiments. However, at higher energies there are deviations from the predictions of this model. Using the results of our calculations as well as results on the ground state of doped two-leg ladders, we suggest a scenario to explain the experimental results.

  13. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  14. Dimensional synthesis of a leg mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, F.; Lovasz, E.-Ch; Pop, C.; Dolga, V.

    2016-08-01

    An eight bar leg mechanism dimensional synthesis is presented. The mathematical model regarding the synthesis is described and the results obtained after computation are verified with help of 2D mechanism simulation in Matlab. This mechanism, inspired from proposed solution of Theo Jansen, is integrated into the structure of a 2 DOF quadruped robot. With help of the kinematic synthesis method described, it is tried to determine new dimensions for the mechanism, based on a set of initial conditions. These are established by taking into account the movement of the end point of the leg mechanism, which enters in contact with the ground, during walking. An optimization process based on the results obtained can be conducted further in order to find a better solution for the leg mechanism.

  15. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  16. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training. PMID:10233121

  17. [Contact eczema in patients with leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Degreef, H; Dooms-Goossens, A; Gladys, K

    1986-01-01

    Patients with leg ulcers or varicose eczema suffer much more often from contact eczema due to the local application of pharmaceutical preparations than patients suffering from other dermatological problems (even those of eczematous origin). This contact allergy may concern not only the active ingredient but also the excipient, the preservative, or even the perfume. In all cases of leg ulcers, of varicose eczema, but also of badly healed ulcers, epicutaneous tests should be carried out with all the components of the pharmaceutical preparations concerned. Moreover, the pharmaceutical industry really must perfect non-allergenic preparations.

  18. The Molecular Genetics of Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rye, David B

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor trait defined by symptoms that interfere with sleep onset and maintenance in a clinically meaningful way. Nonvolitional myoclonus while awake and asleep is a sign of the disorder and an informative endophenotype. The genetic contributions to RLS/periodic leg movements are substantial, are among the most robust defined to date for a common disease, and account for much of the variance in disease expressivity. The disorder is polygenic, as revealed by recent genome-wide association studies. Experimental studies are revealing mechanistic details of how these common variants might influence RLS expressivity.

  19. Respiratory-Related Leg Movements and Their Relationship with Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Manconi, Mauro; Zavalko, Irina; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Colamartino, Elisabetta; Pons, Marco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe the time structure of leg movements (LM) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, in order to advance understanding of their clinical significance. Location: Sleep Research Centre, Oasi Institute (IRCCS), Troina, Italy. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Eighty-four patients (16 females, 68 males, mean age 55.1 y, range 29-74 y). Methods: Respiratory-related leg movements (RRLM) and those unrelated to respiratory events (NRLM) were examined within diagnostic polysomnograms alone and together for their distributions within the sleep period and for their periodicity. Measurements and Results: Patients with OSA and RRLM exhibited more periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), particularly in NREM sleep. A gradual decrease in number of NRLM across the sleep period was observed in patients with RRLM. This pattern was less clear for RRLM. Frequency histograms of intermovement intervals of all LMs in patients with RRLM showed a prominent first peak at 4 sec, and a second peak at approximately 24 sec coincident with that of PLMS occurring in the absence of OSA. A third peak of lowest amplitude was the broadest with a maximum at approximately 42 sec. In patients lacking RRLM, NRLM were evident with a single peak at 2-4 sec. A stepwise linear regression analysis showed that, after controlling for a diagnosis of restless legs syndrome and apnea-hypopnea index, PLMS remained significantly associated with RRLM. Conclusion: The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep. Citation: Manconi M; Zavalko I; Bassetti CL; Colamartino E; Pons M; Ferri R. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements

  20. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced. PMID:25857178

  1. [The influence of the leg load and the support mobility under leg on the anticipatory postural adjustment].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Kireeva, T B; Shlykov, V Iu

    2015-01-01

    Anticipatory postural adjustment is an essential part of equilibrium maintainance during standing in human. So changes in stance condition could affect both control of equilibrium and anticipatory adjustment. Anticipatory changes in the stabilogram of each leg were studied in standing subject during the early stage of quick right arm lifting while legs were on two separated supports. The center of pressure (CP) movement was analyzed in three variants of experiment: both legs on immovable support, with only right leg on the movable support and with only left leg on the moveable support. In each standing condition subject stood with symmetrical load on two legs or with the load voluntary transferred to one leg. The anticipatory CP shift depended on the mobility of the support under the leg and on loading of the leg. While standing on unmovable supports with symmetrical load on the legs before lifting of the right arm CP of right leg shifted backward and CP of left leg--forward. While standing with one leg on movable support the anticipatory CP shift of this leg was small and did not depend on the load on the leg. However the shift of CP of the leg that was placed on the unmovable support depended on the load in the same way as in the case when both legs were on unmovable supports. Results suggested that since on movable support the support and proprioceptive afferent flow from distal part of the leg that was did not supply unambiguous information about body position, the role of distal joints in posture control is reduced.

  2. A comprehensive in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Rixin; Zhang, Shucheng; Chen, Dianshan

    1991-02-01

    An in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR at IAE of China. This paper describes the structure of the test bundle (3 × 3-2), fabrication process and quality control of the fuel rod, irradiation conditions and the main Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results. The test fuel bundle was irradiated under the PWR operation and water chemistry conditions with an average linear power of 381 W/cm and reached an average burnup of 25010 MWd/tU of the fuel bundle. After the test, destructive and non-destructive examination of the fuel rods was conducted at hot laboratories. The fission gas release was 10.4-23%. The ridge height of cladding was 3 to 8 μm. The hydrogen content of the cladding was 80 to 140 ppm. The fuel stack height was increased by 2.9 to 3.3 mm. The relative irradiation growth was about 0.11 to 0.17% of the fuel rod length. During the irradiation test, no fuel rod failure or other abnormal phenomena had been found by the on-line fuel failure monitoring system of the test loop and water sampling analysis. The structure of the test fuel assembly was left undamaged without twist and detectable deformation.

  3. VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, Brendan; Collins, Benjamin S; Jabaay, Daniel; Kim, Kang Seog; Graham, Aaron; Stimpson, Shane; Wieselquist, William A; Clarno, Kevin T; Palmtag, Scott; Downar, Thomas; Gehin, Jess C

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed and implemented in MPACT for performing high-fidelity pressurized water reactor (PWR) multi-cycle core physics calculations. MPACT is being developed primarily for application within the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) as one of the main components of the VERA Core Simulator, the others being COBRA-TF and ORIGEN. The methods summarized in this paper include a methodology for performing resonance self-shielding and computing macroscopic cross sections, 2-D/1-D transport, nuclide depletion, thermal-hydraulic feedback, and other supporting methods. These methods represent a minimal set needed to simulate high-fidelity models of a realistic nuclear reactor. Results demonstrating this are presented from the simulation of a realistic model of the first cycle of Watts Bar Unit 1. The simulation, which approximates the cycle operation, is observed to be within 50 ppm boron (ppmB) reactivity for all simulated points in the cycle and approximately 15 ppmB for a consistent statepoint. The verification and validation of the PWR cycle depletion capability in MPACT is the focus of two companion papers.

  4. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    V. Delabrosse

    2003-02-27

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  5. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  6. Beta and gamma dose calculations for PWR and BWR containments

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.B.

    1989-07-01

    Analyses of gamma and beta dose in selected regions in PWR and BWR containment buildings have been performed for a range of fission product releases from selected severe accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that safety-related equipment could experience during the selected severe accident sequences. The resulting dose calculations demonstrate the extent to which design basis accident qualified equipment could also be qualified for the severe accident environments. Surry was chosen as the representative PWR plant while Peach Bottom was selected to represent BWRs. Battelle Columbus Laboratory performed the source term release analyses. The AB epsilon scenario (an intermediate to large LOCA with failure to recover onsite or offsite electrical power) was selected as the base case Surry accident, and the AE scenario (a large break LOCA with one initiating event and a combination of failures in two emergency cooling systems) was selected as the base case Peach Bottom accident. Radionuclide release was bounded for both scenarios by including spray operation and arrested sequences as variations of the base scenarios. Sandia National Laboratories used the source terms to calculate dose to selected containment regions. Scenarios with sprays operational resulted in a total dose comparable to that (2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rads) used in current equipment qualification testing. The base case scenarios resulted in some calculated doses roughly an order of magnitude above the current 2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rad equipment qualification test region. 8 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Muscle dynamics differences between legs in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Eamonn P; Harrison, Andrew J

    2007-02-01

    Differences in muscle dynamics between the preferred and nonpreferred jumping legs of subjects in maximal, explosive exercise were examined. Eight subjects performed nonfatiguing bouts of single-legged drop jumps and rebound jumps on a force sledge apparatus. Measures of flight time, reactive strength index, peak vertical force, and vertical leg-spring stiffness were obtained for 3 drop jumps and 3 rebound jumps on both legs. Subjects utilized a stiffer leg spring and a more explosive jumping action in the nonpreferred leg when performing a cyclical rebound jumping task in comparison to a single drop jump task (observed through differences in vertical leg-spring stiffness, peak vertical force, and reactive strength index, p < 0.05). The preferred leg performed equally well in both tasks. Between-leg analysis showed no differences in dependent variables between the preferred and the nonpreferred leg in the rebound jumping protocol. However, the drop jump protocol showed significant performance differences, with flight time and reactive strength index greater in the preferred leg than the nonpreferred leg (p < 0.05). We hypothesize that, throughout the lifespan, both legs are equally trained in cyclical rebound jumping tasks through running. However, because a preferred leg must be selected when performing any one-off, single-legged jump, imbalances in this specific task develop over time with consistent selection of a preferred jumping leg. The data demonstrate that the rebound jump protocol is representative of the symmetrical mechanics of forward running and that leg-spring stiffness is modulated depending on the demands of the specific task involved. Strength and conditioning practitioners should give careful consideration to appropriate jump protocol selection and should exercise caution when comparing laboratory results to data gathered in field testing. PMID:17313262

  8. Chronic Lower Leg Pain in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Rachel Biber; Gregory, Andrew J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic lower leg pain in athletes can be a frustrating problem for patients and a difficult diagnosis for clinicians. Myriad approaches have been suggested to evaluate these conditions. With the continued evolution of diagnostic studies, evidence-based guidance for a standard approach is unfortunately sparse. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched from January 1980 to May 2011 to identify publications regarding chronic lower leg pain in athletes (excluding conditions related to the foot), including differential diagnosis, clinical presentation, physical examination, history, diagnostic workup, and treatment. Results: Leg pain in athletes can be caused by many conditions, with the most frequent being medial tibial stress syndrome; chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, nerve entrapment, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome are also considerations. Conservative management is the mainstay of care for the majority of causes of chronic lower leg pain; however, surgical intervention may be necessary. Conclusion: Chronic lower extremity pain in athletes includes a wide differential and can pose diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. PMID:23016078

  9. Mechanics of six-legged runners.

    PubMed

    Full, R J; Tu, M S

    1990-01-01

    Six-legged pedestrians, cockroaches, use a running gait during locomotion. The gait was defined by measuring ground reaction forces and mechanical energy fluctuations of the center of mass in Blaberus discoidalis (Serville) as they travelled over a miniature force platform. These six-legged animals produce horizontal and vertical ground-reaction patterns of force similar to those found in two-, four- and eight-legged runners. Lateral forces were less than half the vertical force fluctuations. At speeds between 0.08 and 0.66 ms-1, horizontal kinetic and gravitational potential energy changes were in phase. This pattern of energy fluctuation characterizes the bouncing gaits used by other animals that run. Blaberus discoidalis attained a maximum sustainable stride frequency of 13 Hz at 0.35 ms-1, the same speed and frequency predicted for a mammal of the same mass. Despite differences in body form, the mass-specific energy used to move the center of mass a given distance (0.9 J kg-1m-1) was the same for cockroaches, ghost crabs, mammals, and birds. Similarities in force production, stride frequency and mechanical energy production during locomotion suggest that there may be common design constraints in terrestrial locomotion which scale with body mass and are relatively independent of body form, leg number and skeletal type.

  10. A large vascular leiomyoma of the leg.

    PubMed

    Cigna, E; Maruccia, M; Malzone, G; Malpassini, F; Soda, G; Drudi, F M

    2012-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman with a subcutaneous, large vascular leiomyoma of the leg is presented. The patient had a painful, slow-growing, right medial malleolus mass. Clinical symptoms, US images and histopathologic features are reported. Vascular leiomyoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of painful, lower extremity subcutaneous masses also in lesions of larger dimensions.

  11. Stress fractures of the foot and leg.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S A; Saltzman, C L; Albright, J P

    1993-04-01

    Stress fractures are overuse injuries of bone. Basketball players are particularly prone to develop the notoriously "troublesome" stress fractures of the foot and leg. This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of stress fractures, with specific emphasis on the care of the basketball athlete.

  12. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  13. Leg stiffness measures depend on computational method.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Eriksson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Leg stiffness is often computed from ground reaction force (GRF) registrations of vertical hops to estimate the force-resisting capacity of the lower-extremity during ground contact, with leg stiffness values incorporated in a spring-mass model to describe human motion. Individual biomechanical characteristics, including leg stiffness, were investigated in 40 healthy males. Our aim is to report and discuss the use of 13 different computational methods for evaluating leg stiffness from a double-legged repetitive hopping task, using only GRF registrations. Four approximations for the velocity integration constant were combined with three mathematical expressions, giving 12 methods for computing stiffness using double integrations. One frequency-based method that considered ground contact times was also trialled. The 13 methods thus defined were used to compute stiffness in four extreme cases, which were the stiffest, and most compliant, consistent and variable subjects. All methods provided different stiffness measures for a given individual, but the between-method variations in stiffness were consistent across the four atypical subjects. The frequency-based method apparently overestimated the actual stiffness values, whereas double integrations' measures were more consistent. In double integrations, the choice of the integration constant and mathematical expression considerably affected stiffness values, as variations during hopping were more or less emphasized. Stating a zero centre of mass position at take-off gave more consistent results, and taking a weighted-average of the force or displacement curve was more forgiving to variations in performance. In any case, stiffness values should always be accompanied by a detailed description of their evaluation methods, as our results demonstrated that computational methods affect calculated stiffness. PMID:24188972

  14. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  15. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  16. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  17. Lateral lower leg perforator flaps: an anatomical study to localize and classify lateral lower leg perforators.

    PubMed

    Hupkens, Pieter; Schijns, Wendy; Van Abeelen, Marjolijn; Kooloos, Jan G M; Slater, Nicholas J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing use of lateral lower leg perforator flaps, comprehensive anatomical data are still lacking. The aim of this article was to comprehensively document the pattern of usable lateral lower leg perforators. Systematic mapping of 16 cadaver leg perforators in a well-defined area was performed to elucidate location, course, length, diameter, and origin. Overall, 197 perforators were found in 16 lateral lower legs. The mean number of perforators per leg with a diameter ≥ 0.3 mm was 13.4 ± 3.6. Most perforators were found in the distal third (39.0%), followed by the middle third (32.0%), and proximal third (29.0%). A musculocutaneous course was found in 26.9% of the perforators, whereas 73.1% revealed a septocutaneous course. Most septocutaneous perforators (50.0%) were found in the distal third and most musculocutaneous perforators (58.5%) in the proximal third (P < 0.001). The majority of perforators originated from the anterior tibial artery (53.0%), followed by the peroneal artery (41.6%), and the popliteal artery (5.1%). Popliteal artery perforators (1.64 mm) were significantly larger than anterior tibial artery (0.91 mm) and peroneal artery perforators (1.02 mm; P < 0.001). These results may facilitate tissue transfer around the lateral lower leg.

  18. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  19. TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED PWR LOCA GENERATED DEBRIS.

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. MAJI; B. MARSHALL; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    In the unlikely event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), break jet impingement would dislodge thermal insulation from nearby piping, as well as other materials within the containment, such as paint chips, concrete dust, and fire barrier materials. Steam/water flows induced by the break and by the containment sprays would transport debris to the containment floor. Subsequently, debris would likely transport to and accumulate on the suction sump screens of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps, thereby potentially degrading ECCS performance and possibly even failing the ECCS. In 1998, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a generic study (Generic Safety Issue-191) to evaluate the potential for the accumulation of LOCA related debris on the PWR sump screen and the consequent loss of ECCS pump net positive suction head (NPSH). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), supporting the resolution of GSI-191, was tasked with developing a method for estimating debris transport in PWR containments to estimate the quantity of debris that would accumulate on the sump screen for use in plant specific evaluations. The analytical method proposed by LANL, to predict debris transport within the water that would accumulate on the containment floor, is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with experimental debris transport data to predict debris transport and accumulation on the screen. CFD simulations of actual plant containment designs would provide flow data for a postulated accident in that plant, e.g., three-dimensional patterns of flow velocities and flow turbulence. Small-scale experiments would determine parameters defining the debris transport characteristics for each type of debris. The containment floor transport methodology will merge debris transport characteristics with CFD results to provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of debris transport within the containment floor pool and

  20. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  1. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  2. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  3. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  4. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  5. Analysis of a Defected Dissimilar Metal Weld in a PWR Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Efsing, P.; Lagerstrom, J.

    2002-07-01

    During the refueling outage 2000, inspections of the RC-loops of one of the Ringhals PWR-units, Ringhals 4, indicated surface breaking defects in the axial direction of the piping in a dissimilar weld between the Low alloy steel nozzle and the stainless safe end in the hot leg. In addition some indications were found that there were embedded defects in the weld material. These defects were judged as being insignificant to the structural integrity. The welds were inspected in 1993 with the result that no significant indications were found. The weld it self is a double U weld, where the thickness of the material is ideally 79,5 mm. Its is constructed by Inconel 182 weld material. At the nozzle a buttering was applied, also by Inconel 182. The In-service inspection, ISI, of the object indicated four axial defects, 9-16 mm deep. During fabrication, the areas where the defects are found were repaired at least three times, onto a maximum depth of 32 mm. To evaluate the defects, 6 boat samples from the four axial defects were cut from the perimeter and shipped to the hot-cell laboratory for further examination. This examination revealed that the two deep defects had been under sized by the ISI outside the requirement set by the inspection tolerances, while the two shallow defects were over sized, but within the tolerances of the detection system. When studying the safety case it became evident that there were several missing elements in the way this problems is handled with respect to the Swedish safety evaluation code. Among these the most notable at the beginning was the absence of reliable fracture mechanical data such as crack growth laws and fracture toughness at elevated temperature. Both these questions were handled by the project. The fracture mechanical evaluation has focused on a fit for service principal. Thus defects both in the unaffected zones and the disturbed zones, boat sample cutouts, of the weld have been analyzed. With reference to the Swedish safety

  6. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  7. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  8. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; et al

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  9. Chronic leg ulcers in Werner's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yeong, E K; Yang, C C

    2004-01-01

    We report two siblings suffered from Werner's syndrome, which is a rare premature aging disorder caused by genetic mutations. They developed premature aging during adolescence with loss and graying of hair, short stature, baldness, atrophic skin, thin extremities, flat feet, 'bird' face and cataracts. Multiple chronic ulcers were noted over the feet in both patients. Healing was prolonged because of atrophic subcutaneous tissue, poor perfusion, impaired fibroblast activity and the loss of normal foot architecture. Treatment of the ulcers was challenging, as flap options were limited over the lower third of the leg and skin grafting was not easy as there was a lack of healthy granulations. However, we have successfully closed the ulcers with Integra artificial skin and ultra-thin split thickness skin grafting with the scalp as donor site. The main purpose of this paper is to alert physicians to this syndrome when treatments are being planned for patients with chronic leg ulcers.

  10. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  11. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  12. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  13. Auger Tension Leg Platform cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.

    1996-04-01

    Corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure is described. Each major type of structural component has its own combination of coating and cathodic protection (CP) systems designed for a 35-year lifetime. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of CP against seawater corrosion.

  14. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Material Samples: Tensile and SSRT Testing (Nonproprietary Version)

    SciTech Connect

    M.Krug, R.Shogan

    2004-09-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs requires detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel (internals) subjected to such conditions. This project studied the effects of reactor service on the mechanical and corrosion properties of samples of baffle plate, former plate, and core barrel from a decommissioned PWR.

  15. Advanced pressurized water reactor for improved resource utilization, part II - composite advanced PWR concept

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.; Kirby, K.D.; Mitchell, W III

    1981-09-15

    This report evaluates the enhanced resource utilization in an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept using a composite of selected improvements identified in a companion study. The selected improvements were in the areas of reduced loss of neutrons to control poisons, reduced loss of neutrons in leakage from the core, and improved blanket/reflector concepts. These improvements were incorporated into a single composite advanced PWR. A preliminary assessment of resource requirements and costs and impact on safety are presented.

  16. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J S; Harrison, D G; Morgenstern, M

    1992-03-01

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents.

  17. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  18. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  19. How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... or cold bath Massaging the affected limb(s) Using heat or ice packs on the affected limb(s) Doing ...

  20. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing.

  1. Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Novel Segmented-Leg Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Case, Eldon D.; Matchanov, Nuraddin; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Barnard, James; Cauchy, Charles; Hendricks, Terry; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of segmented-leg PbTe-based thermoelectric modules. This work featured a thermoelectric module measurement system that was constructed and used to measure 47-couple segmented thermoelectric power generation modules fabricated by Tellurex Corporation using n-type Bi2Te3- x Se x to Ag0.86Pb19+ x SbTe20 legs and p-type Bi x Sb2- x Te3 to Ag0.9Pb9Sn9Sb0.6Te20 legs. The modules were measured under vacuum with hot-side and cold-side temperatures of approximately 670 K and 312 K, respectively. In addition, the measurements on the PbTe-based materials are compared with measurements performed on Bi2Te3 reference modules. Efficiency values as high as 6.56% were measured on these modules. In addition to the measurement system description and the measurement results on these modules, infrared images of the modules that were used to help identify nonuniformities are also presented.

  2. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  3. Leg muscle activation and distance setting of the leg cycle ergometer for use by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.

  4. Profile of altered brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Connor, James R; Ponnuru, Padmavathi; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Patton, Stephanie M; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2011-04-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by an urgency to move the legs during periods of rest. Data from a variety of sources provide a compelling argument that the amount of iron in the brain is lower in individuals with restless legs syndrome compared with neurologically normal individuals. Moreover, a significant percentage of patients with restless legs syndrome are responsive to intravenous iron therapy. The mechanism underlying the decreased iron concentrations in restless legs syndrome brains is unknown. We hypothesize that the source of the brain iron deficit is at the blood-brain interface. Thus we analysed the expression of iron management proteins in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus and the brain microvasculature in post-mortem tissues. The choroid plexus, obtained at autopsy, from 18 neurologically normal controls and 14 individuals who had primary restless legs syndrome was subjected to histochemical staining for iron and immunostaining for iron management proteins. Iron and heavy chain ferritin staining was reduced in the epithelial cells of choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Divalent metal transporter, ferroportin, transferrin and its receptor were upregulated in the choroid plexus in restless legs syndrome. Microvessels were isolated from the motor cortex of 11 restless legs syndrome and 14 control brains obtained at autopsy and quantitative immunoblot analyses was performed. Expression of heavy chain ferritin, transferrin and its receptor in the microvessels from restless legs syndrome was significantly decreased compared with the controls but divalent metal protein 1, ferroportin, prohepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and light-chain ferritin remained unchanged. The presence of an iron regulatory protein was demonstrated in the brain microvasculature and the activity of this protein is decreased in restless legs syndrome; a finding similar to our earlier report in neuromelanin cells from the substantia nigra

  5. Performance and energy expenditure in cold environments.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the associations between physical performance and energy expenditure in cold environments. The basic question in cold is how to maintain adequate thermal insulation without marked cold or heat strain and with minimal impairment on physical performance. 24-hour energy expenditure is increased by 105-156 kJ when ambient temperature decreases by 1 degrees C either due to increased clothing, lowered body temperatures or environmental conditions like snow, ice or darkness. Clothing and other protective garments decrease performance due to the weight, bulkiness and friction, and by covering body areas which are important for sensory functions. Each additional kg in clothing weight increases energy costs approximately by 3% and each additional layer by 4%. Increased energy costs are associated with a decrease in physical performance: the decrease is task specific, and roughly comparable to the changes in the energy costs. The decrement in performance can be minimized by decreasing clothing weight and bulkiness as well as the friction between the clothing layers as well as the number of clothing layers. Minimal friction is important in sites where large range of movements is expected like in trouser legs and sleeves of jackets. PMID:17929641

  6. On the biomimetic design of agile-robot legs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented.

  7. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  8. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  9. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  10. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  11. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  12. Cold pool dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  13. Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tania Rita Moreno de Oliveira; dos Santos, Talita Suzany Siqueira; Lopes, Ramon Rodrigues de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is a widespread infectious and contagious disease. Clinicians and specialists view leprosy broadly as a systemic infection, since, in its manifestations, it mimics many conditions, such as rheumatic, vascular, ENT, neurological and dermatological diseases. There are few studies that characterize the factors associated with ulcers in leprosy. These injuries should be prevented and treated promptly to avoid serious problems like secondary infections, sepsis, carcinomatous degeneration and amputations. We describe a patient with ulcers on his legs, involving late diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy.

  14. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  15. Structural response analysis of tension leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Oka, N.; Ozaki, M.

    1984-03-01

    A linear response analysis method of the Tension Leg Platform (TLP) subjected to regular waves is proposed. In this analysis method, flexibility of the superstructure can be taken into account in the equations of motion; response motions, tension variations of tendons and structural member forces are solved simultaneously. The applicability of this method is confirmed by comparison with the test results on two kinds of small-scale TLP models. The structural responses obtained from these calculations and their effects on tension variation of tendons are studied. Finally, several kinds of structural response characteristics are conclusively discussed.

  16. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  17. Symmetry Analysis of Thermoelectric Energy Converters with Inhomogeneous Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhuev, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    Symmetry analysis has been applied to thermoelectric energy converters [thermoelectric generators (TEG), coolers (TEC), and heaters (TEH)] with inhomogeneous legs. The features of the crystallographic symmetry of thermoelectric materials and the symmetry of legs, thermocouples, and modules are studied. The effect of symmetry on the figure of merit Z of thermoelectric energy converters is considered. A general rule for proper placement of legs in thermoelectric converters is developed. A modified tetratomic classification for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs (TEGa, TEGb, TEC, and TEH) is proposed. An increase in Z for thermoelectric energy converters with inhomogeneous legs is due to the bulk thermoelectric effect. An increase in Z gives the reduction of irreversible processes in the modules (Joule heating and thermal conductivity), accompanying breaking of the symmetry of the legs. It is found that violations of the symmetry requirements can lead to significant energy losses in converters.

  18. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Kane J; Doma, Kenji; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  19. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  20. Leg length discrepancy following irradiation for childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.

  1. Leg ulcers: a new symptom of Blau syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Veerle; Hofman, Sarah; Dahan, Karin; Beele, Hilde

    2008-01-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition, typically defined by granulomatous polyarthritis, uveitis and skin eruption. Biopsy specimens demonstrate non-caseating granulomas in all lesions. We present a case of Blau syndrome associated with large recalcitrant leg ulcers. Biopsies taken in the leg ulcers of our patient systematically showed granulomas. Although leg ulcers have not previously been described as a part of Blau syndrome, we assume that the ulcerations in this case form part of Blau syndrome.

  2. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis.

  3. Decay heat removal systems: design criteria and options. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Design criteria and alternate decay heat removal system concepts which have evolved in several different countries throughout the world were compared. The conclusion was reached that the best way to improve the reliability of pressurized water reactor (PWR) decay heat removal is first to focus on improving the reliability of the auxiliary feedwater and high pressure injection systems to cope with certain loss of feedwater transients and small loss of coolant accidents and then to assess how well these systems can handle special emergencies (e.g., sabotage, earthquake, airplane crash). For boiling water reactors (BWRs), it was concluded that emphasis should be placed first on improving the reliability of the residual heat removal and high pressure service water systems to cope with a loss of suppression pool cooling following a loss of feedwater transient and then to assess how well these systems can handle special emergencies. It was found that, for both PWRs and BWRs, a design objective for alternate decay heat removal systems should be at least an order of magnitude reduction in core meltdown probability.

  4. Experience in PWR and BWR mixed-oxide fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, G.J.; Krebs, W.; Urban, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Germany has adopted the strategy of a closed fuel cycle using reprocessing and recycling. The central issue today is plutonium recycling by the use of U-Pu mixed oxide (MOX) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The design of MOX fuel assemblies and fuel management in MOX-containing cores are strongly influenced by the nuclear properties of the plutonium isotopes. Optimized MOX fuel assembly designs for PWRs currently use up to three types of MOX fuel rods having different plutonium contents with natural uranium or uranium tailings as carrier material but without burnable absorbers. The MOX fuel assembly designs for BWRs use four to six rod types with different plutonium contents and Gd[sub 2]O[sub 3]/UO[sub 2] burnable absorber rods. Both the PWR and the BWR designs attain good burnup equivalence and compatibility with uranium fuel assemblies. High flexibility exists in the loading schemes relative to the position and number of MOX fuel assemblies in the reloads and in the core as a whole. The Siemens experience with MOX fuel assemblies is based on the insertion of 318 MOX fuel assemblies in eight PWRs and 168 in BWRs and pressurized heavy water reactors so far. The primary operating results include information on the cycle length, power distribution, reactivity coefficients, and control rod worth of cores containing MOX fuel assemblies.

  5. Barium silicate glass/Inconel X-750 interaction. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Jr., P. V.; Siegel, W. T.; Miley, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Water reactor safety programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have required the development of specialized instrumentation. An example is the electrical conductivity-sensitive liquid level transducer developed for use in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) in which the operation of the sensing probe relies upon the passage of current through the water between the center pin of the electrode and its shell such that when water is present the resulting voltage is low, and conversely, when water is absent the voltage is high. The transducer's ceramic seal is a hot-pressed glass ceramic; its metal housing is Inconel X-750. The ceramic material provides an essential dielectric barrier between the center pin and the outer housing. The operation of the probe as well as the integrity of the PWR environment requires a hermetically-bonded seal between the ceramic and the metal. However, during testing, an increasing number of probe assemblies failed owing to poor glass-to-metal seals as well as void formation within the ceramic. Therefore, a program was initiated to characterize the metallic surface with respect to pre-oxidation treatment and determine optimum conditions for wetting and bonding of the metal by the glass to obtain baseline data relevant to production of acceptable transducer seals.

  6. Perception of imposed leg length inequality in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Seamus; Kernohan, George; Fitzpatrick, Claire; Hill, Janet; Beverland, David

    2010-01-01

    Lower limb length differences of up to 10mm exist in 60% - 95% of the population.There are usually no symptoms or functional effects. Following Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA), satisfactory clinical results can be spoiled by dissatisfaction due to a change in leg length. Although the change in leg length may be modest in comparison to the normal variation, the patient may perceive this as a leg length discrepancy. To study the average threshold for perception, artificial leg length discrepancies of 5 mm to 25 mm were created in 30 young healthy adults using calibrated wooden blocks. Responses were recorded and analysed using a chi-squared test for independence and an independent measures t-test. Awareness of leg length discrepancy was related to the magnitude of the discrepancy (X2 (15)= 156.6, p<0.05 on the right side, and X2 (15)= 178.725 p<0.05 on the left side). It was shown that no subject reported a 5mm increase in leg length to be uncomfortable while all subjects were aware of leg length discrepancies of 20 mm and 25 mm. When there was a discrepancy of 10 mm in either lower limb, 29 out of 30 subjects (96.7%) thought there was a difference in leg length. Consequently it is suggested that during total hip arthroplasty the surgeon should aim for a leg length discrepancy of less than 10 mm. PMID:21157756

  7. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  8. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) Print A A A Text Size What's in ... person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't just show ...

  9. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  10. Liquid metal cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Hundal, Rolv

    1976-01-01

    A cold trap assembly for removing impurities from a liquid metal being provided with a hole between the incoming impure liquid metal and purified outgoing liquid metal which acts as a continuous bleed means and thus prevents the accumulation of cover gases within the cold trap assembly.

  11. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  12. Lower Extremity Strength and Active Range of Motion in College Baseball Pitchers: A Comparison between Stance Leg and Kick Leg.

    PubMed

    Tippett, S R

    1986-01-01

    The role of the lower extremities and torso is vital in the pitching mechanism. However, a review of the literature reveals information primarily dealing with the upper extremity's role in throwing. This pilot study was conducted to: 1) determine selected lower extremity strength and range of motion measurements in sixteen college baseball pitchers, and 2) compare measurements in the stance leg to the kick leg. When preseason profiling is not possible, clinical norms for those treating college pitchers can be valuable in proper rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Also, by determining trends in lower extremity strength and motion when comparing kick (plant) leg to stance (drive) leg, a better understanding of lower extremity kinematics in the pitching act can be appreciated. Statistically significant differences were found in the active range of motion in plantarflexion, hip internal rotation, and hip extension of the stance leg, as well as hip flexion of the kick leg. lsokinetic evaluations at slow and fast speeds revealed significant differences in the strength of ankle dorsiflexors and hip flexors at slow speeds of the kick leg. Strength of the hamstrings on the kick leg was significant at fast speeds as was strength of the hip external rotators on the stance leg. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(1):10-14.

  13. Simulating the Effect on Criticality of Simultaneous Matrix Degradation and Assembly Collapse for the 21 PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Alsaed

    1999-09-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the effects of fission products loss on the reactivity of commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in 21 PWR waste packages (WPs) in the event of simultaneous fuel matrix degradation and assembly collapse.

  14. Proposed signature of Anderson localization and correlation-induced delocalization in an N-leg optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakyan, T. A.; Kestner, J. P.; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-11-15

    We propose a realization of the one-dimensional random dimer model and certain N-leg generalizations using cold atoms in an optical lattice. We show that these models exhibit multiple delocalization energies that depend strongly on the symmetry properties of the corresponding Hamiltonian, and we provide analytical and numerical results for the localization length as a function of energy. We demonstrate that the N-leg systems possess similarities with their one-dimensional ancestors but are demonstrably distinct. The existence of critical delocalization energies leads to dips in the momentum distribution that serve as a clear signal of the localization-delocalization transition. These momentum distributions are different for models with different group symmetries and are identical for those with the same symmetry.

  15. FR Number Effect on Downcomer Flow pattern Development in Cold Leg Injection Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Gavritas, Mirela; Woods, Brian G.

    2002-07-01

    In addition to acquiring data for code verification, the recent rapid Boron dilution (RBD) test program at the University of Maryland 2 x 4 Thermalhydraulic Loop Facility (UM 2 x 4 Loop) aimed to resolve several issues related to physical phenomena that can affect the re-boration of a boron dilute slug as it travels to the core. Among these issues, confirmation was sought that buoyancy plays a minimal role in the mixing of the slug as it travels through the downcomer. The tests showed, however, that the Froude (Fr) number substantially impacts the downcomer flow pattern. The slug distribution in the downcomer clearly changes from penetrating downwards along a single jet when the Fr number is smaller than approximately 6 to splitting into two jets that form a stagnation region under the injection site when Fr exceeds approximately 10. This observation was initially made evaluating the evolution histories of Fr numbers throughout individual tests. Closer examination of a broad family of tests showed that the flow pattern can actually be predicted based on Fr numbers determined from initial and boundary test conditions. Even though global figures of merit for mixing, e.g., azimuthally averaged scalar descriptors of mixing at a horizontal level of the downcomer, are only weakly affected by Fr number changes, this finding has substantial implications to the computational assessment of rapid Boron-dilution (RBD) consequences. A thorough understanding of the flow field is an essential prerequisite in computational fluid dynamics modeling. (authors)

  16. Assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Putney, J.M.; Preece, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The assessment is based on a review of code assessment calculations performed in the UK and elsewhere, detailed calculations against a series of commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR and analytical investigations of the phenomena involved in normal and abnormal SG operation. A number of modelling deficiencies are identified and their implications for PWR safety analysis are discussed -- including methods for compensating for the deficiencies through changes to the input deck. Consideration is also given as to whether the deficiencies will still be present in the successor code RELAP5/MOD3.

  17. Study on Equilibrium Characteristics of Thorium-Plutonium-Minor Actinides Mixed Oxides Fuel in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Waris, A.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    A study on characteristics of thorium-plutonium-minor actinides utilization in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the equilibrium burnup model has been conducted. For a comprehensive evaluation, several fuel cycles scenario have been included in the present study with the variation of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) of PWR core design. The results obviously exhibit that the neutron spectra grow to be harder with decreasing of the MFR. Moreover, the neutron spectra also turn into harder with the rising number of confined heavy nuclides. The required {sup 233}U concentration for criticality of reactor augments with the increasing of MFR for all heavy nuclides confinement and thorium and uranium confinement in PWR.

  18. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is an underdiagnosed cause of chronic exertional leg pain. The syndrome most commonly occurs in young adult recreational runners, elite athletes, and military recruits. CECS is caused by increased intracompartmental pressure within a fascial space; however, the mechanism of why pain occurs is unknown. Symptoms are classically pain in the affected compartment at the same time, distance, or intensity of exercise. CECS is a clinical diagnosis; however, it is confirmed by intracompartmental pressure testing. Fasciotomy is the treatment of choice for athletes who would like to maintain the same level of activity. Athletes who have a release of the anterior and lateral compartments have a high success rate. PMID:21063498

  19. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added. PMID:9676324

  20. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added.

  1. Concrete hulls for tension-leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, J.G. ); Fjeld, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the main features of a concrete-hull tension-leg-platform (TLP) concept developed for the Heidrun field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The hydrodynamic response and the methods adopted to optimize the hull dimensions, as well as the mooring system and hull mechanical outfitting, are discussed first. Then construction methods are briefly described. Inspection, maintenance, and repair are also addressed. Finally, the advantages of the concrete-hull TLP concept are summarized, including the concrete hull's adaptability to a large range of design requirements, low cost, and short construction time. This paper shows that the concrete-hull TLP is a very cost-efficient solution for the development of deepwater fields.

  2. A case of bacillary angiomatosis presenting as leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Karakaş, M; Baba, M; Homan, S; Akman, A; Acar, M A; Memişoğlu, H R; Gümürdülü, D

    2003-01-01

    We report a 32-year-old immunocompetent man who had multiple leg ulcers caused by bacillary angiomatosis without a history of direct contact with cats. Bacillary angiomatosis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers in cases of unknown aetiology.

  3. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  4. Leg Injuries and Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercises: Lying (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: Sitting (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Active Leg Range of Motion Exercises: ...

  5. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  6. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Salman, Saleh Mohammad Yaser

    2011-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease. PMID:21422649

  7. EMGs Analysis of Lumbar, Pelvic and Leg Muscles in Leg Length Discrepancy Adolescents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo-Barroso, Fernando; Márquez-Gamiño, Sergio; Caudillo-Cisneros, Cipriana

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate differences in surface electromyography (EMGs) activity of lumbar, pelvic and leg muscles in adolescents with and without LLD. EMGs activity records were taken during rest and maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC). Peak to peak amplitude (PPA), mean rectified voltage (MRV) and root mean square (RMS), were analyzed. Statistical differences between short and large sides of LLD adolescents, were found (p<0.05). Higher values occurred in shorter limb muscles. No significative differences were found between left and right legs of the control subjects. When EMGs values were compared between short and large sides of LLD subjects with ipsilateral sides of controls, selective, statistically different EMGs values were exhibited. It is suggested that adaptative behavior to secondary biomechanical and/or neural changes occurred, even when none clinical symptoms were reported. The observations were remarked by the absence of EMGs differences between right and left sides of control subjects.

  8. WG-MOX Fuel Zr-tube Neutron Spectrum Comparison in ATR and PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2005-02-01

    An experiment containing WG-MOX fuel has been designed and irradiated from 1998 to 2004 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Important neutronics parameters were computed using novel Monte Carlo methods. The purpose of this summary is to compare the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide fuel (WG-MOX) Zr-tube’s neutron spectrum in ATR and PWR. The results indicate that the Zrtube’s neutron spectrum in ATR are softer than in PWR.

  9. WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR ASSEMBLY - WASTE PACKAGE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1996-07-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to compare the criticality potential of Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel with the Design Basis spent nuclear fuel (SNF) analyzed previously (Ref. 5.1, 5.2). The basis of comparison will be the conceptual design Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package concepts. The objectives of this evaluation are to show that the criticality potential of the MOX fuel is equal to or lower than the DBF or, if necessary, indicate what additional measures are required to make it so.

  10. Categorization of PWR accident sequences and guidelines for fault trees: seismic initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1984-09-01

    This study developed a set of dominant accident sequences that could be applied generically to domestic commercial PWRs as a standardized basis for a probabilistic seismic risk assessment. This was accomplished by ranking the Zion 1 accident sequences. The pertinent PWR safety systems were compared on a plant-by-plant basis to determine the applicability of the dominant accident sequences of Zion 1 to other PWR plants. The functional event trees were developed to describe the system functions that must work or not work in order for a certain accident sequence to happen, one for pipe breaks and one for transients.

  11. Managing and promoting change: implementing the Leg Club model.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Ellen

    2005-09-01

    Patient knowledge of their disease may increase concordance to compression therapy. The Lindsay Leg Club model (Lindsay, 2004) empowers the community nursing team to truly get to know their communities and deliver local, high-quality, evidence-based care for patients with leg ulcers and leg related problems. The author's experience of opening a Leg Club has lead to changes in clinical practice: re-evaluation of the use of long stretch bandages in favour of short stretch; replacing conventional compression bandage systems with two piece graduated compression hosiery; increased patient concordance post healing with increased use of compression hosiery; the introduction of toe bandaging and appropriate long-term management for those patients with lymphoedema; and developing the role of the nursing auxiliary in leg ulcer care.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis in venous leg ulcer patients.

    PubMed

    Tavadia, S; Bianchi, J; Dawe, R S; McEvoy, M; Wiggins, E; Hamill, E; Urcelay, M; Strong, A M M; Douglas, W S

    2003-05-01

    Our aim was to determine the frequency and nature of contact sensitivity in venous leg ulcer patients in Lanarkshire. We performed patch testing with the European standard series, antimicrobials and medicaments on 200 patients referred to our leg ulcer clinics. Positive patch tests were found in 136 (68%) patients. Multiple allergies occurred in 102 (51%). The most frequent allergen groups were fragrances (30.5%), antimicrobials (19.5%), topical excipients (19.5%), rubber accelerators (13.5%) and topical corticosteroids (8%). We also found a high prevalence of positive patch tests to Intrasite gel (9.5%) and Hioxyl cream (8.5%), medicaments which are commonly used to treat leg ulcers in our area. Contact sensitivity is common in venous leg ulcer patients and has important implications for patient management. The allergens involved vary depending on local nursing practice. We suggest that all venous leg ulcer patients be patch tested with a locally relevant patch test series.

  13. One-leg standing balance and sports activity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Foldspang, A; Vestergaard, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to estimate one-leg standing balance in athletes and to investigate the relationship with type and amount of sports activity. The study comprised 339 active, competitive, non-pregnant athletes, aged 14-24 years from two sports clubs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark. The athletes answered a questionnaire about occupation and sports activity. One-leg standing balance was measured as the maximum time of one-legged balancing. The mean of the maximum time of one-legged balancing was 29 s (interquartile range 11.25-33.5 s). One-leg standing balance was positively associated with years of participation in basketball and was not associated with sex and age. We conclude that participation in basketball may induce significantly adaptive effects on standing balance.

  14. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present. PMID:27213008

  15. Detection of Periodic Leg Movements by Machine Learning Methods Using Polysomnographic Parameters Other Than Leg Electromyography.

    PubMed

    Umut, İlhan; Çentik, Güven

    2016-01-01

    The number of channels used for polysomnographic recording frequently causes difficulties for patients because of the many cables connected. Also, it increases the risk of having troubles during recording process and increases the storage volume. In this study, it is intended to detect periodic leg movement (PLM) in sleep with the use of the channels except leg electromyography (EMG) by analysing polysomnography (PSG) data with digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning methods. PSG records of 153 patients of different ages and genders with PLM disorder diagnosis were examined retrospectively. A novel software was developed for the analysis of PSG records. The software utilizes the machine learning algorithms, statistical methods, and DSP methods. In order to classify PLM, popular machine learning methods (multilayer perceptron, K-nearest neighbour, and random forests) and logistic regression were used. Comparison of classified results showed that while K-nearest neighbour classification algorithm had higher average classification rate (91.87%) and lower average classification error value (RMSE = 0.2850), multilayer perceptron algorithm had the lowest average classification rate (83.29%) and the highest average classification error value (RMSE = 0.3705). Results showed that PLM can be classified with high accuracy (91.87%) without leg EMG record being present.

  16. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  17. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure. PMID:24005251

  18. 78 FR 68909 - Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)''....

  19. The cold reading technique.

    PubMed

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  20. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... Below are symptoms of cold wave lotion poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Mouth irritation Burning and redness of the eyes Possibly serious damage to ...

  1. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Fashner J, Ericson K, Werner S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am Fam Physician. 2012; ... gov/pubmed/22962927 . Melio FR, Berge LR. Upper respiratory tract infections. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  2. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain.

    PubMed

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Hubicki, Christian M; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W; Daley, Monica A

    2014-11-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force-length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force-length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics.

  3. Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

    PubMed Central

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Hubicki, Christian M.; Blum, Yvonne; Renjewski, Daniel; Hurst, Jonathan W.; Daley, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cursorial ground birds are paragons of bipedal running that span a 500-fold mass range from quail to ostrich. Here we investigate the task-level control priorities of cursorial birds by analysing how they negotiate single-step obstacles that create a conflict between body stability (attenuating deviations in body motion) and consistent leg force–length dynamics (for economy and leg safety). We also test the hypothesis that control priorities shift between body stability and leg safety with increasing body size, reflecting use of active control to overcome size-related challenges. Weight-support demands lead to a shift towards straighter legs and stiffer steady gait with increasing body size, but it remains unknown whether non-steady locomotor priorities diverge with size. We found that all measured species used a consistent obstacle negotiation strategy, involving unsteady body dynamics to minimise fluctuations in leg posture and loading across multiple steps, not directly prioritising body stability. Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length. All species used similar stance leg actuation patterns, involving asymmetric force–length trajectories and posture-dependent actuation to add or remove energy depending on landing conditions. We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain. We suggest that running ground birds target the closely coupled priorities of economy and leg safety as the direct imperatives of control, with adequate stability achieved through appropriately tuned intrinsic dynamics. PMID:25355848

  4. Experimental evidence of oxygen thermo-migration in PWR UO2 fuels during power ramps using in-situ oxido-reduction indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Sercombe, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Noirot, J.; Roure, I.; Blay, T.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-11-01

    The present study describes the in-situ electrochemical modifications which affect irradiated PWR UO2 fuels in the course of a power ramp, by means of in-situ oxido-reduction indicators such as chromium or neo-formed chemical phases. It is shown that irradiated fuels (of nominal stoichiometry close to 2.000) under temperature gradient such as that occurring during high power transients are submitted to strong oxido-reduction perturbations, owing to radial migration of oxygen from the hot center to the cold periphery of the pellet. The oxygen redistribution, similar to that encountered in Sodium Fast Reactors fuels, induces a massive reduction/precipitation of the fission products Mo, Ru, Tc and Cr (if present) in the high temperature pellet section and the formation of highly oxidized neo-formed grey phases of U4O9 type in its cold section, of lower temperature. The parameters governing the oxidation states of UO2 fuels under power ramps are finally debated from a cross-analysis of our results and other published information. The potential chemical benefits brought by oxido-reductive additives in UO2 fuel such as chromium oxide, in connection with their oxygen buffering properties, are discussed.

  5. Cold Hardening in Citrus Stems

    PubMed Central

    Yelenosky, George

    1975-01-01

    Stem cold hardening developed to different levels in citrus types tested in controlled environments. Exotherms indicated ice spread was more uniform and rapid in unhardened than in cold-hardened stems. All attempts to inhibit the functioning of citrus leaves resulted in less cold hardening in the stems. Citrus leaves contribute a major portion of cold hardening in the wood. PMID:16659340

  6. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1979-01-01

    Designed to help teachers deal with students in a cold environment, this article explains cold physiology and fundamental laws of heat; describes 14 common cold injuries and their current treatment; and lists a number of useful teaching techniques for cold environments. (SB)

  7. Teaching in a Cold Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    Instructors who teach outdoors in an environment so cold as to cause injury must satisfy program objectives while avoiding cold injury to themselves and students, help students focus on learning instead of discomfort, and alleviate some students' intense fear of the cold. Dealing with the cold successfully requires a thorough knowledge of:…

  8. Respiratory and leg muscles perceived exertion during exercise at altitude.

    PubMed

    Aliverti, A; Kayser, B; Lo Mauro, A; Quaranta, M; Pompilio, P; Dellacà, R L; Ora, J; Biasco, L; Cavalleri, L; Pomidori, L; Cogo, A; Pellegrino, R; Miserocchi, G

    2011-07-31

    We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and chest wall volume changes. At HA ventilation was increased at any leg power output by ∼ 54%. However, for any given ventilation, breathing pattern was unchanged in terms of tidal volume, respiratory rate and operational volumes of the different chest wall compartments. RPE,resp scaled uniquely with total respiratory power output, irrespectively of SL or HA, while RPE,legs for any leg power output was exacerbated at HA. With increasing respective power outputs, the rate of change of RPE,resp exponentially decreased, while that of RPE,legs increased. We conclude that RPE,resp uniquely relates to respiratory power output, while RPE,legs varies depending on muscle metabolic conditions.

  9. Dynamics of the support leg in soccer instep kicking.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichiro; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sterzing, Thorsten; Shinkai, Hironari; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate support leg dynamics during instep kicking to evaluate the role of the support leg action in performance. Twelve male soccer players performed maximal instep kicks. Their motions and ground reaction forces were recorded by a motion capture system and a force platform. Moments and angular velocities of the support leg and pelvis were computed using inverse dynamics. In most joints of the support leg, the moments were not associated with or counteracting the joint motions except for the knee joint. It can be interpreted that the initial knee flexion motion counteracting the extension joint moment has a role to attenuate the shock of landing and the following knee extension motion associated with the extension joint moment indirectly contributes to accelerate the swing of kicking leg. Also, appreciable horizontal rotation of the pelvis coincided with increase of the interaction moment due to the hip joint reaction force on the support leg side. It can be assumed that the interaction moment was the main factor causing the pelvis counter-clockwise rotation within the horizontal plane from the overhead view that precedes a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental action of the swing leg.

  10. Dynamics of the support leg in soccer instep kicking.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Koichiro; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Sterzing, Thorsten; Shinkai, Hironari; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate support leg dynamics during instep kicking to evaluate the role of the support leg action in performance. Twelve male soccer players performed maximal instep kicks. Their motions and ground reaction forces were recorded by a motion capture system and a force platform. Moments and angular velocities of the support leg and pelvis were computed using inverse dynamics. In most joints of the support leg, the moments were not associated with or counteracting the joint motions except for the knee joint. It can be interpreted that the initial knee flexion motion counteracting the extension joint moment has a role to attenuate the shock of landing and the following knee extension motion associated with the extension joint moment indirectly contributes to accelerate the swing of kicking leg. Also, appreciable horizontal rotation of the pelvis coincided with increase of the interaction moment due to the hip joint reaction force on the support leg side. It can be assumed that the interaction moment was the main factor causing the pelvis counter-clockwise rotation within the horizontal plane from the overhead view that precedes a proximal-to-distal sequence of segmental action of the swing leg. PMID:24575753

  11. Precise tuning of barnacle leg length to coastal wave action.

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, D. J.; Marchinko, K. B.; Palmer, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    Both spatial and temporal variation in environmental conditions can favour intraspecific plasticity in animal form. But how precise is such environmental modulation? Individual Balanus glandula Darwin, a common northeastern Pacific barnacle, produce longer feeding legs in still water than in moving water. We report here that, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, the magnitude and the precision of this phenotypic variation is impressive. First, the feeding legs of barnacles from protected bays were nearly twice as long (for the same body mass) as those from open ocean shores. Second, leg length varied surprisingly precisely with wave exposure: the average maximum velocities of breaking waves recorded in situ explained 95.6-99.5% of the variation in average leg length observed over a threefold range of wave exposure. The decline in leg length with increasing wave action was less than predicted due to simple scaling, perhaps due to changes in leg shape or material properties. Nonetheless, the precision of this relationship reveals a remarkably close coupling between growth environment and adult form, and suggests that between-population differences in barnacle leg length may be used for estimating differences in average wave exposure easily and accurately in studies of coastal ecology. PMID:11600079

  12. [Pain in venous thrombosis of the leg].

    PubMed

    Henriet, J P

    1992-01-01

    According to D. Reinharez, pain and edema are the commonest presenting symptoms in phlebology. Pain is one of the most classical symptoms of an ordinary deep venous thrombosis, a valuable feature when present, in the form of deep tension, heaviness, swelling and a feeling of dead weight. It is often absent or slight. It may consist merely of a dull cramp, or of an "undefinable" (C. Bourde) odd, heavy leg. It generally affects the calf but may involve the sole of the foot, the heel, the thigh, the groin or even the true pelvis. This feeling, although "imprecise and variable" (P. Wallois, P. Griton) is highly suggestive. It increases on standing and walking in the form of unilateral uncomfortable tension, heaviness or painful swelling, which maybe a source of worry or even anxiety to the patient. Tenderness on palpation of venous tracts and their stretching is more suggestive. In the opinion of M. Duruble, Neuhof's sign (feeling of tender fullness of the calf) is more reliable than Homans' sign (pain in the calf caused by passive dorsiflexion of the foot, with the lower limb in extension) which essentially stretches only the posterior tibial venous system. The value of Sigg's sign (pain in the popliteal fossa on passive extension of the knee) is controversial. Far more rare is phlegmasia coerulea dolens or Grégoire's blue leg, complicating phlegmasia alba dolens or of sudden onset, with initial very severe or even "intolerable" pain (J.J. Pinot) in Scarpa's triangle, rapidly spreading to the limb. In varicose phlebitis (M. Perrin) or superficial thrombophlebitis or varico-phlebitis (A.A. Ramelet) or superficial venitis (J.P. Henriet), pain most often consists of moderate burning tension overlying the thrombosed vein(s), increased by palpation and mobilisation. Sometimes severe initially, it is exacerbated by the slightest touch. In total, pain, regardless of its characteristics, its site and/or its severity, is one of the most constant clinical features of venous

  13. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Murphy, Aron J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40–0.54). The 5BT (5–10 and 0–10 m intervals) and RSI (5–10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37–0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0–5 m flight times (r = −0.46 to −0.51), and a longer 0–10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14–0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes. PMID:26839607

  14. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Murphy, Aron J

    2015-12-22

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson's correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40-0.54). The 5BT (5-10 and 0-10 m intervals) and RSI (5-10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37-0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0-5 m flight times (r = -0.46 to -0.51), and a longer 0-10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r(2) = 0.14-0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes.

  15. Impact of Restless Legs Syndrome on Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Bertisch, Suzanne M.; Muresan, Cristen; Schoerning, Laura; Winkelman, John W.; Taylor, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate specific alterations in cardiovascular autonomic control. Methods: Patients with moderate-severe restless legs syndrome (n = 20, 80% female) and controls (n = 20) matched for age, sex, body mass index, and free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease were enrolled. We assessed cardiovagal baroreflex gain via the modified Oxford technique, sympathetically mediated vascular responses to isometric exercise to fatigue, bradycardiac response to Valsalva maneuver, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia during paced breathing. Standard electrocardiography, beat-by-beat arterial pressure, respiration, and popliteal blood flow velocity were recorded continuously. Results: Resting blood pressure and heart rate were similar between groups. However, baroreflex gain averaged 14.3 ± 1.4 msec/mm Hg in restless legs syndrome and was lower than in controls (22.6 ± 3.5 msec/mm Hg, P = 0.04). Hemodynamic responses to isometric exercise were similar between groups, though participants with restless legs syndrome had lower leg blood flow (P < 0.001), with greater leg vascular resistance (P < 0.0001), before and during isometric exercise. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva ratios were similar between groups. Neither baroreflex gain nor vascular resistance was correlated with sleep duration, sleep quality, or symptom duration. Conclusion: Patients with restless legs syndrome demonstrate compromised cardiovagal control, specific to the arterial baroreflex, with greater peripheral vascular resistance, potentially due to heightened sympathetic outflow. These autonomic alterations may directly relate to the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in restless legs syndrome. Citation: Bertisch SM, Muresan C, Schoerning L, Winkelman JW, Taylor JA. Impact of restless legs syndrome on cardiovascular autonomic control. SLEEP 2016;39(3):565–571. PMID:26564128

  16. Aortic Dissection and Thrombosis Diagnosed by Emergency Ultrasound in a Patient with Leg Pain and Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsung, Ann H.; Nickels, Leslie C.; De Portu, Giuliano; Flach, Eike F.; Stead, Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis in a 78-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of lower extremity and paralysis for the past 1.5 hours. The initial vital signs in the ED were as follows: blood pressure (BP) 132/88 mmHg, heart rate (HR) 96, respiratory rate (RR) 14, and an oxygen saturation of 94% at room air. Physical exam was notable for pale and cold left leg. The ED physician was unable to palpate or detect a Doppler signal in the left femoral artery. Bedside ultrasound was performed which showed non-pulsatile left femoral artery and limited flow on color Doppler. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening ultrasound was performed showing a 4.99 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and an intra-aortic thrombus with an intimal flap. Vascular surgery was promptly contacted and the patient underwent emergent aorto-bi-femoral bypass, bilateral four compartment fasciotomy, right common femoral artery endarterectomy with profundoplasty, and subsequent left leg amputation. Emergency physicians should utilize bedside ultrasound in patients who present with risk factors or threatening signs and symptoms that may suggest aortic dissection or aneurysm. Bedside ultrasound decreases time to definitive treatment and the mortality of the patients. PMID:23431495

  17. Aortic dissection and thrombosis diagnosed by emergency ultrasound in a patient with leg pain and paralysis.

    PubMed

    Tsung, Ann H; Nickels, Leslie C; De Portu, Giuliano; Flach, Eike F; Stead, Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a case of aortic dissection and abdominal aortic aneurysm thrombosis in a 78-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) complaining of lower extremity and paralysis for the past 1.5 hours. The initial vital signs in the ED were as follows: blood pressure (BP) 132/88 mmHg, heart rate (HR) 96, respiratory rate (RR) 14, and an oxygen saturation of 94% at room air. Physical exam was notable for pale and cold left leg. The ED physician was unable to palpate or detect a Doppler signal in the left femoral artery. Bedside ultrasound was performed which showed non-pulsatile left femoral artery and limited flow on color Doppler. Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening ultrasound was performed showing a 4.99 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and an intra-aortic thrombus with an intimal flap. Vascular surgery was promptly contacted and the patient underwent emergent aorto-bi-femoral bypass, bilateral four compartment fasciotomy, right common femoral artery endarterectomy with profundoplasty, and subsequent left leg amputation. Emergency physicians should utilize bedside ultrasound in patients who present with risk factors or threatening signs and symptoms that may suggest aortic dissection or aneurysm. Bedside ultrasound decreases time to definitive treatment and the mortality of the patients.

  18. Palaeontology: leg feathers in an Early Cretaceous bird.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fucheng; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2004-10-21

    Here we describe a fossil of an enantiornithine bird from the Early Cretaceous period in China that has substantial plumage feathers attached to its upper leg (tibiotarsus). The discovery could be important in view of the relative length and aerodynamic features of these leg feathers compared with those of the small 'four-winged' gliding dinosaur Microraptor and of the earliest known bird, Archaeopteryx. They may be remnants of earlier long, aerodynamic leg feathers, in keeping with the hypothesis that birds went through a four-winged stage during the evolution of flight.

  19. Assessment of void swelling in austenitic stainless steel PWR core internals.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. M.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    As many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) age and life extension of the aged plants is considered, void swelling behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) core internals has become the subject of increasing attention. In this report, the available database on void swelling and density change of austenitic SSs was critically reviewed. Irradiation conditions, test procedures, and microstructural characteristics were carefully examined, and key factors that are important to determine the relevance of the database to PWR conditions were evaluated. Most swelling data were obtained from steels irradiated in fast breeder reactors at temperatures >385 C and at dose rates that are orders of magnitude higher than PWR dose rates. Even for a given irradiation temperature and given steel, the integral effects of dose and dose rate on void swelling should not be separated. It is incorrect to extrapolate swelling data on the basis of 'progressive compounded multiplication' of separate effects of factors such as dose, dose rate, temperature, steel composition, and fabrication procedure. Therefore, the fast reactor data should not be extrapolated to determine credible void swelling behavior for PWR end-of-life (EOL) or life-extension conditions. Although the void swelling data extracted from fast reactor studies is extensive and conclusive, only limited amounts of swelling data and information have been obtained on microstructural characteristics from discharged PWR internals or steels irradiated at temperatures and at dose rates comparable to those of a PWR. Based on this relatively small amount of information, swelling in thin-walled tubes and baffle bolts in a PWR is not considered a concern. As additional data and relevant research becomes available, the newer results should be integrated with existing data, and the worthiness of this conclusion should continue to be scrutinized. PWR baffle reentrant corners are the most likely location to experience high swelling rates, and

  20. Athermal laser treatment of the diabetic leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat, P.; Suteanu, S.; Brojbeanu, Gabriela; Vasiliu, Virgil V.

    1995-03-01

    This work shows the result obtained in the medical clinic of the `Dr. I. Cantacuzino Hospital' on a lot of 43 diabetic patients using the `LASSIS' devices composed of a He-Ne laser and 4 semiconductor lasers. The 43 patients showed various clinic pictures of a diabetic leg (diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy) 16 of the lot showed an arteriopathy with claudication and a decrease of pulses oscillometrically measurements, 15 had ulceration and a beginning of gangrene and the other 12 showed a plantary boring ill. There has been achieved an amelioration of the oscillometric index of the claudication while walking the amelioration of local circulation, together with the limitation of the necrosis. For the boring ill, there has been achieved the acceleration of the granulating and epithelization process avoiding surgeries, suppuration and cutaneous plasties. The response to the laser treatment was compared to the response to the classic treatment (vasodilatation surgery unstrapping, antibiotherapy) on a proving lot. We appreciated that the cicatrization and local vasodilatation with athermal laser treatment should be a hope for the treatment of patients suffering of diabetic arteriopathy and neuropathy.

  1. Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    1998-06-01

    After a sip of wine, "legs" of liquid typically run up and down the inside of the glass for many minutes. This phenomenon stems from the dipole-dipole intermolecular forces that are so important in understanding the physical behavior of aqueous solutions. The combination of cohesive forces within the liquid and adhesive forces between the liquid and a solid surface can explain physical phenomena such as viscosity, surface tension, capillary action, and the shape of the meniscus. Aqueous ethanol solutions tend to have cohesive forces that are weaker than those of pure water, while their adhesive forces toward polar glass surfaces are roughly equivalent to those of water. Because adhesive forces are stronger than cohesive forces, wine may cling to the glass surface, hovering high above the remainder of the wine in the bottom of the glass. As ethanol evaporates, however, cohesive forces increase until the wine falls in a thin stream. Upon touching the surface of the wine in the bottom of the glass, ethanol concentration is restored, cohesive forces weaken, and the thin stream of wine rises back to the top of the glass.

  2. Legged vehicle for underwater mobile operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbert, Jim; Ayers, Joseph

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes technical information gained from an investigation into utilizing SMA actuators as muscle components for the biologically based lobster system to be developed under this project. In order for the SMA actuators to be of value in controlling leg motion of the lobster they must be able to contract and relax in a controlled manner much like muscles. SMA wires made of Nitinol do contract when heated and relax when cooled. The heating mechanism in this application is directly related to current density passed through the wire. If a large number of cycles are required, as in our application, the contraction should be limited to about 3 percent. This can provide a cycle life of millions provided that proper protection from overstressing, overstraining, and overheating are designed into the system. SMA contraction time can be quite fast (0.1 seconds or less) depending on the current pulse amplitude and width. SMA wires are very strong relative to their size. A 4 percent contraction can exert stresses of 25,000 psi. Control of each actuator requires that current pulses of proper amplitude and duration be applied at the correct times in order to not overheat the wires. Proper control of SMA wires for this application will require sensory feedback.

  3. Compression therapy of leg ulcers with PAOD.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Andrea; Haase, Hermann; Bichel, Jens; Schuren, Jan; Jünger, Michael

    2014-05-19

    Objectives: To assess the clinical safety of a new short-stretch 2-layer compression system (3M(tm) Coban(tm) 2 Lite) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). This system combines a low resting pressure with a high working pressure. Methods: A pilot study was performed in 15 subjects with moderate PAOD, i.e. an ABPI of 0.5-0.8. Co-existing chronic venous insufficiency or leg ulcer was not mandatory. All subjects received the compression system which was reapplied at each study visit (days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 10, 14). The safety parameters were: sub-bandage pressure immediately after application, pressure-related skin damage, hypoxia-related pain, and adverse events. A product comfort questionnaire was completed at the last visit. Results: The average sub-bandage pressure of 30 mmHg defined by the protocol was achieved. No pressure-related skin damage or hypoxia-related pain was found. The reported adverse device effects were as expected for compression therapies, including dry skin and pruritus. The product comfort questionnaire completed by the subjects showed a good tolerability profile. Conclusion: The short-stretch 2-layer compression system (3M(tm) Coban(tm) 2 Lite) was safe and well tolerated in subjects with moderate PAOD. PMID:24843079

  4. [Innovative therapy for leg ulcers: Electrostimulation].

    PubMed

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds can take a long time to heal despite appropriate therapy based upon aetiology and use of suitable dressings. The success of electrostimulation is based upon the existence within the skin of the endogenous currents involved in the wound healing process. Where skin continuity is broken by a wound, these electrical potentials are short-circuited, resulting in leakage of electrical current. Woundel(®) therapy is the only such treatment currently available in France and is based on the use of continuous pulsed current that generates an electrical field near the endogenous electrical fields. It utilises a console to deliver the electrical impulses, a dressing electrode and a dispersion electrode. The electrode dressing is left on the wound for 3 days, and venous compression bandaging may be applied to the leg, taking care to leave the connector free. Negative polarity stimulates migration of fibroblasts, resulting in elimination of fibrin. Positive polarity causes keratinocyte migration, which in turn leads to epidermisation. Electrostimulation is of recognised utility in the healing of chronic wounds: it has been assigned a high-level recommendation in the European and American guidelines for the treatment of venous ulcers and bedsores with proof level of A. Further, the analgesic effect of electrostimulation has been demonstrated in several studies. Electrostimulation is already well developed in France among wound specialists, but prospective studies are planned so that it may be used at patients' homes.

  5. A digital driven right leg circuit.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Marcelo; Spinelli, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    A novel scheme and a digital approach to the Driven Right Leg Circuit (DRL) are presented. It presents an ultra high common mode (CM) reduction of power line interference (higher than 80dB) without endangering stability. This improves by 40-50dB the CM reduction provided by a classical analog DRL, retaining the same stability criterion. The improvement comes from the inclusion of a high Q resonator in parallel with the common mode amplifier. It provides a large gain at power line frequency (50/60 Hz) whereas it does not significantly affect the open loop gain for high frequencies. The proposed scheme can be thought as an analog circuit, but the accuracy required, mainly in the resonator frequency response, leads to a digital implementation. In this way, component ageing and thermal fluctuation problems are avoided, as well as the need for manual adjusting. A prototype of the proposed DRL circuit was built and tested in laboratory conditions showing an open-loop gain of 74dB at 50Hz. It was also tested by acquiring real EEG signals.

  6. Crack growth rates of nickel alloy welds in a PWR environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-05-31

    In light water reactors (LWRs), vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. A program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the resistance of Ni alloys and their welds to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated LWR coolant environments. This report presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for Alloy 182 shielded-metal-arc weld metal in a simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment at 320 C. Crack growth tests were conducted on 1-T compact tension specimens with different weld orientations from both double-J and deep-groove welds. The results indicate little or no environmental enhancement of fatigue CGRs of Alloy 182 weld metal in the PWR environment. The CGRs of Alloy 182 in the PWR environment are a factor of {approx}5 higher than those of Alloy 600 in air under the same loading conditions. The stress corrosion cracking for the Alloy 182 weld is close to the average behavior of Alloy 600 in the PWR environment. The weld orientation was found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of crack growth: cracking was found to propagate faster along the dendrites than across them. The existing CGR data for Ni-alloy weld metals have been compiled and evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on CGRs in PWR environments. The results from the present study are compared with the existing CGR data for Ni-alloy welds to determine the relative susceptibility of the specific Ni-alloy weld to environmentally enhanced cracking.

  7. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  8. Progress toward cold antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielse, G.; Estrada, J.; Peil, S.; Roach, T.; Tan, J. N.; Yesley, P.

    1999-12-10

    The production and study of cold antihydrogen will require the manipulation of dense and cold, single component plasmas of antiprotons and positrons. The undertaking will build upon the experience of the nonneutral plasma physics community. Annihilations of the antimatter particles in the plasmas can be imaged, offering unique diagnostic opportunities not available to this community when electrons and protons are used. The techniques developed by our TRAP collaboration to capture and cool antiprotons will certainly be used by our expanded ATRAP collaboration, and by the competing ATHENA Collaboration, both working at the nearly completed AD facility of CERN. We recently demonstrated a new techniques for accumulating cold positrons directly into a cryogenic vacuum system. The closest we have come to low energy antihydrogen so far is to confine cold positrons and cold antiprotons within the same trap structure and vacuum container. Finally, we mention that stored electrons have been cooled to 70 mK, the first time that elementary particles have been cooled below 4 K. In such an apparatus it should be possible to study highly magnetized plasmas of electrons or positrons at this new low temperature.

  9. The motor and the brake of the trailing leg in human walking: leg force control through ankle modulation and knee covariance.

    PubMed

    Toney, Megan E; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Human walking is a complex task, and we lack a complete understanding of how the neuromuscular system organizes its numerous muscles and joints to achieve consistent and efficient walking mechanics. Focused control of select influential task-level variables may simplify the higher-level control of steady-state walking and reduce demand on the neuromuscular system. As trailing leg power generation and force application can affect the mechanical efficiency of step-to-step transitions, we investigated how joint torques are organized to control leg force and leg power during human walking. We tested whether timing of trailing leg force control corresponded with timing of peak leg power generation. We also applied a modified uncontrolled manifold analysis to test whether individual or coordinated joint torque strategies most contributed to leg force control. We found that leg force magnitude was adjusted from step to step to maintain consistent leg power generation. Leg force modulation was primarily determined by adjustments in the timing of peak ankle plantar-flexion torque, while knee torque was simultaneously covaried to dampen the effect of ankle torque on leg force. We propose a coordinated joint torque control strategy in which the trailing leg ankle acts as a motor to drive leg power production while trailing leg knee torque acts as a brake to refine leg power production.

  10. Restless Leg Syndrome Across the Globe: Epidemiology of the Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease.

    PubMed

    Koo, Brian B

    2015-09-01

    There are more than 50 epidemiologic studies measuring the prevalence of restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) across 5 of the 6 inhabited continents (not Australia), most conducted in North America and Europe. Sufficient studies have been conducted in Asia, North America, and Europe to make inferences on RLS/WED prevalence by region. RLS/WED prevalence is thought to be highest in North America and Europe and lower in Asia. These differences across regions may be explained by cultural, environmental, and genetic factors. Future investigation is needed to determine to what extent these factors affect expression of RLS/WED according to world region. PMID:26329429

  11. Crack initiation testing of thimble tube material under PWR conditions to determine a stress threshold for IASCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, R. W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; Gérard, R.; Somville, F.

    2015-06-01

    IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking) crack initiation tests have been carried out on thimble tube material retrieved from a Belgian PWR. The crack initiation tests were carried out by constant load testing of thimble tube specimens at different stress levels. The time-to-failure was determined as a function of the applied stress to find a stress threshold under which no stress corrosion cracking will take place. The thimble tube was made of 316L cold-worked stainless steel and the dose profile along the thimble tube ranges from 45 to 80 dpa. This allows adding crack initiation data for dose values that have not been significantly reported, i.e. in the range of 45-55 dpa and at 80 dpa. The results can be used to determine whether the stress under which no IASCC occurs saturates for a dose larger than 30 dpa or whether a small further threshold decrease with dose can be observed. Over a period of four years, more than 40 specimens have been tested with doses ranging from 45 to 80 dpa at stress levels between 40% and 70% of the irradiated yield stress. Fracture occurred at all stress levels (but not all specimens) although the time-to-failure increased with decreasing stress. The results show that intergranular cracking was the main fracture mode in all failed O-rings. Three of six 80 dpa O-rings subjected to 40% and 45% of the yield stress did not fail after six months of testing. Based on these results and a comparison with literature data, an apparent stress limit for IASCC could be estimated at 40% of the irradiated yield stress.

  12. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking Obesity Many people with narcolepsy or rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder move their legs periodically during ... brain activity, heart rate, breathing, muscle activity, and eye movements are monitored while people sleep. People may also ...

  13. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps is Risky Printer-friendly ... approved only to treat a certain type of malaria (uncomplicated malaria) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  15. Physical surrogate leg to evaluate blast mine injury.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Duane S; Williams, Kevin; Salisbury, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    Antipersonnel blast landmines pose a significant threat in affected areas, with injuries to the lower extremity and amputation being common. Addressing a need for injury prediction and protection evaluation, a 50th percentile physical surrogate lower leg was developed incorporating the load transmission paths in the lower leg. Biofidelic and frangible materials were evaluated and selected based on high deformation rate properties compared to those for human tissues. The predicted leg injuries from experimental blast testing were in agreement with injury data for unprotected and protected legs. Post-test examination was found to be the only consistent and reliable evaluation method for predicting injury outcome, and an evaluation based on tissue damage was shown to be sensitive to changes in loading conditions, not possible with existing approaches. This study identified the severity of calcaneal fracture as the primary determinant of serious injury, which should be the focus of future protection development.

  16. Swimming with stiff legs at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2015-08-01

    Locomotion at low Reynolds number is not possible with cycles of reciprocal motion, an example being the oscillation of a single pair of rigid paddles or legs. Here, I demonstrate the possibility of swimming with two or more pairs of legs. They are assumed to oscillate collectively in a metachronal wave pattern in a minimal model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the traveling wave, as commonly observed along the body of free-swimming crustaceans. The displacement of the body and the swimming efficiency depend on the number of legs, the amplitude, and the phase of oscillations. This study shows that paddling legs with distinct orientations and phases offers a simple mechanism for driving flow.

  17. For College Freshmen, Four-Legged Friends Chase Away Homesickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... College Freshmen, Four-Legged Friends Chase Away Homesickness Dog therapy helps boost students' life satisfaction, researchers say ... buddy, new research suggests. The study found that dog therapy can ease homesickness in first-year college ...

  18. Introducing and auditing a nurse-led leg ulcer service.

    PubMed

    Rotchell, L

    1999-05-01

    Leg ulcers have a significant impact on quality of life, and represent a major treatment cost for health services. Improved healing rates benefit patients and health service provision. Nurse-led clinics provide an appropriate setting for treatment.

  19. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Self-Tests and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... and Facts Restless legs syndrome is a neurological sleep disorder that make you have an overwhelming urge to ...

  20. Deployable Landing Leg Concept for Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Solano, Paul; Bartos, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Exploration program is investigating the merits of land landing concepts for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Four options are under investigation: retro-rockets which fire and slow the vehicle before contact with the landing surface, deployable crushable material which deploys just before landing and crushes during land contact, airbags which deploy just before landing and deflate during land contact, and deployable legs which deploy before landing and contain material that absorbs energy during land contact. The purpose of the present work is to determine the effectiveness of the deployable leg concept. To accomplish this goal, structural models of the deployable leg concept are integrated with the Crew Model (CM) and computational simulations are performed to determine vehicle and component loadings and acceleration levels. Details of the modeling approach, deployable leg design, and resulting accelerations are provided.

  1. Detail of tower support construction shows two legs, cross beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of tower support construction shows two legs, cross beams end concrete point load footing on west side. Camera is pointed NW. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  2. Acute compartment syndrome of the leg: pressure measurement and fasciotomy.

    PubMed

    Masquelet, A-C

    2010-12-01

    Compartment syndrome involves a conflicting situation between an unyielding space, the compartment, and its increasing tissue content secondary to traumatic ischemia. Rapidly irreversible damages occur without treatment. Although the diagnosis approach to leg compartment syndrome is clinical in priority, pressure measurements should be systematically produced: first to confirm the presence of this condition and define optimal surgical strategies and second to provide the only objective available criteria in case of a debatable diagnosis. In practice, two schematic situations can be distinguished, which do not cover the many different cases: leg compartment syndrome without a fracture in which the four leg compartments are affected and which requires a fasciotomy using two surgical approaches, the lateral and the medial; leg compartment syndrome associated with a fracture: fasciotomy of the four compartments may be performed by a single lateral approach distant from the fracture site and its fixation hardware. It should be noted that this approach is easy, effective and safe.

  3. Cold sea survival.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veghte, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Two prototype three-man life rafts were evaluated during the winter months in Arctic waters off Kodiak Island, Alaska, to assess potential survival problems and determine tolerance limits. Each raft incorporated thermal characteristics specifically designed for cold water. Water and air temperatures varied from 0 to +2 C and -5 to +4 C respectively. All subjects were removed upon reaching subjective tolerance. The results showed that none of the clothing assemblies was adequate to maintain a person in comfort even with dry boarding. No significant biochemical shifts in the blood or urine were found. The TUL raft was found to be superior in its thermal characteristics and afforded better subject protection. General tolerance for cold water immersion, wet and dry, and cold water raft exposures are depicted graphically, based on previously reported data.

  4. Assessment of cold stress.

    PubMed

    Holmér, I

    1991-01-01

    Cold stress may be present in terms of a risk for skin surface cooling (wind chill), extremity cooling and whole body cooling. Measures of cold stress differ for the various situations. The most common approach, however, has been to apply more or less complex formulas for heat balance calculations. The combined effect of several climatic factors (air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity and air velocity) and the activity level determines the cooling power of the environment. The cooling power can be easily converted into a required insulation value, that applies both to parts of the body and to the body as a whole. The value provides information about cold stress in two ways; (a) by specifying necessary behavioural adjustments in terms of required activity level and clothing insulation level, and (b) by quantifying the thermal imbalance and tolerance time, when protection worn does not provide sufficient insulation.

  5. Cold asymmetrical fermion superfluids

    SciTech Connect

    Caldas, Heron

    2003-12-19

    The recent experimental advances in cold atomic traps have induced a great amount of interest in fields from condensed matter to particle physics, including approaches and prospects from the theoretical point of view. In this work we investigate the general properties and the ground state of an asymmetrical dilute gas of cold fermionic atoms, formed by two particle species having different densities. We have show in a recent paper, that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state of such a cold fermionic system. Here we extend the analysis and verify that in fact, the mixed phase is the preferred ground state of an asymmetrical superfluid in various situations. We predict that the mixed phase can serve as a way of detecting superfluidity and estimating the magnitude of the gap parameter in asymmetrical fermionic systems.

  6. Leg-adjustment strategies for stable running in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Peuker, Frank; Maufroy, Christophe; Seyfarth, André

    2012-09-01

    The dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) in the sagittal plane in humans and animals during running is well described by the spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP). With appropriate parameters, SLIP running patterns are stable, and these models can recover from perturbations without the need for corrective strategies, such as the application of additional forces. Rather, it is sufficient to adjust the leg to a fixed angle relative to the ground. In this work, we consider the extension of the SLIP to three dimensions (3D SLIP) and investigate feed-forward strategies for leg adjustment during the flight phase. As in the SLIP model, the leg is placed at a fixed angle. We extend the scope of possible reference axes from only fixed horizontal and vertical axes to include the CoM velocity vector as a movement-related reference, resulting in six leg-adjustment strategies. Only leg-adjustment strategies that include the CoM velocity vector produced stable running and large parameter domains of stability. The ability of the model to recover from perturbations along the direction of motion (directional stability) depended on the strategy for lateral leg adjustment. Specifically, asymptotic and neutral directional stability was observed for strategies based on the global reference axis and the velocity vector, respectively. Additional features of velocity-based leg adjustment are running at arbitrary low speed (kinetic energy) and the emergence of large domains of stable 3D running that are smoothly transferred to 2D SLIP stability and even to 1D SLIP hopping. One of the additional leg-adjustment strategies represented a large convex region of parameters where stable and robust hopping and running patterns exist. Therefore, this strategy is a promising candidate for implementation into engineering applications, such as robots, for instance. In a preliminary comparison, the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the 3D SLIP is an

  7. Analysis of boron dilution in a four-loop PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal mixing and boron dilution in a pressurized water reactor were analyzed with COMMIX codes. The reactor system was the four loop Zion reactor. Two boron dilution scenarios were analyzed. In the first scenario, the plant is in cold shutdown and the reactor coolant system has just been filled after maintenance on the steam generators. To flush the air out of the steam generator tubes, a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is started, with the water in the pump suction line devoid of boron and at the same temperature as the coolant in the system. In the second scenario, the plant is at hot standby and the reactor coolant system has been heated up to operating temperature after a long outage. It is assumed that an RCP is started, with the pump suction line filled with cold unborated water, forcing a slug of diluted coolant down the downcomer and subsequently through the reactor core. The subsequent transient thermal mixing and boron dilution that would occur in the reactor system is simulated for these two scenarios. The reactivity insertion rate and the total reactivity are evaluated.

  8. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk.

    PubMed

    Pearson, G L; Pass, D A; Beggs, E C

    1975-04-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation rsulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions. PMID:167207

  9. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  10. Leg exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of human hopping.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena M; Herr, Hugh M

    2009-09-01

    During bouncing gaits such as hopping and running, leg muscles generate force to enable elastic energy storage and return primarily from tendons and, thus, demand metabolic energy. In an effort to reduce metabolic demand, we designed two elastic leg exoskeletons that act in parallel with the wearer's legs; one exoskeleton consisted of a multiple leaf (MLE) and the other of a single leaf (SLE) set of fiberglass springs. We hypothesized that hoppers, hopping on both legs, would adjust their leg stiffness while wearing an exoskeleton so that the combination of the hopper and exoskeleton would behave as a linear spring-mass system with the same total stiffness as during normal hopping. We also hypothesized that decreased leg force generation while wearing an exoskeleton would reduce the metabolic power required for hopping. Nine subjects hopped in place at 2.0, 2.2, 2.4, and 2.6 Hz with and without an exoskeleton while we measured ground reaction forces, exoskeletal compression, and metabolic rates. While wearing an exoskeleton, hoppers adjusted their leg stiffness to maintain linear spring-mass mechanics and a total stiffness similar to normal hopping. Without accounting for the added weight of each exoskeleton, wearing the MLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 6% and wearing the SLE reduced net metabolic power by an average of 24% compared with hopping normally at frequencies between 2.0 and 2.6 Hz. Thus, when hoppers used external parallel springs, they likely decreased the mechanical work performed by the legs and substantially reduced metabolic demand compared with hopping without wearing an exoskeleton.

  11. Biophysics: Water-repellent legs of water striders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuefeng; Jiang, Lei

    2004-11-01

    Water striders (Gerris remigis) have remarkable non-wetting legs that enable them to stand effortlessly and move quickly on water, a feature believed to be due to a surface-tension effect caused by secreted wax. We show here, however, that it is the special hierarchical structure of the legs, which are covered by large numbers of oriented tiny hairs (microsetae) with fine nanogrooves, that is more important in inducing this water resistance.

  12. Cold Vs. Heat After Exercise-Is There a Clear Winner for Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder S; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Al-Dabbak, Fuad; Laymon, Mike S

    2015-11-01

    Because of the differences in the exercise type, temperature, and timing of the use of cold and heat after exercise in different studies, there is no clear conclusion as to the efficacy of either modality on reducing delayed onset muscle soreness. One hundred subjects at similar fitness levels were examined. They accomplished leg squats for 15 minutes and heat and cold were applied after or 24 hours after exercise using ThermaCare heat or cold wraps. Measurements obtained were strength, the force to passively move the knee, analog visual pain scales, and blood myoglobin. Control subjects lost 24% strength after exercise. Subjects with heat or cold just after exercise only lost 4% strength (p < 0.01). For strength recovery, cold applied after 24 hours was better than heat at 24 hours. Heat or cold applied after exercise was significantly better to prevent elastic tissue damage (p < 0.01), whereas heat and cold immediately after exercise caused no loss in muscle myoglobin and heat or cold after 24 hours showed no less muscle damage from myoglobin than in control subjects. Myoglobin in the control and heat and cold 24-hour groups averaged 135.1% of the baseline data but averaged 106.1% of baseline in the immediate heat and cold groups. For reducing pain, control subjects showed a significant amount of pain the days after exercise. But cold immediately after exercise or 24 hours later was superior to heat in reducing pain. In conclusion, both cold and heat appear to be efficacious in reducing muscle damage after exercise.

  13. Cold Vs. Heat After Exercise-Is There a Clear Winner for Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, Jerrold S; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Lee, Haneul; Berk, Lee; Bains, Gurinder S; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Al-Dabbak, Fuad; Laymon, Mike S

    2015-11-01

    Because of the differences in the exercise type, temperature, and timing of the use of cold and heat after exercise in different studies, there is no clear conclusion as to the efficacy of either modality on reducing delayed onset muscle soreness. One hundred subjects at similar fitness levels were examined. They accomplished leg squats for 15 minutes and heat and cold were applied after or 24 hours after exercise using ThermaCare heat or cold wraps. Measurements obtained were strength, the force to passively move the knee, analog visual pain scales, and blood myoglobin. Control subjects lost 24% strength after exercise. Subjects with heat or cold just after exercise only lost 4% strength (p < 0.01). For strength recovery, cold applied after 24 hours was better than heat at 24 hours. Heat or cold applied after exercise was significantly better to prevent elastic tissue damage (p < 0.01), whereas heat and cold immediately after exercise caused no loss in muscle myoglobin and heat or cold after 24 hours showed no less muscle damage from myoglobin than in control subjects. Myoglobin in the control and heat and cold 24-hour groups averaged 135.1% of the baseline data but averaged 106.1% of baseline in the immediate heat and cold groups. For reducing pain, control subjects showed a significant amount of pain the days after exercise. But cold immediately after exercise or 24 hours later was superior to heat in reducing pain. In conclusion, both cold and heat appear to be efficacious in reducing muscle damage after exercise. PMID:26502272

  14. Large leg ulcers due to autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Alexander P.; Egozi, Dana; Ramon, Yehuda; Toledano, Kohava; Braun-Moscovici, Yolanda; Markovits, Doron; Schapira, Daniel; Bergman, Reuven; Melamed, Yehuda; Ullman, Yehuda; Balbir-Gurman, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Large leg ulcers (LLU) may complicate autoimmune diseases. They pose a therapeutic challenge and are often resistant to treatment. To report three cases of autoimmune diseases complicated with LLU. Case Report Case 1. A 55-year old woman presented with long-standing painful LLU due to mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Biopsy from the ulcer edge showed small vessel vasculitis. IV methylprednisolone (MethP) 1 G/day, prednisolone (PR) 1mg/kg, monthly IV cyclophosphamide (CYC), cyclosporine (CyA) 100mg/day, IVIG 125G, ciprofloxacin+IV Iloprost+enoxaparin+aspirin (AAVAA), hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HO), maggot debridement and autologous skin transplantation were performed and the LLU healed. Case 2. A 45-year old women with MCTD developed multiple LLU’s with non-specific inflammation by biopsy. MethP, PR, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), azathioprine (AZA), CYC, IVIG, AAVAA failed. Treatment for underlying the LLU tibial osteomyelitis and addition of CyA was followed by the LLU healing. Case 3. A 20-year-old man with history of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) developed painful LLU’s due to small vessel vasculitis (biopsy). MethP, PR 1 mg/kg, CYC, CyA 100 mg/d, AAVAA failed. MRSA sepsis and relapse of systemic PAN developed. IV vancomycin, followed by ciprofloxacin, monthly IVIG (150 g/for 5 days) and infliximab (5 mg/kg) were instituted and the LLU’s healed. Conclusions LLU are extremely resistant to therapy. Combined use of multiple medications and services are needed for healing of LLU due to autoimmune diseases. PMID:21169912

  15. Body composition of Bangladeshi children: comparison and development of leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance equation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ashraful I; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Hawlader, Mohammad Delwer Hossain; El Arifeen, Shams; Moore, Sophie; Hills, Andrew P; Wells, Jonathan C; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kabir, Iqbal

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of the Tanita TBF 300A leg-to-leg bioimpedance analyzer for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) in Bangladeshi children aged 4-10 years and to develop novel prediction equations for use in this population, using deuterium dilution as the reference method. Two hundred Bangladeshi children were enrolled. The isotope dilution technique with deuterium oxide was used for estimation of total body water (TBW). FFM estimated by Tanita was compared with results of deuterium oxide dilution technique. Novel prediction equations were created for estimating FFM, using linear regression models, fitting child's height and impedance as predictors. There was a significant difference in FFM and percentage of body fat (BF%) between methods (p<0.01), Tanita underestimating TBW in boys (p=0.001) and underestimating BF% in girls (p<0.001). A basic linear regression model with height and impedance explained 83% of the variance in FFM estimated by deuterium oxide dilution technique. The best-fit equation to predict FFM from linear regression modelling was achieved by adding weight, sex, and age to the basic model, bringing the adjusted R² to 89% (standard error=0.90, p<0.001). These data suggest Tanita analyzer may be a valid field-assessment technique in Bangladeshi children when using population-specific prediction equations, such as the ones developed here.

  16. Phase diagrams of spinor bosons in two-leg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Valencia, Jereson; Franco, Roberto; Figueira, Marcos Sergio

    In the last, years different experimental groups have reported the realization of atomic ladders in the presence of a homogeneous flux [Nat. Phys. 10, 588 (2014)]. These experiments have motivated theoretical calculations on 2-leg ladders with spinless bosons under magnetic fields [PRB 91, 140406(R) (2015)]. In this paper, we consider spinor boson atoms with spin S =1, such as Rb and Na. Gases of these atoms can be described by the spinor Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian which has three terms: the kinetic energy, local density-density interaction and local spin-dependent term. Using DMRG, we study S =1 bosons on 2-leg ladders, taking into account bothantiferromagnetic and ferromagneticspin interaction. When both legs are ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic, we obtained Mott insulator and superfluid phases, similar to the one-dimensional case, but the insulator areas decrease due to the additional kinetic term. The even-odd asymmetry is still observed in the antiferromagnetic case. However, when the local spin interaction has a different sign on each leg, charge density waves for densities 3/2 and 5/2 appear. The Mott insulator phase for density 1 (2) correspond to the antiferromagnetic-leg (ferromagnetic-leg). COLCIENCIAS (Grant No. FP44842-057-2015).

  17. Coordination of planar cell polarity pathways through Spiny-legs

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis and physiology of tissues and organs requires planar cell polarity (PCP) systems that orient and coordinate cells and their behaviors, but the relationship between PCP systems has been controversial. We have characterized how the Frizzled and Dachsous-Fat PCP systems are connected through the Spiny-legs isoform of the Prickle-Spiny-legs locus. Two different components of the Dachsous-Fat system, Dachsous and Dachs, can each independently interact with Spiny-legs and direct its localization in vivo. Through characterization of the contributions of Prickle, Spiny-legs, Dachsous, Fat, and Dachs to PCP in the Drosophila wing, eye, and abdomen, we define where Dachs-Spiny-legs and Dachsous-Spiny-legs interactions contribute to PCP, and provide a new understanding of the orientation of polarity and the basis of PCP phenotypes. Our results support the direct linkage of PCP systems through Sple in specific locales, while emphasizing that cells can be subject to and must ultimately resolve distinct, competing PCP signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09946.001 PMID:26505959

  18. Force feedback reinforces muscle synergies in insect legs.

    PubMed

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2015-11-01

    The nervous system solves complex biomechanical problems by activating muscles in modular, synergist groups. We have studied how force feedback in substrate grip is integrated with effects of sense organs that monitor support and propulsion in insects. Campaniform sensilla are mechanoreceptors that encode forces as cuticular strains. We tested the hypothesis that integration of force feedback from receptors of different leg segments during grip occurs through activation of specific muscle synergies. We characterized the effects of campaniform sensilla of the feet (tarsi) and proximal segments (trochanter and femur) on activities of leg muscles in stick insects and cockroaches. In both species, mechanical stimulation of tarsal sensilla activated the leg muscle that generates substrate grip (retractor unguis), as well as proximal leg muscles that produce inward pull (tibial flexor) and support/propulsion (trochanteral depressor). Stimulation of campaniform sensilla on proximal leg segments activated the same synergistic group of muscles. In stick insects, the effects of proximal receptors on distal leg muscles changed and were greatly enhanced when animals made active searching movements. In insects, the task-specific reinforcement of muscle synergies can ensure that substrate adhesion is rapidly established after substrate contact to provide a stable point for force generation. PMID:26193626

  19. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  20. Expert Cold Structure Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  1. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one man for another, and the place…

  2. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  3. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  4. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  5. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  6. New improvements leading to higher polarization frozen spin HD targets at the LEGS facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiangdong; Bade, Christopher M.; Caracappa, Anthony; Kageya, Tsuneo; Lincoln, Frank C.; Lowry, Micheal M.; Mahon, John C.; Sandorfi, Andrew M.; Thorn, Craig E.; Whisnant, C. Steven

    2004-06-01

    Double polarization experiments at the Laser Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory have been performed with polarized photon beams and a polarized Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) frozen spin target. After polarizing at 15 T and 17 mK and subsequently reaching a frozen spin mode, a target was cold extracted (at 2.5 K and 0.016 T) and installed into an In-Beam Cryostat (IBC) which held the target at 0.7 T and 1.25 K. In-beam relaxation times of 13 days for polarized hydrogen and 36 days for polarized deuterium have been measured. Data were taken with 30% polarized-H and 6% polarized-D, although higher polarization levels have been achieved. Several new improvements are being implemented to improve the operating parameters of polarized HD targets. These include the fabrication of a vibration isolator to lower the polarizing temperature, the purchase of a new IBC to reach longer in-beam relaxation times with higher field and lower temperature ( 1 T and 200 mK), the construction of a new cold transfer cryostat with a higher field (0.13 T) to reduce polarization loss during target transfers, and the installation of a much improved NMR system for polarization calibration and online monitoring. A summary of the existing data, the ongoing modifications and projection for future performance will be discussed.

  7. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  8. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  9. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  10. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  11. 40 CFR Table 32 to Subpart G of... - Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 32.... 63, Subpt. G, Table 32 Table 32 to Subpart G of Part 63—Typical Number of Roof Legs, a NF8 Tank diameter D (feet) b Pontoon roof No. of pontoon legs No. of center legs No. of legs on double-deck roof...

  12. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse » Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: ... treatment of addiction. Read more Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know ( ...

  13. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview. PMID:24944030

  14. Thermoregulatory modeling for cold stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Tikuisis, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Modeling for cold stress has generated a rich history of innovation, has exerted a catalytic influence on cold physiology research, and continues to impact human activity in cold environments. This overview begins with a brief summation of cold thermoregulatory model development followed by key principles that will continue to guide current and future model development. Different representations of the human body are discussed relative to the level of detail and prediction accuracy required. In addition to predictions of shivering and vasomotor responses to cold exposure, algorithms are presented for thermoregulatory mechanisms. Various avenues of heat exchange between the human body and a cold environment are reviewed. Applications of cold thermoregulatory modeling range from investigative interpretation of physiological observations to forecasting skin freezing times and hypothermia survival times. While these advances have been remarkable, the future of cold stress modeling is still faced with significant challenges that are summarized at the end of this overview.

  15. Human whole body cold adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daanen, Hein A.M.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  16. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold.

  17. Human whole body cold adaptation.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    Reviews on whole body human cold adaptation generally do not distinguish between population studies and dedicated acclimation studies, leading to confusing results. Population studies show that indigenous black Africans have reduced shivering thermogenesis in the cold and poor cold induced vasodilation in fingers and toes compared to Caucasians and Inuit. About 40,000 y after humans left Africa, natives in cold terrestrial areas seems to have developed not only behavioral adaptations, but also physiological adaptations to cold. Dedicated studies show that repeated whole body exposure of individual volunteers, mainly Caucasians, to severe cold results in reduced cold sensation but no major physiological changes. Repeated cold water immersion seems to slightly reduce metabolic heat production, while repeated exposure to milder cold conditions shows some increase in metabolic heat production, in particular non-shivering thermogenesis. In conclusion, human cold adaptation in the form of increased metabolism and insulation seems to have occurred during recent evolution in populations, but cannot be developed during a lifetime in cold conditions as encountered in temperate and arctic regions. Therefore, we mainly depend on our behavioral skills to live in and survive the cold. PMID:27227100

  18. Remedies for Common Cold Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Penny F.

    1991-01-01

    Individuals suffering from intolerable symptoms of the common cold can now be advised of safe and effective products for symptomatic relief. This article describes and discusses four categories of drugs used to treat the common cold. To simplify the product selection process for family physicians, suggestions are included for possible ingredients for treatments of specific cold symptoms. PMID:21234087

  19. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa, 6% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa and 7% {sup 233}U & 6% {sup 231}Pa give low excess reactivity.

  20. Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Uotinen, V.O.; Carroll, W.P.; Jones, H.M.; Toops, E.C.

    1980-06-01

    A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, denatured (/sup 235//U/sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, and (Th-Pu)O/sub 2/. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to utilize either of the denatured urania-thoria fuels in the standard B and W plant. In addition, it appears that the use of thoria-plutonia fuels would probably also be feasible. These tentative conclusions depend on a data that is more limited than that available for UO/sub 2/ fuels.

  1. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity.

  2. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-01

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higer conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of 233U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  3. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-30

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of {sup 233}U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  4. MC21 analysis of the MIT PWR benchmark: Hot zero power results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Iii, D. J.; Aviles, B. N.; Herman, B. R.

    2013-07-01

    MC21 Monte Carlo results have been compared with hot zero power measurements from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR), as specified in a new full core PWR performance benchmark from the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group. Included in the comparisons are axially integrated full core detector measurements, axial detector profiles, control rod bank worths, and temperature coefficients. Power depressions from grid spacers are seen clearly in the MC21 results. Application of Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration within MC21 has been accomplished, resulting in a significant reduction of inactive batches necessary to converge the fission source. CMFD acceleration has also been shown to work seamlessly with the Uniform Fission Site (UFS) variance reduction method. (authors)

  5. The electrochemistry in 316SS crevices exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Henshaw, J.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical and electrochemical conditions within a crevice of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions were modelled with a computational electrochemistry code. The influence of various variables: dissolved hydrogen, boric acid, lithium hydroxide concentration, crevice length, and radiation dose rate was studied. It was found with the model that 25 ccH 2/kg (STP) was sufficient to remain below an electrode potential of -230 mV she, commonly accepted sufficient to prevent stress corrosion cracking under BWR conditions. In a PWR plant various operational B-Li cycles are possible but it was found that the choice of the cycle did not significantly influence the model results. It was also found that a hydrogen level of 50 ccH 2/kg (STP) would be needed to avoid substantial lowering of the pH inside a crevice.

  6. When blood runs cold: cold agglutinins and cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Findlater, Rhonda R; Schnell-Hoehn, Karen N

    2011-01-01

    Cold agglutinins are particular cold-reactive antibodies that react with red blood cells when the blood temperature drops below normal body temperature causing increased blood viscosity and red blood cell clumping. Most individuals with cold agglutinins are not aware of their presence, as these antibodies have little effect on daily living, often necessitating no treatment. However, when those with cold agglutinins are exposed to hypothermic situations or undergo procedures such as cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermia during cardiac surgery, lethal complications of hemolysis, microvascular occlusion and organ failure can occur. By identifying those suspected of possessing cold agglutinins through a comprehensive nursing assessment and patient history, cold agglutinin screening can be performed prior to surgery to determine a diagnosis of cold agglutinin disease. With a confirmed diagnosis of cold agglutinin disease, the plan of care can be focused on measures to maintain the patient's blood temperature above the thermal amplitude throughout their hospitalization including the use of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with warm myocardial preservation techniques to prevent these fatal complications. Using a case report approach, the authors review the mechanism, clinical manifestations, detection and nursing management of a patient with cold agglutinins undergoing scheduled cardiac surgery. Cold agglutinin disease is rare. However, the risk to patients warrants an increased awareness of cold agglutinins and screening for those who are suspected of carrying these antibodies. PMID:21630629

  7. Contain analysis of hydrogen distribution and combustion in PWR dry containments

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.W.; Nimnual, S.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen transport and combustion in a PWR dry containment are analyzed using the CONTAIN code for a multi-compartment model of the Zion plant. The analysis includes consideration of both degraded core and full core meltdown accidents initiated by a small break LOCA. The importance of intercell flow mixing on distributions of gas composition and temperature in various compartments are evaluated. Thermal stratification and combustion behavior are discussed. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. MELCOR model for an experimental 17x17 spent fuel PWR assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoni, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    A MELCOR model has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack cell undergoing severe accident conditions. To the extent possible, the MELCOR model reflects the actual geometry, materials, and masses present in the experimental arrangement for the Sandia Fuel Project (SFP). The report presents an overview of the SFP experimental arrangement, the MELCOR model specifications, demonstration calculation results, and the input model listing.

  9. Radiation dose rates from commercial PWR and BWR spent fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, C.E.

    1981-10-01

    Data on measurements of gamma dose rates from commercial reactor spent fuel were collected, and documented calculated gamma dose rates were reviewed. As part of this study, the gamma dose rate from spent fuel was estimated, using computational techniques similar to previous investigations into this problem. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates provided a recommended dose rate in air versus distance curve for PWR spent fuel.

  10. Some Aspects of Cost/ Benefit Analysis for In-Service Inspection of PWR Steam Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Zima, G. E.; Lyon, G. H.; Doctor, P. G.; Hoenes, G. R.; Petty, S. E.; Weakley, S. A.

    1981-05-01

    This report discusses a number of aspects of cost/benefit (C/B) analysis for in-service inspection (lSI} of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators (SGs) and identifies several problem areas that must be addressed prior to a full C/B analysis capability. Following a brief review of the impact of SG problems on the productivity of PWR units and of the scope and variability of SG problems among U.S. PWRs, various occupational implications of SG lSI are considered, namely manpower, time, and rad exposure. The opportunities provided by refueling outages in respect to lSI frequency and work time windows are reviewed. Indices for characterizing the nondestructive testing {NDT) information, rad exposure, $ impact, and manpower and time attributes of single ISIs and a series of ISIs over an arbitrary evaluation period are presented and calculated for a number of lSI cases using SG parameters for three typical PWR units. A comparison of the $ impact of unscheduled outages attributable to SG problems with the $ cost of ambitious lSI strategies indicates that the $ cost is virtually negligible for well-planned ISis. Considering the ALARA constraint on occupational rad exposure, the skilled manpower pool for NDT work appears to be the principal factor limiting lSI scope and frequency. Analysis of the manpower and time requirements for inspection of a 40-unit PWR population indicates, however, that an lSI strategy embodying two campaigns per year and a total population inspection within a 2-year interval is not far beyond current capabilities.

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma developed on chronic venous leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sîrbi, Adelina Gabriela; Florea, Marius; Pătraşcu, Virgil; Rotaru, Maria; Mogoş, Dan Gabriel; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Mărgăritescu, Nicolae Dragoş

    2015-01-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU), especially long-lasting non-healing ulcers, are among the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Malignant transformation of a VLU is a rare finding and the relative risk of carcinomatous transformation is quite low (about 5.8). SCC arising in the context of a VLU has a particularly aggressive behavior. A 76-year-old male patient with no relevant medical familial history, with chronic venous insufficiency CEAP C6 for 10 years [recurrent leg ulcers with favorable outcome (healing) after specific local and systemic treatment], showing for about three years one ulcerated lesion located on the anterior upper third of the right calf non-responsive to specific treatment, which subsequently increased their size and merged. Biopsy sample was taken. Histopathology showed epidermal acanthosis, papillomatosis, intense parakeratosis, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, dysplasia and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with areas of acantholysis. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67, EMA, cytokeratin 34βE12 and p63) was performed and all types of immunostaining were moderately to intense positive. Above-knee leg amputation and specific oncologic treatment were proposed as possible curative solutions but the patient refused. Ten months after diagnosis and discharge form the Department of Dermatology, the patient died. Patients with chronic venous leg ulcers and clinically suspicious lesions should be evaluated for malignant transformation of the venous lesion. When diagnosed, malignancy complicating a chronic venous leg ulcer requires a resolute treatment as it may be fatal.

  12. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  13. Military boot attenuates axial loading to the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Schlick, Michael; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical tests to understand injury mechanisms and derive injury tolerance information using Post-Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) have not used foot protection and they have primarily focused on civilian environments such as automotive and athletic- and sports-related events. As military personnel use boots, tests with the boot are required to understand their effect on attenuating lower leg loads. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the modulation of human lower leg kinematics with boot compressions and share of the force absorbed by the boot from underbody blast loading. Axial impacts were delivered to the Hybrid III dummy lower leg in the neutral position. The dummy leg was instrumented with its internal upper and lower tibia load cells, and in addition, a knee load cell was attached to the proximal end. Tests were conducted at 4.4 to 8.9 m/s, with and without boots, and repeat tests were done. Morphologies of the force-time responses were similar at the three load cell locations and for all input combinations and booted and unbooted conditions. However, booted tests resulted in considerably lower maximum forces (approximately two-third reduction) than unbooted tests. These results clearly show that boots can absorb a considerable share of the impact energy and decrease impact loads transmitted to the lower leg under vertical loading, thus necessitating the generation of tolerance data using PMHS for this environment.

  14. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  15. Acute Achilles tendinopathy: effect of pain control on leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, J; Kokalj, A

    2014-03-01

    Tendinopathies are a major cause of disability in the athletic population; the main purpose of the treatment of these injuries is to reduce pain and improve function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs on leg stiffness of patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. Twenty-eight eligible male athletes (aged 39.1 ± 10.3 y) suffering acute Achilles tendinopathy were treated with etoricoxib (120 mg oral once daily) during 7 days. Pain (100-mm visual analogue scale-VAS), analgesic effect (percentage of 100-mm VAS reduction), and leg stiffness were evaluated pre- and post- anti-inflammatory treatment. Results of this study showed that over the 7-day treatment period, etoricoxib provided significant relief of Achilles tendon pain (VAS) compared to that experienced at baseline: 54.5 ± 21.6 and 24.5 ± 24.8, respectively (p<0.001). Leg stiffness showed a significant improvement after one-week NSAID therapy: LSR 0.89 ± 0.1 vs. 0.97 ± 0.1; (p=0.02). In conclusion, findings of this study demonstrated that patients suffering acute unilateral Achilles tendinopathy increased their leg stiffness of the affected side after oral anti-inflammatory therapy. Effective control of tendon pain in the acute phase of such sports-related injuries may contribute to improve capabilities associated with high performance like leg stiffness. PMID:24583548

  16. Actigraph Evaluation of Acupuncture for Treating Restless Legs Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingzhe; Li, Mao; Wang, Qiudong; Kwak, Shin; Jiang, Wenfei; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of acupuncture in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) by actigraph recordings. Among the 38 patients with RLS enrolled, 31 (M = 12, F = 19; mean age, 47.2 ± 9.7 years old) completed the study. Patients were treated with either standard acupuncture (n = 15) or randomized acupuncture (n = 16) in a single-blind manner for 6 weeks. Changes in nocturnal activity (NA) and early sleep activity (ESA) between week 0 (baseline), week 2, week 4, and week 6 were assessed using leg actigraph recordings, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Rating Scale (IRLSRS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Standard but not randomized acupuncture reduced the abnormal leg activity of NA and ESA significantly in week 2, week 4, and week 6 based on the changes in the clinical scores for IRLSRS and ESS in week 4 and week 6 compared with the baseline. No side effects were observed. The results indicate that standard acupuncture might improve the abnormal leg activity in RLS patients and thus is a potentially suitable integrative treatment for long-term use. PMID:25763089

  17. WISPy cold dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Paola; Cadamuro, Davide; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches — exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques — can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  18. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, B.R.

    1981-09-29

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume. 2 figs.

  19. Radial cold trap

    DOEpatents

    Grundy, Brian R.

    1981-01-01

    The radial cold trap comprises a housing having a plurality of mesh bands disposed therein. The mesh bands comprise concentrically arranged bands of mesh with the mesh specific surface area of each band increasing from the outermost mesh band to the innermost mesh band. An inlet nozzle is attached to the outside section of the housing while an outlet nozzle is attached to the inner portion of the housing so as to be concentrically connected to the innermost mesh band. An inlet baffle having orifices therein may be disposed around the outermost mesh band and within the housing for directing the flow of the fluid from the inlet nozzle to the outermost mesh band in a uniform manner. The flow of fluid passes through each consecutive mesh band and into the outlet nozzle. The circular pattern of the symmetrically arranged mesh packing allows for better utilization of the entire cold trap volume.

  20. Calculation of the radionuclides in PWR spent fuel samples for SFR experiment planning.

    SciTech Connect

    Naegeli, Robert Earl

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the calculation of radionuclide content in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel samples planned for use in the Spent Fuel Ratio (SPR) Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL) to aid in experiment planning. The calculation methods using the ORIGEN2 and ORIGEN-ARP computer codes and the input modeling of the planned PWR spent fuel from the H. B. Robinson and the Surry nuclear power plants are discussed. The safety hazards for the calculated nuclide inventories in the spent fuel samples are characterized by the potential airborne dose and by the portion of the nuclear facility hazard category 2 and 3 thresholds that the experiment samples would present. In addition, the gamma ray photon energy source for the nuclide inventories is tabulated to facilitate subsequent calculation of the direct and shielded dose rates expected from the samples. The relative hazards of the high burnup 72 gigawatt-day per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU) spent fuel from H. B. Robinson and the medium burnup 36 GWd/MTU spent fuel from Surry are compared against a parametric calculation of various fuel burnups to assess the potential for higher hazard PWR fuel samples.

  1. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  2. PWR ENDF/B-VII cross-section libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, C.; Ilas, G.

    2012-07-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% {sup 235}U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time. (authors)

  3. PWR reactor pressure vessel internals license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwirian, R.; Robison, G.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). Pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals designed by all three U.S. PWR nuclear steam supply system vendors have been evaluated relative to the effects of age-related degradation mechanisms; the capability of current design limits; inservice examination, testing, repair, refurbishment, and other programs to manage these effects; and the assurance that these internals can continue to perform their intended safety functions in the license renewal term. This industry report (IR), one of a series of ten, provides a generic technical basis for evaluation of PWR reactor pressure vessel internals for license renewal.

  4. Clumpy cold dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  5. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  6. Cold denaturation of encapsulated ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Pometun, Maxim S; Peterson, Ronald W; Babu, Charles R; Wand, A Joshua

    2006-08-23

    Theoretical considerations suggest that protein cold denaturation can potentially provide a means to explore the cooperative substructure of proteins. Protein cold denaturation is generally predicted to occur well below the freezing point of water. Here NMR spectroscopy of ubiquitin encapsulated in reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity alkanes is used to follow cold-induced unfolding to temperatures below -25 degrees C. Comparison of cold-induced structural transitions in a variety of reverse micelle-buffer systems indicate that protein-surfactant interactions are negligible and allow the direct observation of the multistate cold-induced unfolding of the protein.

  7. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aide researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials. Details of these current technologies will be provided along with operational experience gained to date. With shuttle retirement looming, NASA has protected the capability to provide a temperature controlled environment during transportation to and from the ISS with the use of Glacier and Coldbags, which are compatible with future commercial vehicles including SpaceX's Dragon Capsule, and Orbital s Cygnus vehicle. This paper will discuss the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  8. Cold Stowage Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, Sharon E.; Melendez, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a test bed for researchers to perform science experiments in a variety of fields, including human research, life sciences, and space medicine. Many of the experiments being conducted today require science samples to be stored and transported in a temperature controlled environment. NASA provides several systems which aid researchers in preserving their science. On orbit systems provided by NASA include the Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI), Microgravity Experiment Research Locker Incubator (MERLIN), and Glacier. These freezers use different technologies to provide rapid cooling and cold stowage at different temperature levels on board ISS. Systems available to researchers during transportation to and from ISS are MERLIN, Glacier, and Coldbag. Coldbag is a passive cold stowage system that uses phase change materials to maintain temperature. Details of these current technologies are provided along with operational experience gained to date. This paper discusses the capability of the current cold stowage hardware and how it may continue to support NASA s mission on ISS and in future exploration missions.

  9. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    DOEpatents

    Lau, Louis K. S.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized water nuclear reactor system includes a vortex mitigator in the form of a cylindrical conduit between the hot leg conduit and a first section of residual heat removal conduit, which conduit leads to a pump and a second section of residual heat removal conduit leading back to the reactor pressure vessel. The cylindrical conduit is of such a size that where the hot leg has an inner diameter D.sub.1, the first section has an inner diameter D.sub.2, and the cylindrical conduit or step nozzle has a length L and an inner diameter of D.sub.3 ; D.sub.3 /D.sub.1 is at least 0.55, D.sub.2 is at least 1.9, and L/D.sub.3 is at least 1.44, whereby cavitation of the pump by a vortex formed in the hot leg is prevented.

  10. The effects of mats on back and leg fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Stuart-Buttle, C; Marras, W S

    1994-02-01

    Prolonged standing is common in many industrial workplaces. It is also quite common for workers to complain of discomfort in the back and legs as a result of prolonged standing. Mats are often provided for the worker to relieve this fatigue. However, there is no quantitative evidence that these mats relieve leg and back fatigue. Five subjects were asked to stand on a concrete surface and two mat surfaces for prolonged periods of time. Spectral electromyographic analyses indicated that mats reduced localized muscle fatigue in the erector spinae muscle only. Furthermore, this fatigue reduction occurred only with the more compressible of the two mats tested. These results imply that localized muscular fatigue in the leg may not be relieved with 'anti-fatigue' mats, and some of these mats only benefit the back. PMID:15676945

  11. Muscle oxygen saturation heterogeneity among leg muscles during ramp exercise.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Murase, Norio; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether O(2) saturation in several leg muscles changes as exercise intensity increases. Twelve healthy young males performed 20 W/min ramp bicycle exercise until exhaustion. Pulmonary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) was monitored continuously during the experiments to determine peak oxygen uptake. Muscle O(2) saturation (SmO(2)) was also monitored continuously at the belly of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior by near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Although the VL muscle mainly contributes during cycling exercise, deoxygenation was enhanced not only in the VL muscle but also in the other thigh muscles and lower leg muscles with increased exercise intensity. Furthermore, SmO(2) response during ramp cycling exercise differed considerably between leg muscles.

  12. Evaluation of clinical and laboratory correlates of sickle leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Madu, Anazoeze Jude; Ubesie, Agozie; Madu, Kenechi Anthony; Okwor, Bismarck; Anigbo, Chukwudi

    2013-01-01

    The exact mechanism for the occurrence of sickle leg ulcers (SLUs) has not been fully explained, although, popular opinion supports a multifactorial etio-pathogenetic process. Leg ulceration in sickle cell is a chronic and debilitating condition which is difficult to treat and may worsen the psychosocial impact of this illness. This study aims to evaluate the laboratory and clinical correlates of SLUs. One hundred sixty-seven patients who had been diagnosed with sickle cell anemia (homozygous S) had their steady-state hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit, white cell count, platelet count, serum bilirubin, and aspartate transaminase (AST) as well as frequency of crisis per annum evaluated with respect to their relationship to the occurrence of leg ulcers. They were aged 6-53 years (mean age 24.3 years), and prevalence of leg ulcer was found to be 2.75 per 1000 (2.54 per 1000 in females and 2.83 per 1000 in males). The independent sample t-test showed a significant difference in the serum AST levels in those with SLU (p = 0.029), though a positive correlation did not exist. Other predictors of disease severity found to have positive relationship with each other were the AST and total serum bilirubin 0.207 (p = 0.012); Hb and age 0.130 (p = 0.035); Hb and white cell count -0.159 (p = 0.010), white cell count and age -0.113 (p = 0.018). SLUs do not occur in patients with severe disease in sickle cell. The clinical and laboratory indicators of severe sickle cell disease do not correlate positively with the occurrence of SLU. Serum AST may have a relationship with leg ulceration in these patients. Environmental factors most likely play a major part in the etiopathogenesis of leg ulcer and this may require further studies in different sociocultural settings.

  13. Different vasodilator responses of human arms and legs

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Sean C; Leuenberger, Urs A; Hogeman, Cynthia S; Handly, Brian D; Proctor, David N

    2004-01-01

    Forearm vascular responses to intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilators have been thoroughly characterized in humans. While the forearm is a well-established experimental model for studying human vascular function, it is of limited consequence to systemic cardiovascular control owing to its small muscle mass and blood flow requirements. In the present study we determined whether these responses could be generalized to the leg. Based upon blood pressure differences between the leg and arm during upright posture, we hypothesized that the responsiveness to endothelium-dependent vasodilators would be greater in the forearm than the leg. Brachial and femoral artery blood flow (Q, ultrasound Doppler) at rest and during intra-arterial infusions of endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine and substance P) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) vasodilators were measured in eight healthy men (22–27 years old). Resting blood flows in the forearm before infusion of acetylcholine, substance P or sodium nitroprusside were 25 ± 4, 30 ± 7 and 29 ± 5 ml min−1, respectively, and in the leg were 370 ± 32, 409 ± 62 and 330 ± 30 ml min−1, respectively. At the highest infusion rate of acetylcholine (16 μg (100 ml tissue)−1 min−1) there was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in Q to the forearm (1864 ± 476%) than to the leg (569 ± 86%). Similarly, at the highest infusion rate of substance P (125 pg (100 ml tissue)−1 min−1) there was a greater (P < 0.05) increase in Q to the forearm (911 ± 286%) than to the leg (243 ± 58%). The responses to sodium nitroprusside (1 μg (100 ml tissue)−1 min−1) were also greater (P < 0.05) in the forearm (925 ± 164%) than in the leg (326 ± 65%). These data indicate that vascular responses to both endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilator agents are blunted in the leg compared to the forearm. PMID:14990681

  14. Bio-inspired robotic legs drive viscous recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Rintaro

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans actuate multiple legs in a well-coordinated sequence to generate suitable flow for feeding and swimming. Inspired by tiny crustacean larvae operating at low Reynolds number, we study a scaled-up model in which slender rods oscillate independently in a bath of glycerol. Experiments reveal qualitatively different flow patterns depending on the phase and orientation of actuated rods. The observations are analyzed in the framework of slender-body theory for Stokes flow. This study shows that simple oscillatory motion of multiple legs can produce complex recirculating flows, with potential applications for mixing and pumping.

  15. Facial bones of long-legged buzzard (Buteo rufinus).

    PubMed

    Orhan, I O; Kabak, M

    2006-08-01

    The department of National Parks and Protection of Wild Nature sent five (two males, three females) adult long-legged buzzards for investigation of their deaths to Ankara University Veterinary Faculty. Facial bones of buzzards were evaluated. Distinguishing facial features such as strong os premaxillare, cavum nasale filled with spider webbing-like structures, prominent os prefrontalis and processes, H-shaped paraglossum were determined. In this study, we investigated the anatomic properties of facial bones in long-legged buzzard. We also aimed to identify the data using these bones in order to separate different bird species.

  16. Stable Running with Asymmetric Legs: A Bifurcation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Seyfarth, Andre; Hermann, Martin

    The spring-mass model is a frequently used gait template to describe human and animal locomotion. In this study, we transform the spring-mass model for running into a boundary value problem and use it for the computation of bifurcation points. We show that the analysis of the region of stable solutions can be reduced to the calculation of its boundaries. Using the new bifurcation approach, we investigate the influence of asymmetric leg parameters on the stability of running. Like previously found in walking, leg asymmetry does not necessarily restrict the range of stable running and may even provide benefits for system dynamics.

  17. Diagnosis of Restless Leg Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    PubMed

    Becker, Philip M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom disease, is a neurosensorimotor disorder with significant impact that is diagnosed through 5 clinical criteria. Adherence to 5 criteria and a thorough physical examination are often sufficient for diagnosis. Associated features prove helpful in young children or the cognitively impaired. Polysomnography is not routinely required unless the patient has other sleep-related symptoms. The finding of periodic leg movements in sleep only suggests, instead of confirms, the diagnosis. It is important to arrive at appropriate diagnosis because the prevalence is in the millions and treatment significantly improves sleep quality and daytime function.

  18. Asenapine-Induced Restless Legs Syndrome: Differentiation from Akathisia

    PubMed Central

    McCall, W. Vaughn; Riley, Mary Anne; Hodges, Chelsea; McCloud, Laryssa; Phillips, Marjorie; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Akathisia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) share some common clinical features and a common relationship with dopamine dysfunction. However, the underlying causes and appropriate treatments for akathisia and RLS are different. Herein we describe a case of RLS that was precipitated by a single dose of asenapine, which is an atypical antipsychotic, and dissect the features that support the contention that this was indeed a case of RLS and not akathisia. Citation: McCall WV, Riley MA, Hodges C, McCloud L, Phillips M, Rosenquist PB. Asenapine-induced restless legs syndrome: differentiation from akathisia. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1341-1342. PMID:25325577

  19. Sleep-Related Leg Cramps: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Terry M

    2015-09-01

    Various medications and behavioral treatments for sleep-related leg cramps have been tried, but the quality of the evidence is low. Quinine seems to be effective, but dangerous. β-Agonists may be one of the more common causes of secondary leg cramps. Statins may not be implicated in leg cramps as much as has been believed. Potassium-sparing diuretics may have a higher incidence of sleep-related leg cramps than potassium-depleting diuretics. Plantar flexion of the feet may elicit most sleep-related leg cramps. More research into behavioral treatments is needed. A standardized sleep-related leg cramp questionnaire would be useful to expand research.

  20. Motion of the center of mass in children with spastic hemiplegia: balance, energy transfer, and work performed by the affected leg vs. the unaffected leg.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jing; Pierce, Rosemary; Do, K Patrick; Aiona, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry between limbs in people with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HEMI) adversely affects limb coordination and energy generation and consumption. This study compared how the affected leg and the unaffected leg of children with HEMI would differ based on which leg trails. Full-body gait analysis data and force-plate data were analyzed for 31 children (11.9 ± 3.8 years) with HEMI and 23 children (11.1 ± 3.1 years) with typical development (TD). Results showed that peak posterior center of mass-center of pressure (COM-COP) inclination angles of HEMI were smaller than TD when the affected leg trailed but not when the unaffected leg trailed. HEMI showed greater peak medial COM-COP inclination angles and wider step width than TD, no matter which leg trailed. More importantly, when the affected leg of HEMI trailed, it did not perform enough positive work during double support to propel COM motion. Consequently, the unaffected leg had to perform additional positive work during the early portion of single support, which costs more energy. When the unaffected leg trailed, the affected leg performed more negative work during double support; therefore, more positive work was still needed during early single support, but energy efficiency was closer to that of TD. Energy recovery factor was lower when the affected leg trailed than when the unaffected leg trailed; both were lower than TD. These findings suggest that the trailing leg plays a significant role in propelling COM motion during double support, and the 'unaffected' side of HEMI may not be completely unaffected. It is important to strengthen both legs.

  1. Experimental hypothermia and cold perception.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R G; Pozos, R S

    1989-10-01

    Twelve subjects clothed in flotation suits were immersed in 10 degrees C cold water and their surface temperatures at the back and groin, as well as core temperatures, were continuously monitored. Subjects were unable to reliably assess how cold they were, with the highest correlation observed between perceived temperature and actual temperature reaching only 0.51. This was felt to be partially due to the uneven distribution of surface temperatures seen in this experiment and in most cold water immersions. Rapid cooling in cold water also produced the perceptual phenomenon of "overshooting" previously observed in cold air studies, characterized by sudden temperature drops being perceived as cold sensations of greater magnitude. The results suggest that subjects who are rapidly cooled in water may have considerable difficulty separating feelings of cold from feelings of pain and discomfort, which can have serious implications in survival situations and highlights the subjective and highly variable nature of cold perception. Perceived cold sensation may be a very poor, and possibly dangerous, predictor in cold water immersion situations.

  2. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Patrick A; Reppert, Steven M

    2013-03-01

    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Fall migrants are in reproductive diapause, and they use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate during the long journey south. Eye-sensed directional cues from the daylight sky (e.g., the horizontal or azimuthal position of the sun) are integrated in the sun compass in the midbrain central complex region. Sun compass output is time compensated by circadian clocks in the antennae so that fall migrants can maintain a fixed flight direction south. In the spring, the same migrants remigrate northward to the southern United States to initiate the northern leg of the migration cycle. Here we show that spring remigrants also use an antenna-dependent time-compensated sun compass to direct their northward flight. Remarkably, fall migrants prematurely exposed to overwintering-like coldness reverse their flight orientation to the north. The temperature microenvironment at the overwintering site is essential for successful completion of the migration cycle, because without cold exposure, aged migrants continue to orient south. Our discovery that coldness triggers the northward flight direction in spring remigrants solves one of the long-standing mysteries of the monarch migration.

  3. The Isis cold moderators

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G. M.; Broome, T. A.; Burridge, R. A.; Cragg, D.; Hall, R.; Haynes, D.; Hirst, J.; Hogston, J. R.; Jones, H. H.; Sexton, J.; Wright, P.

    1997-09-01

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  4. Atypical leg symptoms: does routine measurement of the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) in primary care benefit patients?

    PubMed Central

    Oesterling, Christine; Kalia, Amun; Chetcuti, Thomas; Walker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Managing patients with atypical leg symptoms in primary care can be problematic. Determining the ankle brachial pressure index (ABPI) may be readily performed to help diagnose peripheral arterial disease, but is often omitted where signs and symptoms are unclear. Question : Does routine measurement of ABPI in patients with atypical leg symptoms aid management increase satisfaction and safely reduce hospital referral? Methodology : Patients with atypical leg symptoms but no skin changes or neurological symptoms underwent clinical review and Doppler ABPI measurement (suspicious finding ≤ 1.0). Testing was performed by the same doctor (study period: 30 months). Patient outcomes were determined from practice records, hospital letters and a telephone survey. Results: The study comprised 35 consecutive patients (males: N = 15), mean age 64 years (range: 39–88). Presentation included pain, cold feet, cramps, irritation and concerns regarding circulation. Prior to ABPI measurement, referral was considered necessary in 10, not required in 22 and unclear in 3. ABPI changed the referral decision in 10 (29%) and confirmed the decision in 25 (71%). During the study, 10 (29%) patients were referred (9 vascular, 1 neurology). Amongst the vascular referrals, significant peripheral arterial disease has been confirmed in six patients. A further two patients are under review and one did not attend. To date, lack of referral in patients with atypical leg symptoms but a normal ABPI has not increased morbidity. Current status was assessed by telephone review in 16/35 (46% contact rate; mean 18 months, range 2–28). Fifteen patients (94%) appreciated that their symptoms had been quickly and conveniently assessed, 8/11 (73%) with a normal ABPI were reassured by their result and in 8/11 symptoms have resolved. Discussion/Conclusion : APBI conveniently aids management of atypical leg symptoms by detecting unexpected peripheral arterial disease, avoids

  5. Monocoque structure for the SKITTER three-legged walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansek, Robert N.; Booth, Andrew J.; Daneman, Steven A.; Dresser, James A.; Haney, Todd G.; Johnson, Gregory R.; Lindzen, Eric C.; Montgomery, Robert C.; Warren, Andrew L.

    1988-01-01

    The SKITTER 2 design is a monocoque version of the proposed lunar three-legged walker. By the definition of monocoque, the body and legs are a shell with no internal ribbing or supports added for absorbing stresses. The purpose of the monocoque is to encase the elements used for power transmission, power supply, and control of the motion. The material for the structure is a vinyl ester resin, Derakane 8084. This material is easily formable and locally obtainable. The body consists of a hexagonally shaped cylinder with truncated hexagonal pyramids on the top and botton. The legs are eight inch diameter cylinders. The legs are comprised of a tibia section and a femur section. The SKITTER 2 is powered by six actuators which provide linear forces that are transformed into rotary torques by a series of chains and sprockets. The joints connect the femur to the body and the tibia to the femur. Surrounding the joints are flexible rubber hoses that fully encase the chains and sprockets. The SKITTER 2 is capable of walking upside down, righting itself after being overturned, and has the ability to perform in many environments. Applications for this walker include lunar transport or drilling, undersea exploration, and operation in severe surroundings such as arctic temperatures or high radiation.

  6. Managing venous leg ulcers and oedema using compression hosiery.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Joy

    2015-10-21

    Increasing demand for services and rising costs in the NHS have resulted in reduced consultation times and resources for clinicians when treating patients with compression therapy. This article emphasises the importance of considering alternative treatment approaches, while encouraging patient choice, independence and self-care. One alternative treatment is the use of compression hosiery kits for the management of venous leg ulceration and oedema.

  7. The impact of leg ulcers on patients' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Charles, H

    1995-06-01

    The pain of leg ulceration can dominate patients' lives and can have serious psychological and social effects on patients' quality of life. A phenomenological approach was used in this study to obtain rich data on patients' experiences. A feeling of loss of control and lack of faith in the professionals treating the condition was found. PMID:7604055

  8. Preventing Leg Length Discrepancy and Instability After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Austin, Matthew S; Lavernia, Carlos J; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of equal leg lengths and dynamic hip stability are essential elements of a successful total hip arthroplasty. A careful clinical examination, a preoperative plan, and appropriate intraoperative techniques are necessary to achieve these goals. Preoperative identification of patients at risk for residual leg length discrepancy allows surgeons to adjust the surgical approach and/or the type of implant and provide better preoperative patient education. The use of larger femoral heads, high-offset stem options, and enhanced soft-tissue repairs have improved impingement-free range of motion as well as dynamic hip stability and have contributed to an overall reduction in dislocation. Methods for accurate leg length restoration and component positioning include anatomic landmarks, intraoperative radiographs, intraoperative calipers, stability testing, and computer-assisted surgery. If recurrent instability occurs after total hip arthroplasty, the underlying cause for dislocation should be identified and treated; this may include the use of semiconstrained dual-mobility or fully constrained liners, depending on abductor function. Surgeons should be aware of the clinical and surgical techniques for achieving leg length equalization and dynamic hip stability in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27049193

  9. Live and carcass leg characteristics in terminally-sired lambs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Live and carcass leg characteristics of F1 wether lambs were investigated to determine whether there were terminal-sire breed differences. Over a 3-yr period, Columbia, MARCIII, Suffolk, and Texel rams were mated with mature Rambouillet ewes to produce the lambs (n=521). Lambs were finished in a fee...

  10. General view of crane with legs erected temporary erection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of crane with legs erected - temporary erection towers still in place. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13779 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Leg regeneration in Drosophila abridges the normal developmental program

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Manel; Bishop, Sarah Anne; Baguña, Jaume; Couso, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of lost body parts has traditionally been seen as a redeployment of embryonic development. However, whether regeneration and embryonic development are controlled by identical, similar or different genetic programmes has not been fully tested. Here, we analyse proximal-distal regeneration in Drosophila leg imaginal discs using the expression of positional markers, and by cell-lineage experiments, and we compare it with the pattern already known in normal development. During regeneration, the first proximal-distal positional markers reappear in overlapping patterns. As the regenerate expands they segregate, and further markers appear until the normal pattern is produced, following a proximal to distal sequence that is in fact the reverse of normal leg imaginal disc development. The results of lineage tracing support this interpretation, and show that regenerated structures derive from cells near the wound edge. Although leg development and leg regeneration are served by a set of identical genes, the ways their proximal-distal patterns are achieved are distinct from each other. Such differences can result from similar developmental gene interactions acting under different starting conditions. PMID:20563988

  12. Why Animals Run on Legs, Not on Wheels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Jared

    1983-01-01

    Speculates why animals have not developed wheels in place of inefficient legs. One study cited suggests three reasons why animals are better off without wheels: wheels are efficient only on hard surfaces, limitation of wheeled motion due to vertical obstructions, and the problem of turning in spaces cluttered with obstacles. (JN)

  13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH STIFF LEG LADLE CRANE OPERATOR, LUKE WALKER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH STIFF LEG LADLE CRANE OPERATOR, LUKE WALKER, POURING OFF SLAG FROM LADLE AS SKIMMER, BRUCE ELLIOTT, RAKES THE SLAG FROM THE MOLTEN METAL. - American Cast Iron Pipe Company, Mixer Building, 1501 Thirty-first Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Finite Wave Vector Pairing in Doped Two-leg Ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson N. J.; Tsvelik A.; Essler, F.H.L.; Jeckelmann, E.

    2012-05-02

    We consider the effects of umklapp processes in doped two-leg fermionic ladders. These may emerge either at special band fillings or as a result of the presence of external periodic potentials. We show that such umklapp processes can lead to profound changes of physical properties and in particular stabilize pair-density wave phases.

  15. Dynamic postural stability for double-leg drop landing.

    PubMed

    Niu, Wenxin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yubo; Zhao, Qinping

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic postural stability has been widely studied for single-leg landing, but seldom considered for double-leg landing. This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic postural stability and the influence mechanism of muscle activities during double-leg drop landing. Eight recreationally active males and eight recreationally active females participated in this study and dropped individually from three heights (0.32 m, 0.52 m, and 0.72 m). Ground reaction force was recorded to calculate the time to stabilisation. Electromyographic activities were recorded for selected lower-extremity muscles. A multivariate analysis of variance was carried out and no significant influence was found in time to stabilisation between genders or limb laterals (P > 0.05). With increasing drop height, time to stabilisation decreased significantly in two horizontal directions and the lower-extremity muscle activities were enhanced. Vertical time to stabilisation was not significantly influenced by drop height. Dynamic postural stability improved by neuromuscular change more than that required due to the increase of drop height. Double-leg landing on level ground is a stable movement, and the body would often be injured before dynamic postural stability is impaired. It is understandable to protect tissues from mechanical injuries by the sacrifice of certain dynamic postural stability in the design of protective devices or athlete training.

  16. Muscle strategies for leg extensions on a "Reformer" apparatus.

    PubMed

    Cantergi, Débora; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes; Jinha, Azim; Brodt, Guilherme Auler; Herzog, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Considering the kinematics of leg extensions performed on a Reformer apparatus, one would expect high activation of hip and knee extensor muscle groups. However, because of the bi-articular nature of some lower limb muscles, and the possibility to vary the direction of force application on the Reformer bar, muscles can be coordinated theoretically in a variety of ways and still achieve the desired outcome. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the knee and hip moments during leg extensions performed on the Reformer apparatus and to estimate the forces in individual muscles crossing these joints using static optimization. Fifteen subjects performed leg extensions exercises on the Reformer apparatus using an individually chosen resistance. To our big surprise, we found that subjects performed the exercise using two conceptually different strategies (i) the first group used simultaneous hip and knee extension moments, (ii) while the second group used simultaneous hip flexion and knee extension moments to perform the exercise. These different strategies were achieved by changing the direction of the resultant force applied by the subject's feet on the Reformer bar. While leg extensions on the Reformer apparatus have been thought to strengthen the hip and knee extensors muscles, our results demonstrate that patients can perform the exercise in a different and unexpected way. In order to control the hip and knee moments and achieve the desired outcome of the exercise, the direction of force application on the Reformer bar must be controlled carefully. PMID:25262161

  17. RSRM Nozzle-to-Case Joint J-leg Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrechtsen, Kevin U.; Eddy, Norman F.; Ewing, Mark E.; McGuire, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program, nozzle-to-case joint polysulfide adhesive gas paths have occurred on several flight motors. These gas paths have allowed hot motor gases to reach the wiper O-ring. Even though these motors continue to fly safely with this condition, a desire was to reduce such occurrences. The RSRM currently uses a J-leg joint configuration on case field joints and igniter inner and outer joints. The J-leg joint configuration has been successfully demonstrated on numerous RSRM flight and static test motors, eliminating hot gas intrusion to the critical O-ring seals on these joints. Using the proven technology demonstrated on the case field joints and igniter joints, a nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design was developed for implementation on RSRM flight motors. This configuration provides an interference fit with nozzle fixed housing phenolics at assembly, with a series of pressurization gaps incorporated outboard of the joint mating surface to aid in joint pressurization and to eliminate any circumferential flow in this region. The joint insulation is bonded to the nozzle phenolics using the same pressure sensitive adhesive used in the case field joints and igniter joints. An enhancement to the nozzle-to-case joint J-leg configuration is the implementation of a carbon rope thermal barrier. The thermal barrier is located downstream of the joint bondline and is positioned within the joint in a manner where any hot gas intrusion into the joint passes through the thermal barrier, reducing gas temperatures to a level that would not affect O-rings downstream of the thermal barrier. This paper discusses the processes used in reaching a final nozzle-to-case joint J-leg design, provides structural and thermal results in support of the design, and identifies fabrication techniques and demonstrations used in arriving at the final configuration.

  18. Arm-leg coordination in recreational and competitive breaststroke swimmers.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Hugues; Seifert, Ludovic; Chollet, Didier

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the durations of the different arm and leg stroke phases (propulsion, glide, and recovery) and the temporal arm-leg gaps between 12 competitive and 12 recreational breaststroke swimmers. The mean ages and best times for a 50-m breaststroke were, respectively, (recreational: 16.9+/-1.6 y; 49.55+/-3.38 s; competitive: 16.2+/-1.5 y; 33.85+/-1.96 s). Each swimmer was required to swim 2 x 25-m breaststroke at two different paces (slow and sprint) while being videotaped by two underwater cameras (frontal and lateral views). At the same given speed, recreational swimmers used no glide phase which increased the relative contribution of their recovery and propulsive phases. This was mainly caused by the superposition of their leg extension and the second part of their arm recovery, indicating a technique with no glide time between the arm recovery and the leg extension. In terms of phase duration, the recreational swimmers spent more time in arm recovery and in propulsive phases. Furthermore, it was observed that for a comparable increase of swimming speed (recreational: 23.3%, competitive: 22.6%), competitors switched from a glide to an overlapped coordination while recreational swimmers adopted an overlapped technique whatever the swimming speed. As a result, the relative time spent in propulsive phases did not change in the recreational group, but increased by 27.2% in the competitive one. In a swimming developmental program, particular emphasis should be put on arm-leg coordination drills, when considering the breaststroke. PMID:18358780

  19. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s-1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  20. [When to worry about before a vascular chronic leg ulcer?].

    PubMed

    Lazareth, I

    2016-09-01

    Leg ulcers are a chronic condition. Healing can be long for venous ulcers and the risk of complications is significant. Infection is the most severe complication and can occur in the form of easily diagnosed acute bacterial dermohypodermitis that generally responds well to antibiotic treatment if given at an appropriate dose or in the form of localized infection that is more difficult to diagnosis. Indeed, no consensus has been reached in the literature on the clinical criteria to retain for the diagnosis of localized infection. Similarly, the most appropriate treatment remains to be established. Local care would be a logical starting point, followed by systemic antibiotics if this approach is unsuccessful. Individual conditions also should be taken into consideration (immunodepression, severe arteriopathy warranting more rapid use of systemic antibiotics). The second most frequent complication is an allergic reaction to a topical agent used for wound care. The rate of sensitivization in patients with leg ulcers is high (60 %), although the rate is declining with modern dressings. No product can be considered perfectly safe for these polysensitized patients. Dermocorticoid therapy can be very effective. Allergology tests are needed. Certain leg ulcers require special care from diagnosis. An arterial origin must be suspected for deep, or necrotic ulcers. Arterial supply must be explored rapidly, followed by a revascularization procedure when necessary. Highly painful superficial extensive necrotic ulcers due to necrotic angiodermitis require hospital care for skin grafts that will control the antiodermitis and provide pain. Carcinoma should be suspected in cases of leg ulcers with an atypical localization exhibiting excessive budding. A biopsy is mandatory for leg ulcers with an unusual course (absence of healing despite well-conducted care). PMID:27622980

  1. Double tibial osteotomy for bow leg patients: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Khalilollah; Fouladi, Arash; Chinigarzadeh, Mozhdeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: High tibia osteotomy (HTO) is a common surgical operation for correction of genu varum deformity. In some patients, there are concurrent tibia vara and genu varum (bow leg). This study aimed to consider the possibility of better correction of bow leg deformity after double level tibial osteotomy (DLTO). Materials and Methods: A case series of 10 patients of genu varum in addition to tibia vara (bow leg) deformity who were referred to orthopedic ward of an academic hospital of Isfahan- Iran during 2009–2011 were included in the study. The mean age was 17.3 ± 3.1 years and all of them underwent DLTO. The results of treatment have been assessed based on clinical and radiological parameters before and after surgery. Results: The mean pre- and post operative values for Tibia-Femoral Angle, Medial Proximal of Tibia Angle (MPTA), and Lateral Distal of Tibia Angle (LDTA) were 18.13 ± 3.05° vs. 3.93 ± 0.66°, 79.13 ± 3.4° vs. 89.7 ± 1.8° and 96.40 ± 1.8° vs. 88.73 ± 3.0° respectively (P < 0.05). Improvement of all radiological parameters was meaningful. Seventy three percent of patients had normal mechanical axis of limb after surgery. The remaining cases had varus deformity in distal femur that was corrected by valgus supracondylar osteotomy in an additional operation. Limited range of motion (ROM) near knee and ankle was not observed. Conclusion: DLTO correct bow leg deformity in the point of alignment of limb and paralleling of knee and ankle joint more effectively. This method can be used in metabolic and congenital bow leg which deformities are present in throughout of the lower limb. We described this technique for the first time. PMID:24523802

  2. Structure of Prominence Legs: Plasma and Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levens, P. J.; Schmieder, B.; Labrosse, N.; López Ariste, A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s‑1 in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  3. LEG ULCERS IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE: CURRENT PATTERNS AND PRACTICES

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Kara-Marie H.; Axelrod, Karen C.; Buscetta, Ashley; Hassell, Kathryn L.; Adams-Graves, Patricia E.; Seamon, Catherine; Kato, Gregory J.; Minniti, Caterina P.

    2013-01-01

    Leg ulcers are a debilitating complication of patients with sickle cell disease, and their frequency in North America was reported to be 2.5% by the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease more than 20 years ago. We sought to determine if the frequency of leg ulcers in sickle cell patients in the United States had declined and to assess which treatments providers use most commonly. We sent an e-mail survey to health professionals belonging to the national Sickle Cell Adult Provider Network. Responses were obtained from 31 of them (26.0%). Most of them (96.0%) reported having some patients with leg ulcers. Providers reported a total of 185 patients with active leg ulcers and 224 in the previous 5 years, for a total of 409 patients. Hb SS (homozygous sickle cell anemia) was the most common genotype of affected individuals, followed by Hb SC (double heterozygote for Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T] and Hb C [β6(A3)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.19G>A]). Males showed a 2:1 predominance. Two-thirds of patients were treated with either hydroxyurea (HU) or transfusion therapy and most used compression stockings and topical therapies as directed by wound care services. We conclude that leg ulcers continue to be a debilitating complication of young adults with sickle cell disease, despite improved supportive care and the widespread use of disease modifying agents such HU and transfusion. While some providers offer office-based ulcer care, the majority prefer specialty consultation including podiatry, plastic surgery and dermatology. Despite their frequency, there is no clear consensus among providers as to the best treatment. PMID:23600469

  4. Leg and vertical stiffness (a)symmetry between dominant and non-dominant legs in young male runners.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Panagiotis; Paradisis, Giorgos; Vagenas, George

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical findings show that running is asymmetric in many kinetic properties. Running stiffness is a vital kinetic property of yet unknown pattern of lateralization. The aim of this study was to examine the degree and variability of lower limb dominance specific asymmetry of running in terms of leg stiffness, vertical stiffness, contact time, flight time, maximal ground reaction force during contact, vertical displacement of the center of mass, and change in leg length. Leg and vertical stiffness was estimated by the sine-wave method in 22 young males during treadmill running at 4.44 m/s. Lower limb dominance was determined by the triple-jump test. Asymmetry was expressed as dominant - non-dominant, and indexed by the absolute asymmetry index. Significant asymmetry was found only in flight time (3.98%) and in maximal ground reaction force (1.75%). The absolute asymmetry index ranged from 1.8% to 6.4%, showed high variation between subjects (0-31.6%), and differentiated among the 7 analyzed variables. Leg and vertical stiffness in treadmill running of moderate pace (4.44 m/s) should be considered symmetric.

  5. A comparison of skinfolds and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance for the assessment of body composition in children

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Fredric; Robertson, Robert; Williams, Allison; Sward, Kathy; Abt, Kristi; Ladewig, Melissa; Timmer, Jeffrey; Dixon, Curt

    2003-01-01

    Background This field-based investigation examined the congruence between skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance in assessing body composition in children. Methods Subjects were 162 female and 160 male children 10–15 years of age. Skinfold measures obtained at the triceps and medial calf and a leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance system were used to determine percent fat using child-specific equations. Pearson product moment correlations were performed on the percent fat values obtained using skinfolds and bioelectric impedance for the entire data set. Separate correlations were also conducted on gender and age/gender subsets. Dependent t tests were used to compare the two techniques. Results Percent fat did not differ between skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance for the total subject pool. Bioelectrical impedance overestimated percent fat in girls by 2.6% and underestimated percent fat in boys by 1.7% (p < 0.01). Correlations between skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance ranged from r = 0.51 to r = 0.90. Conclusions Leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance may be a viable alternative field assessment technique that is comparable to skinfolds. The small differences in percent fat between the two techniques may have limited practical significance in school-based health-fitness settings. PMID:14498990

  6. Impact of radiation embrittlement on integrity of pressure vessel supports for two PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Pennell, W.E.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data from the HFIR vessel surveillance program indicate a substantial radiation embrittlement rate effect at low irradiation temperatures (/approximately/120/degree/F) for A212-B, A350-LF3, A105-II, and corresponding welds. PWR vessel supports are fabricated of similar materials and are subjected to the same low temperatures and fast neutron fluxes (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s, E > 1.0 MeV) as those in the HFIR vessel. Thus, the embrittlement rate of these structures may be greater than previously anticipated. A study sponsored by the NRC is under way at ORNL to determine the impact of the rate effect on PWR vessel-support life expectancy. The scope includes the interpretation and application of the HFIR data, a survey of all light-water-reactor vessel support designs, and a structural and fracture-mechanics analysis of the supports for two specific PWR plants of particular interest with regard to a potential for support failure as a result of propagation of flaws. Calculations performed thus far indicate best-estimate critical flaw sizes, corresponding to 32 EFPY, of /approximately/0.2 in. for one plant and /approximately/0.4 in. for the other. These flaw sizes are small enough to be of concern. However, it appears that low-cycle fatigue is not a viable mechanism for creation of flaws of this size, and thus, presumably, such flaws would have to exist at the time of fabrication. 59 refs., 128 figs., 49 tabs.

  7. PWR Facility Dose Modeling Using MCNP5 and the CADIS/ADVANTG Variance-Reduction Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, Edward D; Peplow, Douglas E.; Wagner, John C; Murphy, Brian D; Mueller, Don

    2007-09-01

    The feasibility of modeling a pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) facility and calculating dose rates at all locations within the containment and adjoining structures using MCNP5 with mesh tallies is presented. Calculations of dose rates resulting from neutron and photon sources from the reactor (operating and shut down for various periods) and the spent fuel pool, as well as for the photon source from the primary coolant loop, were all of interest. Identification of the PWR facility, development of the MCNP-based model and automation of the run process, calculation of the various sources, and development of methods for visually examining mesh tally files and extracting dose rates were all a significant part of the project. Advanced variance reduction, which was required because of the size of the model and the large amount of shielding, was performed via the CADIS/ADVANTG approach. This methodology uses an automatically generated three-dimensional discrete ordinates model to calculate adjoint fluxes from which MCNP weight windows and source bias parameters are generated. Investigative calculations were performed using a simple block model and a simplified full-scale model of the PWR containment, in which the adjoint source was placed in various regions. In general, it was shown that placement of the adjoint source on the periphery of the model provided adequate results for regions reasonably close to the source (e.g., within the containment structure for the reactor source). A modification to the CADIS/ADVANTG methodology was also studied in which a global adjoint source is weighted by the reciprocal of the dose response calculated by an earlier forward discrete ordinates calculation. This method showed improved results over those using the standard CADIS/ADVANTG approach, and its further investigation is recommended for future efforts.

  8. Optimization of burnable poison design for Pu incineration in fully fertile free PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.

    2006-07-01

    The design challenges of the fertile-free based fuel (FFF) can be addressed by careful and elaborate use of burnable poisons (BP). Practical fully FFF core design for PWR reactor has been reported in the past [1]. However, the burnable poison option used in the design resulted in significant end of cycle reactivity penalty due to incomplete BP depletion. Consequently, excessive Pu loading were required to maintain the target fuel cycle length, which in turn decreased the Pu burning efficiency. A systematic evaluation of commercially available BP materials in all configurations currently used in PWRs is the main objective of this work. The BP materials considered are Boron, Gd, Er, and Hf. The BP geometries were based on Wet Annular Burnable Absorber (WABA), Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA), and Homogeneous poison/fuel mixtures. Several most promising combinations of BP designs were selected for the full core 3D simulation. All major core performance parameters for the analyzed cases are very close to those of a standard PWR with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel including possibility of reactivity control, power peaking factors, and cycle length. The MTC of all FFF cores was found at the full power conditions at all times and very close to that of the UO{sub 2} core. The Doppler coefficient of the FFF cores is also negative but somewhat lower in magnitude compared to UO{sub 2} core. The soluble boron worth of the FFF cores was calculated to be lower than that of the UO{sub 2} core by about a factor of two, which still allows the core reactivity control with acceptable soluble boron concentrations. The main conclusion of this work is that judicial application of burnable poisons for fertile free fuel has a potential to produce a core design with performance characteristics close to those of the reference PWR core with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)

  9. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  10. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  11. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  12. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  13. 33 CFR 147.809 - Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mars Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.809 Mars Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Mars Tension Leg Platform (Mars TLP) is located at position...

  14. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  15. 33 CFR 147.827 - Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marlin Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.827 Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Marlin Tension Leg Platform (Marlin TLP), Viasca Knoll, Block 915...

  16. 33 CFR 147.805 - Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.805 Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ursa Tension Leg Platform (Ursa TLP) is located at position...

  17. 33 CFR 147.829 - Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.829 Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform A (Matterhorn TLP),...

  18. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  19. 33 CFR 147.805 - Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.805 Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ursa Tension Leg Platform (Ursa TLP) is located at position...

  20. 33 CFR 147.819 - Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allegheny Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.819 Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Allegheny Tension Leg Platform (Allegheny TLP), Green...

  1. 33 CFR 147.829 - Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.829 Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform A (Matterhorn TLP),...

  2. 33 CFR 147.829 - Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.829 Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform A (Matterhorn TLP),...

  3. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  4. 33 CFR 147.829 - Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.829 Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform A (Matterhorn TLP),...

  5. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  6. 33 CFR 147.819 - Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allegheny Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.819 Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Allegheny Tension Leg Platform (Allegheny TLP), Green...

  7. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  8. 33 CFR 147.813 - Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auger Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.813 Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Auger Tension Leg Platform (Auger TLP) is located at position...

  9. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  10. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  11. 33 CFR 147.827 - Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marlin Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.827 Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Marlin Tension Leg Platform (Marlin TLP), Viasca Knoll, Block 915...

  12. 33 CFR 147.849 - Safety Zone; Olympus Tension Leg Platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; Olympus Tension Leg Platform. 147.849 Section 147.849 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Leg Platform. (a) Description. The Olympus Tension Leg Platform is in the deepwater area of the...

  13. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  14. 33 CFR 147.819 - Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allegheny Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.819 Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Allegheny Tension Leg Platform (Allegheny TLP), Green...

  15. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brutus Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158...

  16. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brutus Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158...

  17. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  18. 33 CFR 147.805 - Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.805 Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ursa Tension Leg Platform (Ursa TLP) is located at position...

  19. 33 CFR 147.813 - Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.813 Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Auger Tension Leg Platform (Auger TLP) is located at position...

  20. Other Causes of Leg Pain | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. ... Other non-P.A.D. common causes of leg pain may include: A muscle cramp (also called ...

  1. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brutus Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158...

  2. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brutus Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158...

  3. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  4. 33 CFR 147.819 - Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allegheny Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.819 Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Allegheny Tension Leg Platform (Allegheny TLP), Green...

  5. 33 CFR 147.827 - Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marlin Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.827 Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Marlin Tension Leg Platform (Marlin TLP), Viasca Knoll, Block 915...

  6. 33 CFR 147.805 - Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.805 Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ursa Tension Leg Platform (Ursa TLP) is located at position...

  7. 78 FR 38098 - Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Knee and Lower Leg Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of knee and lower leg conditions. DATES: Written... nancy.kessinger@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Knee and Lower Leg...

  8. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  9. 33 CFR 147.805 - Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.805 Ursa Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ursa Tension Leg Platform (Ursa TLP) is located at position...

  10. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  11. 33 CFR 147.827 - Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marlin Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.827 Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Marlin Tension Leg Platform (Marlin TLP), Viasca Knoll, Block 915...

  12. 33 CFR 147.829 - Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.829 Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Matterhorn Tension Leg Platform A (Matterhorn TLP),...

  13. Monaural Auditory Cue Affects the Process of Choosing the Initial Swing Leg in Gait Initiation.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Ae, Minori; Ogura, Nana; Sano, Chisa; Shiomi, Keigo; Morita, Yuji; Yokoyama, Haruka; Iwata, Yasuyuki; Jono, Yasutomo; Nomura, Yoshifumi; Tani, Keisuke; Chujo, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of an auditory cue on the choice of the initial swing leg in gait initiation. Healthy humans initiated a gait in response to a monaural or binaural auditory cue. When the auditory cue was given in the ear ipsilateral to the preferred leg side, the participants consistently initiated their gait with the preferred leg. In the session in which the side of the monaural auditory cue was altered trial by trial randomly, the probability of initiating the gait with the nonpreferred leg increased when the auditory cue was given in the ear contralateral to the preferred leg side. The probability of choosing the nonpreferred leg did not increase significantly when the auditory cue was given in the ear contralateral to the preferred leg side in the session in which the auditory cue was constantly given in the ear contralateral to the preferred leg side. The reaction time of anticipatory postural adjustment was shortened, but the probability of choosing the nonpreferred leg was not significantly increased when the gait was initiated in response to a binaural auditory cue. An auditory cue in the ear contralateral to the preferred leg side weakens the preference for choosing the preferred leg as the initial swing leg in gait initiation when the side of the auditory cue is unpredictable.

  14. 33 CFR 147.821 - Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brutus Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.821 Brutus Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Brutus Tension Leg Platform (Brutus TLP), Green Canyon Block 158...

  15. 33 CFR 147.813 - Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auger Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.813 Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Auger Tension Leg Platform (Auger TLP) is located at position...

  16. 33 CFR 147.827 - Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marlin Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.827 Marlin Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Marlin Tension Leg Platform (Marlin TLP), Viasca Knoll, Block 915...

  17. 33 CFR 147.819 - Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allegheny Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.819 Allegheny Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Allegheny Tension Leg Platform (Allegheny TLP), Green...

  18. 33 CFR 147.813 - Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auger Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.813 Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Auger Tension Leg Platform (Auger TLP) is located at position...

  19. 33 CFR 147.837 - Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.837 Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. Marco Polo Tension Leg Platform, Green Canyon 608 (GC 608),...

  20. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. 147.817 Section 147.817 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  1. 33 CFR 147.813 - Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auger Tension Leg Platform safety... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.813 Auger Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Auger Tension Leg Platform (Auger TLP) is located at position...

  2. 33 CFR 147.811 - Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform... SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.811 Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Ram-Powell Tension Leg Platform (Ram-Powell TLP) is located...

  3. A Comparison of Two Injection Locations in Obese Patients Having Lower Leg/Foot Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Strain of Muscle and/or Tendon of Lower Leg; Fracture of Lower Leg; Crushing Injury of Lower Leg; Fracture Malunion - Ankle and/ or Foot; Complete Tear, Ankle and/or Foot Ligament; Pathological Fracture - Ankle and/or Foot; Loose Body in Joint of Ankle and/or Foot

  4. 33 CFR 147.817 - Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.817 Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform safety zone. (a) Description. The Sir Douglas Morpeth Tension Leg Platform...

  5. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  6. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  7. Thermal Response of the 21-PWR Waste Package to a Fire Accident

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Faucher; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2000-10-03

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal response of the 21-PWR WP (pressurized water reactor waste package) to the regulatory fire event. The scope of this calculation is limited to the two-dimensional waste package temperature calculations to support the waste package design. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation (Attachment IV) is that of the potential design of the type of waste package considered in this calculation. The procedure AP-3.12Q.Calculations (Reference 1), and the Development Plan (Reference 24) are used to develop this calculation.

  8. Cold isopressing method

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jack C.; Stawisuck, Valerie M.; Prasad, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    A cold isopressing method in which two or more layers of material are formed within an isopressing mold. One of the layers consists of a tape-cast film. The layers are isopressed within the isopressing mold, thereby to laminate the layers and to compact the tape-cast film. The isopressing mold can be of cylindrical configuration with the layers being coaxial cylindrical layers. The materials used in forming the layers can contain green ceramic materials and the resultant structure can be fired and sintered as necessary and in accordance with known methods to produce a finished composite, ceramic structure. Further, such green ceramic materials can be of the type that are capable of conducting hydrogen or oxygen ions at high temperature with the object of utilizing the finished composite ceramic structure as a ceramic membrane element.

  9. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  10. Secondary Startup Neutron Sources as a Source of Tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Lanning, Donald D.

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the Zircaloy clad fuel source is minimal and that secondary startup neutron sources are the significant contributors of the tritium in the RCS that was previously assigned to release from fuel. Currently there are large uncertainties in the attribution of tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The measured amount of tritium in the coolant cannot be separated out empirically into its individual sources. Therefore, to quantify individual contributors, all sources of tritium in the RCS of a PWR must be understood theoretically and verified by the sum of the individual components equaling the measured values.

  11. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  12. A Cold and Wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, A. G.; Davila, A. F.; Duport, L. G.; Uceda, E. R.; Lim, D. S.; Amils, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2008-03-01

    Here we consider the hypothesis that cold and hypersaline liquid solutions have been stable on the surface of Mars under subzero mean temperatures and for relatively extended periods of time, completing a hydrogeological cycle in a water-enriched but cold planet.

  13. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders. PMID:21533554

  14. Loss of legs: is it or not a handicap for an orb-weaving spider?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, Alain; Anotaux, Mylène; Leborgne, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Leg loss is a common phenomenon in spiders, and according to the species 5% to 40% of the adults can present at least one missing leg. There is no possibility of regeneration after adult moult and the animal must manage with its missing appendages until its death. With the loss of one or more legs, female orb-weaving spiders can be penalized twice: firstly, because the legs are necessary for web construction and secondly, the legs are essential for the control of the prey after its interception by the web. During development, spiders may be also penalized because regeneration has energetic costs that take away resources for survival, growth and reproduction. All these consequences should influence negatively the development of the spider and thus its fitness. We investigated the impact of leg loss in the orb-weaving spider, Zygiella x-notata by studying its frequency in a natural population and web building and prey capture behaviours in laboratory. In field populations, 9.5% to 13%, of the adult females presented the loss of one or more legs; the majority of individuals had lost only one leg (in 48% of cases, a first one). Leg loss seems to affect all the adult spiders, as there is no difference of mass between intact spiders and those with missing leg. Data obtained with laboratory-reared spiders, showed that the loss of legs due to the moult is rare (less than 1%). Considering changes in web design, spiders with missing legs decreased their silk investment, increased the distance between spiral turns but did not change the capture surface of the web. Under our laboratory experimental conditions, spiders with one or two lost legs did not present any difference in prey capture efficiency. In laboratory conditions, spiders with lost leg(s) did not show any difference in egg sac production or in longevity (adult lifespan) compared to intact spiders.

  15. Classifying Human Leg Motions with Uniaxial Piezoelectric Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Tunçel, Orkun; Altun, Kerem; Barshan, Billur

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative study on the different techniques of classifying human leg motions that are performed using two low-cost uniaxial piezoelectric gyroscopes worn on the leg. A number of feature sets, extracted from the raw inertial sensor data in different ways, are used in the classification process. The classification techniques implemented and compared in this study are: Bayesian decision making (BDM), a rule-based algorithm (RBA) or decision tree, least-squares method (LSM), k-nearest neighbor algorithm (k-NN), dynamic time warping (DTW), support vector machines (SVM), and artificial neural networks (ANN). A performance comparison of these classification techniques is provided in terms of their correct differentiation rates, confusion matrices, computational cost, and training and storage requirements. Three different cross-validation techniques are employed to validate the classifiers. The results indicate that BDM, in general, results in the highest correct classification rate with relatively small computational cost. PMID:22291521

  16. Leg Weakness Caused by Bilateral Piriformis Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee Bong; Kwon, Bum Sun; Park, Jin Woo; Ryu, Gi Hyeong; Lee, Ho Jun; Kim, Chang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder caused by the piriformis muscle (PM) compressing the sciatic nerve (SN). The main symptom of PS is sciatica, which worsens with certain triggering conditions. Because the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there are no definite diagnostic and therapeutic choices for PS. This case report presents a young woman who mainly complained of bilateral leg weakness. Electromyography revealed bilateral sciatic neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed structural lesions causing entrapment of the bilateral SNs. After a laborious diagnosis of bilateral PS, she underwent PM releasing surgery. Few PS cases present with bilateral symptoms and leg weakness. Therefore, in such cases, a high level of suspicion is necessary for accurate and prompt diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26798622

  17. Leg ulcers and abscesses caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Langrock, Marie-Luise; Linde, Hans-Jörg; Landthaler, Michael; Karrer, Sigrid

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous infections caused by S. marcescens, a gram-negative bacillus belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae, are uncommon but may be predisposed by immunocompromised conditions or pre-damaged skin. A 73-year-old man presented with multiple ulcers and painful nodules on the lower right leg as well as abscesses on the right malleolus lateralis. He had been treated with oral penicillin without success. Due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, he was receiving a systemic therapy with corticosteroids. In addition, he had a post-thrombotic syndrome of the lower right leg. Serratia marcescens was the only microorganism isolated from all cultures performed. After a microbial sensitivity test, ertapenem 1 g/day was given intravenously for 10 days, followed by oral administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg 1-0-1 for a further 7 days. This therapy resulted in the resolution of all lesions. This rare skin infection with S. marcescens needs specific microbiological diagnosis and adapted antibiosis.

  18. Telemedicine: an innovative way of managing patients with leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Samad, Ajai; Hayes, Sue; Dodds, Simon

    2002-03-01

    The optimal management of patients with leg ulcers requires a multidisciplinary approach, with contributions from both community and hospital specialists to identify, investigate and treat the underlying causes, provide patient education, assess healing and dress the wounds, monitor outcome and prevent recurrence. However, current practice is impaired by the limited communication between community and hospital specialists. There are inconsistencies in methods of transferring and updating patient records between the hospital and the community, and this can lead to confusion over the diagnosis and appropriate management. Telemedicine, the electronic exchange of medical information at a distance, would appear to offer a way to establish an efficient and effective communication link between hospital and community specialists involved in the care of patients with leg ulcers. The authors of this article believe that modern information technology and the existing NHSnet information infrastructure could be employed to create such a link via electronic patient records.

  19. VDLLA: A virtual daddy-long legs optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaakub, Abdul Razak; Ghathwan, Khalil I.

    2016-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a strong optimization algorithm based on a biological behavior of insects or animals. The success of any optimization algorithm is depending on the balance between exploration and exploitation. In this paper, we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, which is based on daddy long legs spider (VDLLA) as a new optimization algorithm with virtual behavior. In VDLLA, each agent (spider) has nine positions which represent the legs of spider and each position represent one solution. The proposed VDLLA is tested on four standard functions using average fitness, Medium fitness and standard deviation. The results of proposed VDLLA have been compared against Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE) and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA). Additionally, the T-Test has been conducted to show the significant deference between our proposed and other algorithms. VDLLA showed very promising results on benchmark test functions for unconstrained optimization problems and also significantly improved the original swarm algorithms.

  20. Biarticular leg muscles and links to running economy.

    PubMed

    Heise, G; Shinohara, M; Binks, L

    2008-08-01

    Relationships between an index of running economy (VO2 per distance) and the temporal electromyographic characteristics of leg muscles were quantified in female runners. Sixteen women performed a 30-min treadmill run at a speed designed to elicit a hard rating of perceived of exertion. Near the end of the run, oxygen uptake, video, and electromyographic data were collected simultaneously. Measures of muscle on-time durations, and on-time coactivation durations were calculated from the following muscles: gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris. Nonparametric correlations between VO2 per distance and temporal electromyographic data were evaluated. Greater on-time duration of rectus femoris during stance, and greater on-time coactivation duration of rectus femoris-gastrocnemius during stance were significantly associated with more economical runners (i.e., lower VO2 per distance). The coactivation of biarticular leg muscles during stance is clearly linked to running economy and this control strategy may elicit greater elastic energy return.

  1. Red legs and golden gasters: Batesian mimicry in Australian ants.

    PubMed

    Merrill, D N; Elgar, M A

    2000-05-01

    There are numerous reports of invertebrates that are visual mimics of ants, but no formal reports of mimicry of an ant, by an ant. Two endemic Australian ants, Myrmecia fulvipes and Camponotus bendigensis are remarkably similar in colour and size; both are generally black but have red legs and golden gasters. The density and hue of the pubescence of each ant's gaster are relatively uncommon in ants, but are very rare when combined with the black forebody and red legs. The ants are similarly sized but are smaller than other species closely related to M. fulvipes. The range of C. bendigensis lies entirely within that of M. fulvipes, and both species excavate ground nests in open woodland. Finally, workers of both species are crepuscular and forage solitarily. These data suggest that the relatively benign formicine C. bendigensis is a Batesian mimic of the formidable myrmeciine M. fulvipes.

  2. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  3. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  4. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    PubMed Central

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  5. [Benzoyl peroxide for the treatment of leg ulcers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ramelet, A A; van Melle, G

    1980-01-01

    40 leg ulcers were treated for 6 weeks by application twice a day of a 20% benzoyl peroxide lotion. Each ulcer was regularly measured and its bacterial flora was determined. Therapeutic results were very satisfactory: the average healing rate of the ulcers was 62.8% of the initial wound area after 4 weeks of treatment and 76.5% after 6 weeks of treatment. The bacterial flora of the ulcers changed during treatments, streptococci and staphylococci disappeared. Pseudomonas aeruginosa became abundant.

  6. Transition from wing to leg forces during landing in birds.

    PubMed

    Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

    2014-08-01

    Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared with wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explored coordination between wings and legs in two species with different wingbeat styles, and quantified force production of these modules during the final phase of landing. We used the same birds that we had previously studied during take-off: zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N=4) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, N=3). We measured kinematics using high-speed video, aerodynamics using particle image velocimetry, and ground-reaction forces using a perch mounted on a force plate. In contrast with the first three wingbeats of take-off, the final four wingbeats during landing featured ~2 times greater force production. Thus, wings contribute proportionally more to changes in velocity during the last phase of landing compared with the initial phase of take-off. The two species touched down at the same velocity (~1 m s(-1)), but they exhibited significant differences in the timing of their final wingbeat relative to touchdown. The ratio of average wing force to peak leg force was greater in diamond doves than in zebra finches. Peak ground reaction forces during landing were ~50% of those during take-off, consistent with the birds being motivated to control landing. Likewise, estimations of mechanical energy flux for both species indicate that wings produce 3-10 times more mechanical work within the final wingbeats of flight compared with the kinetic energy of the body absorbed by legs during ground contact.

  7. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2015-06-02

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  8. Transition from wing to leg forces during landing in birds.

    PubMed

    Provini, Pauline; Tobalske, Bret W; Crandell, Kristen E; Abourachid, Anick

    2014-08-01

    Transitions to and from the air are critical for aerial locomotion and likely shaped the evolution of flying animals. Research on take-off demonstrates that legs generate greater body accelerations compared with wings, and thereby contribute more to initial flight velocity. Here, we explored coordination between wings and legs in two species with different wingbeat styles, and quantified force production of these modules during the final phase of landing. We used the same birds that we had previously studied during take-off: zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, N=4) and diamond dove (Geopelia cuneata, N=3). We measured kinematics using high-speed video, aerodynamics using particle image velocimetry, and ground-reaction forces using a perch mounted on a force plate. In contrast with the first three wingbeats of take-off, the final four wingbeats during landing featured ~2 times greater force production. Thus, wings contribute proportionally more to changes in velocity during the last phase of landing compared with the initial phase of take-off. The two species touched down at the same velocity (~1 m s(-1)), but they exhibited significant differences in the timing of their final wingbeat relative to touchdown. The ratio of average wing force to peak leg force was greater in diamond doves than in zebra finches. Peak ground reaction forces during landing were ~50% of those during take-off, consistent with the birds being motivated to control landing. Likewise, estimations of mechanical energy flux for both species indicate that wings produce 3-10 times more mechanical work within the final wingbeats of flight compared with the kinetic energy of the body absorbed by legs during ground contact. PMID:24855670

  9. Crohn's disease--non-caseating granulomas on the legs.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, J A; Parish, L C; Lewis, J E

    1977-01-01

    A 27-year-old black man with Crohn's disease and nodules on the legs is described. Such nodules constitute one of three types of cutaneous manifestations which have a histological picture of a non-caseating granuloma. The two other varieties of skin lesions described are: that resulting from a direct spread from the gastrointestinal tract, and that resulting from spread over contiguous skin.

  10. Amlodipine, enalapril, and dependent leg edema in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedrinelli, R; Dell'Omo, G; Melillo, E; Mariani, M

    2000-02-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) blunt postural skin vasoconstriction, an autoregulatory mechanism that minimizes gravitational increases in capillary pressure and avoids fluid extravasation when standing. To evaluate the dose-response relation between this pharmacological interference and dependent edema, a frequent side effect of CCBs during antihypertensive treatment, skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry) at the dorsum of the foot, both supine and with the limb passively placed 50 cm below the heart level, and leg weight (Archimedes principle) were measured at baseline, during increasing doses of the dihydropyridine amlodipine (5 and 10 mg UID each for 2 weeks), and after drug withdrawal in 10 hypertensive men. Because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may attenuate ankle swelling by CCBs, those parameters were evaluated according to a similar design during amlodipine (10 mg UID) and enalapril (20 mg UID) combined (n=10). As a control, the effect of enalapril monotherapy (10 and 20 mg UID for 2 weeks each) was evaluated in a third series of patients (n=8). Amlodipine (5 mg UID) increased leg weight without modifying postural vasoconstriction (the percent skin blood flow decrease from horizontal to dependent position), which indicates that extravascular fluid shift was independent of postural skin vasoconstriction. At 10 mg UID, however, amlodipine blunted postural vasoconstriction and increased leg weight further, which suggests that skin blood flow autoregulation limited additional fluid transfer. Both parameters normalized after drug withdrawal. Enalapril per se did not affect cutaneous vasomotion or leg weight but reduced the amount of dependent fluid extravasation by the CCB despite a persistent antagonism for postural vasoconstrictor responses. PMID:10679507

  11. Phenomenon analysis of stress corrosion cracking in the vessel head penetrations of French PWR`s

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, C.; Buisine, D.; Faidy, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1995-12-31

    During a hydrotest in 1991, a leak was detected on,a reactor vessel head (RVH) penetration of a French PWR. This leak was due to a phenomenon of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) affecting these penetrations in Alloy 600. The destructive and non-destructive examinations undertaken during the following months highlighted the generic nature of the degradations. In order to well understand this phenomenon and implement the most suitable maintenance policy, a large scale scientific program was decided and performed jointly by Electricite de France and FRAMATOME. The paper will present all the results obtained in this program concerning the parameters governing the PWSCC. In particular the following fields will be developed: (1) the material, its microstructure in line with the manufacturing and its susceptibility to PWSCC; (2) the stresses and their evaluations by measurements, mock up corrosion tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA); (3) the effect of surface finish on crack initiation; and (4) the crack growth rate. This phenomenon analysis will be useful for evaluating the risk of PWSCC on other Alloy 600 areas in PWR`s primary system.

  12. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development Between NASA MSFC and PWR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  13. Validation of the new code package APOLLO2.8 for accurate PWR neutronics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D.; Blaise, P.; Leconte, P.; Palau, J. M.; Roque, B.; Vaglio, C.; Vidal, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Qualification work performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the new APOLLO2.S/SHEM-MOC package based on JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file for the prediction of PWR neutronics parameters. This experimental validation is based on PWR mock-up critical experiments performed in the EOLE/MINERVE zero-power reactors and on P.I. Es on spent fuel assemblies from the French PWRs. The Calculation-Experiment comparison for the main design parameters is presented: reactivity of UOX and MOX lattices, depletion calculation and fuel inventory, reactivity loss with burnup, pin-by-pin power maps, Doppler coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, Void coefficient, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} poisoning worth, Efficiency of Ag-In-Cd and B4C control rods, Reflector Saving for both standard 2-cm baffle and GEN3 advanced thick SS reflector. From this qualification process, calculation biases and associated uncertainties are derived. This code package APOLLO2.8 is already implemented in the ARCADIA new AREVA calculation chain for core physics and is currently under implementation in the future neutronics package of the French utility Electricite de France. (authors)

  14. Recommendations for Addressing Axial Burnup in the PWR Burnup Credit Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2002-10-23

    This report presents studies performed to support the development of a technically justifiable approach for addressing the axial-burnup distribution in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety analyses. The effect of the axial-burnup distribution on reactivity and proposed approaches for addressing the axial-burnup distribution are briefly reviewed. A publicly available database of profiles is examined in detail to identify profiles that maximize the neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, assess its adequacy for PWR burnup credit analyses, and investigate the existence of trends with fuel type and/or reactor operations. A statistical evaluation of the k{sub eff} values associated with the profiles in the axial-burnup-profile database was performed, and the most reactive (bounding) profiles were identified as statistical outliers. The impact of these bounding profiles on k{sub eff} is quantified for a high-density burnup credit cask. Analyses are also presented to quantify the potential reactivity consequence of loading assemblies with axial-burnup profiles that are not bounded by the database. The report concludes with a discussion on the issues for consideration and recommendations for addressing axial burnup in criticality safety analyses using burnup credit for dry cask storage and transportation.

  15. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen; Tills, Jack Lee

    2009-05-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  16. Bi-content Gadolinia as Burnable Absorber in PWR to Improve the Reactor Core Behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S.

    2007-07-01

    The gadolinia product is one of the standard burnable absorbers used in the PWR long and low leakage fuel cycle in order to control the radial power distribution and to hold down the initial core reactivity. This product presents a large number of advantages such as the high efficiency with only a small number of gadolinia-bearing rods, the easy adjustment between the number and the content of the gadolinia-bearing rods according to the cycle length need and the initial reactivity hold-down, no increasing of boron concentration versus cycle depletion, no additional increasing of internal pressure in poisoned rods, very low additional manufacture cost. On the other hand, some unfavourable phenomena are also observed during the utilization of the gadolinia: amplification of the asymmetrical power distribution and more negative axial offset. Based on the correlation between the gadolinia burnout and its content, the use of gadolinia bi-content will improve the parameters indicated here above. The gadolinia bi-content have been used in BWR for more than 20 years. In this paper, the comparison of the main reactor core physical parameters in PWR, calculated with the AREVA NP standard neutronic code package SCIENCE, is made by using the mono- and bi-content of the gadolinia products in the same fuel assembly. The results show that the asymmetrical axial and azimuthal power distribution can be improved in the case of the bi-content gadolinia product. (authors)

  17. Development of a new lattice physics code robin for PWR application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Chen, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a description of methodologies and preliminary verification results of a new lattice physics code ROBIN, being developed for PWR application at Shanghai NuStar Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd. The methods used in ROBIN to fulfill various tasks of lattice physics analysis are an integration of historical methods and new methods that came into being very recently. Not only these methods like equivalence theory for resonance treatment and method of characteristics for neutron transport calculation are adopted, as they are applied in many of today's production-level LWR lattice codes, but also very useful new methods like the enhanced neutron current method for Dancoff correction in large and complicated geometry and the log linear rate constant power depletion method for Gd-bearing fuel are implemented in the code. A small sample of verification results are provided to illustrate the type of accuracy achievable using ROBIN. It is demonstrated that ROBIN is capable of satisfying most of the needs for PWR lattice analysis and has the potential to become a production quality code in the future. (authors)

  18. Code System for PWR & BWR Multicompartment Containment Analysis, Versions MOD5

    1999-06-02

    CONTEMPT4/MOD6 describes the response of multicompartment containment systems subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The program can accommodate both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) containment systems. Also, both design basis accident (DBA) and degraded core type LOCA conditions can be analyzed. The program calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures, and mass and energy inventories due to inter-compartment mass and energy exchange taking into account user-supplied descriptions of compartments,more » inter-compartment junction flow areas, LOCA source terms, and user-selected problem features. Analytical models available to describe containment systems include models for containment fans and pumps, cooling sprays, heat conducting structures, sump drains, PWR ice condensers, and BWR pressure suppression systems. CONTEMPT4/MOD6 also provides analytical models for hydrogen and carbon monoxide combustion within compartments and energy transfer due to gas radiation to accommodate degraded core type accidents.« less

  19. Three Dimensional Analysis of 3-Loop PWR RCCA Ejection Accident for High Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Marciulescu, Cristian; Sung, Yixing; Beard, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    The Rod Control Cluster Assembly (RCCA) ejection accident is a Condition IV design basis reactivity insertion event for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The event is historically analyzed using a one-dimensional (1D) neutron kinetic code to meet the current licensing criteria for fuel rod burnup to 62,000 MWD/MTU. The Westinghouse USNRC-approved three-dimensional (3D) analysis methodology is based on the neutron kinetics version of the ANC code (SPNOVA) coupled with Westinghouse's version of the EPRI core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-01. The 3D methodology provides a more realistic yet conservative analysis approach to meet anticipated reduction in the licensing fuel enthalpy rise limit for high burnup fuel. A rod ejection analysis using the 3D methodology was recently performed for a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR at an up-rated core power of 3151 MWt with reload cores that allow large flexibility in assembly shuffling and a fuel hot rod burnup to 75,000 MWD/MTU. The analysis considered high enrichment fuel assemblies at the control rod locations as well as bounding rodded depletions in the end of life, zero power and full power conditions. The analysis results demonstrated that the peak fuel enthalpy rise is less than 100 cal/g for the transient initiated at the hot zero power condition. The maximum fuel enthalpy is less than 200 cal/g for the transient initiated from the full power condition. (authors)

  20. Cold dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinski, John Joseph

    The dark halos arising in the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) cosmology are simulated to investigate the relationship between the structure and kinematics of dark halos and galaxies. Realistic cosmological initial conditions and tidal field boundary conditions are used in N-body simulations of the collapse of density peaks to form dark halos. The core radii of dark halos are no greater than the softening radius, rs = 1.4 kpc. The density profiles can be fit with an analytical Hernquist (1990) profile with an effective power law which varies between -1 in the center to -4 at large radii. The rotation curves of dark halos resemble the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the observed range, 1.5 approximately less than r approximately less than 30 kpc. The halos are strongly triaxial and very flat with (c/a) = 0.50 and (b/a) = 0.71. The distribution of ellipticities for dark halos reaches a maximum at epsilon = 0.5 in contrast to the distribution for elliptical galaxies which peaks at epsilon = 0.2 suggesting that ellipticals are much rounder than dark halos. Dark halos are generally flatter than their progenitor density peaks. The final shape and orientation of a dark halo are largely determined by tidal torquing and are sensitive to changes in the strength and orientation of a tidal field. Dark halos are pressure supported objects with negligible rotational support as indicated by the mean dimensionless spin, lamda = 0.042 +/- 0.024. The angular momentum vector tends to align with the true minor axis of dark halos. Elliptical galaxies have a similar behavior implied by the observation of the tendency for alignment of the rotation vector and the apparent minor axis. The origin of this behavior may be traced to the tendency for tidal torques to misalign with the major axis of a density peak. Tidal torques are found to isotropize the velocity ellipsoids of dark halos at large radii, contrary to the expectation of radially anisotropic velocity ellipsoids in cold collapse