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Sample records for pwr otimizacao da

  1. PWR depressurization analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Knudson, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    Early containment failure resulting from direct containment heating (DCH) has been identified as a potential contributor to the risk of operating a pressurized water reactor (PWR). One important factor needed to evaluate the contribution of DCH to risk is the conditional probability that, given a core melt, the primary system will be at high pressure when the reactor vessel lower head fails. Two mechanisms that could reduce the pressure during a station blackout core melt accident are discussed. First, natural circulation in the reactor coolant system (RCS) could cause a temperature-induced failure of the RCS pressure boundary, which could result in unintentional (without operator action) depressurization. Second, plant operators could open relief valves in an attempt to intentionally depressurize the RCS prior to. lower head failure. Results from analytical studies of these two depressurization mechanisms for select PWRs are presented.

  2. PWR depressurization analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, D.A.; Dobbe, C.A.; Knudson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Early containment failure resulting from direct containment heating (DCH) has been identified as a potential contributor to the risk of operating a pressurized water reactor (PWR). One important factor needed to evaluate the contribution of DCH to risk is the conditional probability that, given a core melt, the primary system will be at high pressure when the reactor vessel lower head fails. Two mechanisms that could reduce the pressure during a station blackout core melt accident are discussed. First, natural circulation in the reactor coolant system (RCS) could cause a temperature-induced failure of the RCS pressure boundary, which could result in unintentional (without operator action) depressurization. Second, plant operators could open relief valves in an attempt to intentionally depressurize the RCS prior to. lower head failure. Results from analytical studies of these two depressurization mechanisms for select PWRs are presented.

  3. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-09-17

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B&W 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001).

  4. PWR fuel behavior: lessons learned from LOFT. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the experience with the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) fuel during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), operational and overpower transient tests and steady-state operation is presented. LOFT provides unique capabilities for obtaining pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel behavior information because it features the representative thermal-hydraulic conditions which control fuel behavior during transient conditions and an elaborate measurement system to record the history of the fuel behavior.

  5. Physics of hydride fueled PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganda, Francesco

    The first part of the work presents the neutronic results of a detailed and comprehensive study of the feasibility of using hydride fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWR). The primary hydride fuel examined is U-ZrH1.6 having 45w/o uranium: two acceptable design approaches were identified: (1) use of erbium as a burnable poison; (2) replacement of a fraction of the ZrH1.6 by thorium hydride along with addition of some IFBA. The replacement of 25 v/o of ZrH 1.6 by ThH2 along with use of IFBA was identified as the preferred design approach as it gives a slight cycle length gain whereas use of erbium burnable poison results in a cycle length penalty. The feasibility of a single recycling plutonium in PWR in the form of U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 has also been assessed. This fuel was found superior to MOX in terms of the TRU fractional transmutation---53% for U-PuH2-ZrH1.6 versus 29% for MOX---and proliferation resistance. A thorough investigation of physics characteristics of hydride fuels has been performed to understand the reasons of the trends in the reactivity coefficients. The second part of this work assessed the feasibility of multi-recycling plutonium in PWR using hydride fuel. It was found that the fertile-free hydride fuel PuH2-ZrH1.6, enables multi-recycling of Pu in PWR an unlimited number of times. This unique feature of hydride fuels is due to the incorporation of a significant fraction of the hydrogen moderator in the fuel, thereby mitigating the effect of spectrum hardening due to coolant voiding accidents. An equivalent oxide fuel PuO2-ZrO2 was investigated as well and found to enable up to 10 recycles. The feasibility of recycling Pu and all the TRU using hydride fuels were investigated as well. It was found that hydride fuels allow recycling of Pu+Np at least 6 times. If it was desired to recycle all the TRU in PWR using hydrides, the number of possible recycles is limited to 3; the limit is imposed by positive large void reactivity feedback.

  6. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  7. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.

    1993-05-01

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239).

  8. Proceedings: 2001 PWR/BWR Plant Chemistry Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    2001-05-01

    This report presents proceedings of EPRI's 2001 Plant Chemistry Conference, which brought together approximately 100 industry representatives to discuss experiences and issues regarding nuclear plant chemistry at both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants.

  9. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  10. High Cycle Thermal Fatigue in French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blondet, Eric; Faidy, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Different fatigue-related incidents which occurred in the world on the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system (SIS, RHR, CVC) have led EDF to search solutions in order to avoid or to limit consequences of thermodynamic phenomenal (Farley-Tihange, free convection loop and stratification, independent thermal cycling). Studies are performed on mock-up and compared with instrumentation on nuclear power stations. At the present time, studies allow EDF to carry out pipe modifications and to prepare specifications and recommendations for next generation of nuclear power plants. In 1998, a new phenomenal appeared on RHR system in Civaux. A crack was discovered in an area where hot and cold fluids (temperature difference of 140 deg. C) were mixed. Metallurgic studies concluded that this crack was caused by high cycle thermal fatigue. Since 1998, EDF is making an inventory of all mixing areas in French PWR on basis of criteria. For all identified areas, a method was developed to improve the first classifying and to keep back only potential damage pipes. Presently, studies are performing on the charging line nozzle connected to the reactor pressure vessel. In order to evaluate the load history, a mock-up has been developed and mechanical calculations are realised on this nozzle. The paper will make an overview of EDF conclusions on these different points: - dead legs and vortex in a no flow connected line; - stratification; - mixing tees with high {delta}T. (authors)

  11. Proceedings: PWR Primary Startup/Shutdown Chemistry Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    This workshop summary outlines the proceedings of the EPRI-sponsored PWR Primary Startup/Shutdown Workshop held in San Antonio, Texas on April 25-27, 2000 to support the next revision of current EPRI PWR Chemistry Guidelines. Information was exchanged to assess the effectiveness of the guidelines. The workshop also helped identify issues needing further study before the next revision. Approximately 50 utility and industry representatives attended the workshop with utility personnel chairing four sessions. The workshop provided an opportunity for utility representatives to express an opinion as to the effectiveness of the existing PWR Primary Water Chemistry Guidelines: Volume 2, Revision 4. Potential improvements and additions to the Guidelines are outlined in this report.

  12. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  13. PWR full-reactor coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, R.G.; Pessall, N.; Grand, T.F. )

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the current program is to identify and address all aspects of full system decontamination with the purpose of qualifying at least one process for PWR use. The objective of the current study is to provide baseline data on the performance of materials on the primary side after exposure to one cycle of the LOMI fault testing. This data supplements prior information obtained after exposure to three cycles of LOMI testing. The technical significance of this excursion will be determined in a subsequent task. The general corrosion characteristics of over 39 materials were evaluated for some combinations of material, type of specimen (coupon and creviced coupons), and loop velocity (0, 5, 20 and 150 ft/sec). At velocities of less than or equal to 20 ft/sec, sixteen types of specimens were employed to evaluate localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Specimens were examined after one cycle. Also included in this exposure were specimens added to provide more information on the effect of LOMI fault exposure one: (1) surface roughening of Stellite 156; (2) crevice corrosion of chromium plated 304 stainless steel with the open end gap increased from 3 to {approximately} 9 mils; (3) susceptibility of Inconel X-750 (HTH) to subsequent stress corrosion cracking, (4) loss of chromium plate from threads of 304 stainless steel bolts torqued into stainless steel collars; (5) crack initiation in an Alloy 600 tube known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking; and (6) surface alternation of stressed Inconel X-750 springs with the spring temper.

  14. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  15. Enriched boric acid for PWR application: Cost evaluation study for a twin-unit PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.A.; Waters, R.M.; von Hollen, J.M.; Lamatia, L.A.; Bergmann, C.A.; Ditommaso, S.M. . Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.)

    1989-09-01

    In the nuclear industry boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant is used as a soluble reactivity control agent. Reactivity control in nuclear plants is also provided by neutron absorbing control rods. This neutron absorbing duty is distributed between the control rods and soluble boric acid in such a way as to provide the most economical split. Typically, the control rods take care of rapid reactivity changes and the boric acid handles the slower long term control of reactivity by varying the boric acid concentrations within the reactor coolant. In PWR reactor plants the dissolved boric acid is referred to as a soluble poison or chemical shim due to the high capacity for thermal neutron capture exhibited by the boron-10 isotope contained in the boric acid molecule. This slow reactivity change or chemical shim control would otherwise have to be performed using control rods, a much more expensive proposition. Reactivity changes are controlled by the B-10 isotope by virtue of its very high cross section (3837 barns) for thermal neutron absorption. However, natural boron contains only 20 atom percent of the B-10 isotope and essentially all the remaining 80 percent as the B-11 isotope. The B-11 isotope of cross section .005 barns is essentially of no use as a neutron absorber. Since B-11 makes up the bulk of the total boron present and contributes little to the nuclear operation it would seem logical to eliminate this isotope of boron from the boric acid molecule. In so doing boric acid concentration in operating PWR plants need only be a fraction of that existing to accomplish identical nuclear operations. However, to achieve the elimination of B-11 from NBA (Natural Boric Acid) an isotope separation must be performed. 4 refs., 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Effects of Burnable Absorbers on PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    P.M. O'Leary; Dr. M.L. Pitts

    2000-08-21

    Burnup credit is an ongoing issue in designing and licensing transportation and storage casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF). To address this issue, in July 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Spent Fuel Project Office, issued Interim Staff Guidance-8 (ISG-8), Revision 1 allowing limited burnup credit for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in transport and storage casks. However, one of the key limitations for a licensing basis analysis as stipulated in ISG-8, Revision 1 is that ''burnup credit is restricted to intact fuel assemblies that have not used burnable absorbers''. Because many PWR fuel designs have incorporated burnable-absorber rods for more than twenty years, this restriction places an unnecessary burden on the commercial nuclear power industry. This paper summarizes the effects of in-reactor irradiation on the isotopic inventory of PWR fuels containing different types of integral burnable absorbers (BAs). The work presented is illustrative and intended to represent typical magnitudes of the reactivity effects from depleting PWR fuel with different types of burnable absorbers.

  17. Robotic inspection of PWR coolant pump casing welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.R.; Alford, J.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    As of January 1, 1995, the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate began requiring more thorough inspections of cast stainless-steel components in nuclear power plants, including pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor coolant pump (RCP) casings. The examination requirements are established by fracture mechanics analyses of component weldments and demonstrated test system detection capabilities. This may include full volumetric inspection or some portion thereof. Ringhals station is a four-unit nuclear power plant, owned and operated by the Swedish State Power Board, Vattenfall. Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor. Units 2, 3, and 4 are Westinghouse-designed PWRs, ranging in size from 795 to 925 MW. The RCP casings at the PWR units are made of cast stainless steel and contain four circumferential welds that require inspection. Due to the thickness of the casings at the weld locations and configuration and surface conditions on the outside diameter of the casings, remote inspection from the inside diameter of the pump casing was mandated.

  18. The nature and behavior of particulates in PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Bridle, D.A.; Butter, K.R.; Cake, P.; Comley, G.C.W.; Mitchell, C.R. )

    1989-12-01

    A study of particle size distributions, nature and behavior of insoluble species carried by PWR coolants has been carried out over a four year period in Belgian reactors. Comparative data was obtained by the use of improved sampling systems designed to overcome the inadequacies of standard facilities. Coolant data is presented from commissioning and early operation of new plant to that in established PWR circuits. Results arising from reactors transients are also included, which refer to shutdown and start-up phases, power changes and scram situations. The information obtained includes chemical and radiochemical characteristics of particulates and their contribution to total activity carried by reactor coolant. The implications for plant operations are discussed. 16 refs., 55 figs., 24 tabs.

  19. Modeling a nuclear reactor for experimental purposes. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berta, V T

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is a scale model of a commercial PWR and is as fully functional and operational as the generic commercial counterpart. LOFT was designed and built for experimental purposes as part of the overall NRC reactor safety research program. The purpose of LOFT is to assess the capability of reactor safety systems to perform their intended functions during occurrences of off-normal conditions in a commercial nuclear reactor. Off-normal conditions arising from large and small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA), operational transients, and anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) were to be investigated. This paper describes the LOFT model of the generic PWR and summarizes the experiments that have been conducted in the context of the significant findings involving the complex transient thermal-hydraulics and the consequent effects on the commercial reactor analytical licensing techniques. Through these techniques the validity of the LOFT model as a scaled counterpart of the generic PWR is shown.

  20. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Carolyn; Ilas, Germina

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  1. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-06

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that {sup 231}Pa better than {sup 237}Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8%{sup 233}U enrichment and 7.6{approx} 8%{sup 231}Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1%{Delta}k/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53%{Delta}k/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  2. Design study of long-life PWR using thorium cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul

    2012-06-01

    Design study of long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle has been performed. Thorium cycle in general has higher conversion ratio in the thermal spectrum domain than uranium cycle. Cell calculation, Burn-up and multigroup diffusion calculation was performed by PIJ-CITATION-SRAC code using libraries based on JENDL 3.2. The neutronic analysis result of infinite cell calculation shows that 231Pa better than 237Np as burnable poisons in thorium fuel system. Thorium oxide system with 8% 233U enrichment and 7.6˜ 8% 231Pa is the most suitable fuel for small-long life PWR core because it gives reactivity swing less than 1% Δk/k and longer burn up period (more than 20 year). By using this result, small long-life PWR core can be designed for long time operation with reduced excess reactivity as low as 0.53% Δk/k and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  3. ACHILLES: Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    1. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA LIBRARY ACHILLES -Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase. 2. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMS N/A 3. CONTRIBUTOR AEA Technology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester DT2 8DH United Kingdom through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TEST FACILITY The most important features of the Achilles rig were the shroud vessel, which contained the test section, and the downcomer. These may be thought of as representing the core barrel and the annular downcomer in the reactor pressure vessel. The test section comprises a cluster of 69 rods in a square array within a circular shroud vessel. The rod diameter and pitch (9.5 mm and 12.6 mm) were typical of PWR dimensions. The internal diameter of the shroud vessel was 128 mm. Each rod was electrically heated over a length of 3.66 m, which is typical of the nuclear heated length in a PWR fuel rod, and each contained 6 internal thermocouples. These were arranged in one of 8 groupings which concentrated the thermocouples in different axial zones. The spacer grids were at prototypic PWR locations. Each grid had two thermocouples attached to its trailing edge at radial locations. The axial power profile along the rods was an 11 step approximation to a "chopped cosine". The shroud vessel had 5 heating zones whose power could be independently controlled. 5. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS The Achilles experiments investigated the heat transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor during the re-flood phase of a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The results provided data to validate codes and to improve modeling. Different types of experiments were carried out which included single phase cooling, re-flood under low flow conditions, level swell and re-flood under high flow conditions. Three series of experiments were performed. The first and the third used the same test section but the second used another test section, similar in

  4. ACHILLES: Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase

    2013-11-01

    1. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA LIBRARY ACHILLES -Heat Transfer in PWR Core During LOCA Reflood Phase. 2. NAME AND TITLE OF DATA RETRIEVAL PROGRAMS N/A 3. CONTRIBUTOR AEA Technology, Winfrith Technology Centre, Dorchester DT2 8DH United Kingdom through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 4. DESCRIPTION OF TEST FACILITY The most important features of the Achilles rig were the shroud vessel, which contained the test section, and the downcomer. These maymore » be thought of as representing the core barrel and the annular downcomer in the reactor pressure vessel. The test section comprises a cluster of 69 rods in a square array within a circular shroud vessel. The rod diameter and pitch (9.5 mm and 12.6 mm) were typical of PWR dimensions. The internal diameter of the shroud vessel was 128 mm. Each rod was electrically heated over a length of 3.66 m, which is typical of the nuclear heated length in a PWR fuel rod, and each contained 6 internal thermocouples. These were arranged in one of 8 groupings which concentrated the thermocouples in different axial zones. The spacer grids were at prototypic PWR locations. Each grid had two thermocouples attached to its trailing edge at radial locations. The axial power profile along the rods was an 11 step approximation to a "chopped cosine". The shroud vessel had 5 heating zones whose power could be independently controlled. 5. DESCRIPTION OF TESTS The Achilles experiments investigated the heat transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor during the re-flood phase of a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The results provided data to validate codes and to improve modeling. Different types of experiments were carried out which included single phase cooling, re-flood under low flow conditions, level swell and re-flood under high flow conditions. Three series of experiments were performed. The first and the third used the same test section but the second used another test section

  5. 21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

  6. TRU transmutation in thorium-based heterogeneous PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kang-Mok; Lim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-07-01

    A thorium-based seed and blanket design concept for a conventional pressurized light water reactor (PWR) was proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance potential and fuel cycle economics. The KTF core was satisfied with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic design limit of conventional PWR, APR-1400. In order to evaluate transmutation capability of a thorium-based KTF core, U/Zr seed fuel mixed with 10% TRU which come from 1,000 MWe power reactor after 10 years decay was proposed and analyzed by transmutation indices such as D{sub j}, TEX and SR. KTF core showed an extended fuel cycle burnup; average burnup of seed was 79.5 MWd/kgHM and blanket was 94.6 MWd/kgHM. It means that residence time of TRU in the core could be long enough for transmutation when TRU is mixed in seed fuel. The amount of TRU production from conventional PWR could be transmuted in the KTF-TRU core, especially Am-241 isotope is remarkably transmuted by capture reaction. Even isotopes of curium were cumulated in the core during the burnup, however, KTF-TRU core could reduce the TRU in spent fuel by using well-thermalized neutron spectrum. Proliferation resistance potential of thorium based transmutation fuel is slightly increased. About 31% reduction of TRU amount was measured from reduced plutonium production from U-238. Total amount of Am-241 was reduced significantly, but total amount of minor actinide (MA) was reduced by 28% of its initial loading mass. (authors)

  7. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.

  8. RIA Limits Based On Commercial PWR Core Response To RIA

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, Charles L.; Mitchell, David B.; Slagle, William H.

    2006-07-01

    Reactivity insertion accident (RIA) limits have been under intense review by regulators since 1993 with respect to what should be the proper limit as a function of burnup. Some national regulators have imposed new lower limits while in the United States the limits are still under review. The data being evaluated with respect to RIA limits come from specialized test reactors. However, the use of test reactor data needs to be balanced against the response of a commercial PWR core in setting reasonable limits to insure the health and safety of the public without unnecessary restrictions on core design and operation. The energy deposition limits for a RIA were set in the 1970's based on testing in CDC (SPERT), TREAT, PBF and NSRR test reactors. The US limits given in radially averaged enthalpy are 170 cal/gm for fuel cladding failure and 280 cal/gm for coolability. Testing conducted in the 1990's in the CABRI, NSRR and IGR test reactors have demonstrated that the cladding failure threshold is reduced with burnup, with the primary impact due to hydrogen pickup for in-reactor corrosion. Based on a review of this data very low enthalpy limits have been proposed. In reviewing proposed limits from RIL-0401(1) it was observed that much of the data used to anchor the low allowable energy deposition levels was from recent NSRR tests which do not represent commercial PWR reactor conditions. The particular characteristics of the NSRR test compared to commercial PWR reactor characteristics are: - Short pulse width: 4.5 ms vs > 8 ms; - Low temperature conditions: < 100 deg. F vs 532 deg. F. - Low pressure environment: atmospheric vs {approx} 2200 psi. A review of the historical RIA database indicates that some of the key NSRR data used to support the RIL was atypical compared to the overall RIA database. Based on this detailed review of the RIA database and the response of commercial PWR core, the following view points are proposed. - The Failure limit should reflect local fuel

  9. Vertical Drop Of 21-Pwr Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic; A. Scheider; S.M. Bennett

    2001-01-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-PWR (pressurized-water reactor) Waste Package (WP) subjected to the 2-m vertical drop on an unyielding surface at three different temperatures. The scope of this calculation is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities in two different WP components. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only.

  10. A comprehensive in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Rixin; Zhang, Shucheng; Chen, Dianshan

    1991-02-01

    An in-pile test of PWR fuel bundle has been conducted in HWRR at IAE of China. This paper describes the structure of the test bundle (3 × 3-2), fabrication process and quality control of the fuel rod, irradiation conditions and the main Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) results. The test fuel bundle was irradiated under the PWR operation and water chemistry conditions with an average linear power of 381 W/cm and reached an average burnup of 25010 MWd/tU of the fuel bundle. After the test, destructive and non-destructive examination of the fuel rods was conducted at hot laboratories. The fission gas release was 10.4-23%. The ridge height of cladding was 3 to 8 μm. The hydrogen content of the cladding was 80 to 140 ppm. The fuel stack height was increased by 2.9 to 3.3 mm. The relative irradiation growth was about 0.11 to 0.17% of the fuel rod length. During the irradiation test, no fuel rod failure or other abnormal phenomena had been found by the on-line fuel failure monitoring system of the test loop and water sampling analysis. The structure of the test fuel assembly was left undamaged without twist and detectable deformation.

  11. VERA Core Simulator Methodology for PWR Cycle Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Kochunas, Brendan; Collins, Benjamin S; Jabaay, Daniel; Kim, Kang Seog; Graham, Aaron; Stimpson, Shane; Wieselquist, William A; Clarno, Kevin T; Palmtag, Scott; Downar, Thomas; Gehin, Jess C

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed and implemented in MPACT for performing high-fidelity pressurized water reactor (PWR) multi-cycle core physics calculations. MPACT is being developed primarily for application within the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) as one of the main components of the VERA Core Simulator, the others being COBRA-TF and ORIGEN. The methods summarized in this paper include a methodology for performing resonance self-shielding and computing macroscopic cross sections, 2-D/1-D transport, nuclide depletion, thermal-hydraulic feedback, and other supporting methods. These methods represent a minimal set needed to simulate high-fidelity models of a realistic nuclear reactor. Results demonstrating this are presented from the simulation of a realistic model of the first cycle of Watts Bar Unit 1. The simulation, which approximates the cycle operation, is observed to be within 50 ppm boron (ppmB) reactivity for all simulated points in the cycle and approximately 15 ppmB for a consistent statepoint. The verification and validation of the PWR cycle depletion capability in MPACT is the focus of two companion papers.

  12. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    V. Delabrosse

    2003-02-27

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  13. 21-PWR Waste Package Side and End Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-29

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities and initial angles between the waste package and the unyielding surface is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the area of the outer shell (OS) where the residual stress exceeds a given limit (hereafter ''damaged area''). The stress limit is defined as a fraction of the yield strength of the OS material, Alloy 22 (SB-575 N06022), at the appropriate temperature. The design of the 21-PWR waste package used in this calculation is that defined in Reference 8. However, a value of 4 mm was used for the gap between the inner shell and the OS, and the thickness of the OS was reduced by 2 mm. The sketch in Attachment I provides additional information not included in Reference 8. All obtained results are valid for this design only. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Specialty Analyses and Waste Package Design Section. The waste package (i.e. uncanistered spent nuclear fuel disposal container) is classified as Quality Level 1.

  14. Beta and gamma dose calculations for PWR and BWR containments

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.B.

    1989-07-01

    Analyses of gamma and beta dose in selected regions in PWR and BWR containment buildings have been performed for a range of fission product releases from selected severe accidents. The objective of this study was to determine the radiation dose that safety-related equipment could experience during the selected severe accident sequences. The resulting dose calculations demonstrate the extent to which design basis accident qualified equipment could also be qualified for the severe accident environments. Surry was chosen as the representative PWR plant while Peach Bottom was selected to represent BWRs. Battelle Columbus Laboratory performed the source term release analyses. The AB epsilon scenario (an intermediate to large LOCA with failure to recover onsite or offsite electrical power) was selected as the base case Surry accident, and the AE scenario (a large break LOCA with one initiating event and a combination of failures in two emergency cooling systems) was selected as the base case Peach Bottom accident. Radionuclide release was bounded for both scenarios by including spray operation and arrested sequences as variations of the base scenarios. Sandia National Laboratories used the source terms to calculate dose to selected containment regions. Scenarios with sprays operational resulted in a total dose comparable to that (2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rads) used in current equipment qualification testing. The base case scenarios resulted in some calculated doses roughly an order of magnitude above the current 2.20 /times/ 10/sup 8/ rad equipment qualification test region. 8 refs., 23 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF SELECTED PWR LOCA GENERATED DEBRIS.

    SciTech Connect

    A. K. MAJI; B. MARSHALL; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    In the unlikely event of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), break jet impingement would dislodge thermal insulation from nearby piping, as well as other materials within the containment, such as paint chips, concrete dust, and fire barrier materials. Steam/water flows induced by the break and by the containment sprays would transport debris to the containment floor. Subsequently, debris would likely transport to and accumulate on the suction sump screens of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps, thereby potentially degrading ECCS performance and possibly even failing the ECCS. In 1998, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a generic study (Generic Safety Issue-191) to evaluate the potential for the accumulation of LOCA related debris on the PWR sump screen and the consequent loss of ECCS pump net positive suction head (NPSH). Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), supporting the resolution of GSI-191, was tasked with developing a method for estimating debris transport in PWR containments to estimate the quantity of debris that would accumulate on the sump screen for use in plant specific evaluations. The analytical method proposed by LANL, to predict debris transport within the water that would accumulate on the containment floor, is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combined with experimental debris transport data to predict debris transport and accumulation on the screen. CFD simulations of actual plant containment designs would provide flow data for a postulated accident in that plant, e.g., three-dimensional patterns of flow velocities and flow turbulence. Small-scale experiments would determine parameters defining the debris transport characteristics for each type of debris. The containment floor transport methodology will merge debris transport characteristics with CFD results to provide a reasonable and conservative estimate of debris transport within the containment floor pool and

  16. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  17. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  18. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, S. J.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Hu, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Trellue, H.; Vo, D.

    2016-10-01

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative-Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. To compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.

  19. PWR and BWR spent fuel assembly gamma spectra measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, S.; Tobin, Stephen J.; Favalli, Andrea; Grogan, Brandon R.; Jansson, Peter; Liljenfeldt, Henrik; Mozin, Vladimir; Hu, Jianwei; Schwalbach, P.; Sjoland, A.; et al

    2016-07-17

    A project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies is underway. The research team comprises the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), embodied by the European Commission, DG Energy, Directorate EURATOM Safeguards; the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB); two universities; and several United States national laboratories. The Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in the past using nondestructive assay measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detectmore » the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. This study focuses on spectrally resolved gamma-ray measurements performed on a diverse set of 50 assemblies [25 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies and 25 boiling water reactor (BWR) assemblies]; these same 50 assemblies will be measured with neutron-based NDA instruments and a full-length calorimeter. Given that encapsulation/repository and dry storage safeguards are the primarily intended applications, the analysis focused on the dominant gamma-ray lines of 137Cs, 154Eu, and 134Cs because these isotopes will be the primary gamma-ray emitters during the time frames of interest to these applications. This study addresses the impact on the measured passive gamma-ray signals due to the following factors: burnup, initial enrichment, cooling time, assembly type (eight different PWR and six different BWR fuel designs), presence of gadolinium rods, and anomalies in operating history. As a result, to compare the measured results with theory, a limited number of ORIGEN-ARP simulations were performed.« less

  20. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Material Samples: Tensile and SSRT Testing (Nonproprietary Version)

    SciTech Connect

    M.Krug, R.Shogan

    2004-09-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs requires detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel (internals) subjected to such conditions. This project studied the effects of reactor service on the mechanical and corrosion properties of samples of baffle plate, former plate, and core barrel from a decommissioned PWR.

  1. Advanced pressurized water reactor for improved resource utilization, part II - composite advanced PWR concept

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.E.; Gurley, M.K.; Kirby, K.D.; Mitchell, W III

    1981-09-15

    This report evaluates the enhanced resource utilization in an advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) concept using a composite of selected improvements identified in a companion study. The selected improvements were in the areas of reduced loss of neutrons to control poisons, reduced loss of neutrons in leakage from the core, and improved blanket/reflector concepts. These improvements were incorporated into a single composite advanced PWR. A preliminary assessment of resource requirements and costs and impact on safety are presented.

  2. Identification and evaluation of PWR in-vessel severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Dukelow, J S; Harrison, D G; Morgenstern, M

    1992-03-01

    This reports documents work performed the NRC/RES Accident Management Guidance Program to evaluate possible strategies for mitigating the consequences of PWR severe accidents. The selection and evaluation of strategies was limited to the in-vessel phase of the severe accident, i.e., after the initiation of core degradation and prior to RPV failure. A parallel project at BNL has been considering strategies applicable to the ex-vessel phase of PWR severe accidents.

  3. Scoping Study Investigating PWR Instrumentation during a Severe Accident Scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Lutz, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    The accidents at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3 nuclear power plants demonstrate the critical importance of accurate, relevant, and timely information on the status of reactor systems during a severe accident. These events also highlight the critical importance of understanding and focusing on the key elements of system status information in an environment where operators may be overwhelmed with superfluous and sometimes conflicting data. While progress in these areas has been made since TMI-2, the events at Fukushima suggests that there may still be a potential need to ensure that critical plant information is available to plant operators. Recognizing the significant technical and economic challenges associated with plant modifications, it is important to focus on instrumentation that can address these information critical needs. As part of a program initiated by the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), a scoping effort was initiated to assess critical information needs identified for severe accident management and mitigation in commercial Light Water Reactors (LWRs), to quantify the environment instruments monitoring this data would have to survive, and to identify gaps where predicted environments exceed instrumentation qualification envelop (QE) limits. Results from the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scoping evaluations are documented in this report. The PWR evaluations were limited in this scoping evaluation to quantifying the environmental conditions for an unmitigated Short-Term Station BlackOut (STSBO) sequence in one unit at the Surry nuclear power station. Results were obtained using the MELCOR models developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-sponsored State of the Art Consequence Assessment (SOARCA) program project. Results from this scoping evaluation indicate that some instrumentation identified to provide critical information would be exposed to conditions that

  4. Decay heat removal systems: design criteria and options. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Design criteria and alternate decay heat removal system concepts which have evolved in several different countries throughout the world were compared. The conclusion was reached that the best way to improve the reliability of pressurized water reactor (PWR) decay heat removal is first to focus on improving the reliability of the auxiliary feedwater and high pressure injection systems to cope with certain loss of feedwater transients and small loss of coolant accidents and then to assess how well these systems can handle special emergencies (e.g., sabotage, earthquake, airplane crash). For boiling water reactors (BWRs), it was concluded that emphasis should be placed first on improving the reliability of the residual heat removal and high pressure service water systems to cope with a loss of suppression pool cooling following a loss of feedwater transient and then to assess how well these systems can handle special emergencies. It was found that, for both PWRs and BWRs, a design objective for alternate decay heat removal systems should be at least an order of magnitude reduction in core meltdown probability.

  5. Experience in PWR and BWR mixed-oxide fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Schlosser, G.J.; Krebs, W.; Urban, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Germany has adopted the strategy of a closed fuel cycle using reprocessing and recycling. The central issue today is plutonium recycling by the use of U-Pu mixed oxide (MOX) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). The design of MOX fuel assemblies and fuel management in MOX-containing cores are strongly influenced by the nuclear properties of the plutonium isotopes. Optimized MOX fuel assembly designs for PWRs currently use up to three types of MOX fuel rods having different plutonium contents with natural uranium or uranium tailings as carrier material but without burnable absorbers. The MOX fuel assembly designs for BWRs use four to six rod types with different plutonium contents and Gd[sub 2]O[sub 3]/UO[sub 2] burnable absorber rods. Both the PWR and the BWR designs attain good burnup equivalence and compatibility with uranium fuel assemblies. High flexibility exists in the loading schemes relative to the position and number of MOX fuel assemblies in the reloads and in the core as a whole. The Siemens experience with MOX fuel assemblies is based on the insertion of 318 MOX fuel assemblies in eight PWRs and 168 in BWRs and pressurized heavy water reactors so far. The primary operating results include information on the cycle length, power distribution, reactivity coefficients, and control rod worth of cores containing MOX fuel assemblies.

  6. Barium silicate glass/Inconel X-750 interaction. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, Jr., P. V.; Siegel, W. T.; Miley, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    Water reactor safety programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have required the development of specialized instrumentation. An example is the electrical conductivity-sensitive liquid level transducer developed for use in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) in which the operation of the sensing probe relies upon the passage of current through the water between the center pin of the electrode and its shell such that when water is present the resulting voltage is low, and conversely, when water is absent the voltage is high. The transducer's ceramic seal is a hot-pressed glass ceramic; its metal housing is Inconel X-750. The ceramic material provides an essential dielectric barrier between the center pin and the outer housing. The operation of the probe as well as the integrity of the PWR environment requires a hermetically-bonded seal between the ceramic and the metal. However, during testing, an increasing number of probe assemblies failed owing to poor glass-to-metal seals as well as void formation within the ceramic. Therefore, a program was initiated to characterize the metallic surface with respect to pre-oxidation treatment and determine optimum conditions for wetting and bonding of the metal by the glass to obtain baseline data relevant to production of acceptable transducer seals.

  7. Simulating the Effect on Criticality of Simultaneous Matrix Degradation and Assembly Collapse for the 21 PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Alsaed

    1999-09-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the effects of fission products loss on the reactivity of commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in 21 PWR waste packages (WPs) in the event of simultaneous fuel matrix degradation and assembly collapse.

  8. Assessment of PWR Steam Generator modelling in RELAP5/MOD2. International Agreement Report

    SciTech Connect

    Putney, J.M.; Preece, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    An assessment of Steam Generator (SG) modelling in the PWR thermal-hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD2 is presented. The assessment is based on a review of code assessment calculations performed in the UK and elsewhere, detailed calculations against a series of commissioning tests carried out on the Wolf Creek PWR and analytical investigations of the phenomena involved in normal and abnormal SG operation. A number of modelling deficiencies are identified and their implications for PWR safety analysis are discussed -- including methods for compensating for the deficiencies through changes to the input deck. Consideration is also given as to whether the deficiencies will still be present in the successor code RELAP5/MOD3.

  9. Study on Equilibrium Characteristics of Thorium-Plutonium-Minor Actinides Mixed Oxides Fuel in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Waris, A.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    A study on characteristics of thorium-plutonium-minor actinides utilization in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the equilibrium burnup model has been conducted. For a comprehensive evaluation, several fuel cycles scenario have been included in the present study with the variation of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) of PWR core design. The results obviously exhibit that the neutron spectra grow to be harder with decreasing of the MFR. Moreover, the neutron spectra also turn into harder with the rising number of confined heavy nuclides. The required {sup 233}U concentration for criticality of reactor augments with the increasing of MFR for all heavy nuclides confinement and thorium and uranium confinement in PWR.

  10. WG-MOX Fuel Zr-tube Neutron Spectrum Comparison in ATR and PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2005-02-01

    An experiment containing WG-MOX fuel has been designed and irradiated from 1998 to 2004 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Important neutronics parameters were computed using novel Monte Carlo methods. The purpose of this summary is to compare the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide fuel (WG-MOX) Zr-tube’s neutron spectrum in ATR and PWR. The results indicate that the Zrtube’s neutron spectrum in ATR are softer than in PWR.

  11. WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR ASSEMBLY - WASTE PACKAGE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1996-07-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to compare the criticality potential of Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel with the Design Basis spent nuclear fuel (SNF) analyzed previously (Ref. 5.1, 5.2). The basis of comparison will be the conceptual design Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package concepts. The objectives of this evaluation are to show that the criticality potential of the MOX fuel is equal to or lower than the DBF or, if necessary, indicate what additional measures are required to make it so.

  12. Categorization of PWR accident sequences and guidelines for fault trees: seismic initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1984-09-01

    This study developed a set of dominant accident sequences that could be applied generically to domestic commercial PWRs as a standardized basis for a probabilistic seismic risk assessment. This was accomplished by ranking the Zion 1 accident sequences. The pertinent PWR safety systems were compared on a plant-by-plant basis to determine the applicability of the dominant accident sequences of Zion 1 to other PWR plants. The functional event trees were developed to describe the system functions that must work or not work in order for a certain accident sequence to happen, one for pipe breaks and one for transients.

  13. Assessment of void swelling in austenitic stainless steel PWR core internals.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. M.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    As many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) age and life extension of the aged plants is considered, void swelling behavior of austenitic stainless steel (SS) core internals has become the subject of increasing attention. In this report, the available database on void swelling and density change of austenitic SSs was critically reviewed. Irradiation conditions, test procedures, and microstructural characteristics were carefully examined, and key factors that are important to determine the relevance of the database to PWR conditions were evaluated. Most swelling data were obtained from steels irradiated in fast breeder reactors at temperatures >385 C and at dose rates that are orders of magnitude higher than PWR dose rates. Even for a given irradiation temperature and given steel, the integral effects of dose and dose rate on void swelling should not be separated. It is incorrect to extrapolate swelling data on the basis of 'progressive compounded multiplication' of separate effects of factors such as dose, dose rate, temperature, steel composition, and fabrication procedure. Therefore, the fast reactor data should not be extrapolated to determine credible void swelling behavior for PWR end-of-life (EOL) or life-extension conditions. Although the void swelling data extracted from fast reactor studies is extensive and conclusive, only limited amounts of swelling data and information have been obtained on microstructural characteristics from discharged PWR internals or steels irradiated at temperatures and at dose rates comparable to those of a PWR. Based on this relatively small amount of information, swelling in thin-walled tubes and baffle bolts in a PWR is not considered a concern. As additional data and relevant research becomes available, the newer results should be integrated with existing data, and the worthiness of this conclusion should continue to be scrutinized. PWR baffle reentrant corners are the most likely location to experience high swelling rates, and

  14. Crack growth rates of nickel alloy welds in a PWR environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-05-31

    In light water reactors (LWRs), vessel internal components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. A better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this cracking may permit less conservative estimates of damage accumulation and requirements on inspection intervals. A program is being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the resistance of Ni alloys and their welds to environmentally assisted cracking in simulated LWR coolant environments. This report presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for Alloy 182 shielded-metal-arc weld metal in a simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) environment at 320 C. Crack growth tests were conducted on 1-T compact tension specimens with different weld orientations from both double-J and deep-groove welds. The results indicate little or no environmental enhancement of fatigue CGRs of Alloy 182 weld metal in the PWR environment. The CGRs of Alloy 182 in the PWR environment are a factor of {approx}5 higher than those of Alloy 600 in air under the same loading conditions. The stress corrosion cracking for the Alloy 182 weld is close to the average behavior of Alloy 600 in the PWR environment. The weld orientation was found to have a profound effect on the magnitude of crack growth: cracking was found to propagate faster along the dendrites than across them. The existing CGR data for Ni-alloy weld metals have been compiled and evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on CGRs in PWR environments. The results from the present study are compared with the existing CGR data for Ni-alloy welds to determine the relative susceptibility of the specific Ni-alloy weld to environmentally enhanced cracking.

  15. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  16. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  17. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-30

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa, 6% {sup 233}U & 2.8% {sup 231}Pa and 7% {sup 233}U & 6% {sup 231}Pa give low excess reactivity.

  18. Safety analysis of B and W Standard PWR using thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Uotinen, V.O.; Carroll, W.P.; Jones, H.M.; Toops, E.C.

    1980-06-01

    A study was performed to assess the safety and licenseability of the Babcock and Wilcox standard 205-fuel assembly PWR when it is fueled with three types of thoria-based fuels denatured (/sup 233/U//sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, denatured (/sup 235//U/sup 238/U-Th)O/sub 2/, and (Th-Pu)O/sub 2/. Selected transients were analyzed using typical PWR safety analysis calculational methods. The results support the conclusion that it is feasible from a safety standpoint to utilize either of the denatured urania-thoria fuels in the standard B and W plant. In addition, it appears that the use of thoria-plutonia fuels would probably also be feasible. These tentative conclusions depend on a data that is more limited than that available for UO/sub 2/ fuels.

  19. Optimization of small long-life PWR based on thorium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, Moh Nurul; Suud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2015-09-01

    A conceptual design of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium fuel has been investigated in neutronic aspect. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.2, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in three-dimension X-Y-Z geometry of core by COREBN. The excess reactivity of thorium nitride with ZIRLO cladding is considered during 5 years of burnup without refueling. Optimization of 350 MWe long life PWR based on 5% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa, 6% 233U & 2.8% 231Pa and 7% 233U & 6% 231Pa give low excess reactivity.

  20. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-01

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higer conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of 233U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  1. Conceptual design study of small long-life PWR based on thorium cycle fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Subkhi, M. Nurul; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Permana, Sidik

    2014-09-30

    A neutronic performance of small long-life Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) using thorium cycle based fuel has been investigated. Thorium cycle which has higher conversion ratio in thermal region compared to uranium cycle produce some significant of {sup 233}U during burn up time. The cell-burn up calculations were performed by PIJ SRAC code using nuclear data library based on JENDL 3.3, while the multi-energy-group diffusion calculations were optimized in whole core cylindrical two-dimension R-Z geometry by SRAC-CITATION. this study would be introduced thorium nitride fuel system which ZIRLO is the cladding material. The optimization of 350 MWt small long life PWR result small excess reactivity and reduced power peaking during its operation.

  2. MC21 analysis of the MIT PWR benchmark: Hot zero power results

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Iii, D. J.; Aviles, B. N.; Herman, B. R.

    2013-07-01

    MC21 Monte Carlo results have been compared with hot zero power measurements from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR), as specified in a new full core PWR performance benchmark from the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group. Included in the comparisons are axially integrated full core detector measurements, axial detector profiles, control rod bank worths, and temperature coefficients. Power depressions from grid spacers are seen clearly in the MC21 results. Application of Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration within MC21 has been accomplished, resulting in a significant reduction of inactive batches necessary to converge the fission source. CMFD acceleration has also been shown to work seamlessly with the Uniform Fission Site (UFS) variance reduction method. (authors)

  3. The electrochemistry in 316SS crevices exposed to PWR-relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankeerberghen, M.; Weyns, G.; Gavrilov, S.; Henshaw, J.; Deconinck, J.

    2009-04-01

    The chemical and electrochemical conditions within a crevice of Type 316 stainless steel in boric acid-lithium hydroxide solutions under PWR-relevant conditions were modelled with a computational electrochemistry code. The influence of various variables: dissolved hydrogen, boric acid, lithium hydroxide concentration, crevice length, and radiation dose rate was studied. It was found with the model that 25 ccH 2/kg (STP) was sufficient to remain below an electrode potential of -230 mV she, commonly accepted sufficient to prevent stress corrosion cracking under BWR conditions. In a PWR plant various operational B-Li cycles are possible but it was found that the choice of the cycle did not significantly influence the model results. It was also found that a hydrogen level of 50 ccH 2/kg (STP) would be needed to avoid substantial lowering of the pH inside a crevice.

  4. Contain analysis of hydrogen distribution and combustion in PWR dry containments

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.W.; Nimnual, S.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen transport and combustion in a PWR dry containment are analyzed using the CONTAIN code for a multi-compartment model of the Zion plant. The analysis includes consideration of both degraded core and full core meltdown accidents initiated by a small break LOCA. The importance of intercell flow mixing on distributions of gas composition and temperature in various compartments are evaluated. Thermal stratification and combustion behavior are discussed. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. MELCOR model for an experimental 17x17 spent fuel PWR assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoni, Jeffrey

    2010-11-01

    A MELCOR model has been developed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) 17 x 17 assembly in a spent fuel pool rack cell undergoing severe accident conditions. To the extent possible, the MELCOR model reflects the actual geometry, materials, and masses present in the experimental arrangement for the Sandia Fuel Project (SFP). The report presents an overview of the SFP experimental arrangement, the MELCOR model specifications, demonstration calculation results, and the input model listing.

  6. Radiation dose rates from commercial PWR and BWR spent fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, C.E.

    1981-10-01

    Data on measurements of gamma dose rates from commercial reactor spent fuel were collected, and documented calculated gamma dose rates were reviewed. As part of this study, the gamma dose rate from spent fuel was estimated, using computational techniques similar to previous investigations into this problem. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates provided a recommended dose rate in air versus distance curve for PWR spent fuel.

  7. Some Aspects of Cost/ Benefit Analysis for In-Service Inspection of PWR Steam Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Zima, G. E.; Lyon, G. H.; Doctor, P. G.; Hoenes, G. R.; Petty, S. E.; Weakley, S. A.

    1981-05-01

    This report discusses a number of aspects of cost/benefit (C/B) analysis for in-service inspection (lSI} of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators (SGs) and identifies several problem areas that must be addressed prior to a full C/B analysis capability. Following a brief review of the impact of SG problems on the productivity of PWR units and of the scope and variability of SG problems among U.S. PWRs, various occupational implications of SG lSI are considered, namely manpower, time, and rad exposure. The opportunities provided by refueling outages in respect to lSI frequency and work time windows are reviewed. Indices for characterizing the nondestructive testing {NDT) information, rad exposure, $ impact, and manpower and time attributes of single ISIs and a series of ISIs over an arbitrary evaluation period are presented and calculated for a number of lSI cases using SG parameters for three typical PWR units. A comparison of the $ impact of unscheduled outages attributable to SG problems with the $ cost of ambitious lSI strategies indicates that the $ cost is virtually negligible for well-planned ISis. Considering the ALARA constraint on occupational rad exposure, the skilled manpower pool for NDT work appears to be the principal factor limiting lSI scope and frequency. Analysis of the manpower and time requirements for inspection of a 40-unit PWR population indicates, however, that an lSI strategy embodying two campaigns per year and a total population inspection within a 2-year interval is not far beyond current capabilities.

  8. Calculation of the radionuclides in PWR spent fuel samples for SFR experiment planning.

    SciTech Connect

    Naegeli, Robert Earl

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the calculation of radionuclide content in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel samples planned for use in the Spent Fuel Ratio (SPR) Experiments at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL) to aid in experiment planning. The calculation methods using the ORIGEN2 and ORIGEN-ARP computer codes and the input modeling of the planned PWR spent fuel from the H. B. Robinson and the Surry nuclear power plants are discussed. The safety hazards for the calculated nuclide inventories in the spent fuel samples are characterized by the potential airborne dose and by the portion of the nuclear facility hazard category 2 and 3 thresholds that the experiment samples would present. In addition, the gamma ray photon energy source for the nuclide inventories is tabulated to facilitate subsequent calculation of the direct and shielded dose rates expected from the samples. The relative hazards of the high burnup 72 gigawatt-day per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU) spent fuel from H. B. Robinson and the medium burnup 36 GWd/MTU spent fuel from Surry are compared against a parametric calculation of various fuel burnups to assess the potential for higher hazard PWR fuel samples.

  9. A highly heterogeneous 3D PWR core benchmark: deterministic and Monte Carlo method comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboulay, J.-C.; Damian, F.; Douce, S.; Lopez, F.; Guenaut, C.; Aggery, A.; Poinot-Salanon, C.

    2014-06-01

    Physical analyses of the LWR potential performances with regards to the fuel utilization require an important part of the work dedicated to the validation of the deterministic models used for theses analyses. Advances in both codes and computer technology give the opportunity to perform the validation of these models on complex 3D core configurations closed to the physical situations encountered (both steady-state and transient configurations). In this paper, we used the Monte Carlo Transport code TRIPOLI-4®; to describe a whole 3D large-scale and highly-heterogeneous LWR core. The aim of this study is to validate the deterministic CRONOS2 code to Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4®; in a relevant PWR core configuration. As a consequence, a 3D pin by pin model with a consistent number of volumes (4.3 millions) and media (around 23,000) is established to precisely characterize the core at equilibrium cycle, namely using a refined burn-up and moderator density maps. The configuration selected for this analysis is a very heterogeneous PWR high conversion core with fissile (MOX fuel) and fertile zones (depleted uranium). Furthermore, a tight pitch lattice is selcted (to increase conversion of 238U in 239Pu) that leads to harder neutron spectrum compared to standard PWR assembly. In these conditions two main subjects will be discussed: the Monte Carlo variance calculation and the assessment of the diffusion operator with two energy groups for the core calculation.

  10. PWR ENDF/B-VII cross-section libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, C.; Ilas, G.

    2012-07-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% {sup 235}U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time. (authors)

  11. PWR reactor pressure vessel internals license renewal industry report; revision 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwirian, R.; Robison, G.

    1994-07-01

    The U.S. nuclear power industry, through coordination by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), and sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), has evaluated age-related degradation effects for a number of major plant systems, structures and components, in the license renewal technical Industry Reports (IRs). License renewal applicants may choose to reference these IRs in support of their plant-specific license renewal applications, as an equivalent to the integrated plant assessment provisions of the license renewal rule (10 CFR Part 54). Pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) internals designed by all three U.S. PWR nuclear steam supply system vendors have been evaluated relative to the effects of age-related degradation mechanisms; the capability of current design limits; inservice examination, testing, repair, refurbishment, and other programs to manage these effects; and the assurance that these internals can continue to perform their intended safety functions in the license renewal term. This industry report (IR), one of a series of ten, provides a generic technical basis for evaluation of PWR reactor pressure vessel internals for license renewal.

  12. A Study on the Conceptual Design of a 1,500 MWe Passive PWR with Annular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kwi Lim Lee; Soon Heung Chang

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the preliminary conceptual design of a 1500 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with annular fuel has been performed. This design is derived from the AP1000 which is a 1000 MWe PWR with two-loop. However, the present design is a 1500 MWe PWR with three-loop, passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. The preliminary design parameters of this reactor have been determined through simple relation to those of AP1000 for reactor, reactor coolant system, and passive safety injection system. Using the MATRA code, we analyze the core designs for two alternatives on fuel assembly types: solid fuel and annular fuel. The performance of reactor cooling systems is evaluated through the accident of the cold leg break in the core makeup tank loop by using MARS2.1 code. This study presents the developmental strategy, preliminary design parameters and safety analysis results. (authors)

  13. Impact of radiation embrittlement on integrity of pressure vessel supports for two PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.; Pennell, W.E.; Robinson, G.C.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent data from the HFIR vessel surveillance program indicate a substantial radiation embrittlement rate effect at low irradiation temperatures (/approximately/120/degree/F) for A212-B, A350-LF3, A105-II, and corresponding welds. PWR vessel supports are fabricated of similar materials and are subjected to the same low temperatures and fast neutron fluxes (10/sup 8/ to 10/sup 9/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s, E > 1.0 MeV) as those in the HFIR vessel. Thus, the embrittlement rate of these structures may be greater than previously anticipated. A study sponsored by the NRC is under way at ORNL to determine the impact of the rate effect on PWR vessel-support life expectancy. The scope includes the interpretation and application of the HFIR data, a survey of all light-water-reactor vessel support designs, and a structural and fracture-mechanics analysis of the supports for two specific PWR plants of particular interest with regard to a potential for support failure as a result of propagation of flaws. Calculations performed thus far indicate best-estimate critical flaw sizes, corresponding to 32 EFPY, of /approximately/0.2 in. for one plant and /approximately/0.4 in. for the other. These flaw sizes are small enough to be of concern. However, it appears that low-cycle fatigue is not a viable mechanism for creation of flaws of this size, and thus, presumably, such flaws would have to exist at the time of fabrication. 59 refs., 128 figs., 49 tabs.

  14. PWR Facility Dose Modeling Using MCNP5 and the CADIS/ADVANTG Variance-Reduction Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Blakeman, Edward D; Peplow, Douglas E.; Wagner, John C; Murphy, Brian D; Mueller, Don

    2007-09-01

    The feasibility of modeling a pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) facility and calculating dose rates at all locations within the containment and adjoining structures using MCNP5 with mesh tallies is presented. Calculations of dose rates resulting from neutron and photon sources from the reactor (operating and shut down for various periods) and the spent fuel pool, as well as for the photon source from the primary coolant loop, were all of interest. Identification of the PWR facility, development of the MCNP-based model and automation of the run process, calculation of the various sources, and development of methods for visually examining mesh tally files and extracting dose rates were all a significant part of the project. Advanced variance reduction, which was required because of the size of the model and the large amount of shielding, was performed via the CADIS/ADVANTG approach. This methodology uses an automatically generated three-dimensional discrete ordinates model to calculate adjoint fluxes from which MCNP weight windows and source bias parameters are generated. Investigative calculations were performed using a simple block model and a simplified full-scale model of the PWR containment, in which the adjoint source was placed in various regions. In general, it was shown that placement of the adjoint source on the periphery of the model provided adequate results for regions reasonably close to the source (e.g., within the containment structure for the reactor source). A modification to the CADIS/ADVANTG methodology was also studied in which a global adjoint source is weighted by the reciprocal of the dose response calculated by an earlier forward discrete ordinates calculation. This method showed improved results over those using the standard CADIS/ADVANTG approach, and its further investigation is recommended for future efforts.

  15. Optimization of burnable poison design for Pu incineration in fully fertile free PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.

    2006-07-01

    The design challenges of the fertile-free based fuel (FFF) can be addressed by careful and elaborate use of burnable poisons (BP). Practical fully FFF core design for PWR reactor has been reported in the past [1]. However, the burnable poison option used in the design resulted in significant end of cycle reactivity penalty due to incomplete BP depletion. Consequently, excessive Pu loading were required to maintain the target fuel cycle length, which in turn decreased the Pu burning efficiency. A systematic evaluation of commercially available BP materials in all configurations currently used in PWRs is the main objective of this work. The BP materials considered are Boron, Gd, Er, and Hf. The BP geometries were based on Wet Annular Burnable Absorber (WABA), Integral Fuel Burnable Absorber (IFBA), and Homogeneous poison/fuel mixtures. Several most promising combinations of BP designs were selected for the full core 3D simulation. All major core performance parameters for the analyzed cases are very close to those of a standard PWR with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel including possibility of reactivity control, power peaking factors, and cycle length. The MTC of all FFF cores was found at the full power conditions at all times and very close to that of the UO{sub 2} core. The Doppler coefficient of the FFF cores is also negative but somewhat lower in magnitude compared to UO{sub 2} core. The soluble boron worth of the FFF cores was calculated to be lower than that of the UO{sub 2} core by about a factor of two, which still allows the core reactivity control with acceptable soluble boron concentrations. The main conclusion of this work is that judicial application of burnable poisons for fertile free fuel has a potential to produce a core design with performance characteristics close to those of the reference PWR core with conventional UO{sub 2} fuel. (authors)

  16. SCALE 5.1 Predictions of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Isotopic Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Gauld, Ian C; Ilas, Germina

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this calculation report is to document the comparison to measurement of the isotopic concentrations for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel determined with the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 5.1 (Ref. ) epletion calculation method. Specifically, the depletion computer code and the cross-section library being evaluated are the twodimensional (2-D) transport and depletion module, TRITON/NEWT,2, 3 and the 44GROUPNDF5 (Ref. 4) cross-section library, respectively, in the SCALE .1 code system.

  17. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  18. Thermal Response of the 21-PWR Waste Package to a Fire Accident

    SciTech Connect

    F.P. Faucher; H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2000-10-03

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal response of the 21-PWR WP (pressurized water reactor waste package) to the regulatory fire event. The scope of this calculation is limited to the two-dimensional waste package temperature calculations to support the waste package design. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation (Attachment IV) is that of the potential design of the type of waste package considered in this calculation. The procedure AP-3.12Q.Calculations (Reference 1), and the Development Plan (Reference 24) are used to develop this calculation.

  19. Secondary Startup Neutron Sources as a Source of Tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Lanning, Donald D.

    2010-02-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the Zircaloy clad fuel source is minimal and that secondary startup neutron sources are the significant contributors of the tritium in the RCS that was previously assigned to release from fuel. Currently there are large uncertainties in the attribution of tritium in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS). The measured amount of tritium in the coolant cannot be separated out empirically into its individual sources. Therefore, to quantify individual contributors, all sources of tritium in the RCS of a PWR must be understood theoretically and verified by the sum of the individual components equaling the measured values.

  20. Phenomenon analysis of stress corrosion cracking in the vessel head penetrations of French PWR`s

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, C.; Buisine, D.; Faidy, C.; Gelpi, A.; Vaindirlis, M.

    1995-12-31

    During a hydrotest in 1991, a leak was detected on,a reactor vessel head (RVH) penetration of a French PWR. This leak was due to a phenomenon of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) affecting these penetrations in Alloy 600. The destructive and non-destructive examinations undertaken during the following months highlighted the generic nature of the degradations. In order to well understand this phenomenon and implement the most suitable maintenance policy, a large scale scientific program was decided and performed jointly by Electricite de France and FRAMATOME. The paper will present all the results obtained in this program concerning the parameters governing the PWSCC. In particular the following fields will be developed: (1) the material, its microstructure in line with the manufacturing and its susceptibility to PWSCC; (2) the stresses and their evaluations by measurements, mock up corrosion tests and Finite Element Analysis (FEA); (3) the effect of surface finish on crack initiation; and (4) the crack growth rate. This phenomenon analysis will be useful for evaluating the risk of PWSCC on other Alloy 600 areas in PWR`s primary system.

  1. Regeneratively Cooled Liquid Oxygen/Methane Technology Development Between NASA MSFC and PWR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Greene, Christopher B.; Stout, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) has identified Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) as a potential propellant combination for future space vehicles based upon exploration studies. The technology is estimated to have higher performance and lower overall systems mass compared to existing hypergolic propulsion systems. NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in concert with industry partner Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) utilized a Space Act Agreement to test an oxygen/methane engine system in the Summer of 2010. PWR provided a 5,500 lbf (24,465 N) LOX/LCH4 regenerative cycle engine to demonstrate advanced thrust chamber assembly hardware and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system. The chamber designs offered alternatives to traditional regenerative engine designs with improvements in cost and/or performance. MSFC provided the test stand, consumables and test personnel. The hot fire testing explored the effective cooling of one of the thrust chamber designs along with determining the combustion efficiency with variations of pressure and mixture ratio. The paper will summarize the status of these efforts.

  2. Validation of the new code package APOLLO2.8 for accurate PWR neutronics calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, A.; Bernard, D.; Blaise, P.; Leconte, P.; Palau, J. M.; Roque, B.; Vaglio, C.; Vidal, J. F.

    2013-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Qualification work performed to demonstrate the accuracy of the new APOLLO2.S/SHEM-MOC package based on JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file for the prediction of PWR neutronics parameters. This experimental validation is based on PWR mock-up critical experiments performed in the EOLE/MINERVE zero-power reactors and on P.I. Es on spent fuel assemblies from the French PWRs. The Calculation-Experiment comparison for the main design parameters is presented: reactivity of UOX and MOX lattices, depletion calculation and fuel inventory, reactivity loss with burnup, pin-by-pin power maps, Doppler coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, Void coefficient, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} poisoning worth, Efficiency of Ag-In-Cd and B4C control rods, Reflector Saving for both standard 2-cm baffle and GEN3 advanced thick SS reflector. From this qualification process, calculation biases and associated uncertainties are derived. This code package APOLLO2.8 is already implemented in the ARCADIA new AREVA calculation chain for core physics and is currently under implementation in the future neutronics package of the French utility Electricite de France. (authors)

  3. Recommendations for Addressing Axial Burnup in the PWR Burnup Credit Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2002-10-23

    This report presents studies performed to support the development of a technically justifiable approach for addressing the axial-burnup distribution in pressurized-water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety analyses. The effect of the axial-burnup distribution on reactivity and proposed approaches for addressing the axial-burnup distribution are briefly reviewed. A publicly available database of profiles is examined in detail to identify profiles that maximize the neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, assess its adequacy for PWR burnup credit analyses, and investigate the existence of trends with fuel type and/or reactor operations. A statistical evaluation of the k{sub eff} values associated with the profiles in the axial-burnup-profile database was performed, and the most reactive (bounding) profiles were identified as statistical outliers. The impact of these bounding profiles on k{sub eff} is quantified for a high-density burnup credit cask. Analyses are also presented to quantify the potential reactivity consequence of loading assemblies with axial-burnup profiles that are not bounded by the database. The report concludes with a discussion on the issues for consideration and recommendations for addressing axial burnup in criticality safety analyses using burnup credit for dry cask storage and transportation.

  4. Application of the MELCOR code to design basis PWR large dry containment analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Jesse; Notafrancesco, Allen; Tills, Jack Lee

    2009-05-01

    The MELCOR computer code has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories under USNRC sponsorship to provide capability for independently auditing analyses submitted by reactor manufactures and utilities. MELCOR is a fully integrated code (encompassing the reactor coolant system and the containment building) that models the progression of postulated accidents in light water reactor power plants. To assess the adequacy of containment thermal-hydraulic modeling incorporated in the MELCOR code for application to PWR large dry containments, several selected demonstration designs were analyzed. This report documents MELCOR code demonstration calculations performed for postulated design basis accident (DBA) analysis (LOCA and MSLB) inside containment, which are compared to other code results. The key processes when analyzing the containment loads inside PWR large dry containments are (1) expansion and transport of high mass/energy releases, (2) heat and mass transfer to structural passive heat sinks, and (3) containment pressure reduction due to engineered safety features. A code-to-code benchmarking for DBA events showed that MELCOR predictions of maximum containment loads were equivalent to similar predictions using a qualified containment code known as CONTAIN. This equivalency was found to apply for both single- and multi-cell containment models.

  5. Bi-content Gadolinia as Burnable Absorber in PWR to Improve the Reactor Core Behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, S.

    2007-07-01

    The gadolinia product is one of the standard burnable absorbers used in the PWR long and low leakage fuel cycle in order to control the radial power distribution and to hold down the initial core reactivity. This product presents a large number of advantages such as the high efficiency with only a small number of gadolinia-bearing rods, the easy adjustment between the number and the content of the gadolinia-bearing rods according to the cycle length need and the initial reactivity hold-down, no increasing of boron concentration versus cycle depletion, no additional increasing of internal pressure in poisoned rods, very low additional manufacture cost. On the other hand, some unfavourable phenomena are also observed during the utilization of the gadolinia: amplification of the asymmetrical power distribution and more negative axial offset. Based on the correlation between the gadolinia burnout and its content, the use of gadolinia bi-content will improve the parameters indicated here above. The gadolinia bi-content have been used in BWR for more than 20 years. In this paper, the comparison of the main reactor core physical parameters in PWR, calculated with the AREVA NP standard neutronic code package SCIENCE, is made by using the mono- and bi-content of the gadolinia products in the same fuel assembly. The results show that the asymmetrical axial and azimuthal power distribution can be improved in the case of the bi-content gadolinia product. (authors)

  6. Development of a new lattice physics code robin for PWR application

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Chen, G.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a description of methodologies and preliminary verification results of a new lattice physics code ROBIN, being developed for PWR application at Shanghai NuStar Nuclear Power Technology Co., Ltd. The methods used in ROBIN to fulfill various tasks of lattice physics analysis are an integration of historical methods and new methods that came into being very recently. Not only these methods like equivalence theory for resonance treatment and method of characteristics for neutron transport calculation are adopted, as they are applied in many of today's production-level LWR lattice codes, but also very useful new methods like the enhanced neutron current method for Dancoff correction in large and complicated geometry and the log linear rate constant power depletion method for Gd-bearing fuel are implemented in the code. A small sample of verification results are provided to illustrate the type of accuracy achievable using ROBIN. It is demonstrated that ROBIN is capable of satisfying most of the needs for PWR lattice analysis and has the potential to become a production quality code in the future. (authors)

  7. Code System for PWR & BWR Multicompartment Containment Analysis, Versions MOD5

    1999-06-02

    CONTEMPT4/MOD6 describes the response of multicompartment containment systems subjected to postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The program can accommodate both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) containment systems. Also, both design basis accident (DBA) and degraded core type LOCA conditions can be analyzed. The program calculates the time variation of compartment pressures, temperatures, and mass and energy inventories due to inter-compartment mass and energy exchange taking into account user-supplied descriptions of compartments,more » inter-compartment junction flow areas, LOCA source terms, and user-selected problem features. Analytical models available to describe containment systems include models for containment fans and pumps, cooling sprays, heat conducting structures, sump drains, PWR ice condensers, and BWR pressure suppression systems. CONTEMPT4/MOD6 also provides analytical models for hydrogen and carbon monoxide combustion within compartments and energy transfer due to gas radiation to accommodate degraded core type accidents.« less

  8. Three Dimensional Analysis of 3-Loop PWR RCCA Ejection Accident for High Burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Marciulescu, Cristian; Sung, Yixing; Beard, Charles L.

    2006-07-01

    The Rod Control Cluster Assembly (RCCA) ejection accident is a Condition IV design basis reactivity insertion event for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The event is historically analyzed using a one-dimensional (1D) neutron kinetic code to meet the current licensing criteria for fuel rod burnup to 62,000 MWD/MTU. The Westinghouse USNRC-approved three-dimensional (3D) analysis methodology is based on the neutron kinetics version of the ANC code (SPNOVA) coupled with Westinghouse's version of the EPRI core thermal-hydraulic code VIPRE-01. The 3D methodology provides a more realistic yet conservative analysis approach to meet anticipated reduction in the licensing fuel enthalpy rise limit for high burnup fuel. A rod ejection analysis using the 3D methodology was recently performed for a Westinghouse 3-loop PWR at an up-rated core power of 3151 MWt with reload cores that allow large flexibility in assembly shuffling and a fuel hot rod burnup to 75,000 MWD/MTU. The analysis considered high enrichment fuel assemblies at the control rod locations as well as bounding rodded depletions in the end of life, zero power and full power conditions. The analysis results demonstrated that the peak fuel enthalpy rise is less than 100 cal/g for the transient initiated at the hot zero power condition. The maximum fuel enthalpy is less than 200 cal/g for the transient initiated from the full power condition. (authors)

  9. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2005-08-17

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  10. Maximim Accelerations On The Fuel Assemblies Of a 21-PWR Waste Package During End Impacts 

    SciTech Connect

    V. DeLa Brosse

    2003-03-27

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the acceleration of the fuel assemblies contained in a 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel waste package impacting an unyielding surface. A range of initial velocities of the waste package is studied. The scope of this calculation is limited to estimating the acceleration of the fuel assemblies during the impact.

  11. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  12. Decontamination as a precursor to decommissioning. Status report Task 2: process evaluation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, J.R.; Woodruff, E.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Zima, G.E.

    1983-05-01

    As part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to reduce occupational exposure and waste volumes, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is studying decontamination as a precursor to decommissioning. Eleven processes or solvents were examined for their behavior in decontaminating BWR carbon steel samples. The solvents included NS-1, a proprietary solvent of Dow Chemical Corporation, designed for BWR use, and AP-Citrox, a well-known, two-step process designed for PWR stainless steel; it was used to provide a reference for later comparison to other systems and processes. The decontamination factors observed in the tests performed in a small laboratory scale recirculating loop ranged from about 1 (no effect) to 222 (about 99.6% of the initial activity removed. Coordinated corrosion measurements were made using twelve chemical solvents and eight metal alloys found in a range of reactor types.

  13. Methods and findings of a systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.; Mitra, S.; Macdonald, G.; Chelliah, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and findings of a systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR. BNL conducted the study as a methods application that was performed to support the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interactions. The method calls for a fault tree model of the plant to be developed in stages, corresponding to successively increasing levels of scope and detail. A functional model is developed first, resolved only to sufficient detail to reflect support system dependences; this guides the subsequent searches for spatial and induced-human interactions. This process has led to the identification of an active single failure causing loss of low pressure injection following a large or medium LOCA.

  14. Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement.

  15. Monte Carlo characterization of PWR spent fuel assemblies to determine the detectability of pin diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdo, James S.

    This research is based on the concept that the diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies is feasible by a careful comparison of spontaneous fission neutron and gamma levels in the guide tube locations of the fuel assemblies. The goal is to be able to determine whether some of the assembly fuel pins are either missing or have been replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. It is known that for typical commercial power spent fuel assemblies, the dominant spontaneous neutron emissions come from Cm-242 and Cm-244. Because of the shorter half-life of Cm-242 (0.45 yr) relative to that of Cm-244 (18.1 yr), Cm-244 is practically the only neutron source contributing to the neutron source term after the spent fuel assemblies are more than two years old. Initially, this research focused upon developing MCNP5 models of PWR fuel assemblies, modeling their depletion using the MONTEBURNS code, and by carrying out a preliminary depletion of a ¼ model 17x17 assembly from the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR. Later, the depletion and more accurate isotopic distribution in the pins at discharge was modeled using the TRITON depletion module of the SCALE computer code. Benchmarking comparisons were performed with the MONTEBURNS and TRITON results. Subsequently, the neutron flux in each of the guide tubes of the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR assembly at two years after discharge as calculated by the MCNP5 computer code was determined for various scenarios. Cases were considered for all spent fuel pins present and for replacement of a single pin at a position near the center of the assembly (10,9) and at the corner (17,1). Some scenarios were duplicated with a gamma flux calculation for high energies associated with Cm-244. For each case, the difference between the flux (neutron or gamma) for all spent fuel pins and with a pin removed or replaced is calculated for each guide tube. Different detection criteria were established. The first was whether the relative error of the

  16. Three Dimensional Radiation Transport Analyses in Pwr with Tort and Mcnp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuya, Koji; Nakata, Hayato; Kimura, Itsuro; Kitagawa, Hideo; Ohmura, Masaki; Ito, Taku; Shin, Kazuo

    2003-06-01

    Three dimensional (3D) neutron and gamma calculations for structural materials inside the reactor vessel in a commercial PWR were performed using the 3D transport code TORT and the Monte Carlo code MCNP to assess the accuracy of calculations using these codes and libraries. Comparisons with two dimensional DORT calculations with various libraries and surveillance dosimetry measurements indicated that TORT and MCNP calculations give similar agreements with surveillance measurements to DORT calculations. Influences of the cross section data, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI and JENDL3.2 on attenuation of the fast flux and dpa rate in the reactor vessel, relative contributions of gamma-rays and thermal neutrons to dpa were discussed.

  17. A comparison of the CHF between tubes and annuli under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Herer, C.

    1995-09-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) tests were carried out in three tubes with inside diameters of 8, 13, and 19.2 mm and in two annuli with an inner tube of 9.5 mm and an outer tube of 13 or 19.2 mm. All axial heat flux distributions in the test sections were uniform. The coolant fluid was Refrigerant 12 (Freon-12) under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions (equivalent water conditions - Pressure: 7 to 20 MPa, Mass Velocity: 1000 to 6000 kg/m2/s, Local Quality: -75% to +45%). The effect of tube diameter is correlated for qualities under 15%. The change from the tube to the annulus configuration is correctly taken into account by the equivalent hydraulic diameter. Useful information is also provided concerning the effect of a cold wall in an annulus.

  18. Grid-to-rod flow-induced impact study for PWR fuel in reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Hao; Qu, Jun; Lu, Roger Y.; Wang, Jy-An John

    2016-06-10

    The source for grid-to-rod fretting in a pressurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) is the dynamic contact impact from hydraulic flow-induced fuel assembly vibration. In order to support grid-to-rod fretting wear mitigation research, finite element analysis (FEA) was used to evaluate the hydraulic flow-induced impact intensity between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Three-dimensional FEA models, with detailed geometries of the dimple and spring of the actual spacer grids along with fuel rods, were developed for flow impact simulation. The grid-to-rod dynamic impact simulation provided insights of the contact phenomena at grid-rod interface. Finally, it is an essential and effectivemore » way to evaluate contact forces and provide guidance for simulative bench fretting-impact tests.« less

  19. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  20. Metal cation inhibitors for controlling denting corrosion in steam generators. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Leidheiser, H. Jr.; Granata, R.D.; Simmons, G.W.; Music, S.; Vedage, H.L.

    1982-12-01

    Metal cations of arsenic, antimony, tin, manganese, zinc, cadmium, indium, and thallium have been evaluated in a preliminary way as possible3 inhibitors for controlling denting corrision observed in steam generators used with pressurized water reactors (PWR). The rationale for this approach was based upon the well-known inhibition effects of metal cations on corrosion rates in electrolyte/metal systems. A review of corrosion inhibition by metal cations (H. Leidheiser, Jr., Corrosion 36, 339 (1982)) has identified eleven inhibition mechanisms. The major test methods used for this evaluation were: (1) Isothermal capsule tests of carbon/steel/Inconel 600 tube bulging rates at temperatures up to 288/sup 0/C in seawater/copper-nickel chloride bulge-accelerating solutions. (2) Immersion weight-loss tests of steel coupled to Inconel 600 in boiling (102/sup 0/C) 3% sodium chloride solutions. In addition, electrochemical measuremens and surface analyses were performed. The major findings of this investigation are presented.

  1. Common cause evaluations in applied risk analysis of nuclear power plants. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, T.; Ligon, D.; Stamatelatos, M.

    1983-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches were developed for the evaluation of common cause failures (CCFs) in nuclear power plants and were applied to the analysis of the auxiliary feedwater systems of several pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Key CCF variables were identified through a survey of experts in the field and a review of failure experience in operating PWRs. These variables were classified into categories of high, medium, and low defense against a CCF. Based on the results, a checklist was developed for analyzing CCFs of systems. Several known techniques for quantifying CCFs were also reviewed. The information provided valuable insights in the development of a new model for estimating CCF probabilities, which is an extension of and improvement over the Beta Factor method. As applied to the analysis of the PWR auxiliary feedwater systems, the method yielded much more realistic values than the original Beta Factor method for a one-out-of-three system.

  2. Electrically heated ex-reactor pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) simulations utilizing irradiated Zircaloy cladding. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Barner, J.O.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.

    1985-02-01

    In a program sponsored by the Fuel Systems Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a series of six electrically heated fuel rod simulation tests were conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of these tests was to determine the susceptibility of irradiated pressurized-water reactor (PWR) Zircaloy-4 cladding to failures caused by pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). A secondary objective was to acquire kinetic data (e.g., ridge growth or relaxation rates) that might be helpful in the interpretation of in-reactor performance results and/or the modeling of PCMI. No cladding failures attributable to PCMI occurred during the six tests. This report describes the testing methods, testing apparatus, fuel rod diametral strain-measuring device, and test matrix. Test results are presented and discussed.

  3. VISA: a computer code for predicting the probability of reactor pressure-vessel failure. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Strosnider, J. Jr.; Klecker, R.W.; Engel, D.W.; Johnson, K.I.

    1983-09-01

    The VISA (Vessel Integrity Simulation Analysis) code was developed as part of the NRC staff evaluation of pressurized thermal shock. VISA uses Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the failure probability of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessel subjected to a pressure and thermal transient specified by the user. Linear elastic fracture mechanics are used to model crack initiation and propagation. parameters for initial crack size, copper content, initial RT/sub NDT/, fluence, crack-initiation fracture toughness, and arrest fracture toughness are treated as random variables. This report documents the version of VISA used in the NRC staff report (Policy Issue from J.W. Dircks to NRC Commissioners, Enclosure A: NRC Staff Evaluation of Pressurized Thermal Shock, November 1982, SECY-82-465) and includes a user's guide for the code.

  4. Failure probability of PWR reactor coolant loop piping. [Double-ended guillotine break

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.; Woo, H.H.; Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes the results of assessments performed on the PWR coolant loop piping of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering plants. For direct double-ended guillotine break (DEGB), consideration was given to crack existence probability, initial crack size distribution, hydrostatic proof test, preservice inspection, leak detection probability, crack growth characteristics, and failure criteria based on the net section stress failure and tearing modulus stability concept. For indirect DEGB, fragilities of major component supports were estimated. The system level fragility was then calculated based on the Boolean expression involving these fragilities. Indirect DEGB due to seismic effects was calculated by convolving the system level fragility and the seismic hazard curve. The results indicate that the probability of occurrence of both direct and indirect DEGB is extremely small, thus, postulation of DEGB in design should be eliminated and replaced by more realistic criteria.

  5. Fog inerting effects on hydrogen combustion in a PWR ice condenser contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    Luangdilok, W.; Bennett, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A mechanistic fog inerting model has been developed to account for the effects of fog on the upward lean flammability limits of a combustible mixture based on the thermal theory of flame propagation. Benchmarking of this model with test data shows reasonably good agreement between the theory and the experiment. Applications of the model and available fog data to determine the upward lean flammability limits of the H{sub 2}-air-steam mixture in the ice condenser upper plenum region of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice condenser contaminant during postulated large loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions indicate that combustion may be suppressed beyond the downward flammability limit (8 percent H{sub 2} by volume). 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Josephs, J. M.

    1980-12-31

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion-fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors.

  7. Analysis of MERCI decay heat measurement for PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rod

    SciTech Connect

    Jaboulay, J.C.; Bourganel, S.

    2012-01-15

    Decay heat measurements, called the MERCI experiment, were conducted at Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)/Saclay to characterize accurately residual power at short cooling time and verify its prediction by decay code and nuclear data. The MOSAIC calorimeter, developed and patented by CEA/Grenoble (DTN/SE2T), enables measurement of the decay heat released by a pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rod sample between 200 and 4 W within a precision of 1%. The MERCI experiment included three phases. At first, a UO{sub 2} fuel rod sample was irradiated in the CEA/Saclay experimental reactor OSIRIS. The burnup achieved at the end of irradiation was similar to 3.5 GWd/tonne. The second phase was the transfer of the fuel rod sample from its irradiation location to a hot cell, to be inserted inside the MOSAIC calorimeter. It took 26 min to carry out the transfer. Finally, decay heat released by the PWR sample was measured from 27 min to 42 days after shutdown. Post irradiation examinations were performed to measure concentrations of some heavy nuclei (U, Pu) and fission products (Cs, Nd). The decay heat was predicted using a calculation scheme based on the PEPIN2 depletion code, the TRIPOLI-4 Monte Carlo code, and the JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data file. The MERCI experiment analysis shows that the discrepancy between the calculated and the experimental decay heat values is included between -10% at 27 min and +6% at 12 h, 30 min otter shutdown. From 4 up to 42 days of cooling time, the difference between calculation and measurement is about ± 1%, i.e., experimental uncertainty. The MERCI experiment represents a significant contribution for code validation; the time range above 10{sup 5} s has not been validated previously. (authors)

  8. An Extension of the Validation of SCALE (SAS2H) Isotopic Predictions for PWR Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Isotopic characterization of spent fuel via depletion and decay calculations is necessary for determination of source terms for subsequent system analyses involving heat transfer, radiation shielding, isotopic migration, etc. Unlike fresh fuel assumptions typically employed in the criticality safety analysis of spent fuel configurations, burnup credit applications also rely on depletion and decay calculations to predict the isotopic composition of spent fuel. These isotopics are used in subsequent criticality calculations to assess the reduced worth of spent fuel. To validate the codes and data used in depletion approaches, experimental measurements are compared with numerical predictions for relevant spent fuel samples. Such comparisons have been performed in earlier work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report describes additional independent measurements and corresponding calculations, which supplement the results of the earlier work. The current work includes measured isotopic data from 19 spent fuel samples obtained from the Italian Trino Vercelles pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the U.S. Turkey Point Unit 3 PWR. In addition, an approach to determine biases and uncertainties between calculated and measured isotopic concentrations is discussed, together with a method to statistically combine these terms to obtain a conservative estimate of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results are presented based on the combination of measured-to-calculated ratios for earlier work and the current analyses. The results described herein represent an extension to a new reactor design not included in the earlier work, and spent fuel samples with enrichment as high as 3.9 wt % {sup 235}U. Results for the current work are found to be, for the most part, consistent with the findings of the earlier work. This consistency was observed for results obtained from each of two different cross-section libraries and suggests that the estimated biases determined for

  9. Irradiation Test of Advanced PWR Fuel in Fuel Test Loop at HANARO

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Song, Kun Woo; Park, Su Ki; Seo, Chul Gyo

    2007-07-01

    A new fuel test loop has been constructed in the research reactor HANARO at KAERI. The main objective of the FTL (Fuel Test Loop) is an irradiation test of a newly developed LWR fuel under PWR or Candu simulated conditions. The first test rod will be loaded within 2007 and its irradiation test will be continued until a rod average their of 62 MWd/kgU. A total of five test rods can be loaded into the IPS (In-Pile Section) and fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure and fuel stack elongation can be measured by an on-line real time system. A newly developed advanced PWR fuel which consists of a HANA{sup TM} alloy cladding and a large grain UO{sub 2} pellet was selected as the first test fuel in the FTL. The fuel cladding, the HANA{sup TM} alloy, is an Nb containing Zirconium alloy that has shown better corrosion and creep resistance properties than the current Zircaloy-4 cladding. A total of six types of HANA{sup TM} alloy were developed and two or three of these candidate alloys will be used as test rod cladding, which have shown a superior performance to the others. A large-grain UO{sub 2} pellet has a 14{approx}16 micron 2D diameter grain size for a reduction of a fission gas release at a high burnup. In this paper, characteristics of the FTL and IPS are introduced and the expected operation and irradiation conditions are summarized for the test periods. Also the preliminary fuel performance analysis results, such as the cladding oxide thickness, fission gas release and rod internal pressure, are evaluated from the test rod safety analysis aspects. (authors)

  10. Assessment of Reactivity Margins and Loading Curves for PWR Burnup Credit Cask Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2002-12-17

    This report presents studies to assess reactivity margins and loading curves for pressurized water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety evaluations. The studies are based on a generic high-density 32-assembly cask and systematically vary individual calculational (depletion and criticality) assumptions to demonstrate the impact on the predicted effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and burnup-credit loading curves. The purpose of this report is to provide a greater understanding of the importance of input parameter variations and quantify the impact of calculational assumptions on the outcome of a burnup-credit evaluation. This study should provide guidance to regulators and industry on the technical areas where improved information will most enhance the estimation of accurate subcritical margins. Based on these studies, areas where future work may provide the most benefit are identified. The report also includes an evaluation of the degree of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current spent nuclear fuel inventory. By comparing PWR discharge data to actinide-only based loading curves and determining the number of assemblies that meet the loading criteria, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of current spent fuel assemblies in high-capacity casks. Assemblies that are not acceptable for loading in the prototypic high-capacity cask may be stored or transported by other means (e.g., lower capacity casks that utilize flux traps and/or increased fixed poison concentrations or high-capacity casks with design/utilization modifications).

  11. Effect of aging on the PWR Chemical and Volume Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, E.J.; Travis, R.J.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1995-06-01

    The PWR Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS) is designed to provide both safety and non-safety related functions. During normal plant operation it is used to control reactor coolant chemistry, and letdown and charging flow. In many plants, the charging pumps also provide high pressure injection, emergency boration, and RCP seal injection in emergency situations. This study examines the design, materials, maintenance, operation and actual degradation experiences of the system and main sub-components to assess the potential for age degradation. A detailed review of the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Report (LER) databases for the 1988--1991 time period, together with a review of industry and NRC experience and research, indicate that age-related degradations and failures have occurred. These failures had significant effects on plant operation, including reactivity excursions, and pressurizer level transients. The majority of these component failures resulted in leakage of reactor coolant outside the containment. A representative plant of each PWR design (W, CE, and B and W) was visited to obtain specific information on system inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and inspection practices. The results of these visits indicate that adequate system maintenance and inspection is being performed. In some instances, the frequencies of inspection were increase in response to repeated failure events. A parametric study was performed to assess the effect of system aging on Core Damage Frequency (CDF). This study showed that as motor-operated valve (MOV) operating failures increased, the contribution of the High Pressure Injection to CDF also increased.

  12. SAS2H Generated Isotopic Concentrations For B&W 15X15 PWR Assembly (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1996-08-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide pressurized water reactor (PWR) isotopic composition data as a function of time for use in criticality analyses. The objectives of this evaluation are to generate burnup and decay dependant isotopic inventories and to provide these inventories in a form which can easily be utilized in subsequent criticality calculations.

  13. Organ-specific gene expression in maize: The P-wr allele. Final report, August 15, 1993--August 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The ultimate aim of our work is to understand how a regulatory gene produces a specific pattern of gene expression during plant development. Our model is the P-wr gene of maize, which produces a distinctive pattern of pigmentation of maize floral organs. We are investigating this system using a combination of classical genetic and molecular approaches. Mechanisms of organ-specific gene expression are a subject of intense research interest, as it is the operation of these mechanisms during eukaryotic development which determine the characteristics of each organism Allele-specific expression has been characterized in only a few other plant genes. In maize, organ-specific pigmentation regulated by the R, B, and Pl genes is achieved by differential transcription of functionally conserved protein coding sequences. Our studies point to a strikingly different mechanism of organ-specific gene expression, involving post-transcriptional regulation of the regulatory P gene. The novel pigmentation pattern of the P-wr allele is associated with differences in the encoded protein. Furthermore, the P-wr gene itself is present as a unique tandemly amplified structure, which may affect its transcriptional regulation.

  14. PwrSoC (integration of micro-magnetic inductors/transformers with active semiconductors) for more than Moore technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathuna, Cian Ó.; Wang, Ningning; Kulkarni, Santosh; Roy, Saibal

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of power supply on chip (PwrSoC) which will enable the development of next-generation, functionally integrated, power management platforms with applications in dc-dc conversion, gate drives, isolated power transmission and ultimately, high granularity, on-chip, power management for mixed-signal, SOC chips. PwrSoC will integrate power passives with the power management IC, in a 3D stacked or monolithic form factor, thereby delivering the performance of a highefficiency dc-dc converter within the footprint of a low-efficiency linear regulator. A central element of the PwrSoC concept is the fabrication of power micro-magnetics on silicon to deliver micro-inductors and micro-transformers. The paper details the magnetics on silicon process which combines thin film magnetic core technology with electroplated copper conductors. Measured data for micro-inductors show inductance operation up to 20 MHz, footprints down to 0.5 mm2, efficiencies up to 93% and dc current carrying capability up to 600 mA. Measurements on micro-transformers show voltage gain of approximately - 1 dB at between 10 MHz and 30 MHz. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  15. Evaluation of stress corrosion cracking of irradiated 304L stainless steel in PWR environment using heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J.; Hure, J.; Tanguy, B.; Laffont, L.; Lafont, M.-C.; Andrieu, E.

    2016-08-01

    IASCC has been a major concern regarding the structural and functional integrity of core internals of PWR's, especially baffle-to-former bolts. Despite numerous studies over the past few decades, additional evaluation of the parameters influencing IASCC is still needed for an accurate understanding and modeling of this phenomenon. In this study, Fe irradiation at 450 °C was used to study the cracking susceptibility of 304 L austenitic stainless steel. After 10 MeV Fe irradiation to 5 dpa, irradiation-induced damage in the microstructure was characterized and quantified along with nano-hardness measurements. After 4% plastic strain in a PWR environment, quantitative information on the degree of strain localization, as determined by slip-line spacing, was obtained using SEM. Fe-irradiated material strained to 4% in a PWR environment exhibited crack initiation sites that were similar to those that occur in neutron- and proton-irradiated materials, which suggests that Fe irradiation may be a representative means for studying IASCC susceptibility. Fe-irradiated material subjected to 4% plastic strain in an inert argon environment did not exhibit any cracking, which suggests that localized deformation is not in itself sufficient for initiating cracking for the irradiation conditions used in this study.

  16. Impact of makeup water system performance on PWR steam generator corrosion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.J.; Pearl, W.L.; Sawochka, S.G.; Smith, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The objectives of this project were to review makeup system design and performance and assess the possible relation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator corrosion to makeup water impurity ingress at fresh water sites. Project results indicated that makeup water transport of most ionic impurities can be expected to have a significant impact on secondary cycle chemistry only if condenser inleakage and other sources of impurities are maintained at very low levels. Since makeup water oxygen control techniques at most study plants were not consistent with state-of-the-art technology, oxygen input to the cycle via makeup can be significant. Leakage of colloidal silica and organics through makeup water systems can be expected to control blowdown silica levels and organic levels throughout the cycle at many plants. Attempts to correlate makeup water quality to steam generator corrosion observations were unsuccessful since (1) other impurity sources were significant compared to makeup at most study plants, (2) many variables are involved in the corrosion process, and (3) in the case of IGA, the variables have not been clearly established. However, in some situations makeup water can be a significant source of contaminants suspected to lead to both IGA and denting.

  17. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: Surry PWR TMLB` (with a DCH study)

    SciTech Connect

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Summers, R.M.; Thompson, S.L.

    1994-02-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code, being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC. This code models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As part of an ongoing assessment program, the MELCOR computer code has been used to analyze a station blackout transient in Surry, a three-loop Westinghouse PWR. Basecase results obtained with MELCOR 1.8.2 are presented, and compared to earlier results for the same transient calculated using MELCOR 1.8.1. The effects of new models added in MELCOR 1.8.2 (in particular, hydrodynamic interfacial momentum exchange, core debris radial relocation and core material eutectics, CORSOR-Booth fission product release, high-pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating) are investigated individually in sensitivity studies. The progress in reducing numeric effects in MELCOR 1.8.2, compared to MELCOR 1.8.1, is evaluated in both machine-dependency and time-step studies; some remaining sources of numeric dependencies (valve cycling, material relocation and hydrogen burn) are identified.

  18. Validation of the scale system for PWR spent fuel isotopic composition analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.

    1995-03-01

    The validity of the computation of pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel isotopic composition by the SCALE system depletion analysis was assessed using data presented in the report. Radiochemical measurements and SCALE/SAS2H computations of depleted fuel isotopics were compared with 19 benchmark-problem samples from Calvert Cliffs Unit 1, H. B. Robinson Unit 2, and Obrigheim PWRs. Even though not exhaustive in scope, the validation included comparison of predicted and measured concentrations for 14 actinides and 37 fission and activation products. The basic method by which the SAS2H control module applies the neutron transport treatment and point-depletion methods of SCALE functional modules (XSDRNPM-S, NITAWL-II, BONAMI, and ORIGEN-S) is described in the report. Also, the reactor fuel design data, the operating histories, and the isotopic measurements for all cases are included in detail. The underlying radiochemical assays were conducted by the Materials Characterization. Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the Approved Testing Material program and by four different laboratories in Europe on samples processed at the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant.

  19. Development of a coupling code for PWR reactor cavity radiation streaming calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, H.; Wang, M.

    2012-07-01

    PWR reactor cavity radiation streaming is important for the safe of the personnel and equipment, thus calculation has to be performed to evaluate the neutron flux distribution around the reactor. For this calculation, the deterministic codes have difficulties in fine geometrical modeling and need huge computer resource; and the Monte Carlo codes require very long sampling time to obtain results with acceptable precision. Therefore, a coupling method has been developed to eliminate the two problems mentioned above in each code. In this study, we develop a coupling code named DORT2MCNP to link the Sn code DORT and Monte Carlo code MCNP. DORT2MCNP is used to produce a combined surface source containing top, bottom and side surface simultaneously. Because SDEF card is unsuitable for the combined surface source, we modify the SOURCE subroutine of MCNP and compile MCNP for this application. Numerical results demonstrate the correctness of the coupling code DORT2MCNP and show reasonable agreement between the coupling method and the other two codes (DORT and MCNP). (authors)

  20. LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop by using the US NRC approved methods

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory requirements for postulated pipe ruptures have changed significantly since the first nuclear plants were designed. The Leak-Before-Break (LBB) methodology is now accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of double-ended guillotine breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. The previous pipe rupture design requirements for nuclear power plant applications are responsible for all the numerous and massive pipe whip restraints and jet shields installed for each plant. This results in significant plant congestion, increased labor costs and radiation dosage for normal maintenance and inspection. Also the restraints increase the probability of interference between the piping and supporting structures during plant heatup, thereby potentially impacting overall plant reliability. The LBB approach to eliminate postulating ruptures in high energy piping systems is a significant improvement to former regulatory methodologies, and therefore, the LBB approach to design is gaining worldwide acceptance. However, the methods and criteria for LBB evaluation depend upon the policy of individual country and significant effort continues towards accomplishing uniformity on a global basis. In this paper the historical development of the U.S. LBB criteria will be traced and the results of an LBB evaluation for a typical Japanese PWR primary loop applying U.S. NRC approved methods will be presented. In addition, another approach using the Japanese LBB criteria will be shown and compared with the U.S. criteria. The comparison will be highlighted in this paper with detailed discussion.

  1. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    SciTech Connect

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-12-31

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10/sup 9/ over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power.

  2. Integrated Radiation Transport and Thermo-Mechanics Simulation of a PWR Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin T; Hamilton, Steven P; Philip, Bobby; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Berrill, Mark A; Barai, Pallab; Banfield, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Multi-Physics (AMP) Nuclear Fuel Performance code (AMPFuel) is focused on predicting the temperature and strain within a nuclear fuel assembly to evaluate the performance and safety of existing and advanced nuclear fuel bundles within existing and advanced nuclear reactors. AMPFuel was extended to include an integrated nuclear fuel assembly capability for (one-way) coupled radiation transport and nuclear fuel assembly thermo-mechanics. This capability is the initial step towards incorporating an improved predictive nuclear fuel assembly modeling capability to accurately account for source terms, such as the neutron flux distribution, coolant conditions, and assembly mechanical stresses, of traditional (single-pin) nuclear fuel performance simulation. AMPFuel was used to model an entire 17 x 17 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly with many of the features resolved in three dimensions (for thermo-mechanics and/or neutronics), including the fuel, gap, and cladding of each of the 264 fuel pins, the 25 guide tubes, top and bottom structural regions, and the upper and lower (neutron) reflector regions. The final full-assembly calculation was executed on Jaguar (Cray XT5) at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility using 40,000 cores in under 10 hours to model over 162 billion degrees of freedom for 10 loading steps.

  3. Modern Fuel Cladding in Demanding Operation - ZIRLO in Full Life High Lithium PWR Coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kargol, Kenneth; Stevens, Jim; Bosma, John; Iyer, Jayashri; Wikmark, Gunnar

    2007-07-01

    There is an increasing demand to optimize the PWR water chemistry in order to minimize activity build-up in the plants and to avoid CIPS and other fuel related issues. Operation with a constant pH between 7.2 and 7.4 is generally considered an important part in achieving the optimized water chemistry. The extended long cycles currently used in most of the U.S. PWRs implies that the lithium concentration at BOC will be outside the general operating experience with such a coolant chemistry regime. With the purpose to extend the experience of high lithium coolant operation, such water chemistry has been used in a few PWRs, i.e. CPSES Unit 2 and Diablo Canyon Units 1 and 2, all with ZIRLO{sup TM} cladding. Operation with a lithium concentration up to 4.2 ppm does not show any impact of the elevated lithium, while operation with up to 6 ppm possibly produce some limited corrosion acceleration in the region of sub-nucleate boiling but has no detrimental impact under the conditions limited by current operating experience. (authors)

  4. Demonstration of optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio in a PWR unit fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Feltus, M.A.; Pozsgai, C. )

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear engineering students at The Pennsylvania State University develop scaled-down [[approx]350 MW(thermal)] pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using actual plants as references. The design criteria include maintaining the clad temperature below 2200[degree]F, fuel temperature below melting point, sufficient departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) margin, a beginning-of-life boron concentration that yields a negative moderator temperature coefficient, an adequate cycle power production (330 effective full-power days), and a batch loading scheme that is economical. The design project allows for many degrees of freedom (e.g., assembly number, pitch and height and batch enrichments) so that each student's result is unique. The iterative nature of the design process is stressed in the course. The LEOPARD code is used for the unit cell depletion, critical boron, and equilibrium xenon calculations. Radial two-group diffusion equations are solved with the TWIDDLE-DEE code. The steady-state ZEBRA thermal-hydraulics program is used for calculating DNBR. The unit fuel cell pin radius and pitch (fuel-to-moerator ratio) for the scaled-down design, however, was set equal to the already optimized ratio for the reference PWR. This paper describes an honors project that shows how the optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio is found for a unit fuel cell shown in terms of neutron economics. This exercise illustrates the impact of fuel-to-moderator variations on fuel utilization factor and the effect of assuming space and energy separability.

  5. Brief account of the effect of overcooling accidents on the integrity of PWR pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence in recent years of several (PWR) accident initiating events that could lead to severe thermal shock to the reactor pressure vessel, and the growing awareness that copper and nickel in the vessel material significantly enhance radiation damage in the vessel, have resulted in a reevaluation of pressure-vessel integrity during postulated overcooling accidents. Analyses indicate that the accidents of concern are those involving both thermal shock and pressure loadings, and that an accident similar to that at Rancho Seco in 1978 could, under some circumstances and at a time late in the normal life of the vessel, result in propagation of preexistent flaws in the vessel wall to the extent that they might completely penetrate the wall. More severe accidents have been postulated that would result in even shorter permissible lifetimes. However, the state-of-the-art fracture-mechanics analysis may contain excessive conservatism, and this possibility is being investigated. Furthermore, there are several remedial measures, such as fuel shuffling, to reduce the damage rate, and vessel annealing, to restore favorable material properties, that may be practical and used if necessary. 5 figures.

  6. Modeling and design of a reload PWR core for a 48-month fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, M.V.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this research was to use state-of-the-art nuclear and fuel performance packages to evaluate the feasibility and costs of a 48 calendar month core in existing pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, considering the full range of practical design and economic considerations. The driving force behind this research is the desire to make nuclear power more economically competitive with fossil fuel options by expanding the scope for achievement of higher capacity factors. Using CASMO/SIMULATE, a core design with fuel enriched to 7{sup w}/{sub o} U{sup 235} for a single batch loaded, 48-month fuel cycle has been developed. This core achieves an ultra-long cycle length without exceeding current fuel burnup limits. The design uses two different types of burnable poisons. Gadolinium in the form of gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) mixed with the UO{sub 2} of selected pins is sued to hold down initial reactivity and to control flux peaking throughout the life of the core. A zirconium di-boride (ZrB{sub 2}) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) coating on the Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-UO{sub 2} fuel pellets is added to reduce the critical soluble boron concentration in the reactor coolant to within acceptable limits. Fuel performance issues of concern to this design are also outlined and areas which will require further research are highlighted.

  7. Code System to Calculate Cross Sections for PWR Fuel Assembly Calculations.

    1994-11-15

    Version 00 The MARIA System calculates cross sections for PWR fuel assembly calculations. It generates the cross sections library for the diffusion calculations with burnup and feedback effects (CARMEN System, NEA 0649 and RSIC CCC-487) and the k(infinite) and M**2 parameters for the nodal calculations (SIMULA, NEA 0768). MARIA includes three modules. PRELIM generates the input data for the fuel assembly calculation module, for all fuel assembly types in the core and at any conditionmore » of power rate and temperature. WIMS-TRACA is a modified version of the fuel assembly calculation program WIMS-D/4 (NEA 0329 and RSIC CCC-576), which generates the collapsed cross sections versus burn up needed by the CARMEN code (reference cell, boron, xenon, samarium, and light water). POSWIM calculates the transport corrections to the diffusion constant of the absorber materials generated by WIMS-TRACA, to be used directly in the diffusion code when rods or burnable absorber rods are present.« less

  8. Remote Gamma Scanning System for Characterization of BWR and PWR Fuel Rod Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, Shannon L.; Alzheimer, James M.

    2011-08-08

    Sometimes challenges with the design and deployment of automated equipment in remote environments deals more with the constraints imposed by the remote environment than it does with the details of the automation. This paper discusses the development of a scanning system used to provide gamma radiation profiles of irradiated fuel rod segments. The system needed the capability to provide axial scans of cut segments of BWR and PWR fuel rods. The scanning location is A-Cell at the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Hanford site in Washington State. The criteria for the scanning equipment included axial scanning increments of a tenth of an inch or less, ability to scan fuel rods with diameters ranging from 3/8 inch to 5/8 inch in diameter, and fuel rod segments up to seven feet in length. Constraints imposed by the environment included having the gamma detector and operator controls on the outside of the hot cell and the scanning hardware on the inside of the hot cell. This entailed getting a narrow, collimated beam of radiation from the fuel rod to the detector on the outside of the hot cell while minimizing the radiation exposure caused by openings for the wires and cables traversing the hot cell walls. Setup and operation of all of the in-cell hardware needed to accommodate limited access ports and use of hot cell manipulators. The radiation levels inside the cell also imposed constraints on the materials used.

  9. Conceptual Core Analysis of Long Life PWR Utilizing Thorium-Uranium Fuel Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouf; Su'ud, Zaki

    2016-08-01

    Conceptual core analysis of long life PWR utilizing thorium-uranium based fuel has conducted. The purpose of this study is to evaluate neutronic behavior of reactor core using combined thorium and enriched uranium fuel. Based on this fuel composition, reactor core have higher conversion ratio rather than conventional fuel which could give longer operation length. This simulation performed using SRAC Code System based on library SRACLIB-JDL32. The calculation carried out for (Th-U)O2 and (Th-U)C fuel with uranium composition 30 - 40% and gadolinium (Gd2O3) as burnable poison 0,0125%. The fuel composition adjusted to obtain burn up length 10 - 15 years under thermal power 600 - 1000 MWt. The key properties such as uranium enrichment, fuel volume fraction, percentage of uranium are evaluated. Core calculation on this study adopted R-Z geometry divided by 3 region, each region have different uranium enrichment. The result show multiplication factor every burn up step for 15 years operation length, power distribution behavior, power peaking factor, and conversion ratio. The optimum core design achieved when thermal power 600 MWt, percentage of uranium 35%, U-235 enrichment 11 - 13%, with 14 years operation length, axial and radial power peaking factor about 1.5 and 1.2 respectively.

  10. Whole-core comet solutions to a 3-dimensional PWR benchmark problem with gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with gadolinium was used to determine the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport method COMET. The benchmark problem contains 193 square fuel assemblies. The COMET solution (eigenvalue, assembly averaged and fuel pin averaged fission density distributions) was compared with those obtained from the corresponding Monte Carlo reference solution using the same 2-group material cross section library. The comparison showed that both the core eigenvalue and fission density distribution averaged over each assembly and fuel pin predicated by COMET agree very well with the corresponding MCNP reference solution if the incident flux response expansion used in COMET is truncated at 2nd order in the two spatial and the two angular variables. The benchmark calculations indicate that COMET has Monte Carlo accuracy. In, particular, the eigenvalue difference between the codes ranged from 17 pcm to 35 pcm, being within 2 standard deviations of the calculational uncertainty. The mean flux weighted relative differences in the assembly and fuel pin fission densities were 0.47% and 0.65%, respectively. It was also found that COMET's full (whole) core computational speed is 30,000 times faster than MCNP in which only 1/8 of the core is modeled. It is estimated that COMET would have been about over 6 orders of magnitude faster than MCNP if the full core were also modeled in MCNP. (authors)

  11. UO 2/Zry-4 chemical interaction layers for intact and leak PWR fuel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the UO 2 pellet-Zry-4 cladding interfaces of intact and leak PWR fuel rods were examined with the help of an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope to investigate typical chemical interaction layers formed at the pellet-cladding interface during the normal reactor operations. The two intact and two leak fuel rods with the burnup of between 35,000 and 53,000 MWD/MTU were selected to evaluate the effects of gap-gas compositions and fuel burnup on the chemical interaction layer formation. Based on the optical and scanning electron micrographs, it is found that the intact fuel rod generates apparently one interaction layer of (U,Zr)O 2-x at the interface, whereas the leak fuel rod generates apparently two interaction layers of ZrO 2-x and (U,Zr)O 2-x. These interaction layers for the intact and leak fuel rods were predicted by several diffusion paths drawn on a U-Zr-O ternary phase diagram. The variations of chemical element compositions around the interface of one intact rod were generated by an electron probe micro-analyzer to confirm the interaction layers at the pellet-cladding interface. The interaction layer growth rates of the ZrO 2-x and (U,Zr)O 2-x phases were estimated, using the layer thicknesses and the reaction times.

  12. Aging mechanisms in the Westinghouse PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Control Rod Drive system

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aging assessment of the Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Control Rod System (CRD) has been completed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research, (NPAR) Program. This study examined the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the system to determine its potential for degradation as the plant ages. Selected results from this study are presented in this paper. The operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. From our evaluation of the data, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and the operating environment, we conclude that the Westinghouse CRD system is subject to degradation which, if unchecked, could affect its safety function as a plant ages. Ways to detect and mitigate the effects of aging are included in this paper. The current maintenance for the control rod drive system at fifteen Westinghouse PWRs was obtained through a survey conducted in cooperation with EPRI and NUMARC. The results of the survey indicate that some plants have modified the system, replaced components, or expanded preventive maintenance. Several of these activities have effectively addressed the aging issue. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Fuel performance under normal PWR conditions: A review of relevant experimental results and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, M.; Lemaignan, C.

    1992-06-01

    Experiments conducted at Grenoble (CEA/DRN) over the past 20 years in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour are reviewed. Of particular concern is the need to achieve a comprehensive understanding of and subsequently overcome the limitations associated with high burnup and load-following conditions (pellet-cladding interaction (PCI), fission gas release (FGR), water-side corrosion). A general view is given of the organization of research work as well as some experimental details (irradiation, postirradiation examination — PIE). Based on various experimental programmes (Cyrano, Medicis, Anemone, Furet, Tango, Contact, Cansar, Hatac, Flog, Decor), the main contributions of the thermomechanical behaviour of a PWR fuel rod are described: thermal conductivity, in-pile densification, swelling, fission gas release in steady state and moderate transient conditions, gap thermal conductance, formation of primary and secondary ridges under PCI conditions. Specific programmes (Gdgrif, Thermox, Grimox) are devoted to the behaviour of particular fuels (gadolinia-bearing fuel, MOX fuel). Moreover, microstructure-based studies have been undertaken on fission gas release (fine analysis of the bubble population inside irradiated fuel samples), and on cladding behaviour (PCI related studies on stress-corrosion cracking (SCO, irradiation effects on zircaloy microstructure).

  14. Analysis of a rod withdrawal in a PWR core with the neutronic- thermalhydraulic coupled code RELAP/PARCS and RELAP/VALKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Miro, R.; Maggini, F.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.; Gomez, A.; Ortego, A.; Murillo, J. C.

    2006-07-01

    The Reactor Ejection Accident (REA) belongs to the Reactor Initiated Accidents (RIA) category of accidents and it is part of the licensing basis accident analyses required for pressure water reactors (PWR). The REA at hot zero power (HZP) is characterized by a single rod ejection from a core position with a very low power level. The evolution consists basically of a continuous reactivity insertion. The main feature limiting the consequences of the accident in a PWR is the Doppler Effect. To check the performance of the coupled code RELAP5/PARCS2.5 and RELAP5/VALKIN a REA in Trillo NPP is simulated. These analyses will allow knowing more accurately the PWR real plant phenomenology in the RIA most limiting conditions. (authors)

  15. PWR core and spent fuel pool analysis using scale and nestle

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J. E.; Maldonado, G. I.; St Clair, R.; Orr, D.

    2012-07-01

    The SCALE nuclear analysis code system [SCALE, 2011], developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely recognized as high quality software for analyzing nuclear systems. The SCALE code system is composed of several validated computer codes and methods with standard control sequences, such as the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics sequence, which supplies dependable and accurate analyses for industry, regulators, and academia. Although TRITON generates energy-collapsed and space-homogenized few group cross sections, SCALE does not include a full-core nodal neutron diffusion simulation module within. However, in the past few years, the open-source NESTLE core simulator [NESTLE, 2003], originally developed at North Carolina State Univ. (NCSU), has been updated and upgraded via collaboration between ORNL and the Univ. of Tennessee (UT), so it now has a growingly seamless coupling to the TRITON/NEWT lattice physics [Galloway, 2010]. This study presents the methodology used to couple lattice physics data between TRITON and NESTLE in order to perform a three-dimensional full-core analysis employing a 'real-life' Duke Energy PWR as the test bed. The focus for this step was to compare the key parameters of core reactivity and radial power distribution versus plant data. Following the core analysis, following a three cycle burn, a spent fuel pool analysis was done using information generated from NESTLE for the discharged bundles and was compared to Duke Energy spent fuel pool models. The KENO control module from SCALE was employed for this latter stage of the project. (authors)

  16. Parametric Study of Control Rod Exposure for PWR Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C.E.

    2001-07-20

    The Interim Staff Guidance on burnup credit (ISG-8) for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Spent Fuel Project Office, recommends the use of analyses that provide an ''adequate representation of the physics'' and notes particular concern with the ''need to consider the more reactive actinide compositions of fuels burned with fixed absorbers or with control rods fully or partly inserted.'' In the absence of readily available information on the extent of control rod (CR) usage in U.S. PWRs and the subsequent reactivity effect of CR exposure on discharged SNF, NRC staff have indicated a need for greater understanding in these areas. In response, this paper presents results of a parametric study of the effect of CR exposure on the reactivity of discharged SNF for various CR designs (including Axial Power Shaping Rods), fuel enrichments, and exposure conditions (i.e., burnup and axial insertion). The study is performed in two parts. In the first part, two-dimensional calculations are performed, effectively assuming full axial CR insertion. These calculations are intended to bound the effect of CR exposure and facilitate comparisons of the various CR designs. In the second part, three-dimensional calculations are performed to determine the effect of various axial insertion conditions and gain a better understanding of reality. The results from the study demonstrate that the reactivity effect increases with increasing CR exposure (e.g., burnup) and decreasing initial fuel enrichment (for a fixed burnup). Additionally, the results show that even for significant burnup exposures, minor axial CR insertions (e.g., < 20 cm) result in an insignificant effect on the k{sub eff} of a spent fuel cask.

  17. International experience with a multidisciplinary table top exercise for response to a PWR accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1996-06-01

    Table Top Exercises are used for the training of emergency response personnel from a wide range of disciplines whose duties range from strategic to tactical, from managerial to operational. The exercise reported in this paper simulates the first two or three hours of an imaginary accident on a generic PWR site (named Seaside or Lakeside depending on its location). It is designed to exercise the early response of staff of the utility, government, local authority and the media and some players represent the public. The relatively few scenarios used for this exercise are based on actual events scaled to give off-site consequences which demand early assessment and therefore stress the communication procedures. The exercise is applicable in different cultures and has been used in over 20 short courses held in the USA, UK, Sweden, Prague, and Hong Kong. There are two styles of support for players: a linear program which ensures that all players follow the desired path through the event and an open program which is triggered by umpires (who play the reactor crew from a script) and by requests from other players. In both cases the exercise ends with a Press Conference. Players have an initial briefing and are assigned to roles; those who must speak at interviews and at the Press Conference arc given separate briefing by an expert in Public Affairs. The exercise runs with up to six groups and the communication rate reaches about 30 to 40 messages per hour for each group. The exercise can be applied to test management and communication systems and to study human response to emergencies because the merits of individual players are highlighted in the relatively stressful conditions of the initial stage of an accident. For some players the exercise is the first time that they have been required to carry out their task in front of other people.

  18. VERA-CS Modeling and Simulation of PWR Main Steam Line Break Core Response to DNB

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K; Sung, Yixing; Kucukboyaci, Vefa; Xu, Yiban; Cao, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications core simulator (VERA-CS) being developed by the Consortium for the Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) includes coupled neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and fuel temperature components with an isotopic depletion capability. The neutronics capability employed is based on MPACT, a three-dimensional (3-D) whole core transport code. The thermal-hydraulics and fuel temperature models are provided by the COBRA-TF (CTF) subchannel code. As part of the CASL development program, the VERA-CS (MPACT/CTF) code system was applied to model and simulate reactor core response with respect to departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) at the limiting time step of a postulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) main steamline break (MSLB) event initiated at the hot zero power (HZP), either with offsite power available and the reactor coolant pumps in operation (high-flow case) or without offsite power where the reactor core is cooled through natural circulation (low-flow case). The VERA-CS simulation was based on core boundary conditions from the RETRAN-02 system transient calculations and STAR-CCM+ computational fluid dynamics (CFD) core inlet distribution calculations. The evaluation indicated that the VERA-CS code system is capable of modeling and simulating quasi-steady state reactor core response under the steamline break (SLB) accident condition, the results are insensitive to uncertainties in the inlet flow distributions from the CFD simulations, and the high-flow case is more DNB limiting than the low-flow case.

  19. Applicability of 3D Monte Carlo simulations for local values calculations in a PWR core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Franck; Cochet, Bertrand; Jinaphanh, Alexis; Jacquet, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    As technical support of the French Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN has been developing the MORET Monte Carlo code for many years in the framework of criticality safety assessment and is now working to extend its application to reactor physics. For that purpose, beside the validation for criticality safety (more than 2000 benchmarks from the ICSBEP Handbook have been modeled and analyzed), a complementary validation phase for reactor physics has been started, with benchmarks from IRPHEP Handbook and others. In particular, to evaluate the applicability of MORET and other Monte Carlo codes for local flux or power density calculations in large power reactors, it has been decided to contribute to the "Monte Carlo Performance Benchmark" (hosted by OECD/NEA). The aim of this benchmark is to monitor, in forthcoming decades, the performance progress of detailed Monte Carlo full core calculations. More precisely, it measures their advancement towards achieving high statistical accuracy in reasonable computation time for local power at fuel pellet level. A full PWR reactor core is modeled to compute local power densities for more than 6 million fuel regions. This paper presents results obtained at IRSN for this benchmark with MORET and comparisons with MCNP. The number of fuel elements is so large that source convergence as well as statistical convergence issues could cause large errors in local tallies, especially in peripheral zones. Various sampling or tracking methods have been implemented in MORET, and their operational effects on such a complex case have been studied. Beyond convergence issues, to compute local values in so many fuel regions could cause prohibitive slowing down of neutron tracking. To avoid this, energy grid unification and tallies preparation before tracking have been implemented, tested and proved to be successful. In this particular case, IRSN obtained promising results with MORET compared to MCNP, in terms of local power densities, standard

  20. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  1. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  2. Nuclear Data Library Effects on Fast to Thermal Flux Shapes Around PWR Control Rod Tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H.; Zhu, T.; Pautz, A.

    2014-04-01

    The development of a high-fidelity computational scheme to estimate the accumulated fluence at the tips of PWR control rods (CR) has been initiated at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Both the fluence from high-energy (E>1 MeV) neutrons as well as for the thermal range (E<0.625 eV) are required as these affect the CR integrity through stresses/strains induced by coupled clad embrittlement / absorber swelling phenomena. The concept of the PSI scheme under development is to provide from validated core analysis models, the volumetric neutron source to a full core MCNPX model that is then used to compute the neutron fluxes. A particular aspect that needs scrutiny is the ability of the MCNPX-based calculation methodology to accurately predict the flux shapes along the control rod surfaces, especially for fully withdrawn CRs. In that case, the tip is located a short distance above the core/reflector interface and since this situation corresponds to a large part of reactor operation, the accumulated fluence will highly depend on the achieved calculation accuracy and precision in this non-fueled zone. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to quantify the influence of nuclear data on the calculated fluxes at the CR tips by (1) conducting a systematic comparison of modern neutron cross-section libraries, including JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0, and (2) by quantifying the uncertainties in the neutron flux calculations with the help of available neutron cross-section variances/covariances data. For completeness, the magnitude of these nuclear data-based uncertainties is also assessed in relation to the influence from other typical sources of modeling uncertainties/biases.

  3. Development of the ACP safeguards neutron counter for PWR spent fuel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Menlove, Howard O.; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2008-04-01

    An advanced neutron multiplicity counter has been developed for measuring spent fuel in the Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The counter uses passive neutron multiplicity counting to measure the 244Cm content in spent fuel. The input to the ACP process is spent fuel from pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and the high intensity of the gamma-ray exposure from spent fuel requires a careful design of the counter to measure the neutrons without gamma-ray interference. The nuclear safeguards for the ACP facility requires the measurement of the spent fuel input to the process and the Cm/Pu ratio for the plutonium mass accounting. This paper describes the first neutron counter that has been used to measure the neutron multiplicity distribution from spent fuel rods. Using multiple samples of PWR spent fuel rod-cuts, the singles (S), doubles (D), and triples (T) rates of the neutron distribution for the 244Cm nuclide were measured and calibration curves were produced. MCNPX code simulations were also performed to obtain the three counting rates and to compare them with the measurement results. The neutron source term was evaluated by using the ORIGEN-ARP code. The results showed systematic difference of 21-24% in the calibration graphs between the measured and simulation results. A possible source of the difference is that the burnup codes have a 244Cm uncertainty greater than ±15% and it would be systematic for all of the calibration samples. The S/D and D/T ratios are almost constant with an increment of the 244Cm mass, and this indicates that the bias is in the 244Cm neutron source calculation using the ORIGEN-ARP source code. The graphs of S/D and D/T ratios show excellent agreement between measurement and MCNPX simulation results.

  4. Investigation of the Effect of Fixed Absorbers on the Reactivity of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel for Burnup Credit

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C.; Sanders, Charlotta E.

    2002-08-15

    The effect of fixed absorbers on the reactivity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in support of burnup-credit criticality safety analyses is examined. A fuel assembly burned in conjunction with fixed absorbers may have a higher reactivity for a given burnup than an assembly that has not used fixed absorbers. As a result, guidance on burnup credit, issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Spent Fuel Project Office, recommends restricting the use of burnup credit to assemblies that have not used burnable absorbers. This recommendation eliminates a large portion of the currently discharged SNF from loading in burnup credit casks and thus severely limits the practical usefulness of burnup credit. Therefore, data are needed to support the extension of burnup credit to additional SNF. This research investigates the effect of various fixed absorbers, including integral burnable absorbers, burnable poison rods, control rods, and axial power shaping rods, on the reactivity of PWR SNF. Trends in reactivity with relevant parameters (e.g., initial fuel enrichment, burnup and absorber type, exposure, and design) are established, and anticipated reactivity effects are quantified. Where appropriate, recommendations are offered for addressing the reactivity effects of the fixed absorbers in burnup-credit safety analyses.

  5. Testing and analyses of the TN-24P PWR spent-fuel dry storage cask loaded with consolidated fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, M A; Michener, T E; Jensen, M F; Rodman, G R

    1989-02-01

    A performance test of a Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P storage cask configured for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel was performed. The work was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and the Electric Power Research Institute. The performance test consisted of loading the TN-24P cask with 24 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel from Virginia Power's Surry and Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point reactors. Cask surface and fuel canister guide tube temperatures were measured, as were cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed with vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments in both vertical and horizontal cask orientations. Transnuclear, Inc., arranged to have a partially insulated run added to the end of the test to simulate impact limiters. Limited spent fuel integrity data were also obtained. From both heat transfer and shielding perspectives, the TN-24P cask with minor refinements can be effectively implemented at reactor sites and central storage facilities for safe storage of unconsolidated and consolidated spent fuel. 35 refs., 93 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Topical report on actinide-only burnup credit for PWR spent nuclear fuel packages. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-04-01

    A methodology for performing and applying nuclear criticality safety calculations, for PWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) packages with actinide-only burnup credit, is described. The changes in the U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241 concentration with burnup are used in burnup credit criticality analyses. No credit for fission product neutron absorbers is taken. The methodology consists of five major steps. (1) Validate a computer code system to calculate isotopic concentrations of SNF created during burnup in the reactor core and subsequent decay. A set of chemical assay benchmarks is presented for this purpose as well as a method for assessing the calculational bias and uncertainty, and conservative correction factors for each isotope. (2) Validate a computer code system to predict the subcritical multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, of a spent nuclear fuel package. Fifty-seven UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}/Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and UO{sub 2}/PuO{sub 2} critical experiments have been selected to cover anticipated conditions of SNF. The method uses an upper safety limit on k{sub eff} (which can be a function of the trending parameters) such that the biased k{sub eff}, when increased for the uncertainty is less than 0.95. (3) Establish bounding conditions for the isotopic concentration and criticality calculations. Three bounding axial profiles have been established to assure the ''end effect'' is accounted for conservatively. (4) Use the validated codes and bounding conditions to generate package loading criteria (burnup credit loading curves). Burnup credit loading curves show the minimum burnup required for a given initial enrichment. The utility burnup record is compared to this requirement after the utility accounts for the uncertainty in its record. Separate curves may be generated for each assembly design, various minimum cooling times and burnable absorber histories. (5) Verify that SNF assemblies meet the package loading criteria

  7. Analysis of a Defected Dissimilar Metal Weld in a PWR Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Efsing, P.; Lagerstrom, J.

    2002-07-01

    During the refueling outage 2000, inspections of the RC-loops of one of the Ringhals PWR-units, Ringhals 4, indicated surface breaking defects in the axial direction of the piping in a dissimilar weld between the Low alloy steel nozzle and the stainless safe end in the hot leg. In addition some indications were found that there were embedded defects in the weld material. These defects were judged as being insignificant to the structural integrity. The welds were inspected in 1993 with the result that no significant indications were found. The weld it self is a double U weld, where the thickness of the material is ideally 79,5 mm. Its is constructed by Inconel 182 weld material. At the nozzle a buttering was applied, also by Inconel 182. The In-service inspection, ISI, of the object indicated four axial defects, 9-16 mm deep. During fabrication, the areas where the defects are found were repaired at least three times, onto a maximum depth of 32 mm. To evaluate the defects, 6 boat samples from the four axial defects were cut from the perimeter and shipped to the hot-cell laboratory for further examination. This examination revealed that the two deep defects had been under sized by the ISI outside the requirement set by the inspection tolerances, while the two shallow defects were over sized, but within the tolerances of the detection system. When studying the safety case it became evident that there were several missing elements in the way this problems is handled with respect to the Swedish safety evaluation code. Among these the most notable at the beginning was the absence of reliable fracture mechanical data such as crack growth laws and fracture toughness at elevated temperature. Both these questions were handled by the project. The fracture mechanical evaluation has focused on a fit for service principal. Thus defects both in the unaffected zones and the disturbed zones, boat sample cutouts, of the weld have been analyzed. With reference to the Swedish safety

  8. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen; Zhou, Bangxin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T-L and L-T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T-L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L-T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L-T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant.

  9. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    The objective of this study was to develop an unique methodology and a practical tool for designing burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given PWR core. Two techniques were studied in developing this tool. First, the deterministic technique called Modified Power Shape Forced Diffusion (MPSFD) method followed by a fine tuning algorithm, based on some heuristic rules, was developed to achieve this goal. Second, an efficient and a practical genetic algorithm (GA) tool was developed and applied successfully to Burnable Poisons (BPs) placement optimization problem for a reference Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) core. This thesis presents the step by step progress in developing such a tool. The developed deterministic method appeared to perform as expected. The GA technique produced excellent BP designs. It was discovered that the Beginning of Cycle (BOC) Kinf of a BP fuel assembly (FA) design is a good filter to eliminate invalid BP designs created during the optimization process. By eliminating all BP designs having BOC Kinf above a set limit, the computational time was greatly reduced since the evaluation process with reactor physics calculations for an invalid solution is canceled. Moreover, the GA was applied to develop the BP loading pattern to minimize the total Gadolinium (Gd) amount in the core together with the residual binding at End-of-Cycle (EOC) and to keep the maximum peak pin power during core depletion and Soluble boron concentration at BOC both less than their limit values. The number of UO2/Gd2O3 pins and Gd 2O3 concentrations for each fresh fuel location in the core are the decision variables and the total amount of the Gd in the core and maximum peak pin power during core depletion are in the fitness functions. The use of different fitness function definition and forcing the solution movement towards to desired region in the solution space accelerated the GA runs. Special emphasize is given to minimizing the residual binding to increase core lifetime as

  10. PWR core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for thorium-uranium breeding recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, G.; Liu, C.; Si, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper was focused on core design, neutronics evaluation and fuel cycle analysis for Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle in current PWRs, without any major change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. The fuel cycle analysis indicates that Thorium-Uranium Breeding Recycle is technically feasible in current PWRs. A 4-loop, 193-assembly PWR core utilizing 17 x 17 fuel assemblies (FAs) was taken as the model core. Two mixed cores were investigated respectively loaded with mixed reactor grade Plutonium-Thorium (PuThOX) FAs and mixed reactor grade {sup 233}U-Thorium (U{sub 3}ThOX) FAs on the basis of reference full Uranium oxide (UOX) equilibrium-cycle core. The UOX/PuThOX mixed core consists of 121 UOX FAs and 72 PuThOX FAs. The reactor grade {sup 233}U extracted from burnt PuThOX fuel was used to fabrication of U{sub 3}ThOX for starting Thorium-. Uranium breeding recycle. In UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core, the well designed U{sub 3}ThOX FAs with 1.94 w/o fissile uranium (mainly {sup 233}U) were located on the periphery of core as a blanket region. U{sub 3}ThOX FAs remained in-core for 6 cycles with the discharged burnup achieving 28 GWD/tHM. Compared with initially loading, the fissile material inventory in U{sub 3}ThOX fuel has increased by 7% via 1-year cooling after discharge. 157 UOX fuel assemblies were located in the inner of UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core refueling with 64 FAs at each cycle. The designed UOX/PuThOX and UOX/U{sub 3}ThOX mixed core satisfied related nuclear design criteria. The full core performance analyses have shown that mixed core with PuThOX loading has similar impacts as MOX on several neutronic characteristic parameters, such as reduced differential boron worth, higher critical boron concentration, more negative moderator temperature coefficient, reduced control rod worth, reduced shutdown margin, etc.; while mixed core with U{sub 3}ThOX loading on the periphery of core has no

  11. Development code for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of input on the MCNPX for neutronic calculation in PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Hartini, Entin Andiwijayakusuma, Dinan

    2014-09-30

    This research was carried out on the development of code for uncertainty analysis is based on a statistical approach for assessing the uncertainty input parameters. In the butn-up calculation of fuel, uncertainty analysis performed for input parameters fuel density, coolant density and fuel temperature. This calculation is performed during irradiation using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport. The Uncertainty method based on the probabilities density function. Development code is made in python script to do coupling with MCNPX for criticality and burn-up calculations. Simulation is done by modeling the geometry of PWR terrace, with MCNPX on the power 54 MW with fuel type UO2 pellets. The calculation is done by using the data library continuous energy cross-sections ENDF / B-VI. MCNPX requires nuclear data in ACE format. Development of interfaces for obtaining nuclear data in the form of ACE format of ENDF through special process NJOY calculation to temperature changes in a certain range.

  12. Effects of PbO on the oxide films of incoloy 800HT in simulated primary circuit of PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yu; Yang, Junhan; Wang, Wanwan; Shi, Rongxue; Liang, Kexin; Zhang, Shenghan

    2016-05-01

    Effects of trace PbO on oxide films of Incoloy 800HT were investigated in simulated primary circuit water chemistry of PWR, also with proper Co addition. The trace PbO addition in high temperature water blocked the protective spinel oxides formation of the oxide films of Incoloy 800HT. XPS results indicated that the lead, added as PbO into the high temperature water, shows not only +2 valance but also +4 and 0 valances in the oxide film of 800HT co-operated with Fe, Cr and Ni to form oxides films. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicated that as PbO concentration increased, the current densities of the less protective oxide films of Incoloy 800HT decreased in a buffer solution tested at room temperature. The capacitance results indicated that the donor densities of oxidation film of Incoloy 800HT decreased as trace PbO addition into the high temperature water.

  13. Effect of temperature and dissolved hydrogen on oxide films formed on Ni and Alloy 182 in simulated PWR water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, R.; Bosch, R.-W.; Van Renterghem, W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; de Araújo Figueiredo, C.

    2016-08-01

    Alloy 182 is a nickel-based weld metal, which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water. It shows a peak in SCC susceptibility at a certain temperature and hydrogen concentration. This peak is related to the electrochemical condition where the Ni to NiO transition takes place. One hypothesis is that the oxide layer at this condition is not properly developed and so the material is not optimally protected against SCC. Therefore the oxide layer formed on Alloy 182 is investigated as a function of the dissolved hydrogen concentration and temperature around this Ni/NiO transition. Exposure tests were performed with Alloy 182 and Ni coupons in a PWR environment at temperatures between 300 °C and 345 °C and dissolved hydrogen concentration between 5 and 35 cc (STP)H2/kg. Post-test analysis of the formed oxide layers were carried out by SEM, EDS and XPS. The exposure tests with Ni coupons showed that the Ni/NiO transition curve is at a higher temperature than the curve based on thermodynamic calculations. The exposure tests with Alloy 182 showed that oxide layers were present at all temperatures, but that the morphology changed from spinel crystals to needle like oxides when the Ni/NiO transition curve was approached. Oxide layers were present below the Ni/NiO transition curve i.e. when the Ni coupon was still free of oxides. In addition an evolved slip dissolution model was proposed that could explain the observed experimental results and the peak in SCC susceptibility for Ni-based alloys around the Ni/NiO transition.

  14. Combined numerical and experimental investigations of local hydrodynamics and coolant flow mass transfer in Kvadrat-type fuel assemblies of PWR reactors with mixing grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, S. M.; Samoilov, O. B.; Khrobostov, A. E.; Varentsov, A. V.; Dobrov, A. A.; Doronkov, D. V.; Sorokin, V. D.

    2014-08-01

    Results of research works on studying local hydrodynamics and mass transfer for coolant flow in the characteristic zones of PWR reactor fuel assemblies in case of using belts of mixing spacer grids are presented. The investigations were carried out on an aerodynamic rig using the admixture diffusion method (the tracer-gas method). Certain specific features pertinent to coolant flow in the fuel rod bundles of Kvadrat-type fuel assemblies were revealed during the experiments. The obtained study results were included in the database for verifying computation fluid dynamics computer codes and detailed cell-wise calculations of reactor cores with Kvadrat-type fuel assemblies. The obtained results can also be used for more exact determination of local coolant flow hydrodynamic and mass transfer characteristics in assessing thermal reliability of PWR reactor cores.

  15. Technical basis for the initiation and cessation of environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels in elevated temperature PWR environments

    SciTech Connect

    James, L.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Section 11 Working Group on Flaw Evaluation of the ASME B and PV Code Committee is considering a Code Case to allow the determination of the conditions under which environmentally-assisted cracking of low-alloy steels could occur in PWR primary environments. This paper provides the technical support basis for such an EAC Initiation and Cessation Criterion by reviewing the theoretical and experimental information in support of the proposed Code Case.

  16. Chemical System Decontamination at PWR Power Stations Biblis A and B by Advanced System Decontamination by Oxidizing Chemistry (ASDOC-D) Process Technology - 13081

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Andreas; Runge, Hartmut; Stanke, Dieter; Bertholdt, Horst-Otto; Adams, Andreas; Impertro, Michael; Roesch, Josef

    2013-07-01

    For chemical decontamination of PWR primary systems the so called ASDOC-D process has been developed and qualified at the German PWR power station Biblis. In comparison to other chemical decontamination processes ASDOC-D offers a number of advantages: - ASDOC-D does not require separate process equipment but is completely operated and controlled by the nuclear site installations. Feeding of chemical concentrates into the primary system is done by means of the site's dosing systems. Process control is performed by standard site instrumentation and analytics. - ASDOC-D safely prevents any formation and precipitation of insoluble constituents - Since ASDOC-D is operated without external equipment there is no need for installation of such equipment in high radioactive radiation surrounding. The radioactive exposure rate during process implementation and process performance may therefore be neglected in comparison to other chemical decontamination processes. - ASDOC-D does not require auxiliary hose connections which usually bear high leakage risk. The above mentioned technical advantages of ASDOC-D together with its cost-effectiveness gave rise to Biblis Power station to agree on testing ASDOC-D at the volume control system of PWR Biblis unit A. By involving the licensing authorities as well as expert examiners into this test ASDOC-D received the official qualification for primary system decontamination in German PWR. As a main outcome of the achieved results NIS received contracts for full primary system decontamination of both units Biblis A and B (each 1.200 MW) by end of 2012. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of storing Shippingport Core II spent blanket fuel assemblies in the T Plant PWR Core II fuel pool without active cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.R.; Lanning, D.D.; Dana, C.M.; Hedengren, D.C.

    1994-10-01

    PWR Core II fuel pool chiller-off test was conducted because it appeared possible that acceptable pool-water temperatures could be maintained without operating the chillers, thus saving hundreds of thousands of dollars in maintenance and replacement costs. Test results showed that the water-cooling capability is no longer needed to maintain pool temperature below 38{degrees}C (100{degrees}F).

  18. Standard- and extended-burnup PWR (pressurized-water reactor) and BWR (boiling-water reactor) reactor models for the ORIGEN2 computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S.B.; Renier, J.P.

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an updated set of reactor models for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs) operating on uranium fuel cycles and the methods used to generate the information for these models. Since new fuel cycle schemes and reactor core designs are introduced from time to time by reactor manufacturers and fuel vendors, an effort has been made to update these reactor models periodically and to expand the data bases used by the ORIGEN2 computer code. In addition, more sophisticated computational techniques than previously available were used to calculate the resulting reactor model cross-section libraries. The PWR models were based on a Westinghouse design, while the BWR models were based on a General Electric BWR/6 design. The specific reactor types considered in this report are as follows (see Glossary for the definition of these and other terms): (1) PWR-US, (2) PWR-UE, (3) BWR-US, (4) BWR-USO, and (5) BWR-UE. Each reactor model includes a unique data library that may be used to simulate the buildup and deletion of isotopes in nuclear materials using the ORIGEN2 computer code. 33 refs., 44 tabs.

  19. Summary report on optimized designs for shipping casks containing 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop new conceptual designs for large Pb, Fe, and U-shielded spent fuel casks which have been optimized for the shipment of 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel assemblies. Design specifications for about 100 cases of potential interest are presented along with a brief 20-page synopsis of the associated analyses. Optimized shielding requirements are presented for each type of cask as a function of the age of the spent fuel and the number of assemblies in the cask. With respect to criticality, a new type of inherently subcritical fuel assembly separator is described which uses hollow, borated stainless-steel tubes in the wall-forming structure between the assemblies. Steady-state and transient heat transfer analyses for casks under nominal and accident conditions were performed using the SCOPE code for Shipping Cask Optimization and Parametric Evaluation. Based on criticality, shielding, and heat transfer considerations, it appears that optimized cask designs could be developed to carry 15 to 18 five-year-old PWR fuel assemblies or as many as 18 to 21 ten-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Scoping design analyses for optimized shipping casks containing 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, 7-, or 10-year-old PWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bucholz, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report details many of the interrelated considerations involved in optimizing large Pb, Fe, or U-metal spent fuel shipping casks containing 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 10-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. Scoping analyses based on criticality, shielding, and heat transfer considerations indicate that some casks may be able to hold as many as 18 to 21 ten-year-old PWR fuel assemblies. In the criticality section, a new type of inherently subcritical fuel assembly separator is described which uses hollow, borated stainless-steel tubes in the wall-forming structure between the assemblies. In another section, details of many n/..gamma.. shielding optimization studies are presented, including the optimal n/..gamma.. design points and the actual shielding requirements for each type of cask as a function of the age of the spent fuel and the number of assemblies in the cask. Multigroup source terms based on ORIGEN2 calculations at these and other decay times are also included. Lastly, the numerical methods and experimental correlations used in the steady-state and transient heat transfer analyses are fully documented, as are pertinent aspects of the SCOPE code for Shipping Cask Optimization and Parametric Evaluation. (While only casks for square, intact PWR fuel assemblies were considered in this study, the SCOPE code may also be used to design and analyze casks containing canistered spent fuel or other waste material. An abbreviated input data guide is included as an appendix).

  1. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  2. Comparison of PWR - Burnup calculations with SCALE 5.0/TRITON other burnup codes and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Oberle, P.; Broeders, C. H. M.; Dagan, R.

    2006-07-01

    The increasing tendency towards fuel lifetime extension in thermal nuclear reactors motivated validation work for available evaluation tools for nuclear fuel burnup calculations. In this study two deterministic codes with different transport solvers and one Monte Carlo method are investigated. The code system KAPROS/KARBUS uses the classical deterministic First Collision Probability method utilizing a cylinderized Wigner-Seitz cell. In the SCALES.0/TRITON/NEWT code the Extended Step Characteristic method is applied. In a first step the two deterministic codes are compared with experimental results from the KWO-Isotope Correlation Experiment up to 30 MWD/kg HM burnup, published in 1981. Two pin cell calculations are analyzed by comparison of calculated and experimental results for important heavy isotope vectors. The results are very satisfactory. Subsequently, further validation at higher burnup (< 80 MWD/kg HM) is provided by comparison of the two deterministic codes and the Monte Carlo based burnup code MONTEBURNS for PWR UO{sub 2} fuel assembly calculations. Possible reasons for differences in the results are analyzed and discussed. Especially the influence of cross section data and processing is presented. (authors)

  3. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  4. Presentation of the MERC work-flow for the computation of a 2D radial reflector in a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Clerc, T.; Hebert, A.; Leroyer, H.; Argaud, J. P.; Poncot, A.; Bouriquet, B.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a work-flow for computing an equivalent 2D radial reflector in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core, in adequacy with a reference power distribution, computed with the method of characteristics (MOC) of the lattice code APOLLO2. The Multi-modelling Equivalent Reflector Computation (MERC) work-flow is a coherent association of the lattice code APOLLO2 and the core code COCAGNE, structured around the ADAO (Assimilation de Donnees et Aide a l'Optimisation) module of the SALOME platform, based on the data assimilation theory. This study leads to the computation of equivalent few-groups reflectors, that can be spatially heterogeneous, which have been compared to those obtained with the OPTEX similar methodology developed with the core code DONJON, as a first validation step. Subsequently, the MERC work-flow is used to compute the most accurate reflector in consistency with all the R and D choices made at Electricite de France (EDF) for the core modelling, in terms of number of energy groups and simplified transport solvers. We observe important reductions of the power discrepancies distribution over the core when using equivalent reflectors obtained with the MERC work-flow. (authors)

  5. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  6. In-plant test and evaluation of the neutron collar for verification of PWR fuel assemblies at Resende, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Marzo, M.A.S.; de Almeida, S.G.; de Almeida, M.C.; Moitta, L.P.M.; Conti, L.F.; de Paiva, J.R.T.

    1985-11-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar has been evaluated for the measurement of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies at the Fabrica de Elementos Combustiveis plant in Resende, Brazil. This evaluation was part of the cooperative-bilateral-safeguards technical-exchange program between the United States and Brazil. The neutron collar measures the STVU content per unit length of full fuel assemblies using neutron interrogation and coincidence counting. The STYU content is measured in the passive mode without the AmLi neutron-interrogation source. The extended evaluation took place over a period of 6 months with both scanning and single-zone measurements. The results of the tests gave a coincidence-response standard deviation of 0.7% (sigma = 1.49% for mass) for the active case and 2.5% for the passive case in 1000-s measurement times. The length measurement in the scanning mode was accurate to 0.77%. The accuracies of different calibration methods were evaluated and compared.

  7. OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK GROWTH OF ALLOY 152 WELD METALS IN SIMULATED PWR PRIMARY WATER

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Overman, Nicole R.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-08-15

    Significant intergranular (IG) crack growth during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests has been documented during tests in simulated PWR primary water on two alloy 152 specimens cut from a weldment produced by ANL. The cracking morphology was observed to change from transgranular (TG) to mixed mode (up to ~60% IG) during gentle cycling and cycle + hold loading conditions. Measured crack growth rates under these conditions often suggested a moderate degree of environmental enhancement consistent with faster growth on grain boundaries. However, overall SCC propagation rates at constant stress intensity (K) or constant load were very low in all cases. Initial SCC rates up to 6x10-9 mm/s were occasionally measured, but constant K/load growth rates dropped below ~1x10-9 mm/s with time even when significant IG engagement existed. Direct comparisons were made among loading conditions, measured crack growth response and cracking morphology during each test to assess IGSCC susceptibility of the alloy 152 specimens. These results were analyzed with respect to our previous SCC crack growth rate measurements on alloy 152/52 welds.

  8. Development of modified MDA (M-MDA), PWR fuel cladding tube for high duty operation in future

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Seiichi; Kido, Toshiya; Arakawa, Yasushi

    2007-07-01

    A new cladding material of M-MDA has been developed in order to prepare for a strong growing demand for advanced fuel which can maintain its integrity even under high duties due to more efficient operation such as higher burnup, higher LHR, and longer operation cycle which will contribute the suppression of environmental burdens like CO{sub 2} emission. The main aim of M-MDA is to have excellent corrosion resistance while the other properties are inherited from MDA, which has been adopted to the step 2 fuel, instead of Zry-4, of Japanese PWR plant whose upper limit of assembly discharged burnup is 55 MWd/kgU. And we could confirm that the main aim of M-MDA was achieved by means of out-of-pile tests. In order to confirm improvement of corrosion resistance of M-MDA in the actual operation, irradiation test of M-MDA in the commercial reactor of Vandellos II is ongoing. The latest results of on-site examination after every end of cycle showed that oxide thickness of M-MDA-SR was much smaller than that of MDA at rod discharged burnup of approximately 60 MWd/kgU. The final irradiation cycle was completed on April 2007 and then we will obtain corrosion data of M-MDA over 70 MWd/kgU. M-MDA is a candidate alloy for advanced fuel under higher duty usage. (authors)

  9. Improvement of the thermal margins in the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR by introducing new fuel assemblies with thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, C. W.; Demaziere, C.; Nylen, H.; Sandberg, U.

    2012-07-01

    Thorium is a fertile material and most of the past research has focused on breeding thorium to fissile material. In this paper, the focus is on using thorium to improve the thermal margins by homogeneously distributing thorium in the fuel pellets. A proposed uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly is simulated for the Swedish Ringhals-3 PWR core in a realistic demonstration. All the key safety parameters, such as isothermal temperature coefficient of reactivity, Doppler temperature of reactivity, boron worth, shutdown margins and fraction of delayed neutrons are studied in this paper, and are within safety limits for the new core design using the uranium-thorium-based fuel assemblies. The calculations were performed by the two-dimensional transport code CASMO-4E and the two group steady-state three dimensional nodal code SIMULATE-3 from Studsvik Scandpower. The results showed that the uranium-thorium-based fuel assembly improves the thermal margins, both in the pin peak power and the local power (Fq). The improved thermal margins would allow more flexible core designs with less neutron leakage or could be used in power uprates to offer efficient safety margins. (authors)

  10. Non-Invasive Characterization of Burnup for PWR Spent Fuel Rods with Burnups > 80 GWd/t

    SciTech Connect

    Caruso, S.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Chawla, R.

    2006-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectroscopy has been employed for the measurement of {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs, {sup 154}Eu/{sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs/{sup 154}Eu gamma intensity ratios from spent fuel with the purpose of deriving pin-averaged single-ratio burnup indicators for high and ultra-high burnups. Two UO{sub 2} pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuel rod segments with record burnup levels >80 GWd/t have been experimentally characterised. Additionally, pin cell depletion calculations have been performed for each sample with the deterministic code CASMO-4, using both its JEF2.2- and its ENDF/B-IV-based libraries, for three different descriptions of the fuel rod irradiation histories, in order to test the sensitivity of the results to neutron cross sections and to the depletion model employed. Measured and calculated ratios have then been compared. It is shown that the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio, frequently used as burnup monitor, is considerably less accurate for values exceeding 50 GWd/t; discrepancies of up to {approx}25% are found between measured and calculated values. The ratios built with the {sup 154}Eu concentration show much larger discrepancies, essentially because this isotope is rather poorly predicted as revealed by the use of different basic cross section data. (authors)

  11. Analysis of experimental measurements of PWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies using Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFleur, Adrienne M.; Menlove, Howard O.

    2015-05-01

    Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is a new NDA technique that was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to improve existing nuclear safeguards measurements for LWR fuel assemblies. The SINRD detector consists of four fission chambers (FCs) wrapped with different absorber filters to isolate different parts of the neutron energy spectrum and one ion chamber (IC) to measure the gross gamma rate. As a result, two different techniques can be utilized using the same SINRD detector unit and hardware. These techniques are the Passive Neutron Multiplication Counter (PNMC) method and the SINRD method. The focus of the work described in this paper is the analysis of experimental measurements of fresh and spent PWR fuel assemblies that were performed at LANL and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), respectively, using the SINRD detector. The purpose of these experiments was to assess the following capabilities of the SINRD detector: 1) reproducibility of measurements to quantify systematic errors, 2) sensitivity to water gap between detector and fuel assembly, 3) sensitivity and penetrability to the removal of fuel rods from the assembly, and 4) use of PNMC/SINRD ratios to quantify neutron multiplication and/or fissile content. The results from these simulations and measurements provide valuable experimental data that directly supports safeguards research and development (R&D) efforts on the viability of passive neutron NDA techniques and detector designs for partial defect verification of spent fuel assemblies.

  12. RELAP-7 Level 2 Milestone Report: Demonstration of a Steady State Single Phase PWR Simulation with RELAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    David Andrs; Ray Berry; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau; John Peterson; Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou

    2012-05-01

    The document contains the simulation results of a steady state model PWR problem with the RELAP-7 code. The RELAP-7 code is the next generation nuclear reactor system safety analysis code being developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The code is based on INL's modern scientific software development framework - MOOSE (Multi-Physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment). This report summarizes the initial results of simulating a model steady-state single phase PWR problem using the current version of the RELAP-7 code. The major purpose of this demonstration simulation is to show that RELAP-7 code can be rapidly developed to simulate single-phase reactor problems. RELAP-7 is a new project started on October 1st, 2011. It will become the main reactor systems simulation toolkit for RISMC (Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization) and the next generation tool in the RELAP reactor safety/systems analysis application series (the replacement for RELAP5). The key to the success of RELAP-7 is the simultaneous advancement of physical models, numerical methods, and software design while maintaining a solid user perspective. Physical models include both PDEs (Partial Differential Equations) and ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) and experimental based closure models. RELAP-7 will eventually utilize well posed governing equations for multiphase flow, which can be strictly verified. Closure models used in RELAP5 and newly developed models will be reviewed and selected to reflect the progress made during the past three decades. RELAP-7 uses modern numerical methods, which allow implicit time integration, higher order schemes in both time and space, and strongly coupled multi-physics simulations. RELAP-7 is written with object oriented programming language C++. Its development follows modern software design paradigms. The code is easy to read, develop, maintain, and couple with other codes. Most importantly, the modern software design allows the RELAP-7 code to

  13. Crack initiation testing of thimble tube material under PWR conditions to determine a stress threshold for IASCC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, R. W.; Vankeerberghen, M.; Gérard, R.; Somville, F.

    2015-06-01

    IASCC (Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking) crack initiation tests have been carried out on thimble tube material retrieved from a Belgian PWR. The crack initiation tests were carried out by constant load testing of thimble tube specimens at different stress levels. The time-to-failure was determined as a function of the applied stress to find a stress threshold under which no stress corrosion cracking will take place. The thimble tube was made of 316L cold-worked stainless steel and the dose profile along the thimble tube ranges from 45 to 80 dpa. This allows adding crack initiation data for dose values that have not been significantly reported, i.e. in the range of 45-55 dpa and at 80 dpa. The results can be used to determine whether the stress under which no IASCC occurs saturates for a dose larger than 30 dpa or whether a small further threshold decrease with dose can be observed. Over a period of four years, more than 40 specimens have been tested with doses ranging from 45 to 80 dpa at stress levels between 40% and 70% of the irradiated yield stress. Fracture occurred at all stress levels (but not all specimens) although the time-to-failure increased with decreasing stress. The results show that intergranular cracking was the main fracture mode in all failed O-rings. Three of six 80 dpa O-rings subjected to 40% and 45% of the yield stress did not fail after six months of testing. Based on these results and a comparison with literature data, an apparent stress limit for IASCC could be estimated at 40% of the irradiated yield stress.

  14. Computational Benchmark for Estimation of Reactivity Margin from Fission Products and Minor Actinides in PWR Burnup Credit

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.

    2001-08-02

    This report proposes and documents a computational benchmark problem for the estimation of the additional reactivity margin available in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from fission products and minor actinides in a burnup-credit storage/transport environment, relative to SNF compositions containing only the major actinides. The benchmark problem/configuration is a generic burnup credit cask designed to hold 32 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies. The purpose of this computational benchmark is to provide a reference configuration for the estimation of the additional reactivity margin, which is encouraged in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidance for partial burnup credit (ISG8), and document reference estimations of the additional reactivity margin as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. Consequently, the geometry and material specifications are provided in sufficient detail to enable independent evaluations. Estimates of additional reactivity margin for this reference configuration may be compared to those of similar burnup-credit casks to provide an indication of the validity of design-specific estimates of fission-product margin. The reference solutions were generated with the SAS2H-depletion and CSAS25-criticality sequences of the SCALE 4.4a package. Although the SAS2H and CSAS25 sequences have been extensively validated elsewhere, the reference solutions are not directly or indirectly based on experimental results. Consequently, this computational benchmark cannot be used to satisfy the ANS 8.1 requirements for validation of calculational methods and is not intended to be used to establish biases for burnup credit analyses.

  15. Advanced Fabrication Technique and Thermal Performance Prediction of U-Mo/Zr-alloy Dispersion Fuel Pin for High Burnup PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardi

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, a novel class of zirconium alloys having the melting temperature of 990-1160 K has been developed. Based on novel zirconium matrix alloys, high uranium content fuel pin with U-9Mo has been developed according to capillary impregnation technique. The pin shows it is thermal conductivity ranging from 18 to 22 w/m/K that is comparably higher than UO2 pellet pin. The paper presents the met-met fabrication and thermal performance analysis of the fuel in typical PWR. The fabrication consists of mixing UO2 powder or granules and a novel Zr-alloy powder having low melting point, filling the mixture in a cladding tube that one of its end has been plugged, heating the pin to above melting temperature of Zr-alloy for an hour, natural cooling and heat treating at 300 K for 1/2 hr. The thermal analysis takes into account the pore and temperature distribution and high burn up effect to pellet conductivity. The thermal diffusivity ratio of novel to conventional fuel has been used as correction factor for the novel fuel conductivity. The results show a significant lowering pellet temperature along the radius until 1000 K at the hottest position. The analysis underestimates since the gap conductivity has been treated as decreased by 2% fission gas released that is not real since the use of lower temperature, and also decreasing thermal conductivity by porosity formation will much lower. The analysis shows that the novel fuel has very good thermal properties which able to pass the barrier of 65 MWD/kg-U, the limit to day commercial fuel. The burn-up extension means fewer fresh fuel is needed to produce electricity, preserve natural uranium resource, easier fuel handling operational per energy produced

  16. Rod consolidation of RG and E's (Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation) spent PWR (pressurized water reactor) fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-05-01

    The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling the fuel rods from five fuel assemblies from Unit 1 of RG and E's R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant. Slow and careful rod pulling efforts were used for the first and second fuel assemblies. Rod pulling then proceeded smoothly and rapidly after some minor modifications were made to the UST and D consolidation equipment. The compaction ratios attained ranged from 1.85 to 2.00 (rods with collapsed cladding were replaced by dummy rods in one fuel assembly to demonstrate the 2:1 compaction ratio capability). This demonstration involved 895 PWR fuel rods, among which there were some known defective rods (over 50 had collapsed cladding); no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. However, one of the rods with collapsed cladding unexplainably broke during handling operations (i.e., reconfiguration in the failed fuel canister), subsequent to the rod consolidation demonstration. The broken rod created no facility problems; the pieces were encapsulated for subsequent storage. Another broken rod was found during postdemonstration cutting operations on the nonfuel-bearing structural components from the five assemblies; evidence indicates it was broken prior to any rod consolidation operations. During the demonstration, burnish-type lines or scratches were visible on the rods that were pulled; however, experience indicates that such lines are generally produced when rods are pulled (or pushed) through the spacer grids. Rods with collapsed cladding would not enter the funnel (the transition device between the fuel assembly and the canister that aids in obtaining high compaction ratios). Reforming of the flattened areas of the cladding on those rods was attempted to make the rod cross sections more nearly circular; some of the reformed rods passed through the funnel and into the canister.

  17. PWR FLECHT SEASET 163-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task data report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 13, August-October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M J; Hochreiter, L E; McGuire, M F; Valkovic, M M

    1983-10-01

    This report presents data from the 163-Rod Bundle Blow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Systems Effects and Separate Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The task consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. These tests were designed to determine effects of flow blockage and flow bypass on reflooding behavior and to aid in the assessment of computational models in predicting the reflooding behavior of flow blockage in rod bundle arrays.

  18. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  19. Performance Spec. for Fuel Drying and Canister Inerting System for PWR Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies Stored within Shipping Port Spent Fuel Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-03-14

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and basic design requirements imposed on the fuel drying and canister inerting system for Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs) stored within Shippingport spent fuel (SSFCs) canisters (fuel drying and canister inerting system). This fuel drying and canister inerting system is a component of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Spent Nuclear Fuels Project at the Hanford Site. The fuel drying and canister inerting system provides for removing water and establishing an inert environment for Shippingport PWR Core 2 BFAs stored within SSFCs. A policy established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) states that new SNF facilities (this is interpreted to include structures, systems and components) shall achieve nuclear safety equivalence to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facilities. This will be accomplished in part by applying appropriate NRC requirements for comparable NRC-licensed facilities to the fuel drying and canister inerting system, in addition to applicable DOE regulations and orders.

  20. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  1. A Critical Review of Practice of Equating the Reactivity of Spent Fuel to Fresh Fuel in Burnup Credit Criticality Safety Analyses for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Parks, C.V.

    2000-09-01

    This research examines the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to that of fresh fuel for the purpose of performing burnup credit criticality safety analyses for PWR spent fuel pool (SFP) storage conditions. The investigation consists of comparing k{sub inf} estimates based on reactivity equivalent fresh fuel enrichment (REFFE) to k{sub inf} estimates using the actual spent fuel isotopics. Analyses of selected storage configurations common in PWR SFPs show that this practice yields nonconservative results (on the order of a few tenths of a percent) in configurations in which the spent fuel is adjacent to higher-reactivity assemblies (e.g., fresh or lower-burned assemblies) and yields conservative results in configurations in which spent fuel is adjacent to lower-reactivity assemblies (e.g., higher-burned fuel or empty cells). When the REFFE is determined based on unborated water moderation, analyses for storage conditions with soluble boron present reveal significant nonconservative results associated with the use of the REFFE. This observation is considered to be important, especially considering the recent allowance of credit for soluble boron up to 5% in reactivity. Finally, it is shown that the practice of equating the reactivity of spent fuel to fresh fuel is acceptable, provided the conditions for which the REFFE was determined remain unchanged. Determination of the REFFE for a reference configuration and subsequent use of the REFFE for different configurations violates the basis used for the determination of the REFFE and, thus, may lead to inaccurate, and possibly, nonconservative estimates of reactivity. A significant concentration ({approximately}2000 ppm) of soluble boron is typically (but not necessarily required to be) present in PWR SFPs, of which only a portion ({le} 500 ppm) may be credited in safety analyses. Thus, a large subcritical margin currently exists that more than accounts for errors or uncertainties associated with the use of

  2. Iodine volatility. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Shockley, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this program is to couple experimental aqueous iodine volatilities to a fission product release model. Iodine partition coefficients, for inorganic iodine, have been measured during hydrolysis and radiolysis. The hydrolysis experiments have illustrated the importance of reaction time on iodine volatility. However, radiolysis effects can override hydrolysis in determining iodine volatility. In addition, silver metal in radiolysis samples can react to form silver iodide accompanied by a decrease in iodine volatility. Experimental data are now being coupled to an iodine transport and release model that was developed in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  3. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  4. Materials Reliability Program: Environmental Fatigue Testing of Type 304L Stainless Steel U-Bends in Simulated PWR Primary Water (MRP-137)

    SciTech Connect

    R.Kilian

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory data generated in the past decade indicate a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. In recent comprehensive review of laboratory, component and structural test data performed through the EPRI Materials Reliability Program, flow rate was identified as a critical variable that was generally not considered in laboratory studies but applicable in plant operating environments. Available data for carbon/low-alloy steel piping components suggest that high flow is beneficial regarding the effects of a reactor water environment. Similar information is lacking for stainless steel piping materials. This report documents progress made to date in an extensive testing program underway to evaluate the effects of flow rate on the corrosion fatigue of 304L stainless steel under simulated PWR primary water environmental conditions.

  5. Estimating pressurized water reactor decommissioning costs: A user`s manual for the PWR Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software. Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Bierschbach, M.C.; Mencinsky, G.J.

    1993-10-01

    With the issuance of the Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1988), nuclear power plant licensees are required to submit to the US Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. This user`s manual and the accompanying Cost Estimating Computer Program (CECP) software provide a cost-calculating methodology to the NRC staff that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals. The CECP, designed to be used on a personnel computer, provides estimates for the cost of decommissioning PWR plant stations to the point of license termination. Such cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial costs; and manpower costs. In addition to costs, the CECP also calculates burial volumes, person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning.

  6. Effects of long-term thermal aging on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of cast austenitic stainless steels in simulated PWR primary water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shilei; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Hui; Xin, Changsheng; Wang, Xitao

    2016-02-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of cast austenitic stainless steels of unaged and thermally aged at 400 °C for as long as 20,000 h were studied by using a slow strain rate testing (SSRT) system. Spinodal decomposition in ferrite during thermal aging leads to hardening in ferrite and embrittlement of the SSRT specimen. Plastic deformation and thermal aging degree have a great influence on the oxidation rate of the studied material in simulated PWR primary water environments. In the SCC regions of the aged SSRT specimen, the surface cracks, formed by the brittle fracture of ferrite phases, are the possible locations for SCC. In the non-SCC regions, brittle fracture of ferrite phases also occurs because of the effect of thermal aging embrittlement.

  7. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 1: STEALTH 1D single-phase fluid studies. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Mortensen, G.A.; Caraher, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    This report, which is the first in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the first step in the stepwise approach for developing the methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The first step in the methodology considers enhancements and special modifications to the 1D STEALTH computer code in order that acoustic phenomena in piping and vessel networks may be simulated. The resulting code is termed 1D STEALTH-HYDRO. The 1D STEALTH-HYDRO enhancements consist of three control volume models to simulate area changes, orifices, and tees in piping networks. The theory of the control volume models is described.

  8. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 3. Fluid/structure interaction studies using 3-D STEALTH/WHAMSE. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Chang, F.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1982-11-01

    This report, the third in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the final step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid-structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The final step in the methodology implements enhancements and special modifications to the STEALTH 3D computer program and the WHAMSE 3D computer program. After describing the enhancements, the individual and the coupled computer programs are assessed by comparing calculational results with either analytical solutions or with experimental data. The coupled 3D STEALTH/WHAMSE computer program is then applied to the simulation of HDR Test V31.1 to further assess the program and to investigate the role that fluid-structure interaction plays in the hydrodynamic loading of reactor internals during subcooled blowdown.

  9. Reactivity and isotopic composition of spent PWR (pressurized-water-reactor) fuel as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time

    SciTech Connect

    Cerne, S.P.; Hermann, O.W.; Westfall, R.M.

    1987-10-01

    This study presents the reactivity loss of spent PWR fuel due to burnup in terms of the infinite lattice multiplications factor, k/sub infinity/. Calculations were performed using the SAS2 and CSAS1 control modules of the SCALE system. The k/sub infinity/ values calculated for all combinations of six enrichments, seven burnups, and five cooling times. The results are presented as a primary function of enrichment in both tabular and graphic form. An equation has been developed to estimate the tabulated values of k/sub infinity/'s by specifying enrichment, cooling time, and burnup. Atom densities for fresh fuel, and spent fuel at cooling times of 2, 10, and 20 years are included. 13 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Quantification of Uncertainties due to 235,238U, 239,240,241Pu and Fission Products Nuclear Data Uncertainties for a PWR Fuel Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cruz, D. F.; Rochman, D.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    Uncertainty analysis on reactivity and discharged inventory for a typical PWR fuel element as a result of uncertainties in 235,238U, 239,240,241Pu, and fission products nuclear data was performed. The Total Monte-Carlo (TMC) method was applied using the deterministic transport code DRAGON. The nuclear data used in this study is from the JEFF-3.1 evaluations, with the exception of the nuclear data files for U, Pu and fission products isotopes, which are taken from the nuclear data library TENDL-2012. Results show that the calculated total uncertainty in keff (as result of uncertainties in nuclear data of the considered isotopes) is virtually independent on fuel burnp and amounts to 700 pcm. The uncertainties in inventory of the discharged fuel is dependent on the element considered and lies in the range 1-15% for most fission products, and is below 5% for the most important actinides.

  11. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  12. PWR FLECHT SEASET 21-rod bundle flow blockage task data and analysis report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse Report No. 11. Appendices K-P

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.

  13. Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies Phase I Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

    2008-12-24

    A novel methodology to detect diversion of spent fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) has been developed in order to address a long unsolved safeguards verification problem for international safeguards community such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The concept involves inserting tiny neutron and gamma detectors into the guide tubes of a spent fuel assembly and measuring the signals. The guide tubes form a quadrant symmetric pattern in the various PWR fuel product lines and the neutron and gamma signals from these various locations are processed to obtain a unique signature for an undisturbed fuel assembly. Signatures based on the neutron and gamma signals individually or in a combination can be developed. Removal of fuel pins from the assembly will cause the signatures to be visibly perturbed thus enabling the detection of diversion. All of the required signal processing to obtain signatures can be performed on standard laptop computers. Monte Carlo simulation studies and a set of controlled experiments with actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies were performed and validated this novel methodology. Based on the simulation studies and benchmarking measurements, the methodology developed promises to be a powerful and practical way to detect partial defects that constitute 10% or more of the total active fuel pins. This far exceeds the detection threshold of 50% missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, a threshold defined by the IAEA Safeguards Criteria. The methodology does not rely on any operator provided data like burnup or cooling time and does not require movement of the fuel assembly from the storage rack in the spent fuel pool. A concept was developed to build a practical field device, Partial Defect Detector (PDET), which will be completely portable and will use standard radiation measuring devices already in use at the IAEA. The use of the device will not require any information provided

  14. Bias estimates used in lieu of validation of fission products and minor actinides in MCNP Keff calculations for PWR burnup credit casks

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Don E.; Marshall, William J.; Wagner, John C.; Bowen, Douglas G.

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation recently issued Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8, Revision 3. This ISG provides guidance for burnup credit (BUC) analyses supporting transport and storage of PWR pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in casks. Revision 3 includes guidance for addressing validation of criticality (keff) calculations crediting the presence of a limited set of fission products and minor actinides (FP&MA). Based on previous work documented in NUREG/CR-7109, recommendation 4 of ISG-8, Rev. 3, includes a recommendation to use 1.5 or 3% of the FP&MA worth to conservatively cover the bias due to the specified FP&MAs. This bias is supplementary to the bias and bias uncertainty resulting from validation of keff calculations for the major actinides in SNF and does not address extension to actinides and fission products beyond those identified herein. The work described in this report involves comparison of FP&MA worths calculated using SCALE and MCNP with ENDF/B-V, -VI, and -VII based nuclear data and supports use of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias when either SCALE or MCNP codes are used for criticality calculations, provided the other conditions of the recommendation 4 are met. The method used in this report may also be applied to demonstrate the applicability of the 1.5% FP&MA worth bias to other codes using ENDF/B V, VI or VII based nuclear data. The method involves use of the applicant s computational method to generate FP&MA worths for a reference SNF cask model using specified spent fuel compositions. The applicant s FP&MA worths are then compared to reference values provided in this report. The applicants FP&MA worths should not exceed the reference results by more than 1.5% of the reference FP&MA worths.

  15. Crack growth rates and metallographic examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from field components and laboratory materials tested in PWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2008-05-05

    In light water reactors, components made of nickel-base alloys are susceptible to environmentally assisted cracking. This report summarizes the crack growth rate results and related metallography for field and laboratory-procured Alloy 600 and its weld alloys tested in pressurized water reactor (PWR) environments. The report also presents crack growth rate (CGR) results for a shielded-metal-arc weld of Alloy 182 in a simulated PWR environment as a function of temperature between 290 C and 350 C. These data were used to determine the activation energy for crack growth in Alloy 182 welds. The tests were performed by measuring the changes in the stress corrosion CGR as the temperatures were varied during the test. The difference in electrochemical potential between the specimen and the Ni/NiO line was maintained constant at each temperature by adjusting the hydrogen overpressure on the water supply tank. The CGR data as a function of temperature yielded activation energies of 252 kJ/mol for a double-J weld and 189 kJ/mol for a deep-groove weld. These values are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature. The data reported here and those in the literature suggest that the average activation energy for Alloy 182 welds is on the order of 220-230 kJ/mol, higher than the 130 kJ/mol commonly used for Alloy 600. The consequences of using a larger value of activation energy for SCC CGR data analysis are discussed.

  16. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  17. Tensile and Fatigue Testing and Material Hardening Model Development for 508 LAS Base Metal and 316 SS Similar Metal Weld under In-air and PWR Primary Loop Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish; Soppet, William; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Ken

    2015-09-01

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2015 report we presented a baseline mechanistic finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) for systemlevel heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis and fatigue life estimation under reactor thermal-mechanical cycles. In the present report, we provide tensile and fatigue test data for 508 low-alloy steel (LAS) base metal, 508 LAS heat-affected zone metal in 508 LAS–316 stainless steel (SS) dissimilar metal welds, and 316 SS-316 SS similar metal welds. The test was conducted under different conditions such as in air at room temperature, in air at 300 oC, and under PWR primary loop water conditions. Data are provided on materials properties related to time-independent tensile tests and time-dependent cyclic tests, such as elastic modulus, elastic and offset strain yield limit stress, and linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening model parameters. The overall objective of this report is to provide guidance to estimate tensile/fatigue hardening parameters from test data. Also, the material models and parameters reported here can directly be used in commercially available finite element codes for fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components under in-air and PWR water conditions.

  18. Constraints on silicates formation in the Si-Al-Fe system: Application to hard deposits in steam generators of PWR nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Gilles; Million-Picallion, Lisa; Lefevre, Grégory; Delaunay, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Introduction: The hydrothermal crystallization of silicates phases in the Si-Al-Fe system may lead to industrial constraints that can be encountered in the nuclear industry in at least two contexts: the geological repository for nuclear wastes and the formation of hard sludges in the steam generator of the PWR nuclear plants. In the first situation, the chemical reactions between the Fe-canister and the surrounding clays have been extensively studied in laboratory [1-7] and pilot experiments [8]. These studies demonstrated that the high reactivity of metallic iron leads to the formation of Fe-silicates, berthierine like, in a wide range of temperature. By contrast, the formation of deposits in the steam generators of PWR plants, called hard sludges, is a newer and less studied issue which can affect the reactor performance. Experiments: We present here a preliminary set of experiments reproducing the formation of hard sludges under conditions representative of the steam generator of PWR power plant: 275°C, diluted solutions maintained at low potential by hydrazine addition and at alkaline pH by low concentrations of amines and ammoniac. Magnetite, a corrosion by-product of the secondary circuit, is the source of iron while aqueous Si and Al, the major impurities in this system, are supplied either as trace elements in the circulating solution or by addition of amorphous silica and alumina when considering confined zones. The fluid chemistry is monitored by sampling aliquots of the solution. Eh and pH are continuously measured by hydrothermal Cormet© electrodes implanted in a titanium hydrothermal reactor. The transformation, or not, of the solid fraction was examined post-mortem. These experiments evidenced the role of Al colloids as precursor of cements composed of kaolinite and boehmite, and the passivation of amorphous silica (becoming unreactive) likely by sorption of aqueous iron. But no Fe-bearing was formed by contrast to many published studies on the Fe

  19. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

    2006-10-20

    Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm

  20. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  1. Simulation of PWR plant by a new version of TRAC-PF1 code including a three-dimensional neutronic model and a transport boron model

    SciTech Connect

    Alloggio, G.; Brega, E.; Basile, D.; Guandalini, R.; Pollachini, L.

    1996-08-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting a solution method for time-dependent problems coupling thermal-hydraulic behavior and neutronic changes during selected transients in Pressurized Water Reactors. A two-group three-dimensional reactor kinetics model, based on the Analytical Nodal Method with a detailed feedback model, has been implemented in TRAC-PF1 code replacing the original point-kinetics approximation. A geometry conversion was done to match, in the core discretization, the cylindrical geometry of the TRAC-PF1 with the Cartesian geometry of the three-dimensional neutronic model. In this version of TRAC-PFI, named TRAC-EN for IBM computers, a Boron transport model has been implemented. The transient Boron concentration is computed from a Boron mass balance after the coolant mass, energy and momentum balances have been completed. In order to evaluate the new code capabilities, a model of the two-loops 600 MW Westinghouse reactor was implemented. Some specific PWR transients that exhibit interesting nuclear and thermal-hydraulic responses, e.g., control rod ejection and pressurization transients, are presented. To check the Boron transport model, a local Boron dilution transient was analyzed. The results obtained by using the space and time dependent neutronic model can not be predicted by point kinetics approximation. Furthermore, some events that apparently concern only the core, are also involving the primary circuit the responses of which can not be neglected because they affect the neutronic behavior.

  2. Development of self-interrogation neutron resonance densitometry (SINRD) to measure U-235 and Pu-239 content in a PWR spent fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, Adrienne M; Charlton, William S; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2009-01-01

    The use of Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) to measure the {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content in a PWR spent fuel assembly was investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. The sensitivity of SINRD is based on using the same fissile materials in the fission chambers as are present in the fuel because the effect of resonance absorption lines in the transmitted flux is amplified by the corresponding (n, f) reaction peaks in fission chamber. These simulations utilize the {sup 244}Cm spontaneous fission neutrons to self-interrogate the fuel pins. The amount of resonance absorption of these neutrons in the fuel can be measured using {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu fission chambers placed adjacent to the assembly. We used ratios of different fission chambers to reduce the sensitivity of the measurements to extraneous material present in fuel. The development of SINRD to measure the fissile content in spent fuel is of great importance to the improvement of nuclear safeguards and material accountability. Future work includes the use of this technique to measure the fissile content in FBR spent fuel and heavy metal product from reprocessing methods.

  3. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  4. A Study on Structured Simulation Framework for Design and Evaluation of Human-Machine Interface System -Application for On-line Risk Monitoring for PWR Nuclear Power Plant-

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, J.; Yang, M.; Li, S.C.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Zhang, Z.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operators in the main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) need to monitor plant condition through operation panels and understand the system problems by their experiences and skills. It is a very hard work because even a single fault will cause a large number of plant parameters abnormal and operators are required to perform trouble-shooting actions in a short time interval. It will bring potential risks if operators misunderstand the system problems or make a commission error to manipulate an irrelevant switch with their current operation. This study aims at developing an on-line risk monitoring technique based on Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) for monitoring and predicting potential risks in current plant condition by calculating plant reliability. The proposed technique can be also used for navigating operators by estimating the influence of their operations on plant condition before they take an action that will be necessary in plant operation, and therefore, can reduce human errors. This paper describes the risk monitoring technique and illustrates its application by a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident in a 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Marine Nuclear Power Plant (MNPP). (authors)

  5. On the Application of CFD Modeling for the Prediction of the Degree of Mixing in a PWR During a Boron Dilution Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Lycklama, Jan-Aiso; Hoehne, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    In a Pressurized Water Reactor, negative reactivity is present in the core by means of Boric acid as a soluble neutron absorber in the coolant water. During a so-called Boron Dilution Transient (BDT), a de-borated slug of coolant water is transported from the cold leg into the reactor vessel, and the borated coolant water is diluted by mixing with this un-borated water. The resulting decrease in the boron concentration leads to an insertion of positive reactivity in the core, which may lead to a reactivity excursion. The associated power peak may damage the fuel rods. The mixing of borated and un-borated water in downcomer and lower plenum is an important process, because it mitigates the degree of reactivity insertion. In the present study the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for the prediction of this mixing of un-borated with borated water in the RPV has been assessed. The analyses have been compared with the measurement data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) experiment. The ROCOM test facility represents the primary cooling system of a KONVOI type of PWR (1300 MW{sub el}). In spite of the complicated spatial, temporal, and geometrical aspects of the flow in the RPV, the agreement between the calculated and the experimental data is good. The CFD model tends to slightly under predict the degree of mixing in the RPV resulting in a slight under-prediction of the boron concentration at the core. (authors)

  6. The role of Hydrogen and Creep in Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water Environments ? a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Hua, F H

    2004-07-12

    Intergranular attack (IGA) and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 in PWR steam generator environment has been extensively studied for over 30 years without rendering a clear understanding of the essential mechanisms. The lack of understanding of the IGSCC mechanism is due to a complex interaction of numerous variables such as microstructure, thermomechanical processing, strain rate, water chemistry and electrochemical potential. Hydrogen plays an important role in all these variables. The complexity, however, significantly hinders a clearer and more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of hydrogen in enhancing intergranular cracking via whatever mechanism. In this work, an attempt is made to review the role of hydrogen based on the current understanding of grain boundary structure and chemistry and intergranular fracture of nickel alloys, effect of hydrogen on electrochemical behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (e.g. the passive film stability, polarization behavior and open-circuit potential) and effect of hydrogen on PWSCC behavior of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690. Mechanistic studies on the PWSCC are briefly reviewed. It is concluded that further studies on the role of hydrogen on intergranular cracking in both inert and primary side environments are needed. These studies should focus on the correlation of the results obtained at different laboratories by different methods on materials with different metallurgical and chemical parameters.

  7. Experimental evidence of oxygen thermo-migration in PWR UO2 fuels during power ramps using in-situ oxido-reduction indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riglet-Martial, Ch.; Sercombe, J.; Lamontagne, J.; Noirot, J.; Roure, I.; Blay, T.; Desgranges, L.

    2016-11-01

    The present study describes the in-situ electrochemical modifications which affect irradiated PWR UO2 fuels in the course of a power ramp, by means of in-situ oxido-reduction indicators such as chromium or neo-formed chemical phases. It is shown that irradiated fuels (of nominal stoichiometry close to 2.000) under temperature gradient such as that occurring during high power transients are submitted to strong oxido-reduction perturbations, owing to radial migration of oxygen from the hot center to the cold periphery of the pellet. The oxygen redistribution, similar to that encountered in Sodium Fast Reactors fuels, induces a massive reduction/precipitation of the fission products Mo, Ru, Tc and Cr (if present) in the high temperature pellet section and the formation of highly oxidized neo-formed grey phases of U4O9 type in its cold section, of lower temperature. The parameters governing the oxidation states of UO2 fuels under power ramps are finally debated from a cross-analysis of our results and other published information. The potential chemical benefits brought by oxido-reductive additives in UO2 fuel such as chromium oxide, in connection with their oxygen buffering properties, are discussed.

  8. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  9. PWR full-reactor coolant system decontamination. Materials evaluation after off-normal exposure to the LOMI decontamination process, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, R.G.; Pessall, N.; Grand, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of the current program is to identify and address all aspects of full system decontamination with the purpose of qualifying at least one process for PWR use. The objective of the current study is to provide baseline data on the performance of materials on the primary side after exposure to one cycle of the LOMI fault testing. This data supplements prior information obtained after exposure to three cycles of LOMI testing. The technical significance of this excursion will be determined in a subsequent task. The general corrosion characteristics of over 39 materials were evaluated for some combinations of material, type of specimen (coupon and creviced coupons), and loop velocity (0, 5, 20 and 150 ft/sec). At velocities of less than or equal to 20 ft/sec, sixteen types of specimens were employed to evaluate localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Specimens were examined after one cycle. Also included in this exposure were specimens added to provide more information on the effect of LOMI fault exposure one: (1) surface roughening of Stellite 156; (2) crevice corrosion of chromium plated 304 stainless steel with the open end gap increased from 3 to {approximately} 9 mils; (3) susceptibility of Inconel X-750 (HTH) to subsequent stress corrosion cracking, (4) loss of chromium plate from threads of 304 stainless steel bolts torqued into stainless steel collars; (5) crack initiation in an Alloy 600 tube known to be susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking; and (6) surface alternation of stressed Inconel X-750 springs with the spring temper.

  10. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  11. Kohonen mapping of the crack growth under fatigue loading conditions of stainless steels in BWR environments and of nickel alloys in PWR environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna

    2008-09-01

    In this study, crack growth rate data under fatigue loading conditions generated by Argonne National Laboratories and published in 2006 were analyzed [O.K. Chopra, B. Alexandreanu, E.E. Gruber, R.S. Daum, W.J. Shack, Argonne National Laboratory, NUREG CR 6891-series ANL 04/20, Crack Growth Rates of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Heat Affected Zone in BWR Environments, January, 2006; B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, H.M. Chung, E.E. Gruber, W.K. Soppet, R.W. Strain, W.J. Shack, Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Light Water Reactors, vol. 34 in the NUREG/CR-4667 series annual report of Argonne National Laboratory program studies for Calendar (Annual Report 2003). Manuscript Completed: May 2005, Date Published: May 2006], and reported by DoE [B. Alexandreanu, O.K. Chopra, W.J. Shack, S. Crane, H.J. Gonzalez, NRC, Crack Growth Rates and Metallographic Examinations of Alloy 600 and Alloy 82/182 from Field Components and Laboratory Materials Tested in PWR Environments, NUREG/CR-6964, May 2008]. The data collected were measured on austenitic stainless steels in BWR (boiling water reactor) environments and on nickel alloys in PWR (pressurized water reactor) environments. The data collected contained information on material composition, temperature, conductivity of the environment, oxygen concentration, irradiated sample information, weld information, electrochemical potential, load ratio, rise time, hydrogen concentration, hold time, down time, maximum stress intensity factor ( Kmax), stress intensity range (Δ Kmax), crack length, and crack growth rates (CGR). Each position on that Kohonen map is called a cell. A Kohonen map clusters vectors of information by 'similarities.' Vectors of information were formed using the metal composition, followed by the environmental conditions used in each experiments, and finally followed by the crack growth rate (CGR) measured when a sample of pre-cracked metal is set in an environment and the sample is cyclically loaded. Accordingly

  12. Quantification and local distribution of hydrogen within Zircaloy-4 PWR nuclear fuel cladding tubes at the nuclear microprobe of the Pierre Süe Laboratory from μ-ERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raepsaet, C.; Bossis, Ph.; Hamon, D.; Béchade, J. L.; Brachet, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogen content and its distribution in in-core materials of nuclear plants are known to have a strong influence on their behaviour, especially on their mechanical properties but also on their corrosion resistance. This point has to be largely investigated in the case of the nuclear fuel cladding (Zr based alloys) of pressurized water reactors (PWR). Two situations have been considered here, with regards to the hydrogen content and its spatial distribution within the thickness of the tubes: Irradiated fuel cladding tubes after a nominal period under working conditions in a PWR core. Non-irradiated fuel cladding previously exposed to conditions representative of an hypothetical "loss of coolant accident" scenario (LOCA). As far as micrometric distributions of H were required, μ-ERDA has been performed at the nuclear microprobe of the Pierre Süe Laboratory. This facility is fitted with two beam lines. In the first one, used for non-active sample analysis, the μ-ERDA configuration has been improved to reduce the limits of detection and the reliability of the results. The second one offers the unique feature of being dedicated to radioactive samples. We will present the nuclear microprobe and emphasize on the μ-ERDA configuration of the two beam lines. We will illustrate the performance of the setup by describing the results obtained for Zircaloy-4 cladding both on non-irradiated and irradiated samples.

  13. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  14. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  15. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 2: STEALTH 2D/WHAMSE 2D single-phse fluid and elastic structure studies. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.H.; Santee, G.E. Jr.; Mortensen, G.A.; Brockett, G.F.; Gross, M.B.; Silling, S.A.; Belytschko, T.

    1981-03-01

    This report, the second in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the second step in the stepwise approach for developing the three-dimensional, nonlinear, fluid/structure interaction methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The second step in the methodology considers enhancements and special modifications to the 2D STEALTH-HYDRO computer program and the 2D WHAMSE computer program. The 2D STEALTH-HYDRO enhancements consist of a fluid-fluid coupling control-volume model and an orifice control-volume model. The enhancements to 2D WHAMSE include elimination of the implicit integration routines, material models, and structural elements not required for the hydroloads application. In addition the logic for coupling the 2D STEALTH-HYDRO computer program to the 2D WHAMSE computer program is discussed.

  16. PWR FLECHT SEASET 21-rod-bundle flow-blockage task: data and analysis report. NRC/EPRI/Westinghouse report No. 11, main report and appendices A-J

    SciTech Connect

    Loftus, M.J.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Lee, N.; McGuire, M.F.; Wenzel, A.H.; Valkovic, M.M.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents data and limited analysis from the 21-Rod Bundle Flow Blockage Task of the Full-Length Emergency Cooling Heat Transfer Separate Effects and Systems Effects Test Program (FLECHT SEASET). The tests consisted of forced and gravity reflooding tests utilizing electrical heater rods with a cosine axial power profile to simulate PWR nuclear core fuel rod arrays. Steam cooling and hydraulic characteristics tests were also conducted. These tests were utilized to determine effects of various flow blockage configurations (shapes and distributions) on reflooding behavior, to aid in development/assessment of computational models in predicting reflooding behavior of flow blockage configurations, and to screen flow blockage configurations for future 163-rod flow blockage bundle tests.

  17. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  18. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  19. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  20. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  1. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  2. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  4. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  5. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  6. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  7. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  8. [Leonardo da Vinci--a dyslectic genius?].

    PubMed

    Røsstad, Anna

    2002-12-10

    Leonardo da Vinci's texts consist almost exclusively of scientific notes. Working on a book on Leonardo's art, I studied all Leonardo's published texts carefully for any new information. In some prefaces I came to suspect that Leonardo might have suffered from dyslexia. This article considers the question of whether it is possible to find indications of dyslexia in Leonardo's texts and in the accounts of his life.

  9. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  10. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-08-20

    Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

  11. Turbocharging the DA465 gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng-Qi; Zong, Li-Jun; Wang, Yin-Yan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve performance of the DA465Q gasoline engine, a substantial amount of research was done to optimize its turbocharging system. The research led to the GT12 turbocharger being selected and its turbocharging parameters being settled. Based on these tests, rational matching was worked out for respective components of the turbocharging system. Results show that this turbocharger allows the engine to easily meet the proposed requirements for power and economic performance, giving insight into further performance improvements for gasoline engines.

  12. The measurement of 129I for the cement and the paraffin solidified low and intermediate level wastes (LILWs), spent resin or evaporated bottom from the pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Park, S D; Kim, J S; Han, S H; Ha, Y K; Song, K S; Jee, K Y

    2009-09-01

    In this paper a relatively simple and low cost analysis procedure to apply to a routine analysis of (129)I in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILWs), cement and paraffin solidified evaporated bottom and spent resin, which are produced from nuclear power plants (NPPs), pressurized water reactors (PWR), is presented. The (129)I is separated from other nuclides in LILWs using an anion exchange adsorption and solvent extraction by controlling the oxidation and reduction state and is then precipitated as silver iodide for counting the beta activity with a low background gas proportional counter (GPC). The counting efficiency of GPC was varied from 4% to 8% and it was reversely proportional to the weight of AgI by a self absorption of the beta activity. Compared to a higher pH, the chemical recovery of iodide as AgI was lowered at pH 4. It was found that the chemical recovery of iodide for the cement powder showed a lower trend by increasing the cement powder weight, but it was not affected for the paraffin sample. In this experiment, the overall chemical recovery yield of the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples and the average weight of them were 67+/-3% and 5.43+/-0.53 g, 70+/-7% and 10.40+/-1.60 g, respectively. And the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of (129)I for the cement and paraffin solidified LILW samples was calculated as 0.070 and 0.036 Bq/g, respectively. Among the analyzed cement solidified LILW samples, (129)I activity concentration of four samples was slightly higher than the MDA and their ranges were 0.076-0.114 Bq/g. Also of the analyzed paraffin solidified LILW samples, five samples contained a little higher (129)I activity concentration than the MDA and their ranges were 0.036-0.107 Bq/g.

  13. Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI

    SciTech Connect

    Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes.

  14. Dissolution experiments of commercial PWR (52 MWd/kgU) and BWR (53 MWd/kgU) spent nuclear fuel cladded segments in bicarbonate water under oxidizing conditions. Experimental determination of matrix and instant release fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Robles, E.; Serrano-Purroy, D.; Sureda, R.; Casas, I.; de Pablo, J.

    2015-10-01

    The denominated instant release fraction (IRF) is considered in performance assessment (PA) exercises to govern the dose that could arise from the repository. A conservative definition of IRF comprises the total inventory of radionuclides located in the gap, fractures, and the grain boundaries and, if present, in the high burn-up structure (HBS). The values calculated from this theoretical approach correspond to an upper limit that likely does not correspond to what it will be expected to be instantaneously released in the real system. Trying to ascertain this IRF from an experimental point of view, static leaching experiments have been carried out with two commercial UO2 spent nuclear fuels (SNF): one from a pressurized water reactor (PWR), labelled PWR, with an average burn-up (BU) of 52 MWd/kgU and fission gas release (FGR) of 23.1%, and one from a boiling water reactor (BWR), labelled BWR, with an average BU of and 53 MWd/kgU and FGR of 3.9%. One sample of each SNF, consisting of fuel and cladding, has been leached in bicarbonate water during one year under oxidizing conditions at room temperature (25 ± 5)°C. The behaviour of the concentration measured in solution can be divided in two according to the release rate. All radionuclides presented an initial release rate that after some days levels down to a slower second one, which remains constant until the end of the experiment. Cumulative fraction of inventory in aqueous phase (FIAPc) values has been calculated. Results show faster release in the case of the PWR SNF. In both cases Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Y, Tc, La and Nd dissolve congruently with U, while dissolution of Zr, Ru and Rh is slower. Rb, Sr, Cs and Mo, dissolve faster than U. The IRF of Cs at 10 and 200 days has been calculated, being (3.10 ± 0.62) and (3.66 ± 0.73) for PWR fuel, and (0.35 ± 0.07) and (0.51 ± 0.10) for BWR fuel.

  15. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  16. 40 CFR 60.52Da - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 60.52Da Section 60.52Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for...

  17. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  18. DA-6034 Induces [Ca(2+)]i Increase in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, Hyewon; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo; Shin, Dong Min

    2014-04-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca(2+) signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca(2+)]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca(2+)]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca(2+) entry from extracellular and Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca(2+) stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca(2+) signaling via extracellular Ca(2+) entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) stores in epithelial cells.

  19. Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pevsner, Jonathan

    2002-04-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul.

  20. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  1. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  2. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52292). That NPRM proposed to require a retrofit of the rear passenger... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  3. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  4. Characterization of the isolated 20 kDa and 50 kDa fragments of the myosin head.

    PubMed

    Muhlrad, A; Kasprzak, A A; Ue, K; Ajtai, K; Burghardt, T P

    1986-01-30

    We have isolated two proteolytic fragments of subfragment 1 (S-1) of myosin from rabbit skeletal muscle. These fragments, identified by their molecular weights of 20 and 50 kDa, may be functional domains that, when isolated, retain their specific function. We have studied several structural and functional features of the 20 and 50 kDa fragments. Considerable secondary structure in both fragments has been observed in CD spectrum studies. Previously CD spectra showed 64% ordered structure for the 20 kDa fragment (Muhlrad and Morales, M.F. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81, 1003) and here we show 71% ordered structures for the 50 kDa fragment. Fluorescence lifetime studies of tryptophan residues in the 50 kDa fragment and 1,5-IAEDANS-labeled SH-1 in the 20 kDa fragment are used to investigate the tertiary structure of the fragments. We find the tertiary structure relating to this measurement of both fragments to be intact; however, the reaction of 1,5-IAEDANS with SH-1 on the isolated 20 kDa fragment is less specific than with S-1. Furthermore, the fragments showed a tendency to aggregate. The domain concept of S-1 was supported by the characteristic biochemical function of the isolated fragments. Both of the fragments were effective in competing with S-1 for binding to actin in acto-S-1 ATPase measurements. From these studies and in direct binding measurement the 20 kDa fragment proved to bind with higher affinity to actin than did the 50 kDa fragment.

  5. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  6. Cloning of the 52-kDa chitinase gene from Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 and its proteolytic cleavage into an active 35-kDa enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gal, S W; Choi, J Y; Kim, C Y; Cheong, Y H; Choi, Y J; Lee, S Y; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J

    1998-03-01

    A chitinase gene (pCHI52) encoding the 52-kDa chitinase was isolated from a Serratia marcescens KCTC2172 cosmid library. This chitinase gene consists of 2526 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 485 amino acids. Escherichia coli harboring the pCHI52 gene secreted not only a 52-kDa but also a 35-kDa chitinase into the culture supernatant. We purified both 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases using a chitin affinity column and Sephacryl-S-300 gel filtration chromatography. We determined that the 17 N-terminal amino acid sequences of the 52-kDa and the 35-kDa chitinase are identical. Furthermore, a protease obtained from S. marcescens KCTC2172 cleaved the 52-kDa chitinase into the 35-kDa protein with chitinase activity. These results suggest that the 35-kDa chitinase derives from the 52-kDa chitinase by post-translational proteolytic modification. The optimal reaction temperature of 45 degrees C and the optimal pH of 5.5 were identical for both enzymes. The specific activities of the 52-kDa and 35-kDa chitinases on natural swollen chitin were 67 mumol min-1 mg-1 and 60 mumol min-1 mg-1, respectively.

  7. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect.

  8. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of {open_quotes}steam generator management{close_quotes}; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, {open_quotes}Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosion{close_quotes}, and is provided as a supplement to that material.

  9. Systems interaction study of a Westinghouse PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Hanan, N.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Xue, D.; Bozoki, G.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents methods and findings of a systems interaction study of Indian Point 3. The study was carried out in support of the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-17 on Systems Interactions. Fault tree methods were employed. Among the study's findings is a single active failure in the low pressure injection function; this discovery led to a plant modification. In addition to providing support to the staff in resolving USI A-17, the project discovered an important new class of failure modes which led the utility to implement a hardware modification. The scope of the project is indicated, key features of the method are highlighted findings are discussed, and comments are offered on the usefulness of this type of, principal study. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Master information data acquisition system. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.

    1981-06-01

    MIDAS provides real-time work and component status as a function of the Work Control Log (WCL). Status is maintained and tracked with regard to Tag-Out status, Out-of-Service status, and document status. Component integration and technical and safety information is provided by the MIDAS Component Index (MCI). This information is provided directly to the user upon request. This information is also provided directly to the WCL as a function of component input to the WCL document prior to the documents release for execution.

  11. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  12. PWR cores with silicon carbide cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dobisesky, J. P.; Carpenter, D.; Pilat, E.; Kazimi, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of using silicon carbide rather than Zircaloy cladding, to reach higher power levels and higher discharge burnups in PWRs has been evaluated. A preliminary fuel design using fuel rods with the same dimensions as in the Westinghouse Robust Fuel Assembly but with fuel pellets having 10 vol% central void has been adopted to mitigate the higher fuel temperatures that occur due to the lower thermal conductivity of the silicon carbide and to the persistence of the open clad-pellet gap over most of the fuel life. With this modified fuel design, it is possible to achieve 18 month cycles that meet present-day operating constraints on peaking factor, boron concentration, reactivity coefficients and shutdown margin, while allowing batch average discharge burnups up to 80 MWD/kgU and peak rod burnups up to 100 MWD/kgU. Power uprates of 10% and possibly 20% also appear feasible. For non-uprated cores, the silicon carbide-clad fuel has a clear advantage that increases with increasing discharge burnup. Even for comparable discharge burnups, there is a savings in enriched uranium. Control rod configuration modifications may be required to meet the shutdown margin criterion for the 20% up-rate. Silicon carbide's ability to sustain higher burnups than Zircaloy also allows the design of a licensable two year cycle with only 96 fresh assemblies, avoiding the enriched uranium penalty incurred with use of larger batch sizes due to their excessive leakage. (authors)

  13. Characterization of PWR steam generator deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Varrin, R. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Restoring the thermal performance of the steam generators often requires the utility to remove deposits by expensive chemical means. This work demonstrates that careful characterization of secondary side deposit samples can reveal their chemical and physical properties which in turn contribute to an overall assessment of the need for and extent of steam generator inspection and maintenance. More specifically, knowledge of deposit characteristics can contribute to: (1) determination of the source of corrosion products, (2) assessment of feedwater chemistry control strategies, (3) prediction of rates of tube degradation, and (4) evaluation of degraded heat transfer performance or flow instabilities. Despite the relationships between deposits and steam generator operation and performance, few utilities elect to perform the types of characterizations which are suitable for the determination of the specific chemical and physical nature of their particular deposits. One of the principal goals of this document is to encourage utilities to consider deposit characterization an integral part of an overall effort to assess and maintain the material condition of the steam generators at their plant. This document includes a review of the nature of deposits and relates deposit characteristics to a variety of secondary side phenomena including corrosion and fouling. Candidate techniques for revealing relevant deposit properties are provided so that inferences regarding the role of deposits in promoting or causing these phenomena at their plant can be developed.

  14. Impact analyses after pipe rupture. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-12-13

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses.

  15. Best-Estimate Analysis PWR LOCA.

    2005-11-11

    Version: 00 TRAC‑PF1 performs best estimate analyses of loss of coolant accidents and other transients in pressurized light water reactors. The program can also be used to model a wide range of thermal hydraulic experiments in reduced scale facilities. Models employed include reflood, multi‑dimensional two‑phase flow, nonequilibrium thermodynamics, generalized heat transfer, and reactor kinetics. Automatic steady‑state and dump/restart capabilities are provided. The changes reported in TRACNEWS issues through Number 7 are incorporated in this release.more » TRAC-PF1 was developed on a CDC computer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PC version of TRAC‑PF1 was converted at CNEN in 1989 and has not been updated since that time. The NRC no longer supports the TRAC codes. They currently develop and maintain the TRACE code system, which is the TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine. TRACE is a modernized thermal-hydraulics code designed to consolidate the capabilities of NRC's 3 legacy safety codes - TRAC-P, TRAC-B and RELAP. This is NRC's flagship thermal-hydraulics analysis tool. See the website for more information http://www.nrccodes.com/.« less

  16. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  17. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  18. 1991 DA: An asteroid in a bizarre orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steel, Duncan; Mcnaught, Robert H.; Asher, David

    1992-01-01

    Asteroidal object 1991 DA has an orbit of high inclination, crossing the planets from Mars to Uranus. This is unique for an asteroid, but not unusual for a comet of the Halley-type: it therefore seems likely that 1991 DA is an extinct or dormant comet. Previous CCD imaging has shown no indication of a coma; spectroscopic observations of 1991 DA which lack any evidence of strong comet-like emissions are reported. Numerical integrations of the orbit of this object were performed which show that is has been remarkably stable for the past approximately 20,000 yr, but chaotic before that. This may allow a new estimate to be made of the physical lifetimes of comets.

  19. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  20. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  1. Publishing Planetary Data to the VO using DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-04-01

    Publishing to the Virtual Observatory has many advantages, but between standards compliance, registration, data organisation, and server operation it is also requires a nontrivial effort if starting from scratch. The DaCHS software from the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory offers a packaged solution letting publishers concentrate on working with their own data and metadata as much as possible. For the planetary community, publishing is further facilitated by built-in support for the EPN-TAP data model. This contribution will show a typical publishing workflow together with a brief overview of how DaCHS meshes in with the VO and Web-based data usage.

  2. The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.

    2014-05-01

    GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

  3. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  4. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission rate in lb/MMBtu (measured by the CEMS required under § 60.49Da(c) and (d)), by the hourly heat... section may be used: (1) The owner or operator of an affected duct burner shall conduct the performance... located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating unit. Measurements shall be taken at...

  5. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)), by the hourly heat input rate (measured according to the provisions of § 60.49Da(n)), and dividing... shall conduct the performance test required under § 60.8 using the appropriate methods in appendix A of... second sampling site shall be located at the outlet from the heat recovery steam generating...

  6. Leonardo da Vinci and the sinuses of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Robicsek, F

    1991-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that eddy currents generated by the sinuses of Valsalva play an important role in the physiologic closure of the aortic valve. This process is briefly discussed and evidence is presented that this fact was well known and elaborated upon by the renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. This fact is illustrated with his words and drawings.

  7. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  8. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da Commercial... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric...

  9. Infrared applications for portable devices using IrDA transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sanjay M.; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Tan, Wee S.

    2001-11-01

    The internet has been the mantra in last decade and digital convergence is the latest talk on the tech streets. Features that once clearly discerned a mobile phone from a PDA or a PDA from a laptop are being replaced with multi-functional overlapping features and there is a growing need for wireless access and interoperability. Infrared communications has been addressing these needs for quite some time. The technology has matured through standardization efforts of IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and is widely used in PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, printers and digital cameras to name a few. This paper explores some new application scenarios for an IrDA transceiver. The first part of the paper describes a reference architecture for using infrared wireless communication for MP3 file exchange and the various possible user models. The second part of the paper discusses various configurations for implementing an ambient light detection scheme using IrDA transceivers, to turn off the backlighting of a LCD panel of a PDA or mobile phone in the presence of ambient light. The third part of the paper discusses various techniques of enabling extended link distance operation of IrDA transceivers for toy and remote control applications.

  10. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  11. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  12. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  13. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  14. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  15. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... DA installations. (a) AR 210-1 defines and classifies private organizations, such as thrift shops and child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  16. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  17. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined cycle systems, either of the procedures described in paragraph (j)(1) or (2) of this section may... carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da. Alternatively, data from a NOX emission... shall constitute the NOX emission rate from the duct burner of the combined cycle system. (k)...

  18. Da Que Hablar (Something To Talk About), 1991-1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Que Hablar, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document consists of all 14 issues of a bimonthly serial, from its inception in May 1991 through November 1993. "Da Que Hablar" provides numerous authentic materials from magazines and newspapers to stimulate discussion in Spanish in the foreign language classroom. The articles cover topics such as current events, cultural issues, sports,…

  19. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  20. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  1. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  2. 32 CFR 635.23 - DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DA Form 4833 within 45 days of receipt. (1) Appropriate blocks will be checked and blanks annotated... the disposition on DA Form 4833 as appropriate. That portion of the signature block of DA Form 4833... the format and at the frequency specified by the supported commander....

  3. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  4. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  5. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  6. A novel 29-kDa chicken heat shock protein.

    PubMed

    Einat, M F; Haberfeld, A; Shamay, A; Horev, G; Hurwitz, S; Yahav, S

    1996-12-01

    The family of small heat shock proteins is the more variable among the highly conserved superfamily of heat shock proteins (HSP). Using a metabolic labeling procedure with tissue explants, we have detected in chickens a new member of the small HSP family with an apparent molecular weight of 29-kDa. This protein was induced in broiler chickens' heart muscle and lungs following an in vivo heat stress. The 29-kDa band appears after 3 h of heat stress, much later than the induction of HSP 90, HSP 70, and HSP 27. The late onset of induction suggests that HSP 29 plays a more specific role of a "second stage defense protein". PMID:9000279

  7. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine.

  8. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  9. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  10. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems.

  11. 16-kDa prolactin and bromocriptine in postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Struman, Ingrid; Hoch, Melanie; Podewski, Edith; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-09-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening heart disease emerging toward the end of pregnancy or in the first postpartal months in previously healthy women. Recent data suggest a central role of unbalanced peri-/postpartum oxidative stress that triggers the proteolytic cleavage of the nursing hormone prolactin (PRL) into a potent antiangiogenic, proapoptotic, and proinflammatory 16-kDa PRL fragment. This notion is supported by the observation that inhibition of PRL secretion by bromocriptine, a dopamine D2-receptor agonist, prevented the onset of disease in an animal model of PPCM and by first clinical experiences where bromocriptine seem to exert positive effects with respect to prevention or treatment of PPCM patients. Here, we highlight the current state of knowledge on diagnosis of PPCM, provide insights into the biology and pathophysiology of 16-kDa PRL and bromocriptine, and outline potential consequences for the clinical management and treatment options for PPCM patients.

  12. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

  13. On the sexual intercourse drawings of Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Morris, A G

    1986-04-12

    Leonardo da Vinci's marvellous anatomical drawings have been praised by both artists and medical historians over the centuries. Specific reference is made here to Leonardo's drawings of the act of sexual intercourse. It is shown that his illustrations are not based purely on original observation. Rather, they are an attempt to illustrate and clarify anatomy and physiology as presented in the textbooks of the time.

  14. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stephens-Borg, Keith

    2012-08-01

    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation.

  15. Is there any mantle plume beneath Tristan da Cunha?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloemer, A.; Geissler, W. H.; Jegen, M. D.; Jokat, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tristan da Cunha is a volcanic island in the South Atlantic located very close to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Generally, it is accepted to be the location of a mantle plume, which has been active at least since the breakup of Gondwana at 130 Ma, the time when the Paraná/Etendeka flood basalts were emplaced. Furthermore, it is associated with the formation of the Walvis Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise, and therefore it's one of the key examples of a hot spot track linking a flood basalt province to an active ocean island volcano. However, global tomography models are contradicting about the origin of Tristan da Cunha: Whether it is a deep mantle plume or caused by shallow plate tectonics. To gain a better understanding, we deployed 24 broadband ocean-bottom seismometers, 26 ocean-bottom electromagnetic stations and 2 seismological land stations in January 2012 with the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. We acquired continuous seismological data for one year and recovered the instruments in January 2013.We use cross-correlated travel time residuals of teleseismic earthquakes to perform a finite-frequency tomography to resolve the P wave velocity upper mantle structure beneath the island. Here we show our preliminary results of the 3-D velocity perturbations in the upper mantle: We do not image a plume-like structure directly beneath the island. Instead we observe a low velocity region in the southwest of our array that might be related to a local mantle upwelling (mantle plume). Additionally we show the local seismicity in the Tristan da Cunha region.Chen et al. and Baba et al. will present the first results on the magnetotelluric experiment and Ryberg et al. will present the crustal structure around the Tristan da Cunha hotspot.

  16. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  17. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  18. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  19. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts.

  20. Reconstitution of surfactant activity by using the 6 kDa apoprotein associated with pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, S H; Possmayer, F

    1986-01-01

    Lipid extracts of bovine pulmonary surfactant containing the 6 kDa apoprotein, but lacking the 35 kDa apoprotein, can mimic the essential characteristics of pulmonary surfactant on a pulsating-bubble surfactometer. Reconstituted surfactant can be produced by combining silicic acid fractions containing 6 kDa apoprotein and phosphatidylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of the protein-containing fraction with proteolytic enzymes abolishes its efficacy. These results indicate that the presence of the 6 kDa apoprotein can account for some of the essential physical and biological characteristics of pulmonary surfactant. Immunodiffusion studies indicate that, contrary to earlier suggestions, the 6 kDa apoprotein is not structurally related to the major surfactant apoprotein that has a molecular mass of 35 kDa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3098235

  1. Accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin during brain development and injury in Hyphantria cunea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Ja; Je, Hyun Jeong; Cheon, Hyang Mi; Kong, Sun Young; Han, JikHyun; Yun, Chi Young; Han, Yeon Su; Lee, In Hee; Kang, Young Jin; Seo, Sook Jae

    2005-10-01

    The cDNA corresponding to a novel lipocalin was identified from the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea. This lipocalin cDNA encodes a 194 residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kDa. Sequence analyses revealed that the 23 kDa lipocalin cDNA is most similar to Drosophila lazarillo, human apolipoprotein D, and Bombyrin. Northern blot analyses showed that 23 kDa lipocalin transcript is expressed in the whole body only in 4- and 6-day-old pupae. By Western blot analysis it was confirmed that 23 kDa lipocalin is mainly accumulated in brain and subesophageal ganglion, though it is detected in a small amount in fat body and epidermis of Hyphantria cunea. The accumulation of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain tissue was upregulated in response to injury. The putative function of 23 kDa lipocalin in brain is discussed.

  2. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed

    Mantle, J; Tyrrell, D A

    1973-03-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks.The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania.The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H(3)N(2).

  3. An epidemic of influenza on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, John; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Respiratory disease on Tristan da Cunha has been observed since the islanders returned in 1962. An epidemic of unprecedented severity occurred in the winter of 1971 and involved 273 (96%) of 284 islanders, 92 of whom had two attacks. The epidemic was apparently introduced by the Tristania. The illness of both first and second attacks ranged from mild to severe but there were some differences. There were two deaths, both in elderly persons with chronic chest disease and heart failure. Serological evidence suggests that this was due to influenza A2 of the Hong Kong serotype H3N2. PMID:4511951

  4. TA-DA: A Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    TA-DA is a pre-compiled IDL widget-based application which greatly simplifies and improves the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models and allows the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. It is flexible and can address a number of problems, from the interpolation of stellar models or sets of stellar physical parameters in general to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units. It also analyzes observed color-magnitude diagrams and allows a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data.

  5. Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham.

  6. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  7. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  8. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  10. Josephson D/A converter with fundamental accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.A.; Burroughs, C.J.; Kautz, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    A binary sequence of series arrays of shunted Josephson junctions is used to make a 14-bit D/A converter. With thirteen bias lines any step number in the range -8192 to +8192 (1.2 to -1.2 V) can be selected in the time required to stabilize the bias current (a few microseconds). The circuit makes possible the digital synthesis of very-accurate ac wave-forms whose amplitude derives directly from the internationally accepted definition of the volt.

  11. Identification of sequence similarity between 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones: evidence for a common evolutionary background?

    PubMed Central

    Flores, A I; Cuezva, J M

    1997-01-01

    Recent findings support the premise that chaperonins (60 kDa stress-proteins) and alpha-subunits of F-type ATPases (alpha-ATPase) are evolutionary related protein families. Two-dimensional gel patterns of synthesized proteins in unstressed and heat-shocked embryonic Drosophila melanogaster SL2 cells revealed that antibodies raised against the alpha-subunit of the F1-ATPase complex from rat liver recognize an inducible p71 member of the 70 kDa stress-responsive protein family. Molecular recognition of this stress-responsive 70 kDa protein by antibodies raised against the F1-ATPase alpha-subunit suggests the possibility of partial sequence similarity within these ATP-binding protein families. A multiple sequence alignment between alpha-ATPases and 60 kDa and 70 kDa molecular chaperones is presented. Statistical evaluation of sequence similarity reveals a significant degree of sequence conservation within the three protein families. The finding suggests a common evolutionary origin for the ATPases and molecular chaperone protein families of 60 kDa and 70 kDa, despite the lack of obvious structural resemblance between them. PMID:9065788

  12. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  13. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  14. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  15. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  16. DA/DSM{trademark} focuses on utility restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, E.

    1995-03-01

    Debate about restructuring the electric industry and the proposal for retail wheeling in California dominated discussion at DA/DSM `95, the fifth annual symposium on distribution automation and demand-side management. The basic goal is to introduce competition and reduce costs by providing choices for consumers between regulated utilities and direct contracts with other providers. All customers will have some means of direct access to outside generation sources. However, for residential customers, direct access will probably come through an aggregation of interests. Focusing on the future of demand-side management, there is concern that California`s restructuring may spell doom for DSM. DSM spending has declined over the past year and a major question raised was the fate of uneconomic DSM, environmental, renewable and other social programs. There was great interest at DA/DSM `95 in sessions devoted to electric utility activity on the information superhighway, loosely defined as methods to improve communications between customers and utilities. Several projects are described.

  17. A PEG-DA microfluidic device for chemotaxis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz Traore, Mahama; Behkam, Bahareh

    2013-08-01

    The study of cells in a well-defined and chemically programmable microenvironment is essential for a complete and fundamental understanding of the cell behaviors with respect to specific chemical compounds. Flow-free microfluidic devices that generate quasi-steady chemical gradients (spatially varying but temporally constant) have been demonstrated as effective chemotaxis assay platforms due to dissociating the effect of chemical cues from mechanical shear forces caused by fluid flow. In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication and characterization of a flow-free microfluidic platform made of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogel. We have demonstrated that the mass transport properties of these devices can be customized by fabricating them from PEG-DA gels of four distinct molecular weights. In contrast to microfluidic devices developed using soft lithography; this class of devices can be realized using a more cost-effective approach of direct photopolymerization with fewer microfabrication steps. This microfluidic platform was tested by conducting a quantitative study of the chemotactic behavior of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RP437, a model microorganism, in presence of the chemo-effector, casamino-acids. Using the microfabrication and characterization methodology presented in this work, microfluidic platforms with well-defined and customizable diffusive properties can be developed to accommodate the study of a wide range of cell types.

  18. D-A and D-2 dopamine receptor function in the rabbit retina: a model for the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Hensler, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done investigating the effect of the synaptic concentration of the transmitter DA, modified by changes in the frequency of electrical field stimulation and by the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine, on the modulation of /sup 3/H-DA release by D-2 DA autoreceptors and by melatonin receptor sites. At lower synaptic concentrations of the transmitter dopamine, D-2 DA receptor agonists were more potent, while antagonists were more potent when the synaptic concentration of transmitter was higher. The potency of melatonin to inhibit DA release was not altered by the frequency of field stimulation of by frequency-dependent changes in the synaptic concentration of the transmitter.

  19. 28 kDa adenosine-binding proteins of brain and other tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, K; Rosenthal, R A; Doctrow, S R; Lowenstein, J M

    1989-01-01

    Membranes prepared from calf brain were solubilized and chromatographed on a column containing 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine covalently linked to agarose through the 5'-amino group. When the column was eluted with adenosine, a pure protein emerged with subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa. The protein was extracted from the membranes with sodium cholate, but not with 100 microM-adenosine or 0.5 M-NaCl. A similar 28 kDa protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of calf brain. The yield of membrane-bound and soluble 28 kDa protein per gram of tissue was about the same. The 28 kDa protein was also found in membrane and soluble fractions of rabbit heart, rat liver and vascular smooth muscle from calf aorta. The yield per gram of tissue fell into the order brain greater than heart approximately vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the membrane fraction, and brain approximately heart greater than vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction. Polyclonal antibodies to pure 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes cross-reacted with the 28 kDa protein from calf brain soluble fraction and with 28 kDa proteins isolated from other tissues. The 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes was also eluted from the affinity column by AMP and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, but at a concentration higher than that at which adenosine eluted the protein, but N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, ADP, ATP, GTP, NAD+, cyclic AMP and inosine failed to elute the protein at concentrations up to 1 mM. The 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction was not eluted by 3 mM-AMP or 1 mM-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine,-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or -cyclic AMP. Unexpectedly, the soluble 28 kDa protein was eluted by AMP in the presence of sodium cholate. Soluble 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD for adenosine of 12 microM. Membrane 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD of 14 microM in the

  20. Axonal patterns and targets of dA1 interneurons in the chick hindbrain.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Ayelet; Hadas, Yoav; Klar, Avihu; Sela-Donenfeld, Dalit

    2012-04-25

    Hindbrain dorsal interneurons that comprise the rhombic lip relay sensory information and coordinate motor outputs. The progenitor dA1 subgroup of interneurons, which is formed along the dorsal-most region of the caudal rhombic lip, gives rise to the cochlear and precerebellar nuclei. These centers project sensory inputs toward upper-brain regions. The fundamental role of dA1 interneurons in the assembly and function of these brainstem nuclei is well characterized. However, the precise en route axonal patterns and synaptic targets of dA1 interneurons are not clear as of yet. Novel genetic tools were used to label dA1 neurons and trace their axonal trajectories and synaptic connections at various stages of chick embryos. Using dA1-specific enhancers, two contralateral ascending axonal projection patterns were identified; one derived from rhombomeres 6-7 that elongated in the dorsal funiculus, while the other originated from rhombomeres 2-5 and extended in the lateral funiculus. Targets of dA1 axons were followed at later stages using PiggyBac-mediated DNA transposition. dA1 axons were found to project and form synapses in the auditory nuclei and cerebellum. Investigation of mechanisms that regulate the patterns of dA1 axons revealed a fundamental role of Lim-homeodomain (HD) proteins. Switch in the expression of the specific dA1 Lim-HD proteins Lhx2/9 into Lhx1, which is typically expressed in dB1 interneurons, modified dA1 axonal patterns to project along the routes of dB1 subgroup. Together, the results of this research provided new tools and knowledge to the assembly of trajectories and connectivity of hindbrain dA1 interneurons and of molecular mechanisms that control these patterns.

  1. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  4. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60.44Da Section 60.44Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance test...

  5. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  6. Expression and purification of 15 kDa granulysin utilizing an insect cell secretion system.

    PubMed

    Finn, Michael W; Clayberger, Carol; Krensky, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    Granulysin is an antimicrobial and proinflammatory protein expressed in activated human T cells and natural killer cells. A single mRNA produces the 15 kDa isoform which is then cleaved at the amino and carboxy termini to produce the 9 kDa isoform. Recombinant 9 kDa granulysin has been studied in detail but little is known about the function of the 15 kDa isoform, and no protocol has been published describing expression and purification of this form. Two commercially available preparations of the recombinant 15 kDa granulysin contain tags that may affect function. Here we describe for the first time a method to produce 15 kDa granulysin as a secreted protein from insect cells. The 15 kDa granulysin is purified using a HiTrap Heparin column and a Resource S column. A typical a yield of purified 15 kDa granulysin is 0.6 mg/L of insect cell supernatant.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  9. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  11. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  12. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  13. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Vettenranta, K; Bu, G; Schwartz, A L

    1995-08-01

    A 39 kDa protein copurifies with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and regulates ligand interactions with LRP. In our recent studies on the clearance of the 39 kDa protein in vivo, we demonstrated that once the liver LRP receptors were saturated, the kidney became the major organ responsible for the 39 kDa protein clearance (Warshawsky et al., 1993, J. Clin. Invest., 92:937-944). The current study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential binding and cellular processing of the 39 kDa protein by kidney-derived MDBK cells. Herein we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable, and Ca(2+)-dependent binding of the 125I-39 kDa protein to MDBK cells (Kd approximately 10-15 nM, 50-70,000 binding sites per cell). Cellular uptake and degradation of the 125I-39 kDa protein by MDBK cells was also demonstrated with kinetics typical of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Using chemical crosslinking we show that LRP in part mediates the binding of 125I-39 kDa protein to the MDBK cell surface. In addition, the presence of functional LRP on the MDBK cell surface was confirmed by the specific binding of activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, another ligand of LRP. Our data thus demonstrate the ability of kidney-derived MDBK cells to specifically bind, endocytose, and degrade the 39 kDa protein.

  14. Growth-Promoting Hormone DA-6 Assists Phytoextraction and Detoxification of Cd by Ryegrass.

    PubMed

    He, Shanying; Wu, Qiuling; He, Zhenli

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of growth-promoting hormone diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) on Cd phytoextraction and detoxification in ryegrass. Foliar spray of DA-6 significantly enhanced Cd extraction efficiency (P<0.05), with 1 μM DA-6 the most effective. At the subcellular level, 43-53% of Cd was soluble fraction and 23-46% in cell wall, and 9-25% in organelles. Chemical speciation analysis showed that 52.7-58.5% of Cd was NaCl extractable, 12.1-22.7% ethanol extractable, followed by other fractions. DA-6 alleviated metal toxicity by fixing more Cd in cell wall and decreasing Cd migration in plant. In conclusion, ryegrass tolerates Cd by cell wall compartmentalization along with protein and organic acids combination, and the treatment of 1 μM DA-6 appears to be optimal for enhancing the remediation efficiency of ryegrass for Cd contaminated soil.

  15. Kinship structure and heterozygosity on Tristan da Cunha.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E A; Roberts, D F

    1980-01-01

    Although there are many factors influencing the genotype proportions in a small population [1], a heterozygote excess, caused by avoidance of incestuous matings, will often be the expected observation. In the population of the small South-Atlantic islands of Tristan da Cunha, such an excess if observed [2], and we have investigated its origin, partitioning the population by sex and by generation. Although for such a small population the test for random pairing of genes [3, 4] is not sufficiently powerful to produce significant results, the pattern of homozygote deficiency is suggestive of avoidance of close matings. We have also investigated the effect of current nuclear family structure and family-size distribution. PMID:7386464

  16. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    PubMed

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  17. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    PubMed

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him.

  18. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him.

  19. Evolving understanding of translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO).

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Liu, Jian; Garavito, R Michael; Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh

    2015-09-01

    The translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the focus of intense research by the biomedical community and the pharmaceutical industry because of its apparent involvement in many disease-related processes. These include steroidogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, neurological disease and cancer, resulting in the use of TSPO as a biomarker and its potential as a drug target. Despite more than 30 years of study, the precise function of TSPO remains elusive. A recent breakthrough in determining the high-resolution crystal structures of bacterial homologs of mitochondrial TSPO provides new insight into the structural and functional properties at a molecular level and new opportunities for investigating the significance of this ancient and highly conserved protein family. The availability of atomic level structural information from different species also provides a platform for structure-based drug development. Here we briefly review current knowledge regarding TSPO and the implications of the new structures with respect to hypotheses and controversies in the field.

  20. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96` round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  1. A 92-kDa human immunostimulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, E; Briend, E; Saklani-Jusforgues, H; d'Alayer, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Fauve, R M

    1994-01-01

    We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 kDa (HGP.92) that, administered intravenously at 250 micrograms/kg, fully protected mice against a lethal inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. Since HGP.92 protected scid mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, this increased resistance to Listeria did not appear to be lymphocyte mediated. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.92 inhibited the growth of Lewis carcinoma cells in vitro. These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP.92. Thus, the biological activity of HGP.92 was in some way related to a glycan moiety. Images PMID:8078887

  2. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  3. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25980179

  4. Human MHC class I antigens are associated with a 90-kDa cell surface protein.

    PubMed

    Ferm, M T; Grönberg, A

    1991-08-01

    Human MHC class I proteins are expressed on almost all nucleated cells as a heavy chain (about 45 kDa) non-covalently associated with beta 2-microglobulin (12 kDa). In this report we show that MHC class I (MHC-I) proteins can also be associated with a 90-kDa protein in the cell membrane. Surface-radiolabelled cells were treated with dithiobis succinimidyl propionate (DSP) in order to preserve multimer protein complexes during cell lysis. The lysates were immunoprecipitated and analysed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Immunoprecipitation of human MHC-I proteins co-precipitated another protein of about 90 kDa in molecular weight-p90. p90 was coprecipitated from all the MHC-I expressing cells tested: U937, Raji, Molt-4 and IFN-gamma treated K562, but not from untreated, MHC-I negative K562. A 90-kDa protein was also co-precipitated with MHC-I from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Furthermore, p90 was coprecipitated by different MoAbs to the MHC-I heavy chain or beta 2-microglobulin, but not by control antibodies. Two additional co-precipitating proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa were seen in MHC-I precipitates from Raji cells. Our results suggest that MHC-I proteins and the 90-kDa protein are associated in the cell membrane, probably by a close but weak, non-covalent interaction. Two additional cell surface proteins at 34 kDa and 28 kDa seem to be MHC-I associated on Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

  5. Reduced striatal dopamine DA D2 receptor function in dominant-negative GSK-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Sintes, Raquel; Bortolozzi, Analia; Artigas, Francesc; Lucas, José J

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase with constitutive activity involved in cellular architecture, gene expression, cell proliferation, fate decision and apoptosis, among others. GSK-3 expression is particularly high in brain where it may be involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer׳s disease, bipolar disorder and major depression. A link with schizophrenia is suggested by the antipsychotic drug-induced GSK-3 regulation and by the involvement of the Akt/GSK-3 pathway in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Taking advantage of the previous development of dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice (Tg) showing a selective reduction of GSK-3 activity in forebrain neurons but not in dopaminergic neurons, we explored the relationship between GSK-3 and dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. In microdialysis experiments, local quinpirole (DA D2-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced dopamine (DA) release significantly less in Tg mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. However, local SKF-81297 (selective DA D1-R agonist) in dorsal striatum reduced DA release equally in both control and Tg mice indicating a comparable function of DA D1-R in the direct striato-nigral pathway. Likewise, systemic quinpirole administration - acting preferentially on presynaptic DA D2- autoreceptors to modulate DA release-reduced striatal DA release similarly in both control and Tg mice. Quinpirole reduced locomotor activity and induced c-fos expression in globus pallidus (both striatal DA D2-R-mediated effects) significantly more in WT than in Tg mice. Taking together, the present results show that dominant negative GSK-3 transgenic mice show reduced DA D2-R-mediated function in striatum and further support a link between dopaminergic neurotransmission and GSK-3 activity.

  6. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors.

  7. Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. )

    1991-01-01

    (3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

  8. Essential Roles of Da Transactivation Domains in Neurogenesis and in E(spl)-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Zarifi, Ioanna; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A.; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Alexiadis, Anastasios; Livadaras, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    E proteins are a special class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that heterodimerize with many bHLH activators to regulate developmental decisions, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. Daughterless (Da) is the sole E protein in Drosophila and is ubiquitously expressed. We have characterized two transcription activation domains (TADs) in Da, called activation domain 1 (AD1) and loop-helix (LH), and have evaluated their roles in promoting peripheral neurogenesis. In this context, Da heterodimerizes with proneural proteins, such as Scute (Sc), which is dynamically expressed and also contributes a TAD. We found that either one of the Da TADs in the Da/Sc complex is sufficient to promote neurogenesis, whereas the Sc TAD is incapable of doing so. Besides its transcriptional activation role, the Da AD1 domain serves as an interaction platform for E(spl) proteins, bHLH-Orange family repressors which antagonize Da/Sc function. We show that the E(spl) Orange domain is needed for this interaction and strongly contributes to the antiproneural activity of E(spl) proteins. We present a mechanistic model on the interplay of these bHLH factors in the context of neural fate assignment. PMID:22949507

  9. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  10. Antimicrobial Properties of an Immunomodulator - 15 kDa Human Granulysin

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hung-Mu; Lin, Li-Chih; Wang, Chiu-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Liao, You-Di

    2016-01-01

    Granulysin, a cationic protein expressed by human natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, is a mediator for drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and graft-versus-host disease. Some 15 kDa granulysin are processed into 9 kDa forms and sequestered in cytolytic granules, while others are constitutively secreted into body fluids. Both 9 and 15 kDa granulysin have been shown to be a serum marker for cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, 15 kDa is able to activate monocyte differentiation. However, its antimicrobial properties have not been clearly addressed. Here, we report a novel method to prepare both the soluble 9 and 15 kDa granulysin and show that the 15 kDa form is more effective than the 9 kDa form in exerting specific antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa within a range of few micromolars. We also show that the 15 kDa granulysin is able to hyperpolarize the membrane potential and increase membrane permeability of treated bacteria. Interestingly, the bactericidal activity and membrane permeability of the granulysins were markedly reduced at lower pH (pH 5.4) as a result of probable increase in hydrophobicity of the granulysins. Additionally, we’ve also shown the granulysin to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that the 15 kDa granulysin exhibits a novel mechanism in bacteria killing in a way that’s different from most antimicrobial peptides. Our novel granulysin preparation methodology will be useful for further study of action mechanisms of other antimicrobial, cytotoxic and immunomodulating properties in granulysin-mediated diseases. PMID:27276051

  11. Therapeutic effect of infused Fluosol-DA/carbogen with ephedrine, flunarizine, or nitroprusside

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Holden, S.A.; Northey, D.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Herman, T.S.

    1993-04-30

    The perfluorochemical emulsion Fluosol-DA plus carbogen breathing has been shown to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in preclinical solid tumors when the emulsion was administered by i.v. bolus injection. Much of the enhancement in tumor radiation response was lost when the emulsion was administered slowly. The authors hypothesized that an increase in tumor perfusion resulted when Fluosol-DA was administered rapidly. In the present study, the [alpha]/[beta] agonist ephedrine, the Ca[sup 2+] channel blocker flunarizine and the nitric oxide producing vasodilating drug nitroprusside have been tested. Ephedrine administration resulted in a decrease in the radiation plus Fluosol-DA [+-] carbogen antitumor effects in both the Lewis lung carcinoma and FSaIIC tumor systems. In contrast, flunarizine administration resulted in an increase in the efficacy of the radiation plus carbogen and the radiation plus Fluosol-DA/carbogen in both emulsion was given rapidly. Even with flunarizine administration Fluosol-DA delivered slowly was less effective than when the emulsion was given rapidly. Flunarizine with Fluosol-DA infused i.v. over 30 min followed by carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy resulted in a 1.7-1.6-fold increase in response compared with 2.4-2.2-fold with Fluosol-DA administered by injection i.v. and carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy using growth delay of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The effects of nitroprusside were complex. This drug had considerably more effect at 10 Gy than at higher radiation doses. These studies suggest that Fluosol-DA given by i.v. injection may increase tumor perfusion and that a drug like flunarizine may be beneficial if the Fluosol-DA is administered slowly followed by carbogen breathing and radiation therapy. 45 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  13. Myelin management by the 18.5-kDa and 21.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein isoforms.

    PubMed

    Harauz, George; Boggs, Joan M

    2013-05-01

    The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) splice isoforms range in nominal molecular mass from 14 to 21.5 kDa, and arise from the gene in the oligodendrocyte lineage (Golli) in maturing oligodendrocytes. The 18.5-kDa isoform that predominates in adult myelin adheres the cytosolic surfaces of oligodendrocyte membranes together, and forms a two-dimensional molecular sieve restricting protein diffusion into compact myelin. However, this protein has additional roles including cytoskeletal assembly and membrane extension, binding to SH3-domains, participation in Fyn-mediated signaling pathways, sequestration of phosphoinositides, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Of the diverse post-translational modifications of this isoform, phosphorylation is the most dynamic, and modulates 18.5-kDa MBP's protein-membrane and protein-protein interactions, indicative of a rich repertoire of functions. In developing and mature myelin, phosphorylation can result in microdomain or even nuclear targeting of the protein, supporting the conclusion that 18.5-kDa MBP has significant roles beyond membrane adhesion. The full-length, early-developmental 21.5-kDa splice isoform is predominantly karyophilic due to a non-traditional P-Y nuclear localization signal, with effects such as promotion of oligodendrocyte proliferation. We discuss in vitro and recent in vivo evidence for multifunctionality of these classic basic proteins of myelin, and argue for a systematic evaluation of the temporal and spatial distributions of these protein isoforms, and their modified variants, during oligodendrocyte differentiation.

  14. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke.

  15. Stability of new carbapenem DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (dehydropeptidase I).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Wook; We, Jeoung Soon; Kim, Gye Won; Choi, Seong Hak; Park, Haeng Soon

    2002-02-01

    The stability of DA-1131 to renal dipeptidase (RDPase) (EC 3.4.13.19) was compared with that of imipenem and meropenem by V(max)/K(m) ratios as an index of the enzyme's preference for substrates. Our results showed a decreasing order of imipenem (6.24), meropenem (2.41), and DA-1131 (1.39). The biochemical evaluation of DA-1131 as the least preferred substrate of RDPase suggests its potential use as a novel beta-lactam antibiotic which may be usable without coadministration of RDPase inhibitors once its clinical suitability is proven.

  16. Augusto Celestino da Costa (1884-1956) - professor, scientist and science promoter.

    PubMed

    David-Ferreira, José-Francisco

    2009-01-01

    At the dawn of the 20th century in Lisbon, Augusto Celestino da Costa advocated a model of university practice based on research and defended the promotion of a scientific culture and the dissemination of Science in society. As a scientist, Celestino da Costa made numerous original descriptions of the cytology, histology and embryology of endocrine glands and the sympathetic nervous system. Celestino da Costa authored seminal textbooks on histology and embryology, and was responsible for launching in Portugal the first governmental agency to finance scientific activities.

  17. Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.

  18. 2012 DA14 and Chelyabinsk: Same Day Coincidence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2013-10-01

    A long anticipated near-miss by near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2012 DA14 on 15 February 2013 was upstaged 16 hours earlier by the impact and atmospheric explosion of a ~20 m NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia. DA14 was earlier estimated to be 45 m across and passage at a distance under geosynchronous satellites was considered to be a record close approach by an object of that size, a once-in-40-years event. Actual Earth impact by a 20 m NEA had been estimated to be a once-in-200-years event. A simplistic calculation gives a probability of these happening on the same day of 1-in-a-billion. Within hours of the Chelyabinsk impact, it was recognized and widely reported that the two asteroids were in very different orbits and could not, at least in any readily understandable way, be physically related to each other (e.g. fragments of the same precursor body). Also, some early reports suggested that the two asteroids had very different compositions, further undermining the possibility they were pieces of the same body. (It seems unlikely, though certainly conceivable, that the two NEAs could have different compositions yet have some kind of causal connection resulting in the same-day events.) Nevertheless, incredibly tiny probabilities beg for an explanation. Here, with the benefit of hindsight, I re-examine issues that affect the probabilities, such as size, albedo, probable composition, and numbers of NEAs of these sizes. I also consider difficult issues of framing the apparent coincidence, which dominate other uncertainties. Updated information about the physical nature of the two asteroids somewhat modifies the original estimates of probabilities. Moreover, more proper ways of framing elements of the coincidence considerably reduce the improbability of the same-day events, but not nearly to the level (e.g. 1-in-1000 or perhaps 1-in-10,000) where we could rationalize dismissing the events as “just a coincidence.” The events of 15 February 2013 deserve more sophisticated

  19. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  20. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  1. Voltammetric classification of ciders with PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Górski, Łukasz; Sordoń, Wanda; Ciepiela, Filip; Kubiak, Władysław W; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) may be a chemical fingerprints of food samples, enabled distinguishing the origin of the considered products. In this work the objects of the study was 5 Polish ciders of various brands. For each sample 10 scans were recorded by DPV in the potential range between -0.2 and 1.0 V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 2.0. The signals preprocessing realized by baseline correction with 4-th degree polynomial and normalization (in 0 to 1 interval), performed to reduce problems with insufficient signal's repeatability associated with mechanical renovation of the electrode surface before each measurement. The PLS-DA classification models were built using the training set and then validated using the samples absent in the learning process. The final multi-class model with optimized complexity enables classification of the ciders with 100% sensitivity and specificity, with the exception of one cider, where specificity was 95% (for validation set). PMID:26695257

  2. GOoDA: The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafiura, P.; Eranian, S.; Levinthal, D.; Kama, S.; Vitillo, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Modern superscalar, out-of-order microprocessors dominate large scale server computing. Monitoring their activity, during program execution, has become complicated due to the complexity of the microarchitectures and their IO interactions. Recent processors have thousands of performance monitoring events. These are required to actually provide coverage for all of the complex interactions and performance issues that can occur. Knowing which data to collect and how to interpret the results has become an unreasonable burden for code developers whose tasks are already hard enough. It becomes the task of the analysis tool developer to bridge this gap. To address this issue, a generic decomposition of how a microprocessor is using the consumed cycles allows code developers to quickly understand which of the myriad of microarchitectural complexities they are battling, without requiring a detailed knowledge of the microarchitecture. When this approach is intrinsically integrated into a performance data analysis tool, it enables software developers to take advantage of the microarchitectural methodology that has only been available to experts. The Generic Optimization Data Analyzer (GOoDA) project integrates this expertise into a profiling tool in order to lower the required expertise of the user and, being designed from the ground up with large-scale object-oriented applications in mind, it will be particularly useful for large HENP codebases

  3. [Project Leonardo-da-Vinci for better nursing care].

    PubMed

    Gábor, Katalin; Csanádi, Lajosné; Helembai, Kornélia; Szögi, Zoltánné; Tulkán, Ibolya; Unginé, Kántor Katalin

    2002-08-18

    The aim of the present paper is to inform physicians about the work completed by nurses and professors of baccalaureat nurses in the framework of Leonardo da Vinci project, organised and sponsored by the European Union. The goal of the project was to increase the effectiveness of chief nurses throughout their further training programme in the field of management. The team of Szeged chose the human resource management, since in this field is possible to achieve the greatest improvement with the smallest financial investment. We measured the fluctuations and the absentees of the nurses, the changes in the degree of education, the nurse' and patient' satisfaction at the beginning and at the end of the period studied. Except the patient's satisfaction all the other parameters improved by the end of tested period. The project provided a unique possibility to compare the state of the Hungarian nursing with that of the countries belonging to the European Union, to exchange the experience and to learn some new methods. In the framework of this project a book of two volumes was prepared containing the suggestions of EU. This book is widely available in English and in French.

  4. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  5. Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably

  6. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider.

  7. DaG 1066: A Newfound Anomalous Ureilite with Chondritic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Caporali, S.; Pratesi, G.

    2015-07-01

    General description, textural, and compositional features of the polymict ureilite DaG 1066, recovered in 1999 in Libya, are provided. The meteorite contains various inclusions, among which almost pure forsterite and enstatite-bearing chondrules.

  8. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380

  9. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  12. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) EC24OC91.024...

  13. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury.

  14. OpenDA: Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Geophysical Process Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerts, A.; van Velzen, N.; Verlaan, M.; Sumihar, J.; Hummel, S.; El Serafy, G.; Dhondia, J.; Gerritsen, H.; Vermeer-Ooms, S.; Loots, E.; Markus, A.; Kockx, A.

    2011-12-01

    Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their use in operational forecasting and real-time control in the fields of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. In meteorological and atmospheric sciences, steady improvements in numerical weather forecasting and climate prediction over the last couple of decades have been enabled to a large degree by the development of community-based models and data assimilation systems. The hydrologic community should learn from the experiences of the meteorological and atmospheric communities by accelerating the transition of hydrologic DA research into operations and developing community-supported, open-source modeling and forecasting systems and data assimilation tools. In 2010, a community based open source initiative named OpenDA was started. The openDA initiative bears similarities with the well-known openMI initiative. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modeling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model describing a process (atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water flow, rainfall-runoff, unsaturated flow, groundwater flow, etc.). Presently, openDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of openDA and the results of some of its practical applications.

  15. The 32 kDa Enamelin Undergoes Conformational Transitions upon Calcium Binding

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The 32 kDa hydrophilic and acidic enamelin, the most stable cleavage fragment of the enamel specific glycoprotein, is believed to play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation or growth during enamel biomineralization. Circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectra demonstrate that the secondary structure of the 32 kDa enamelin has a high content of α-helix (81.5%). Quantitative analysis on the circular dichroism data revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin undergoes conformational changes with a structural preference to β-sheet as a function of calcium ions. We suggest that the increase of β-sheet conformation upon presence of Ca2+ may allow preferable interaction of the 32 kDa enamelin with apatite crystal surfaces during enamel biomineralization. The calcium association constant of the 32 kDa enamelin calculated from the fitting curve of ellipticity at 222 nm is Ka = 1.55 (±0.13) × 103 M−1, indicating a relatively low affinity. Our current biophysical studies on the 32 kDa enamelin structure provide novel insights towards understanding the enamelin-mineral interaction and subsequently the functions of enamelin during enamel formation. PMID:18508280

  16. Isolation and characterization of two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DA strain).

    PubMed

    Oleszak, E L; Leibowitz, J L; Rodriguez, M

    1988-09-01

    We have isolated two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strain DA. One variant, TMEV-CL (CL), produced large plaques, while the other, TMEV-DS (DS), produced small plaques in L-2 cells. The DS variant yielded a lower titre in BHK cells and had a significantly slower growth rate when compared to CL and DA. In contrast, DS replicated to a higher titre in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected mice than the large plaque counterpart and DA. Furthermore, the DS (but not CL) variant was temperature-sensitive, replicating 130- to 500-fold more at 37 degrees C than at 39 degrees C. Although DS, CL and DA were able to establish persistent CNS infections in mice, only the DS variant and DA induced demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Therefore persistence of TMEV in the CNS is not sufficient to produce demyelinating disease. These two variants of the DA strain of TMEV will be useful for study of the viral genetic elements important in the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination.

  17. Investigation of hydrophobic organic carbon (HOC) partitioning to 1 kDa fractionated municipal wastewater colloids.

    PubMed

    McPhedran, Kerry N; Seth, Rajesh; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-03-19

    Natural organic matter from the aquatic environment passing a 1 kDa filter has been hypothesized to not contribute appreciably to hydrophobic organic compound (HOC) partitioning; however, to our knowledge this limit has not been verified experimentally for any sorbate/sorbent system. Presently, colloidal organic carbon (COC) < 1 kDa approached 70% of the total COC (<1.5 μm) mass in primary effluent (PE) from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Partitioning of HOCs 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene to COC for both 1.5 μm and 1 kDa filtrates of PE was investigated using the gas-stripping technique. Contrary to the hypothesis, significant HOC-COC partitioning to the 1 kDa filtrate was observed with organic carbon-normalized partitioning coefficients (logKCOC) of 4.30, 4.36, and 3.74 for 1,2,4,5-TeCB, PeCB, and HCB, respectively. Further, partitioning to COC < 1 kDa dominated the overall partitioning of the three chlorobenzenes in the 1.5 μm filtrate, and the partitioning behavior did not follow the trend based on hydrophobicity (KOW). The results show that significant partitioning of HOC may occur to OC < 1 kDa and highlights the need for further experiments with other HOCs and COC characterization to better understand and explain the observed partitioning.

  18. In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

  19. DA 5505: a novel topical formulation of terbinafine that enhances skin penetration and retention.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Raj Kumar; Han, Sang-Duk; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon Ho; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    Topical fungal infections can become severe if left untreated. Efficient treatment modalities for topical fungal infections aid the penetration of antifungal agents deep into viable skin layers. Terbinafine is a fungicidal agent that inhibits ergosterol, an essential fungal component. The main objective of this study was to evaluate skin permeation and retention of a terbinafine-loaded solution containing chitosan as a film former. Comparative assessment of skin permeation and retention was performed using a prepared formulation (DA 5505) and marketed formulations of terbinafine in murine and porcine skin. To mimic fungal infection of skin, keratinized skin was induced in NC/Nga mice. In comparison with the marketed formulations, DA 5505 exhibited significantly better skin permeation. The flux, permeation coefficient, and enhancement ratio of terbinafine were remarkably increased by DA 5505 in comparison with the marketed formulations, and lag time was dramatically reduced. DA 5505 significantly increased cumulative terbinafine retention in viable skin layers in comparison with the marketed solution, suggesting enhanced efficacy. Furthermore, DA 5505 exhibited superior skin permeation in normal skin and keratinized skin. Thus, the DA 5505 formulation has the potential to effectively deliver terbinafine to superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  20. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area. PMID:24141956

  1. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari; Barbosa, Vanessa de Araújo; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca) within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%), Migonemyia migonei (20.6%), Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%), Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%), Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%), Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%), Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%), Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%), Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%), Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2%) and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%). Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  2. Antiapoptotic activity of 30 kDa lipoproteins family from fat body tissue of silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Singh, Nitin Kumar; König, Simone; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2015-10-01

    The family of 30 kDa lipoproteins (LP1-5) is abundant in silkworm pupa fat body (FB) and hemolymph. One of its members, the 29 kDa protein decreased in concentration from peripheral (PP) FB tissue but was sustained in perivisceral (PV) FB tissue at the time of apoptosis. This study investigated the correlation of the 30 kDa proteins with FB apoptosis. Two protein fractions were purified, a 29 and a 30/31 kDa protein fraction, and they were used to test for activity against actinomycin D-induced apoptosis in the FB tissues. Concentrations as little as 50 μg/mL of the 29 kDa protein fraction efficiently inhibited apoptosis. Less antiapoptotic activity was detected for the higher MW fraction; DNA fragmentation was observed in FB tissue treated with 50 μg/mL of the 30/31 kDa fraction. The viability of the cells in the 29 kDa protein-supplemented culture was 40% higher than in the 31 kDa protein-supplemented culture. However, the 30 kDa lipoproteins were not able to prevent scheduled FB degeneration during silkworm metamorphosis. Thus, it is hypothesized that the antiapoptotic 29 kDa protein needs to be proteolytically degraded by a regulatory mechanism to allow programmed cell death of FB tissue.

  3. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm.

  4. Construção de um catálogo de aglomerados abertos para estudo da dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, I. M.; Lépine, J. R. D.

    2003-08-01

    Os aglomerados abertos são objetos de grande valor para o estudo da dinâmica da Galáxia devido esses objetos terem uma faixa de idade relativamente ampla. O trabalho visa estudar a dinâmica da estrutura espiral da Galáxia principalmente através do uso desses aglomerados, uma vez que o estudo da cinemática desses objetos é fundamental para esse objetivo. Nosso grupo trabalha no sentido de construir uma base de dados de aglomerados abertos contendo coordenadas, distância, idade, movimentos próprios e velocidades radiais e já disponibiliza uma nova versão do catálogo de aglomerados abertos o qual é uma compilação de edições anteriores, principalmente Lynga (1987), Mermilliod (1995) e ESO-B (Lauberts 1982). Nossa amostra possui cerca de 1630 aglomerados, mas nem todos os parâmetros acima citados foram determinados em sua totalidade. Para determinarmos esses parâmetros, derivamos as cores intrínsecas das estrelas membro de cada aglomerado a partir de seus tipos espectrais (busca feita no SIMBAD) obtendo assim o excesso de cor individual. A distribuição dos excessos de cor foi então utilizada para derivarmos o avermelhamento médio para cada aglomerado. De maneira similar, os tipos espectrais foram usados para estimar as magnitudes absolutas, e com as magnitudes absolutas e aparentes determinamos a respectiva distribuição do módulo de distância e finalmente a distância. Para determinar as idades foram confeccionados os diagramas cor-magnitude das estrelas de cada aglomerado onde foram superpostas a Seqüência Principal de Idade Zero (ZAMS). Superpomos a ZAMS de Schmidt-Kaler e isócronas de composição solar. Essas isócronas foram usadas para determinação das idades dos aglomerados. Uma vez que não temos ainda resultados finais, apresentamos então alguns diagramas cor-magnitude os quais foram usados para determinação, principalmente, da distância e idade dos aglomerados.

  5. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL) Model and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo M.

    2005-01-01

    The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002) as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of "Item Response Theory (IRT) models". The present paper provides an expository account of the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for…

  6. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions.

    PubMed

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1-42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1-42-exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1-42-induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1-42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ-exposure. PMID:27052102

  7. 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase and SATB1 localize to β-amyloid induced matrix attachment regions

    PubMed Central

    Winick-Ng, Warren; Caetano, Fabiana A.; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Morey, Trevor M.; Heit, Bryan; Rylett, R. Jane

    2016-01-01

    The M-transcript of human choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) produces an 82-kDa protein (82-kDa ChAT) that concentrates in nuclei of cholinergic neurons. We assessed the effects of acute exposure to oligomeric amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ1–42) on 82-kDa ChAT disposition in SH-SY5Y neural cells, finding that acute exposure to Aβ1–42 results in increased association of 82-kDa ChAT with chromatin and formation of 82-kDa ChAT aggregates in nuclei. When measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified that Aβ1–42 -exposure increases 82-kDa ChAT association with gene promoters and introns. The Aβ1–42 -induced 82-kDa ChAT aggregates co-localize with special AT-rich binding protein 1 (SATB1), which anchors DNA to scaffolding/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs). SATB1 had a similar genomic association as 82-kDa ChAT, with both proteins associating with synapse and cell stress genes. After Aβ1–42 -exposure, both SATB1 and 82-kDa ChAT are enriched at the same S/MAR on the APP gene, with 82-kDa ChAT expression attenuating an increase in an isoform-specific APP mRNA transcript. Finally, 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 have patterned genomic association at regions enriched with S/MAR binding motifs. These results demonstrate that 82-kDa ChAT and SATB1 play critical roles in the response of neural cells to acute Aβ -exposure. PMID:27052102

  8. High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin ‘suicide’ inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. Results We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. Conclusions In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon ‘switching’. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date

  9. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  10. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Mergy, Marc A; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J; Gantz, Stephanie C; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L; Wheeler, C Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D; Hahn, Maureen K; Blakely, Randy D

    2014-11-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness.

  11. Localization, biosynthesis, processing and isolation of a major 126 kDa antigen of the parasitophorous vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Delplace, P; Fortier, B; Tronchin, G; Dubremetz, J F; Vernes, A

    1987-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against a 50 kDa antigen found in Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatants identify a 126 kDa polypeptide which can be localized by immunofluorescence and immunoelectronmicroscopy at the periphery of the schizonts. This polypeptide is released from the infected erythrocytes by mild saponin lysis and is probably a component of the parasitophorous vacuole. Pulse chase kinetic analysis demonstrated its disappearance from the parasitized red blood cell from 6 to 10 h after being synthesized and the concomitant appearance of the 50 kDa molecule in the culture supernatant. Purification of metabolically labeled, schizont infected cells demonstrated that spontaneous release of merozoites is needed for the processing of the 126 to the 50 kDa whereas reinvasion is not. Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbit against affinity purified 126 kDa protein. These antibodies, together with another 126 kDa specific monoclonal antibody have enabled us to characterize two other cleavage products of the 126 kDa antigen in culture supernatants, namely 47 and 18 kDa polypeptides. We believe that the processing of the 126 kDa protein into low molecular weight fragments reflects a proteolytic event which may participate in merozoite release.

  12. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakker, A. B.; Cowles, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  13. Metagonimus yokogawai: a 100-kDa Somatic Antigen Commonly Reacting with Other Trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to characterize the properties of a 100 kDa somatic antigen from Metagonimus yokogawai. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against this 100 kDa antigen, and their immunoreactivity was assessed by western blot analysis with patients' sera. The mAbs against the 100 kDa antigen commonly reacted with various kinds of trematode antigens, including intestinal (Gymnophalloides seoi), lung (Paragonimus westermani), and liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola hepatica). However, this mAb showed no cross-reactions with other helminth parasites, including nematodes and cestodes. To determine the topographic distribution of the 100 kDa antigen in worm sections, indirect immunoperoxidase staining was performed. A strong positive reaction was observed in the tegumental and subtegumental layers of adult M. yokogawai and C. sinensis. The results showed that the 100 kDa somatic protein of M. yokogawai is a common antigen which recognizes a target epitope present over the tegumental layer of different trematode species. PMID:24850966

  14. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  15. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis. PMID:26951982

  16. In vitro study on the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daming; Du, Chang; Sun, Zhi; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Enamel extracelluar matrix components play vital roles in controlling crystal nucleation and growth during enamel formation. We investigated the interaction between the 32 kDa enamelin fragment and amelogenin using immunochemical and biophysical methods. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the 32 kDa enamelin and amelogenin eluted together from a Protein A column. Dynamic light scattering results showed that the 32 kDa enamelin had a profound effect on amelogenin assembly at pH 8.0, causing partial dissociation of the nanospheres, in a dose-dependent manner. The appearance of an isodichroic point and the shifting and intensity decrease of the ellipticity minima in the circular dichroism spectra of amelogenin following the addition of the 32 kDa enamelin were indicative of conformational changes in amelogenin and of a direct interaction between the two macromolecules. Our results collectively demonstrate that the 32 kDa enamelin has a direct interaction with amelogenin in vitro. Our current studies provide novel insights into understanding possible cooperation between enamelin and amelogenin in macromolecular self-assembly and in controlling enamel mineral formation. PMID:19263522

  17. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W P; Roos, R P

    1991-01-01

    Polyprotein processing studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a group of mouse picornaviruses, demonstrated synthesis of a protein we have called l during in vitro translations from the RNA of DA, a demyelinating strain of TMEV, but not GDVII, an acute neurovirulent strain. We have proposed that l is synthesized from an alternative initiation site in the DA leader (L) coding area out of phase with the polyprotein reading frame (R. P. Roos, W.-P. Kong, B. L. Semler, J. Virol. 63:5344-5353, 1989). We now provide support for this proposal from experiments involving in vitro translation of three separate mutations of an infectious DA cDNA clone: DA"l"-1, which contains a base mismatch at the putative initiation codon of l, DAL-1, which contains a base mismatch at the presumed authentic initiation site of L at the beginning of the polyprotein; and DAL:NheI, which contains nucleotides coding for a four-amino-acid insertion in the L coding area with a termination codon in the l reading frame. Our results demonstrate that the DA strain uses an alternative initiation site and reading frame to in vitro synthesize l. l may have a role in the biological activity of the virus. Images PMID:2033677

  18. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Shijun

    2011-12-01

    Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A) and analog-to-digital (A/D) conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM). Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation) is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  19. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  20. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry.

  1. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  2. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-02-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world's largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS), up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  3. Low strain, long life creep fatigue of AF2-1DA and INCO 718

    SciTech Connect

    Thakker, A.B.; Cowles, B.A.

    1983-04-01

    Two aircraft turbine disk alloys, GATORIZED AF2-DA and INCO 718 were evaluated for their low strain long life creep-fatigue behavior. Static (tensile and creep rupture) and cyclic properties of both alloys were characterized. The cntrolled strain LCF tests were conducted at 760 C (1400 F) and 649 C (1200 F) for AF2-1DA and INCO 718, respectively. Hold times were varied for tensile, compressive and tensile/compressive strain dwell (relaxation) tests. Stress (creep) hold behavior of AF2-1DA was also evaluated. Generally, INCO 718 exhibited more pronounced reduction in cyclic life due to hold than AF2-1DA. The percent reduction in life for both alloys for strain dwell tests was greater at low strain ranges (longer life regime). Changing hold time from 0 to 0.5, 2.0 and 15.0 min. resulted in corresponding reductions in life. The continuous cycle and cyclic/dwell initiation failure mechanism was predominantly transgranular for AF2-1DA and intergranular for INCO 718.

  4. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H

    1990-01-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. We propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits. Images PMID:2107547

  5. gLExec Integration with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavakis, E.; Barreiro, F.; Campana, S.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Litmaath, M.; Maeno, T.; Medrano, R.; Nilsson, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS user jobs are executed on Worker Nodes (WNs) by pilots sent to sites by pilot factories. This paradigm serves to allow a high job reliability and although it has clear advantages, such as making the working environment homogeneous, the approach presents security and traceability challenges. To address these challenges, gLExec can be used to let the payloads for each user be executed under a different UNIX user id that uniquely identifies the ATLAS user. This paper describes the recent improvements and evolution of the security model within the ATLAS PanDA system, including improvements in the PanDA pilot, in the PanDA server and their integration with MyProxy, a credential caching system that entitles a person or a service to act in the name of the issuer of the credential. Finally, it presents results from ATLAS user jobs running with gLExec and describes the deployment campaign within ATLAS.

  6. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J.B.; Kidder, K.M.; Wesemael, F. Montreal Universite, Montreal )

    1990-12-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star. 37 refs.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with PARAFAC and PLS DA for characterization and classification of honey.

    PubMed

    Lenhardt, Lea; Bro, Rasmus; Zeković, Ivana; Dramićanin, Tatjana; Dramićanin, Miroslav D

    2015-05-15

    Fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and Partial least squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS DA) were used for characterization and classification of honey. Excitation emission spectra were obtained for 95 honey samples of different botanical origin (acacia, sunflower, linden, meadow, and fake honey) by recording emission from 270 to 640 nm with excitation in the range of 240-500 nm. The number of fluorophores present in honey, excitation and emission spectra of each fluorophore, and their relative concentration are determined using a six-component PARAFAC model. Emissions from phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products exhibited the largest difference among classes of honey of different botanical origin. The PLS DA classification model, constructed from PARAFAC model scores, detected fake honey samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Honey samples were also classified using PLS DA with errors of 0.5% for linden, 10% for acacia, and about 20% for both sunflower and meadow mix.

  8. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  9. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Kidder, K. M.; Wesemael, F.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star.

  10. Prediction of quench and rewet temperatures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerson, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Many postulated nuclear reactor accidents result in high-temperature dryout or film boiling within the nuclear core. In order to mitigate potential fuel rod damage or rod failure, safe or lower fuel rod temperatures must be reestablished by promoting coolant/cladding contact. This process is commonly referred to as quenching or rewetting, and often, these terms are not differentiated. All theoretical predictions of the cooling process by various models based on single or multidimensional analytical and numerical studies require a knowledge of either the quenching or the rewetting temperature. The purpose of this paper is to define quench and rewet temperatures and present a method whereby each may be estimated.

  11. Comparative assessment of selected PWR auxiliary feedwater system reliability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, R.; Fresco, A.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Tsao, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a sample of results obtained in reviewing utility submittals of Auxiliary Feedwater System reliability studies. These results are then used to illustrate a few general points regarding such studies. The submittals and reviews for operating license applications are quite significant in that they represent an application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the licensing process.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR

    DOEpatents

    Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

    1975-12-19

    A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

  13. HSST pressurized-thermal-shock experiment, PTSE-1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R.; Robinson, G.C.; Merkle, J.G.; Whitman, G.D.; Pugh, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The first pressurized-thermal-shock experiment (PTSE-1) in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is the most recent of a long successtion of fracture-mechanics experiments that are on a scale that allows important aspects of fracture behavior of reactor pressure vessels to be simulated. Such experiments are the means by which theoretical models of fracture behavior can be evaluated for possible aplication to fracture analysis of vessels in nuclear plants. The principal issues of concern in the pressurized-thermal-shock experiments are: (1) warm prestressing phenomena, (2) crack propagation from brittle to ductile regions, (3) transient crack stabilization in ductile regions, and (4) crack shape changes in bimetallic zones of clad vessels. PTSE-1 was designed to investigate the first three issues under conditions relevant to a flawed reactor vessel during an overcooling accident.

  14. Chemical-cleaning solvent and process testing. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.M.; Leedy, W.S.

    1983-04-01

    Laboratory and pilot plant investigations were conducted to develop and qualify chemical cleaning solvents, procedures, analysis methods and monitoring techniques to safely remove magnetite, copper and copper oxide sludges from the secondary side of nuclear steam generators. The results of this program found that a two-step procedure involving two different solvents should be used. A solvent composed of 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1% hydrazine (N/sub 2/H/sub 4/), 5 to 10 mL/L CI-801 (a nonproprietary corrosion inhibitor), pH adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia used at a temperature of 93/sup 0/C (200/sup 0/C) will dissolve magnetite in a reasonable period of time. Corrosion produced by this solvent in tests on materials of which steam generators are constructed was reasonably low in all cases. A solvent composed of 5% EDTA, 2% hydrogen peroxide, with the pH first adjusted to 7.0 with ammonia and then to 10.0 with ethylenediamine (EDA) was developed to dissolve copper and copper oxides. This solvent is most effective when used at ambient temperature.

  15. INTERCOMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    DIAMOND,D.J.; ARONSON,A.; JO,J.; AVVAKUMOV,A.; MALOFEEV,V.; SIDOROV,V.; FERRARESI,P.; GOUIN,C.; ANIEL,S.; ROYER,M.E.

    1999-10-01

    This study is part of an overall program to understand the uncertainty in best-estimate calculations of the local fuel enthalpy during the rod ejection accident. Local fuel enthalpy is used as the acceptance criterion for this design-basis event and can also be used to estimate fuel damage for the purpose of determining radiological consequences. The study used results from neutron kinetics models in PARCS, BARS, and CRONOS2, codes developed in the US, the Russian Federation, and France, respectively. Since BARS uses a heterogeneous representation of the fuel assembly as opposed to the homogeneous representations in PARCS and CRONOS, the effect of the intercomparison was primarily to compare different intra-assembly models. Quantitative comparisons for core power, reactivity, assembly fuel enthalpy and pin power were carried out. In general the agreement between methods was very good providing additional confidence in the codes and providing a starting point for a quantitative assessment of the uncertainty in calculated fuel enthalpy using best-estimate methods.

  16. Modelling of molten fuel/concrete interactions. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, J. F.; Benjamin, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    A computer program modelling the interaction between molten core materials and structural concrete (CORCON) is being developed to provide quantitative estimates of fuel-melt accident consequences suitable for risk assessment of light water reactors. The principal features of CORCON are reviewed. Models developed for the principal interaction phenomena, inter-component heat transfer, concrete erosion, and melt/gas chemical reactions, are described. Alternative models for the controlling phenomenon, heat transfer from the molten pool to the surrounding concrete, are presented. These models, formulated in conjunction with the development of CORCON, are characterized by the presence or absence of either a gas film or viscous layer of molten concrete at the melt/concrete interface. Predictions of heat transfer based on these models compare favorably with available experimental data.

  17. Fuel performance annual report for 1981. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Tokar, M.

    1982-12-01

    This annual report, the fourth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1981 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel operating experience, fuel problems, fuel design changes and fuel surveillance programs, and high-burnup fuel experience are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included.

  18. IN-CORE FUEL MANAGEMENT: PWR Core Calculations Using MCRAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PetroviĆ, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * IN-CORE FUEL MANAGEMENT CALCULATIONS * In-Core Fuel Management * Methodological Problems of In-Core Fuel Management * In-Core Fuel Management Analytical Tools * PENN STATE FUEL MANAGEMENT PACKAGE * Penn State Fuel Management Package (PFMP) * Assembly Data Description (ADD) * Linking PSU-LEOPARD and MCRAC: An Example * MULTICYCLE REACTOR ANALYSIS CODE (MCRAC) * Main Features and Options of MCRAC code * Core geometry * Diffusion equations * 1.5-group model * Multicycle neutronic analysis * Multicycle cost analysis * Criticality search * Power-dependent xenon feedback calculations * Control rod and burnable absorber simulation * Search for LP with flat BOC power distribution * Artificial ADD option * Variable dimensioning technique * RBI version of MCRAC code * Programming changes in PC version * Fuel interchange option * MCRAC Input/Output * General input description * Sample input * Sample output * EXPERIENCE WITH MCRAC CODE * CONCLUSIONS * REFERENCES

  19. Stress-corrosion cracking in BWR and PWR piping

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, R.W.

    1983-07-01

    Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of weld-sensitized wrought stainless steel piping has been an increasingly ubiquitous and expensive problem in boiling-water reactors over the last decade. In recent months, numerous cracks have been found, even in large-diameter lines. A number of potential remedies have been developed. These are directed at providing more resistant materials, reducing weld-induced stresses, or improving the water chemistry. The potential remedies are discussed, along with the capabilities of ultrasonic testing to find and size the cracks and related safety issues. The problem has been much less severe to date in pressurized-water reactors, reflecting the use of different materials and much lower coolant oxygen levels.

  20. Analysis of boron dilution in a four-loop PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal mixing and boron dilution in a pressurized water reactor were analyzed with COMMIX codes. The reactor system was the four loop Zion reactor. Two boron dilution scenarios were analyzed. In the first scenario, the plant is in cold shutdown and the reactor coolant system has just been filled after maintenance on the steam generators. To flush the air out of the steam generator tubes, a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is started, with the water in the pump suction line devoid of boron and at the same temperature as the coolant in the system. In the second scenario, the plant is at hot standby and the reactor coolant system has been heated up to operating temperature after a long outage. It is assumed that an RCP is started, with the pump suction line filled with cold unborated water, forcing a slug of diluted coolant down the downcomer and subsequently through the reactor core. The subsequent transient thermal mixing and boron dilution that would occur in the reactor system is simulated for these two scenarios. The reactivity insertion rate and the total reactivity are evaluated.

  1. Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia Laboratories. [BWR; PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories is executing a program for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. This paper summarizes the activities of this ongoing program through December 1979. Characterization of electrically initiated fires revealed a margin of safety in the separation criteria of Regulatory Guide 1.75 for such fires in IEEE-383 qualified cable. However, tests confirmed that these guidelines and standards are not sufficient, in themselves, to protect against exposure fires. This paper describes both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness. It also describes full scale tests to determine the effects of walls and ceilings on fire propagation between cable trays.

  2. Fire-retardant lubricant for turbine generators. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Pankowiecki, J.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a fire resistant fluid in steam turbine generator lubrication systems would reduce the fire risks associated with current mineral lubricating oils. This project was directed toward determining the fesibility of modifying an existing Westinghouse lubrication system to use a phosphate ester lubricating fluid. The effects of the fluid on major components of the lubrication system including oil supply system, bearings, and generator hydrogen seal system were investigated. Performance and material compatibility impact on system components are identified and modifications recommended where required. Estimates of major modification costs are presented. The results of this study indicate that, with appropriate system modifications, a phosphate ester fluid can be an effective and reliable steam turbine generator lubricant. Recommendations are presented for component verification testing.

  3. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  4. In-core detector activation rate for a PWR assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Todosow, M.; Eisenhart, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    The in-core detector system is the principal source of information for determining relative assembly powers, and maximum fuel rod powers in a reactor core. The detector signals are used in conjunction with pre-calculated factors, and appropriate normalizations, to obtain measured power values. Considerable reliance is placed on the accuracy of in-core detector inferred power distributions in reactor operations, and in the verification of calculational methods. The objective of this study was to compare results from standard design codes for the in-core detector activation rate (and the fission rate distribution in an assembly), to results obtained from a detailed calculation performed with a continuous energy Monte Carlo program with ENDF/B-V nuclear data.

  5. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  6. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved.

  7. Support arrangements for core modules of nuclear reactors. [PWR

    DOEpatents

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1983-11-03

    A support arrangement is provided for the core modules of a nuclear reactor which provides support access through the control drive mechanisms of the reactor. This arrangement provides axial support of individual reactor core modules from the pressure vessel head in a manner which permits attachment and detachment of the modules from the head to be accomplished through the control drive mechanisms after their leadscrews have been removed. The arrangement includes a module support nut which is suspended from the pressure vessel head and screw threaded to the shroud housing for the module. A spline lock prevents loosening of the screw connection. An installation tool assembly, including a cell lifting and preloading tool and a torquing tool, fits through the control drive mechanism and provides lifting of the shroud housing while disconnecting the spline lock, as well as application of torque to the module support nut.

  8. Tribo-corrosion in PWR: A Parametric Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kaczorowski, D.; Combrade, P.; Vernot, J. Ph.; Beaudouin, A.

    2006-07-01

    A specific tribometer equipped for electrochemical measurements in pressurized high temperature water (PHTW) is being used to study the effect of the water chemistry on the wear rate of a stainless steel. First results indicate that a slightly acidic pH increases drastically the wear rate compared to slightly alkaline pH. The influence of hydrogen partial pressure and contact kinematics is also described. (authors)

  9. Interfacial transfer in annular dispersed flow. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1982-01-01

    The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, droplet deposition and droplet-size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The onset of droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet-size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data. Then the rate equations for entrainment and deposition have been developed. The drag correlations relevant to the droplet transfer is also presented. The comparison of the correlations to various data show satisfactory agreement.

  10. Hydrodynamics of annular-dispersed flow. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Kataoka, I.

    1982-01-01

    The interfacial drag, droplet entrainment, and droplet size distributions are important for detailed mechanistic modeling of annular dispersed two-phase flow. In view of this, recently developed correlations for these parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. The drag correlations for multiple fluid particle systems have been developed from a similarity hypothesis based on the mixture viscosity model. The results show that the drag coefficient depends on the particle Reynolds number and droplet concentration. The onset on droplet entrainment significantly alters the mechanisms of mass, momentum, and energy transfer between the film and gas core flow as well as the transfer between the two-phase mixture and the wall. By assuming the roll wave entrainment mechanism, the correlations for the amount of entrained droplet as well as for the droplet size distribution have been obtained from a simple model in collaboration with a large number of data.

  11. Demonstration of a noise-surveillance system at a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The automated surveillance system has monitored the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant during its first fuel cycle. The system was able to acceptably adapt to different plant operating conditions. While evaluations are still ongoing, results indicate that the system was able to adapt to signals with different statistical character and that the discriminants are useful in detecting spectral changes. The system monitored long-term noise behavior, detected spectra that differ from what is considered normal, and provided concise storage of spectra together with the plant operating condition associated with the stored spectra.

  12. Cutback sensitivity test for boron-free small modular PWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, J.; Shin, H. C.; Jeong, J. E.; Lee, D.

    2016-08-01

    A soluble boron-free small modular pressurized water reactor (SMPWR) uses burnable absorbers (BA) instead of soluble boron to reduce excess reactivity. As a consequence, the fuel cycle length can be shortened by the residual penalty of BA. This paper performs cutback sensitivity tests to extend the cycle length. The influence of the height of the cutback, of the 235U enrichment rate, and of the BA material on the power peaking factor (Fq), the axial offset (AO) and the fuel cycle length is analyzed with the reactor core design system, CASMO-4E/SIMULATE-3 code system.

  13. PNL technical review of pressurized thermal-shock issues. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, L.T.; Apley, W.J.; Bian, S.H.; Defferding, L.J.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Simonen, E.P.; Simonen, F.A.; Stevens, D.L.; Taylor, T.T.

    1982-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to develop and recommend a regulatory position that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should adopt regarding the ability of reactor pressure vessels to withstand the effects of pressurized thermal shock (PTS). Licensees of eight pressurized water reactors provided NRC with estimates of remaining effective full power years before corrective actions would be required to prevent an unsafe operating condition. PNL reviewed these responses and the results of supporting research and concluded that none of the eight reactors would undergo vessel failure from a PTS event before several more years of operation. Operator actions, however, were often required to terminate a PTS event before it deteriorated to the point where failure could occur. Therefore, the near-term (less than one year) recommendation is to upgrade, on a site-specific basis, operational procedures, training, and control room instrumentation. Also, uniform criteria should be developed by NRC for use during future licensee analyses. Finally, it was recommended that NRC upgrade nondestructive inspection techniques used during vessel examinations and become more involved in the evaluation of annealing requirements.

  14. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  15. PWR internal flow modeling with fuel assemblies details

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, E.; Yan, J.; Karoutas, Z.; Gehin, J.; Brewster, R.; Baglietto, E.

    2012-07-01

    This study is an example of a massive parallel computing of the coolant flow in a nuclear reactor. It resolves the flow velocities in each assembly on pin level and predicts the flow distribution in complex geometries such as the lower and upper reactor plenums. The size of the developed model (1.035 billion cells) required the runs to be executed on the NCCS clusters (www.nccs.gov). STAR-CCM+ code (www.ed-adapco.com) was installed on two clusters: JAGUARXT5 and FROST, both of which were capable of executing this model. (authors)

  16. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively.

  17. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  18. Characterization of the 70 kDa polypeptide of the Na/Ca exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Saba, R I; Bollen, A; Herchuelz, A

    1999-01-01

    The Na/Ca exchanger is associated with 160, 120 and 70 kDa polypeptides whose nature is poorly understood. We have purified and characterized the Na/Ca exchanger from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles (SLVs) by using ion-exchange and affinity chromatographies. The Na/Ca exchanger-enriched fraction was reconstituted into asolectin liposomes [lipid to protein ratio 10:1 (w/w)] that showed Na/Ca exchange activity. Under non-reducing conditions, SDS/PAGE showed a single 70 kDa polypeptide, which was further characterized by immunoblots with different antibodies: SWant, raised against the purified exchanger protein; NH2-terminus, residues 1-21; NCX1, residues 393-406; and Exon F, residues 622-644. Immunoblots under reducing conditions with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 showed three bands migrating at 160, 120 and 70 kDa for SLV preparations, whereas Exon F reacted only with the 160 and 120 kDa bands. Under non-reducing conditions, immunoblots with purified reconstituted Na/Ca exchanger showed a single band at 70 kDa reacting with SWant, NH2-terminus and NCX1 but not with Exon F. We conclude that the 70 kDa protein is associated with Na/Ca exchange activity, has the same N-terminal sequence as the cloned bovine cardiac exchanger, and has its length decreased by at least 35% from its C-terminal portion as compared with that of the wild-type exchanger. PMID:9931309

  19. Recurring X-ray outbursts in the supernova impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Kong, A. K. H.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.; Dolphin, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present new observations of the `supernova impostor' SN 2010da using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. During the initial 2010 outburst, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was observed by Swift to be ˜5 × 1038 erg s-1 and faded by a factor of ˜25 in a four month period. Our two new Chandra observations show a factor of ˜10 increase in the 0.35-8 keV X-ray luminosity, from ˜4 × 1036 to 4 × 1037 erg s-1 in ˜6 months, and the X-ray spectrum is consistent in both observations with a power-law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 0. We find evidence of X-ray spectral state changes: when SN 2010da is in a high-luminosity state, the X-ray spectrum is harder (Γ ˜0) compared to the low-luminosity state (Γ ˜ 1.2 ± 0.8). Using our Hubble observations, we fit the colour-magnitude diagram of the coeval stellar population to estimate a time since formation of the SN 2010da progenitor system of ≲5 Myr. Our observations are consistent with SN 2010da being a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) composed of a neutron star and a luminous blue variable-like companion, although we cannot rule out the possibility that SN 2010da is an unusually X-ray bright massive star. The ≲5 Myr age is consistent with the theoretically predicted delay time between the formation of a massive binary and the onset of the HMXB phase. It is possible that the initial 2010 outburst marked the beginning of X-ray production in the system, making SN 2010da possibly the first massive progenitor binary ever observed to evolve into an HMXB.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid and corydaline in DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Ju Myung; Jeong, Jin Seok; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2014-07-01

    1.Few studies describing the pharmacokinetic properties of chlorogenic acid (CA) and corydaline (CRD) which are marker compounds of a new prokinetic botanical agent, DA-9701, have been reported. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties CA and CRD following intravenous and oral administration of pure CA (1-8 mg/kg) or CRD (1.1-4.5 mg/kg) and their equivalent dose of DA-9701 to rats. 2.  Dose-proportional AUC and dose-independent clearance (10.3-12.1 ml/min/kg) of CA were observed following its administration. Oral administration of CA as DA-9701 did not influence the oral pharmacokinetic parameters of CA. Incomplete absorption of CA, its decomposition in the gastrointestinal tract, and/or pre-systemic metabolism resulted in extremely low oral bioavailability (F) of CA (0.478-0.899%). 3.  CRD showed greater dose-normalized AUC in the higher dose group than that in lower dose group(s) after its administration due to saturation of its metabolism via decreased non-renal clearance (by 51.3%) and first-pass extraction. As a result, the F of CRD following 4.5 mg/kg oral CRD (21.1%) was considerably greater than those of the lower dose groups (9.10 and 13.8%). However, oral administration of CRD as DA-9701 showed linear pharmacokinetics as a result of increased AUC and F in lower-dose groups (by 182% and 78.5%, respectively) compared to those of pure CRD. The greater oral AUC of CRD for DA-9701 than for pure CRD could be due to decreased hepatic and/or GI first-pass extraction of CRD by other components in DA-9701.

  1. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  2. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2013-06-01

    Rice, the staple food of south and east Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16, 26, 33, and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Recently, it was documented that the 56 kDa rice allergen was responsible for rice-induced anaphylaxis. The 14-16 kDa allergens have been identified as α-amylase inhibitors; the 26 kDa protein has been identified as α-globulin; and the 33 kDa protein has been identified as glyoxalase I. However, the identity of the 56 kDa rice allergen has not yet been determined. In this study, we demonstrate that serum from patients allergic to maize shows IgE binding to a 56 kDa protein that was present in both maize and rice but not in the oil seeds soybean and peanut. The 56 kDa IgE-binding protein was abundant in the rice endosperm. We have purified this protein from rice endosperm and demonstrated its reactivity to IgE antibodies from the serum of maize-allergic patients. The purified protein was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, resulting in identification of this rice allergen as granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene. Immunoblot analysis using protein extracts from a waxy mutant of rice revealed the absence of the 56 kDa IgE-binding protein. Our results demonstrate that the 56 kDa rice allergen is granule-bound starch synthase and raise the possibility of using waxy mutants of rice as a potential source of the hypoallergenic diet for patients sensitized to the 56 kDa rice allergen.

  3. Infectious cDNA clones of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Stein, S; Ohara, Y; Fu, J L; Semler, B L

    1989-01-01

    The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses cause a persistent demyelinating infection, whereas the GDVII strain and other GDVII subgroup strains cause an acute lethal polioencephalomyelitis. We generated an infectious DA cDNA clone inserted into a transcription vector. Virus derived from transfection of transcripts produced a demyelinating disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. The infectious clone provides a critical reagent for the production of interstrain recombinant viruses to help identify genetic loci responsible for the biological activities of the strains. Images PMID:2555569

  4. Spectroscopy of the DA white dwarfs - Automatic atmospheric parameterization and mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the automatic calculation of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) of hydrogen-rich degenerate stars from low-resolution spectra is described, and then applied to the spectra of 53 DA white dwarfs. A value for the width of the DA mass distribution of sigma M/solar-M not greater than +0.10 is obtained using the proposed approach. The data indicate that the distribution is asymmetrically skewed to low masses; however, there is also evidence of a high-mass non-Gaussian tail.

  5. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented.

  6. Solubilization of insoluble inorganic phosphate by Burkholderia cepacia DA23 isolated from cultivated soil

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ok-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Jin; Lee, Yong-Seok; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Keun-Ki; Choi, Yong-Lark

    2008-01-01

    A mineral phosphate solubilizing bacterium, Burkholderia cepacia DA23 has been isolated from cultivated soils. Phosphate-solubilizing activities of the strain against three types of insoluble phosphate were quantitatively determined. When 3% of glucose concentration was used for carbon source, the strain had a marked mineral phosphate-solubilizing activity. Mineral phosphate solubilization was directly related to the pH drop by the strain. Analysis of the culture medium by high pressure liquid chromatography identified gluconic acid as the main organic acid released by Burkholderia cepacia DA23. Gluconic acid production was apparently the result of the glucose dehydrogenase activity and glucose dehydrogenase was affected by phosphate regulation. PMID:24031195

  7. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented. PMID:25811686

  8. DAEdALUS: A New Search for CP Violation in the Neutrino Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Rachel; DAEdALUS Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The DAEdALUS experiment offers a novel approach to measuring CP violation in the neutrino sector. The design uses multiple cyclotrons to produce intense beams of neutrinos from the decay-at-rest of pions and muons. Short-baseline muon- to electron-antineutrino oscillations are observed via inverse beta decay in an ultra-large water Cerenkov detector at DUSEL. The experiment's high-statistics, low-background output yields a CP violation sensitivity competitive with that of LBNE. Together, the complementary designs of DAEdALUS and LBNE provide the highest sensitivity of any presently proposed CP violation search.

  9. The Drosophila 110-kDa transcription factor TFIID subunit directly interacts with the N-terminal region of the 230-kDa subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Kokubo, T; Gong, D W; Roeder, R G; Horikoshi, M; Nakatani, Y

    1993-01-01

    Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multimeric protein complex that plays a central role in transcriptional regulation by facilitating promoter responses to various activators. cDNAs encoding the 110-kDa subunit of Drosophila TFIID (p110) were isolated with a degenerate oligodeoxynucleotide probe based on an amino acid sequence of the purified protein. The entire cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame encoding a 921-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 99,337 Da. The recombinant protein expressed in Sf9 cells via a baculovirus vector interacts directly with the 230-kDa subunit of TFIID (p230). Together with the previous observation that the TATA box-binding subunit of TFIID (TFIID tau or TBP) interacts directly with only p230 among the TFIID subunits, this result suggests that p110 forms a complex with TFIID tau via p230. A binding study using various p230 mutants indicated that both p110 and TFIID tau interact with the N-terminal 352-amino acid portion of p230, suggesting a functional communication between p110 and TFIID tau via p230 interactions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8327460

  10. Análise da aplicação e dos resultados do modelo OPM3® para a área da saúde

    PubMed Central

    Augusto dos Santos, Luis; de Fátima Marin, Heimar

    2015-01-01

    Esta pesquisa procurou analisar se um modelo de questionário criado por uma comunidade internacional de gerenciamento de projetos e se é aplicavél a organizações voltadas a área de saúde. O modelo OPM3® (Organizational Project Management Maturity Model) foi criado para que organizações de qualquer área ou porte pudessem identificar a presença, ou ausência, de boas práticas de gerenciamento. O objetivo da aplicação desse modelo é avaliar sempre a organização e não o entrevistado. No presente artigo, são apresentados os resultados da aplicação desse modelo em uma organização que possuía produtos e serviços de tecnologia da informação aplicados à área de saúde. Este estudo verificou que o modelo é aplicável de forma rápida e que a organização analisada possuía um número expressivo de boas práticas. PMID:26924862

  11. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  13. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). 60.45Da Section 60.45Da Protection of Environment... standards for combined nitrogen oxides (NOX) and carbon monoxide (CO). (a) The owner or operator of...

  14. Authentication of official Da-huang by sequencing and multiplex allele-specific PCR of a short maturase K gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guojie; Wang, Xueyong; Liu, Chunsheng; Li, Weidong; Wei, Shengli; Liu, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Juan

    2013-02-01

    Rhubarb (official Da-huang) is an important medicinal herb in Asia. Many adulterants of official Da-huang have been discovered in Chinese markets in recent years, which has resulted in adverse effects in medicinal treatment. Here, novel molecular markers based on a short maturase K (matK) gene were developed for authenticating official Da-huang. This study showed that all the species from official Da-huang were clustered together in one clade in the polygenetic trees based on short matK. Two highly conserved single nucleotide polymorphisms of short matK were mined in the species from official Da-huang. Based on these polymophisms, four improved specific primers of official Da-huang were successfully developed that generated reproducible specific bands. These results suggest that the short matK sequence can be considered as a favorable candidate for distinguishing official Da-huang from its adulterants. The established multiplex allele-specific PCR was determined to be simple and accurate and may serve as a preferable tool for authentication of official Da-huang. In addition, we suggest that short-sized specific bands be developed to authenticate materials used in traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'.

  16. 32 CFR 644.425 - Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and procedure for disposal of surplus property by DA to eligible public agencies. 644.425 Section 644.425 National Defense Department of Defense... property by DA to eligible public agencies. FPMR 101-47.303-2 provides that the disposal agency shall...

  17. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  18. Effect of DA-9701 on the Normal Motility and Clonidine-induced Hypomotility of the Gastric Antrum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Je Wook; Han, Dae Kyeong; Kim, Ock Nyun; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701 is a novel prokinetic agent. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DA-9701 on the motility of the gastric antrum in the normal and clonidine-induced hypomotility in an in vivo animal model. Methods A strain gauge force transducer was sutured on the gastric antrum to measure the contractile activity in rats. A total of 28 rats were subclassified into the 4 groups: (1) the placebo group, (2) the DA-9701 group, (3) the placebo group in the clonidine-pretreated rats, and (4) the DA-9701 group in the clonidine-pretreated rats. After the basal recording, either placebo (3% [w/v] hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) or DA-9701 was administered. Contractile signals were measured after the administration and after a meal. In the clonidine-pretreated rats, either placebo or DA-9701 was administered. Contractile signals were measured after the administration and after a meal. Results Oral administration of DA-9701 did not significantly alter the motility index of the gastric antrum in the preprandial and postprandial periods, compared with the placebo group. The administration of clonidine decreased the motility index of the gastric antrum in the preprandial and postprandial periods, compared with the administration of placebo. This reduction of the antral motility by the administration of clonidine was not observed in the clonidine-pretreated DA-9701 group. The percentage of the motility index in the postprandial period was significantly greater in the clonidine-pretreated DA-9701 group, compared with the clonidine-pretreated placebo group. Conclusions DA-9701 improves the hypomotility of the gastric antrum induced by clonidine, suggesting its gastroprokinetic effect in the pathologic condition. PMID:26755679

  19. Effect of Fluosol-DA hemodilution on the kinetics of hepatically eliminated drugs.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, R P

    1987-03-01

    The pharmacokinetics of four hepatically eliminated drugs were determined in the rat following moderate hemodilution with either Fluosol-DA or normal saline. The drugs, antipyrine, phenytoin, indocyanine green, and d-propranolol, have extraction ratios from 0.01 to 0.99 in the rat. Animals received an intravenous dose of the drug 0.5, 24, 48, or 72 hours after hemodilution and drug disposition was compared to non-exchanged animals. Antipyrine clearance was increased 48 and 72 hours after Fluosol-DA exchange probably due to enhanced microsomal enzymatic activity. Indocyanine green clearance was decreased 24 hours after Fluosol-DA exchange more likely by a change in its extraction ratio than by alterations in hepatic blood flow. Phenytoin and d-propranolol clearances were decreased at 24 and 72 hours respectively after Fluosol-DA hemodilution due to a decreased apparent volume of distribution. Saline hemodilution decreased phenytoin clearance 24, 48, and 72 hours after exchange also by decreasing the apparent volume of distribution. This volume change was thought to be due to hypovolemia or a microcirculation redistribution which was secondary to hemodilution.

  20. MATERNAL ATRAZINE (ATR) ALTERS HYPOTHALAMIC DOPAMINE (HYP-DA) AND SERUM PROLACTIN (SPRL) IN MALE PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maternal Atrazine (ATR) alters hypothalamic dopamine (HYP-DA) and serum prolactin (sPRL) in male pups. 1Christopher Langdale, 2Tammy Stoker and 2Ralph Cooper. 1 Dept. of Cell Biology, North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC. 2 Endocrinology ...

  1. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  2. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  3. 40 CFR 60.44Da - Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). 60... Steam Generating Units § 60.44Da Standards for nitrogen oxides (NOX). (a) Except as provided in... 50 percent or more of the total heat input to the combined cycle combustion turbine, the owner...

  4. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  5. Long-term evolution of 1991 DA: A dynamically evolved extinct Halley-type comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Gerhard; Bailey, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    The long-term dynamical evolution of 21 variational orbits for the intermediate-period asteroid 1991 DA was followed for up to +/-10(exp 5) years from the present. 1991 DA is close to the 2:7 resonance with Jupiter; it has avoided close encounters, within 1 AU, with this planet for at least the past 30,000 years, even at the node crossing. The future evolution typically shows no close encounters with Jupiter within at least 50,000 years. This corresponds to the mean time between node crossings with either Jupiter or Saturn. Close encounters with Saturn and Jupiter lead to a chaotic evolution for the whole ensemble, while secular perturbations cause large-amplitude swings in eccentricity and inclination (the latter covering the range 15 deg approximately less than i approximately less than 85 deg) which correlate with deep excursions of the perihelion distance to values much less than 1 AU. These variations are similar to those found in P/Machholz and a variety of other high-inclination orbits, e.g., P/Hartley-IRAS. We emphasize the connection between the orbital evolution of 1991 DA and that of Halley-type comets. If 1991 DA was once a comet, it is not surprising that it is now extinct.

  6. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  7. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  8. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  9. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  11. 32 CFR 644.512 - DA-SBA joint set-aside determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true DA-SBA joint set-aside determination. 644.512 Section 644.512 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  12. Views and Voices of the Working Class: Aída and Rosario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2005, Spanish television audiences saw the debut of the nation's first spinoff, the sitcom "Aída." The show featured the tribulations of its title character and her working-class family in their struggle to "llegar a fin de mes." It seemed to promise a sensibility enacted in the US series "Roseanne," where…

  13. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  14. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  15. Wearable augmented reality system using an IrDA device and a passometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenmoku, Ryuhei; Kanbara, Masayuki; Yokoya, Naokazu

    2003-05-01

    This paper describes a wearable augmented reality system with an IrDA device and a passometer. To realize augmented reality systems, the position and orientation of user's viewpoint should be obtained in real time for aligning the real and virtual coordinate systems. In the proposed system, the orientation of user's viewpoint is measured by an inertial sensor attached to the user's glasses, and the position is measured by using an IrDA device and a passometer. First, the user's position is specified exactly when the user comes into the infrared ray range of the IrDA markers which are set up to the appointed points. When the user goes out of the infrared ray range, the user's position is estimated by using a passometer. The passometer is constructed of an electronic compass and acceleration sensors. The former can detect the user's walking direction. The latter can count how many steps the user walks. These data and the user's pace make it possible to estimate the user's position in the neighborhood of the IrDA markers. We have developed a navigation system based on using the techniques above and have proven the feasibility of the system with experiments.

  16. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  17. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  18. Uniform remote control of front end processors in PAN-DA

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.; Berman, E.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Slimmer, D.; Streets, J.; White, V.

    1991-06-01

    The PAN-DA data acquisition software system encompasses support for a variety of front end processors including the Struck General Purpose Master (GPM), the Fermilab Smart Crate Controller (FSCC), and the Motorola MVME133-A VME single board computer. PAN-DA provides support for the remote control of these processors through its Remote Procedure eXecution (RPX) software. This software runs over serial lines, and in some PAN-DA environments, over the Ethernet and TCP/IP as well. Experiments E791 and E771 have successfully used RPX software in both FSCC software development and data collection during the 1990--1991 fixed target run at Fermilab. RPX software has facilitated development and testing of the Fermilab Silicon Strip Detector readout system, for which the FSCC is an integral component. RPX based control and monitoring of the GPM and the MVME133-A are essential parts of the PAN-DA data acquisition system used by E687 and E773 during the 1990--1991 run. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Translocation of an 89-kDa periplasmic protein is associated with Holospora infection

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatani, Koichi; Dohra, Hideo; Lang, B. Franz; Burger, Gertraud; Hori, Manabu; Fujishima, Masahiro . E-mail: fujishim@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    2005-12-02

    The symbiotic bacterium Holospora obtusa infects the macronucleus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. After ingestion by its host, an infectious form of Holospora with an electron-translucent tip passes through the host digestive vacuole and penetrates the macronuclear envelope with this tip. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of this process, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the tip-specific 89-kDa protein, sequenced this partially, and identified the corresponding complete gene. The deduced protein sequence carries two actin-binding motifs. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy shows that during escape from the host digestive vacuole, the 89-kDa proteins translocates from the inside to the outside of the tip. When the bacterium invades the macronucleus, the 89-kDa protein is left behind at the entry point of the nuclear envelope. Transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of fine fibrous structures that co-localize with the antibody-labeled regions of the bacterium. Our findings suggest that the 89-kDa protein plays a role in Holospora's escape from the host digestive vacuole, the migration through the host cytoplasm, and the invasion into the macronucleus.

  20. Brominated and radioiodinated derivatives of methylphenidate (MP): Potential imaging agents for the dopamine (DA) transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, D.; Gatley, S.J.; Dewey, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    MP (Ritalin) is a psychomotor stimulant used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The therapeutic properties of MP are thought to be mediated by its binding to a site on the DA transporter, resulting in inhibition of DA reuptake and enhanced levels of synaptic dopamine. MP also inhibits reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) in vitro. MP has two chiral centers, but its pharmacological activity is believed due solely to the d-threo isomer. We have found that d,l-threo-C-11 MP has favorable properties for PET studies, and therefore examined the effects of incorporating halogen atoms into the phenyl ring of MP, with a view to preparing C-11 and I-123 MP analogs as potential PET/SPECT tracers. We synthesized the 2-, 3- and 4-bromo MP analogs from the corresponding bromophenylacetonitriles by modification of the original synthesis of MP. In in vitro binding assays all three d,l-threo bromo compounds had higher affinities than MP for DA transporter sites labeled with tritiated WIN 35,428 (3->4-, 2->MP). They also showed high activity with NE reuptake sites labeled with tritiated nisoxetine. They were active in vivo as demonstrated by inhibition of heart uptake of tritiated NE in the mouse, and elevation of striatal extracellular DA (microdialysis) and stimulation of locomotor activity in the rat.

  1. Assessments of the economic impacts of natural hazards in Albania: application of DaLA methodology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massabo, Marco; Toto, Emanuela; Deda, Miranda; Prenci, Shemsi; Dhima, Maksimiljan

    2015-04-01

    Disaster loss datasets are built using economic assessments done by different parties and using different approaches which are in many cases inconsistent. This is observed in more than 75% of the Alabanian records with missing economic evaluations. To assess the economic impact of disasters at all scales in Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction 2011 and 2013 has used the DaLA methodology that takes advantage of a common and homogeneous set of quantitative physical damage indicators contained in the disaster databases. These have to be taken as the lower bound of the damage, which in general is higher. The UN-ECLAC DaLA Methodology takes into account in its assessments the overall status of economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction. Similarly to national disaster loss databases DaLA assessments have a national level of observation and data produced at sub-national resolution, resulting in highly detailed and accurate data sets. In 2013 in Albania was implemented a collection of disaster losses based on Desinventar. We applied the DaLa methodology to the Albanian database of impacts of natural disasters.

  2. Computerized Dynamic Assessment (C-DA): Diagnosing L2 Development According to Learner Responsiveness to Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poehner, Matthew E.; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic assessment (DA) derives from the sociocultural theory of mind as elaborated by Russian psychologist L. S. Vygotsky. By offering mediation when individuals experience difficulties and carefully tracing their responsiveness, Vygotsky (1998) proposed that diagnoses may uncover abilities that have fully formed as well as those still in the…

  3. Understanding and Interpreting Japanese NP1 "wa" NP2 "da" Sentences: Mechanism and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contextual factors that affect the understanding and interpretation of one Japanese topicalized construction, NP[subscript 1] wa NP[subscript 2] da sentences, by native speakers of Japanese. The construction allows two possibilities in the relation between the NP[subscript 1] and the NP[subscript 2]. When the two…

  4. Validation of the Delvotest SP NT DA. Performance Tested Method 011101.

    PubMed

    Hennart, Stephen L A; Faragher, John

    2012-01-01

    Delvotest SP NT DA is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances, such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a color indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is incubated at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism, and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The Delvotest Accelerator is an automated system in which the plates containing the milk to be analyzed are placed for incubation. The Accelerator automatically detects the end of the incubation and reads the results. A sample containing antibiotic will be noted as "positive." A sample without antibiotics or with antibiotics at concentrations below detection level will be noted as "negative." The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT DA, and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT DA conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT DA is, therefore, granted Performance Tested Method certification.

  5. Validation of the Delvotest SP NT DA. Performance Tested Method 011101.

    PubMed

    Hennart, Stephen L A; Faragher, John

    2012-01-01

    Delvotest SP NT DA is designed to test milk for the presence of antibacterial substances, such as antibiotics. The test is made of an agar gel containing bacterial spores and a color indicator. The milk sample is added onto the agar gel, and the test is incubated at 64 degrees C. The principle of the test is based on the diffusion of possible inhibitory substances that may be present in the milk sample into agar. This reduces growth and acid production by the test organism, and delays or prevents the agar from changing color from purple to yellow. The Delvotest Accelerator is an automated system in which the plates containing the milk to be analyzed are placed for incubation. The Accelerator automatically detects the end of the incubation and reads the results. A sample containing antibiotic will be noted as "positive." A sample without antibiotics or with antibiotics at concentrations below detection level will be noted as "negative." The present report includes all technical details about the Delvotest SP NT DA, and the results of the validation study. The validation study demonstrates that the Delvotest SP NT DA conforms to the product performance claims and confirms the robustness of the test. The Delvotest SP NT DA is, therefore, granted Performance Tested Method certification. PMID:22468368

  6. Specific binding of victorin to a 100-kDa protein from oats

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, T.J.; Macko, V. )

    1989-06-01

    Susceptibility of oats to victoria blight, caused by the fungus Cochliobolus victoriae, and sensitivity to the host-specific toxin victorin, produced by the fungus, are controlled by the dominant allele at the Vb locus. It has been postulated that the Vb locus encodes a toxin receptor, although direct evidence for such a receptor is not available. Recent studies on structure-activity relationships of the toxin established a methodology for producing {sup 125}I-labeled victorin. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from isogenic susceptible and resistant oat genotypes following treatment of leaves with radiolabeled victorin showed that victorin binds in a covalent and a genotype-specific manner to a 100-kDa protein only in susceptible oat leaf slices. This in vivo binding was competitively displaced by reduced victorin, a nontoxic protective compound, and appeared to be correlated with biological activity. In vitro binding to the 100-kDa protein in leaf extracts showed several differences from in vivo binding. Binding was not genotype specific and required a reducing agent that was not required for in vivo binding. Differential centrifugation showed that the 100-kDa victorin binding protein was not a cytosolic protein but was enriched in a high-speed particulate fraction. The data support the hypothesis that the 100-kDa protein is the victorin receptor.

  7. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  8. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  9. 32 CFR 516.14 - Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Service of process on DA or Secretary of Army. 516.14 Section 516.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF... or Secretary of Army. The Chief, Litigation Division, shall accept service of process for...

  10. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  11. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  12. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  13. Observation campaign for the near-Earth object 2012 DA_{14} in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, S.; Terai, T.; Takahashi, J.; Fujii, M.; Hanayama, H.; Yoshida, F.; Hoshi, H.; Sato, T.; Ushioda, K.; Oasa, Y.; Arai, A.; Honda, S.; Takagi, Y.; Itoh, Y.; Ishiguro, M.

    2014-07-01

    We present the observation campaign for the near-Earth object 2012 DA_{14} (hereafter, DA_{14}). The asteroid DA_{14} came close to the Earth's surface on 2013 February 15, 19:33 UT, at a distance of 27,700 km. DA_{14}'s altitude from the horizon in Japan was ˜ 30° at the closest approach time. The estimated diameter of DA_{14} is ˜50 m. The close encounter and the horizontal altitude made it possible to conduct a variety of observations for this tiny asteroid using small- and medium-sized telescopes. There have been few detailed observations, including spectroscopy, of asteroids smaller than 100 m in diameter. Moreover, the close encounter might results in a change for the rotational period and the surface spectrum due to the tidal forces. The observations around the closest approach are useful to investigate such physical changes. We performed visible spectroscopy, near-infrared photometry, and time-series photometry in the visible wavelength region. The visible spectroscopy was conducted using the 0.4-m F/10 telescope at the Fujii Kurosaki Observatory. The observations aimed to deduce the taxonomy of DA_{14}. The near-infrared photometry was made by Nishiharima Infrared Camera (NIC) attached to the 2.0-m Nayuta telescope at the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory. The NIC achieves three-band (i.e., J, H, and K_{s}) simultaneous observations, which allowed us to reliably deduce the colors of this fast-moving object. The time-series photometry was carried out using the 0.55-m telescope at Saitama University. The solar phase angle of DA_{14} had varied widely around its closest approach but was almost constant during the following night. The R-band images were obtained continuously over 2 h at the closest approach and for about 5 h on the subsequent night. Those two nights of observations allow us to determine the rotational properties and the phase effect. We found, from the visible spectroscopy [1], that DA_{14} is an L-type asteroid. The flatness of the

  14. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Hover, John; Wlodek, Tomasz; Wenaus, Torre; Frey, Jaime; Tannenbaum, Todd; Livny, Miron; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA "AutoPilot" scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  15. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao X.; Hover John; Wlodek Tomasz; Wenaus Torre; Frey Jaime; Tannenbaum Todd; Livny Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  16. Site effects inferred from HVSR methodology in Praia da Vitória city (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontiela, João; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Rosset, Philippe; Rodrigues, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Terceira island (Azores) have experienced several strong earthquakes, especially on the eastern and south-eastern part of the island with maximum MM intensity of VIII in 1800, 1801 and 1912 and IX in 1614 and 1841. Seismicity of the eastern part of the island is largely dominated by the tectonic of the NW-SE Lajes graben where are located Praia da Vitória and other setlements. Praia da Vitória is settled partially over pyroclastic material(pumice and ignimbrite) deposited around 20'000 years ago and forming part of the UpperTerceira Group. Its thickness is 15m on the north but in Praia da Vitoria has less than one meter.. It is sited on by basaltic flow of the upper Basaltic Terceira Group (2,000y BP) and a thick andesitic lava flow. A narrow band with sand dunes and beach crossed this deposits along Praia da Vitória and behind it appear a flat area with 7-10m of round cobbles that is interpreted as an old boulders'beach. Thickness of these different deposits are tricky to estimate in urban areas since very few outcrops are present. In order to assess site amplification of seismic waves due to the soil conditions, we perform horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method from broad band ambient noise measurements in 51 different sites within Praia da Vitoria. The first results show that the frequencies of the study area are variable, lying between 0.6-12 Hz. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: João Fontiela is supported by grant M3.1.2/F/060/2011 provided by the Regional Science Fund of the Azores Regional Government. This study was partially funded by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Portugal, under the contract with the FCT, ICT-UID/GEO/04683/2013 (Portugal).

  17. Local classification: Locally weighted-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (LW-PLS-DA).

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Marini, Federico

    2014-08-01

    The possibility of devising a simple, flexible and accurate non-linear classification method, by extending the locally weighted partial least squares (LW-PLS) approach to the cases where the algorithm is used in a discriminant way (partial least squares discriminant analysis, PLS-DA), is presented. In particular, to assess which category an unknown sample belongs to, the proposed algorithm operates by identifying which training objects are most similar to the one to be predicted and building a PLS-DA model using these calibration samples only. Moreover, the influence of the selected training samples on the local model can be further modulated by adopting a not uniform distance-based weighting scheme which allows the farthest calibration objects to have less impact than the closest ones. The performances of the proposed locally weighted-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (LW-PLS-DA) algorithm have been tested on three simulated data sets characterized by a varying degree of non-linearity: in all cases, a classification accuracy higher than 99% on external validation samples was achieved. Moreover, when also applied to a real data set (classification of rice varieties), characterized by a high extent of non-linearity, the proposed method provided an average correct classification rate of about 93% on the test set. By the preliminary results, showed in this paper, the performances of the proposed LW-PLS-DA approach have proved to be comparable and in some cases better than those obtained by other non-linear methods (k nearest neighbors, kernel-PLS-DA and, in the case of rice, counterpropagation neural networks).

  18. Qual o Papel da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2007-08-01

    É amplamente reconhecido que as pessoas em geral têm grande fascínio e interesse pela Astronomia. Por outro lado, o conteúdo dessa área incluído no ensino formal está longe de ser abrangente e suficiente para suprir a demanda. Esse interesse permite aperfeiçoar a divulgação e o ensino não formal de Astronomia através da mídia aliando a adequação do conteúdo à expectativa das pessoas. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros tem introduzido Astronomia desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1180 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um formulário contendo questões que abordavam conhecimentos básicos em Astronomia, como foram adquiridos tais conhecimentos e à infra-estrutura da escola. Para 66,1% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de Astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 54,4% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 18,4% através da televisão e 27,1% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, livros didáticos, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio no meio em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia busca não somente sua difusão, mas a disponibilização desse conhecimento de maneira correta, que às vezes, não é atingido, apresentando conceitos sem fundamentação e incorretos. Por outro lado, no dia-a-dia escolar, é comum encontrar professores que vêm para as aulas com concepções prévias, que podem diferir substancialmente das idéias a serem ensinadas, dificultando o aprendizado de futuros conceitos científicos. Uma avaliação criteriosa, avaliando as dificuldades dos professores em determinar o sentido correto dos conceitos e observando a metodologia que utilizam no ensino, poderá proporcionar uma melhor

  19. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Methods Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Results The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. Conclusions DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway. PMID:27114435

  20. Dioscorea Extract (DA-9801) Modulates Markers of Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunjung; Lee, Sung Ok; Kang, Tong Ho; Kim, Hye Ju; Choi, Sang Zin; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of DA-9801, an optimized extract of Dioscorea species, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a type 2 diabetic animal model. In this study, db/db mice were treated with DA-9801 (30 and 100 mg/kg, daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. DA-9801 reduced the blood glucose levels and increased the withdrawal latencies in hot plate tests. Moreover, it prevented nerve damage based on increased nerve conduction velocity and ultrastructural changes. Decrease of nerve growth factor (NGF) may have a detrimental effect on diabetic neuropathy. We previously reported NGF regulatory properties of the Dioscorea genus. In this study, DA-9801 induced NGF production in rat primary astrocytes. In addition, it increased NGF levels in the sciatic nerve and the plasma of type 2 diabetic animals. DA-9801 also increased neurite outgrowth and mRNA expression of Tieg1/Klf10, an NGF target gene, in PC12 cells. These results demonstrated the attenuation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by oral treatment with DA-9801 via NGF regulation. DA-9801 is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical study.