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Sample records for pylori interventions results

  1. Spermine oxidation induced by Helicobacter pylori results in apoptosis and DNA damage: implications for gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hangxiu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Cheng, Yulan; Bussiere, Francoise I; Asim, Mohammad; Yao, Micheal D; Potosky, Darryn; Meltzer, Stephen J; Rhee, Juong G; Kim, Sung S; Moss, Steven F; Hacker, Amy; Wang, Yanlin; Casero, Robert A; Wilson, Keith T

    2004-12-01

    Oxidative stress is linked to carcinogenesis due to its ability to damage DNA. The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts much of its pathogenicity by inducing apoptosis and DNA damage in host gastric epithelial cells. Polyamines are abundant in epithelial cells, and when oxidized by the inducible spermine oxidase SMO(PAOh1) H(2)O(2) is generated. Here, we report that H. pylori up-regulates mRNA expression, promoter activity, and enzyme activity of SMO(PAOh1) in human gastric epithelial cells, resulting in DNA damage and apoptosis. H. pylori-induced H(2)O(2) generation and apoptosis in these cells was equally attenuated by an inhibitor of SMO(PAOh1), by catalase, and by transient transfection with small interfering RNA targeting SMO(PAOh1). Conversely, SMO(PAOh1) overexpression induced apoptosis to the same levels as caused by H. pylori. Importantly, in H. pylori-infected tissues, there was increased expression of SMO(PAOh1) in both human and mouse gastritis. Laser capture microdissection of human gastric epithelial cells demonstrated expression of SMO(PAOh1) that was significantly attenuated by H. pylori eradication. These results identify a pathway for oxidative stress-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and DNA damage due to SMO(PAOh1) activation by H. pylori that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the infection and development of gastric cancer.

  2. Helicobacter pylori antibody responses in association with eradication outcome and recurrence: a population-based intervention trial with 7.3-year follow-up in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianyi; Zhang, Yang; Su, Huijuan; Li, Zhexuan; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Junling; Liu, Weidong; Zhou, Tong; You, Weicheng; Pan, Kaifeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers that may predict the short or long term outcomes of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment, a follow-up study was performed based on an intervention trial in Linqu County, China. Methods A total of 529 subjects were selected randomly from 1,803 participants to evaluate total anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) and 10 specific antibody levels before and after treatment at 1-, 2- and 7.3-year. The outcomes of anti-H. pylori treatment were also parallelly assessed by13C-urea breath test at 45-d after treatment and 7.3-year at the end of follow-up. Results We found the medians of anti-H. pylori IgG titers were consistently below cut-off value through 7.3 years in eradicated group, however, the medians declined in recurrence group to 1.2 at 1-year after treatment and slightly increased to 2.0 at 7.3-year. While the medians were significantly higher (>3.0 at 2- and 7.3-year) among subjects who failed the eradication or received placebo. For specific antibody responses, baseline seropositivities of FliD and HpaA were reversely associated with eradication failure [for FliD, odds ratio (OR)=0.44, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.27–0.73; for HpaA, OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60]. The subjects with multiple positive specific antibodies at baseline were more likely to be successfully eradicated in a linear fashion (Ptrend=0.006). Conclusions Our study suggested that total anti-H. pylori IgG level may serve as a potential monitor of long-term impact on anti-H. pylori treatment, and priority forH. pylori treatment may be endowed to the subjects with multiple seropositive antibodies at baseline, especially for FliD and HapA. PMID:28536491

  3. Disruption of Nitric Oxide Signaling by Helicobacter pylori Results in Enhanced Inflammation by Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Verriere, Thomas; Scull, Brooks P.; de Sablet, Thibaut; Glumac, Ashley; Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    A strong cellular crosstalk exists between the pathogen Helicobacter pylori and high-output NO production. However, how NO and H. pylori interact to signal in gastric epithelial cells and modulate the innate immune response is unknown. We show that chemical or cellular sources of NO induce the anti-inflammatory effector heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in gastric epithelial cells through a pathway that requires NF-κB. However, H. pylori decreases NO-induced NF-κB activation, thereby inhibiting HO-1 expression. This inhibitory effect of H. pylori results from activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 by the H. pylori virulence factor CagA and by the host signaling molecules ERK1/2 and JNK. Consistent with these findings, HO-1 is downregulated in gastric epithelial cells of patients infected with cagA+, but not cagA− H. pylori. Enhancement of HO-1 activity in infected cells or in H. pylori-infected mice inhibits chemokine generation and reduces inflammation. These data define a mechanism by which H. pylori favors its own pathogenesis by inhibiting HO-1 induction through the action of CagA. PMID:21987660

  4. Helicobacter pylori related hypergastrinaemia is the result of a selective increase in gastrin 17.

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, G; Ardill, J E; Fillmore, D; Chittajallu, R S; Fullarton, G M; McColl, K E

    1993-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection increases the serum concentration of gastrin, and this may be one of the mechanisms by which it predisposes to duodenal ulceration. Different forms of circulating gastrin were studied both basally and postprandially in 13 duodenal ulcer patients before and one month after eradication of H pylori. Three antisera that are specific for particular regions of the gastrin molecules were used. Gel chromatography indicated that > 90% of the circulating gastrin consisted of gastrin (G) 17 and G34 both before and after eradicating the infection. The basal median total immunoreactive gastrin concentration fell from 26 pmol/l (range 11-43) to 19 pmol/l (8-39) (p < 0.05), entirely because of a fall in G17 from 6 pmol/l (< 2.4-25) to < 2.4 pmol/l (< 2.4-23) (p < 0.001). The median (range) basal G34 values were similar before (15 pmol (2-36)) and after (10 pmol (2-30)) eradication. The median total immunoreactive gastrin concentration determined 20 minutes postprandially fell from 59 pmol/l (38-114) to 33 pmol/l (19-88) (p < 0.005), and again this was entirely the result of a fall in G17 from 43 pmol/l (9-95) to 17 pmol/l (< 2.4-52) (p < 0.001). The median postprandial G34 values were similar before (13 pmol/l, range 6-42) and after (15 pmol/l, range 6-30) eradication. Eating stimulated a noticeable rise in G17 but little change in G34, both in the presence and absence of H pylori. The finding that H pylori infection selectively increases G17 explains why the infection causes mainly postprandial hypergastrinaemia. G17 is increased selectively because H pylori predominantly affects the antral mucosa which is the main source of G17 whereas G34 is mainly duodenal in origin. This study also indicates that the increased concentration of gastrin in H pylori infection is the result of an increase in one of the main biologically active forms of the hormone. PMID:8314507

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: long-term results of bacterium eradication and association with bacterium virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Giovanni; Luppi, Mario; Zucchini, Patrizia; Morselli, Monica; Potenza, Leonardo; Forghieri, Fabio; Volzone, Francesco; Jovic, Gordana; Leonardi, Giovanna; Donelli, Amedea; Torelli, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may lead to improvement of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), although its efficacy over time is uncertain. We report the results of H pylori screening and eradication in 75 consecutive adult patients with ITP. We also used molecular methods to investigate lymphocyte clonality and H pylori genotypes in the gastric biopsies from 10 H pylori-positive patients with ITP and 19 H pylori-positive patients without ITP with chronic gastritis. Active H pylori infection was documented in 38 (51%) patients and successfully eradicated in 34 (89%) patients. After a median follow-up of 60 months, a persistent platelet response in 23 (68%) of patients with eradicated infection was observed; 1 relapse occurred. No differences in mucosal B- or T-cell clonalities were observed between patients with ITP and control participants. Of note, the frequency of the H pylori cagA gene (P = .02) and the frequency of concomitant H pylori cagA, vacAs1, and iceA genes (triple-positive strains; P = .015) resulted statistically higher in patients with ITP than in control participants. All asymptomatic H pylori-positive patients with ITP were suffering from chronic gastritis. Our data suggest a sustained platelet recovery in a proportion of patients with ITP by H pylori eradication alone. Overrepresentation of specific H pylori genotypes in ITP suggests a possible role for bacterium-related factors in the disease pathogenesis.

  6. HELICOBACTER PYLORI PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lasa, Juan; Zubiaurre, Ignacio; Dima, Guillermo; Peralta, Daniel; Soifer, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71)]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.

  7. Early or late antibiotic intervention prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhua; Lee, Dong Soo; Morrissey, Rhiannon; Aponte-Pieras, Jose R; Rogers, Arlin B; Moss, Steven F

    2014-12-01

    H. pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Eradicating H. pylori prevents ulcers, but to what extent this prevents cancer remains unknown, especially if given after intestinal metaplasia has developed. H. pylori infected wild-type (WT) mice do not develop cancer, but mice lacking the tumor suppressor p27 do so, thus providing an experimental model of H. pylori-induced cancer. We infected p27-deficient mice with H. pylori strain SS1 at 6-8 weeks of age. Persistently H. pylori-infected WT C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Mice in the eradication arms received antimicrobial therapy (omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin) either "early" (at 15 weeks post infection, WPI) or "late" at 45 WPI. At 70 WPI, mice were euthanized for H. pylori determination, histopathology and cytokine/chemokine expression. Persistently infected mice developed premalignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia, whereas those given antibiotics did not. Histologic activity scores in the eradication groups were similar to each other, and were significantly decreased compared with controls for inflammation, epithelial defects, hyperplasia, metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia. IP-10 and MIG levels in groups that received antibiotics were significantly lower than controls. There were no significant differences in expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α or MIP-1β among the three groups. Thus, H. pylori eradication given either early or late after infection significantly attenuated gastric inflammation, gastric atrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the p27-deficient mice model of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, irrespective of the timing of antibiotic administration. This was associated with reduced expression of IP-10 and MIG.

  8. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27713775

  9. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  10. Carbon Fixation Driven by Molecular Hydrogen Results in Chemolithoautotrophically Enhanced Growth of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Lisa G.; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Bayyareddy, Krishnareddy; Johnson, Darryl; Orlando, Ron; Evans, Alexandra L.; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A molecular hydrogen (H2)-stimulated, chemolithoautotrophic growth mode for the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is reported. In a culture medium containing peptides and amino acids, H2-supplied cells consistently achieved 40 to 60% greater growth yield in 16 h and accumulated 3-fold more carbon from [14C]bicarbonate (on a per cell basis) in a 10-h period than cells without H2. Global proteomic comparisons of cells supplied with different atmospheric conditions revealed that addition of H2 led to increased amounts of hydrogenase and the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase (ACC), as well as other proteins involved in various cellular functions, including amino acid metabolism, heme synthesis, or protein degradation. In agreement with this result, H2-supplied cells contained 3-fold more ACC activity than cells without H2. Other possible carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation enzymes were not up-expressed under the H2-containing atmosphere. As the gastric mucus is limited in carbon and energy sources and the bacterium lacks mucinase, this new growth mode may contribute to the persistence of the pathogen in vivo. This is the first time that chemolithoautotrophic growth is described for a pathogen. IMPORTANCE Many pathogens must survive within host areas that are poorly supplied with carbon and energy sources, and the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori resides almost exclusively in the nutritionally stringent mucus barrier of its host. Although this bacterium is already known to be highly adaptable to gastric niches, a new aspect of its metabolic flexibility, whereby molecular hydrogen use (energy) is coupled to carbon dioxide fixation (carbon acquisition) via a described carbon fixation enzyme, is shown here. This growth mode, which supplements heterotrophy, is termed chemolithoautotrophy and has not been previously reported for a pathogen. PMID:26929299

  11. Short course acid suppressive treatment for patients with functional dyspepsia: results depend on Helicobacter pylori status

    PubMed Central

    Blum, A; Arnold, R; Stolte, M; Fischer, M; Koelz, H; the, F

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Treatment of functional dyspepsia with acid inhibitors is controversial and it is not known if the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection influences the response.
METHODS—After a complete diagnostic workup, 792 patients with functional dyspepsia unresponsive to one week of low dose antacid treatment were randomised to two weeks of treatment with placebo, ranitidine 150 mg, omeprazole 10 mg, or omeprazole 20 mg daily. Individual dyspeptic and other abdominal symptoms were evaluated before and after treatment according to H pylori status.
RESULTS—The proportions of patients considered to be in remission (intention to treat) at the end of treatment with placebo, ranitidine 150 mg, omeprazole 10 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg were, respectively, 42%, 50%, 48%, and 59% in the H pylori positive group and 66%, 73%, 64%, and 71% in the H pylori negative group. In H pylori positive patients, the therapeutic gain over placebo was significant for omeprazole 20 mg (17.6%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.2-31.0; p<0.014 using the Bonferroni-adjusted p level of 0.017) but not for omeprazole 10 mg (6.8%, 95% CI −6.7-20.4) or ranitidine 150 mg (8.9%, 95% CI −4.2-21.9). There was no significant therapeutic gain from active treatment over placebo in H pylori negative patients. Complete disappearance of symptoms and improvement in quality of life also occurred most frequently with omeprazole 20 mg and was significant in both H pylori positive and H pylori negative groups. The six month relapse rate of symptoms requiring treatment was low (<20%) in all groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Omeprazole 20 mg per day had a small but significant favourable effect on outcome in H pylori positive patients. The differential response in these patients may be explained by an enhanced antisecretory response in the presence of H pylori. The effect of weaker acid inhibition was unsatisfactory.


Keywords: functional dyspepsia; omeprazole; ranitidine

  12. Helicobacter pylori

    MedlinePlus

    ... illnesses. H. pylori , which used to be called Campylobacter pylori , also can cause peptic ulcers (commonly known ... H. Pylori Antigen Food Safety for Your Family Campylobacter Infections Pyloric Stenosis Peptic Ulcers Digestive System Vomiting ...

  13. Susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection: results of an epidemiological investigation among gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Panic, Nikola; Mastrostefano, Elena; Leoncini, Emanuele; Persiani, Roberto; Arzani, Dario; Amore, Rosarita; Ricci, Riccardo; Sicoli, Federico; Sioletic, Stefano; Bulajic, Milutin; D' Ugo, Domenico; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, demographic, lifestyle factors and selected genetic polymorphisms that affect the susceptibility towards Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric cancer patients. Histological confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma cases that underwent curative gastrectomy between 2002 and 2012 were included. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained to determine the H. pylori status, and further cagA status and vacA m and s genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires, and blood samples were collected for EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, IL1B, IL1-RN, MTHFR and p53 genotyping. Proportions were compared in univariate analysis, while the relation between putative risk factors and H. pylori status and genotype were measured using logistic regression analysis. One hundred forty-nine gastric cancer patients were included, of which 78.5% were H. pylori positive. Among positive patients 50% were cagA+, 72.5% vacA m1 and 80.7% vacA s1. The presence of cagA was less frequent among vacA m1 (p = 0.031) and vacA s1 (p = 0.052) subtypes. The presence of father history for any cancer was a significant risk factor for H. pylori infection [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-64.55]. EPHX1 exon 3 T > C (OR = 0.35, CI 95% 0.13-0.94), IL1B-511 T > C (OR = 0.38, CI 95% 0.15-0.97) and IL1-RN VNTR (OR = 0.19, CI 95% 0.06-0.58) polymorphisms were protective towards H. pylori infection in the univariate analysis. Wine consumption was associated with higher risk of carrying the H. pylori vacA m1 virulent subtype (p = 0.034). Lastly, cardiovascular diseases were less common among cagA positive subjects (p = 0.023). Father history of any cancer is a risk factor for H. pylori infection. Polymorphisms in IL1B-511, IL1-RN and EPHX1 exon 3 genes might be protective towards H. pylori infection.

  14. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  15. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and poor growth. There is evidence of the role of H. pylori in childhood iron deficiency anemia, but the results are not conclusive. The possibility of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as childhood asthma, remains a controversial question. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. PMID:21049552

  16. Omeprazole-amoxycillin therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer bleeding: preliminary results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jaspersen, D; Körner, T; Schorr, W; Brennenstuhl, M; Hammar, C H

    1995-06-01

    Thirty-five patients with duodenal ulcer bleeding and Helicobacter pylori-colonization were assigned to receive 2 x 20 mg omeprazole and 3 x 750 mg amoxycillin daily for 2 weeks. Eradication was defined as no evidence of H. pylori infection by urease test and by histology 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Two patients were lost to follow up. All ulcers healed completely (100% ulcer healing rate). Twenty-nine out of the 33 patients were H. pylori-negative (87.9% eradication rate). Three patients complained of typical side effects of amoxycillin (9.1% side effect rate). The patients were prospectively followed for 12 months. After ulcer healing, no maintenance therapy was given. One of the 29 patients in whom H. pylori eradication had been successful suffered a second ulcer hemorrhage with H. pylori reinfection (3.4% relapse rate of ulcer bleeding), and this was managed endoscopically. Recurrent ulcer hemorrhage occurred in 2 out of 4 H. pylori-resistant patients. At the end of the follow-up period, of the patients in whom H. pylori eradication had been initially successful, only the patient with re-bleeding remained reinfected. The 4 H. pylori-resistant patients showed persistent H. pylori colonization. In conclusion, omeprazole plus amoxycillin is a safe and effective treatment for eradicating H. pylori; this treatment reduces the relapse rate of duodenal ulcer bleeding.

  17. Activation of EGFR and ERBB2 by Helicobacter pylori Results in Survival of Gastric Epithelial Cells with DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Yan, Fang; Barry, Daniel P.; Sierra, Johanna Carolina; Delgado, Alberto G.; Hill, Salisha; Casero, Robert A.; Bravo, Luis E.; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Correa, Pelayo; Polk, D. Brent; Washington, M. Kay; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The gastric cancer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori upregulates spermine oxidase (SMOX) in gastric epithelial cells, causing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and DNA damage. A subpopulation of SMOXhigh cells are resistant to apoptosis, despite their high levels of DNA damage. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation can regulate apoptosis, we determined its role in SMOX-mediated effects. METHODS SMOX, apoptosis, and DNA damage were measured in gastric epithelial cells from H pylori-infected Egfrwa5 mice (which have attenuated EGFR activity), Egfr wild-type mice, or in infected cells incubated with EGFR inhibitors or deficient in EGFR. Phosphoproteomic analysis was performed. Two independent tissue microarrays containing each stage of disease, from gastritis to carcinoma, and gastric biopsies from Colombian and Honduran cohorts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS SMOX expression and DNA damage were decreased, and apoptosis increased in H pylori-infected Egfrwa5 mice. H pylori-infected cells with deletion or inhibition of EGFR had reduced levels of SMOX, DNA damage, and DNA damagehigh apoptosislow cells. Phosphoproteomic analysis revealed increased EGFR and ERBB2 signaling. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of a phosphorylated (p)EGFR–ERBB2 heterodimer and pERBB2; knockdown of ErbB2 facilitated apoptosis of DNA damagehigh apoptosislow cells. SMOX was increased in all stages of gastric disease, peaking in tissues with intestinal metaplasia, whereas pEGFR, pEGFR–ERBB2, and pERBB2 were increased predominantly in tissues demonstrating gastritis or atrophic gastritis. Principal component analysis separated gastritis tissues from patients with cancer vs those without cancer. pEGFR, pEGFR–ERBB2, pERBB2, and SMOX were increased in gastric samples from patients whose disease progressed to intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia, compared with patients whose disease did not progress. CONCLUSIONS In an analysis

  18. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy. PMID:27698543

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  20. [Dyspepsia and Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori. Results of a randomized therapeutic trial using amoxicillin versus placebos].

    PubMed

    Pouderoux, P; Veyrac, M; Amoyal, P; Perez, C; Barnéon, G; Pierrugues, R; Parelon, G; Blanc, F; Michel, H

    1991-01-01

    A population of non ulcer dyspepsia outpatients with a normal gastroscopy was assessed. Clinical complaints, the type of the gastritis, its activity and bacterial density were evaluated. Helicobacter pylori (HP) was sought by histology, urease test and culture, on 3 distinct locations. HP was found in 62 p. cent of the patients, always in association with gastritis. Urease test and histology had the same sensitivity in the detection of HP. A randomized double blind study with amoxicillin vs placebo was carried out in 23 patients. At the end of 4 week treatment, a gastroscopy with biopsies was performed. The amoxicillin treated patients were significantly cured or improved. HP was undetectable or the bacterial density was decreased in this group. After amoxicillin, urease test was more sensitive than histology. HP might be involved in the pathophysiology of non ulcer dyspepsia in patients where HP was found.

  1. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  2. Halitosis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Wenhuan; Li, Juan; Xu, Liming; Zhu, Jianhong; Hu, Kewei; Sui, Zhenyu; Wang, Jianzong; Xu, Lingling; Wang, Shaofeng; Yin, Guojian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Halitosis is used to describe any disagreeable odor of expired air regardless of its origin. Numerous trials published have investigated the relation between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and halitosis, and even some regimes of H pylori eradication have been prescribed to those patients with halitosis in the clinic. We conducted a meta-analysis to define the correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis. Objectives: To evaluate whether there is a real correlation between H pylori infection and halitosis, and whether H pylori eradication therapy will help relieve halitosis. Methods: We searched several electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Wanfangdata) up to December 2015. Studies published in English and Chinese were considered in this review. After a final set of studies was identified, the list of references reported in the included reports was reviewed to identify additional studies. Screening of titles and abstracts, data extraction and quality assessment was undertaken independently and in duplicate. All analyses were done using Review Manager 5.2 software. Results: A total of 115 articles were identified, 21 of which met the inclusion criteria and presented data that could be used in the analysis. The results showed that the OR of H pylori infection in the stomach between halitosis-positive patients and halitosis-negative patients was 4.03 (95% CI: 1.41–11.50; P = 0.009). The OR of halitosis between H pylori-positive patients and H pylori-negative patients was 2.85 (95% CI: 1.40–5.83; P = 0.004); The RR of halitosis after successful H pylori eradication in those H pylori-infected halitosis-positive patients was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.08–0.39; P <0.0001), compared with those patients without successful H pylori eradication. And the RR of halitosis before successful H pylori eradication therapy was 4.78 (95% CI: 1.45–15.80; P = 0.01), compared with after successful H

  3. Free recombination within Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suerbaum, Sebastian; Smith, John Maynard; Bapumia, Khairun; Morelli, Giovanna; Smith, Noel H.; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Dyrek, Isabelle; Achtman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Sequences of three gene fragments (flaA, flaB, and vacA) from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from patients in Germany, Canada, and South Africa were analyzed for diversity and for linkage equilibrium by using the Homoplasy Test and compatibility matrices. Horizontal genetic exchange in H. pylori is so frequent that different loci and polymorphisms within each locus are all at linkage equilibrium. These results indicate that H. pylori is panmictic. Comparisons with sequences from Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Drosophila melanogaster showed that recombination in H. pylori was much more frequent than in other species. In contrast, when multiple family members infected with H. pylori were investigated, some strains were indistinguishable at all three loci. Thus, H. pylori is clonal over short time periods after natural transmission. PMID:9770535

  4. Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels. PMID:19009647

  5. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  6. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery.

    PubMed

    Yee, John K C

    2016-01-14

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization.

  7. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  8. Helicobacter pylori is not associated with anaemia in Latin America: results from Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Cuba, Mexico and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ina S; Boccio, Jose; Davidsson, Lena; Hernandez-Triana, Manuel; Huanca-Sardinas, Elizabeth; Janjetic, Mariana; Moya-Camarena, Silvia Y; Paez-Valery, Maria C; Ruiz-Alvarez, Vladimir; Valencia, Mauro E; Valle, Neiva C J; Vargas-Pinto, Greta; Solano, Liseti; Thomas, Julian

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and anaemia. Six cross-sectional studies. H. pylori infection was assessed by the [13C]urea breath test using MS or IR analysis. Hb was measured for all countries. Ferritin and transferrin receptors were measured for Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Venezuela. Health services in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico or public schools in Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela. In Argentina, 307 children aged 4-17 years referred to a gastroenterology unit; in Bolivia, 424 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 5-8 years; in Brazil, 1007 adults (157 men, 850 women) aged 18-45 years attending thirty-one primary health-care units; in Cuba, 996 randomly selected schoolchildren aged 6-14 years; in Mexico, seventy-one pregnant women in their first trimester attending public health clinics; in Venezuela, 418 children aged 4-13 years attending public schools. The lowest prevalence of H. pylori found was among children in Argentina (25.1%) and the highest in Bolivia (74.0%). In Bolivia, Cuba and Venezuela children showed similar prevalence of H. pylori infection as in Brazilian and Mexican adults (range 47.5% to 81.8%). Overall anaemia prevalence was 11.3% in Argentina, 15.4% in Bolivia, 20.6% in Brazil, 10.5% in Cuba and 8.9% in Venezuela. Adjusted analyses allowing for confounding variables showed no association between H. pylori colonization and anaemia in any study. Hb, ferritin and transferrin receptor levels were also not associated with H. pylori infection in any country. The present study showed no evidence to support the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to anaemia in children, adolescents, adults or pregnant women in six Latin American countries.

  9. Insights from the redefinition of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide O-antigen and core-oligosaccharide domains.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yang, Tiandi; Liao, Tingting; Debowski, Aleksandra W; Nilsson, Hans-Olof; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Stubbs, Keith A; Marshall, Barry J; Benghezal, Mohammed

    2017-04-25

    H. pylori is a Gram-negative extracellular bacterium, first discovered by the Australian physicians Barry Marshall and Robin Warren in 1982, that colonises the human stomach mucosa. It is the leading cause of peptic ulcer and commonly infects humans worldwide with prevalence as high as 90% in some countries. H. pylori infection usually results in asymptomatic chronic gastritis, however 10-15% of cases develop duodenal or gastric ulcers and 1-3% develop stomach cancer. Infection is generally acquired during childhood and persists for life in the absence of antibiotic treatment. H. pylori has had a long period of co-evolution with humans, going back to human migration out of Africa. This prolonged relationship is likely to have shaped the overall host-pathogen interactions and repertoire of virulence strategies which H. pylori employs to establish robust colonisation, escape immune responses and persist in the gastric niche. In this regard, H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key surface determinant in establishing colonisation and persistence via host mimicry and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Thus, elucidation of the H. pylori LPS structure and corresponding biosynthetic pathway represents an important step towards better understanding of H. pylori pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

  10. Helicobacter pylori: a sexually transmitted bacterium?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Oral sex (fellatio) is a very common sexual activity. H. pylori is mainly a gastric organism, but studies have reported that infected individuals may permanently or transiently carry H. pylori in their mouth and saliva. Material and methods A Pubmed search was conducted using the words infection, oral sex and urethritis. Results The existing studies support the hypothesis that H. pylori could be a causative agent of non–gonococcal urethritis. Conclusions It is possible that H. pylori may be transmitted via the act of fellatio in the urethra. Further research is required to explore the role of H. pylori in sexually transmitted urethritis. PMID:25667764

  11. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  12. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  13. Inter-species horizontal transfer resulting in core-genome and niche-adaptive variation within Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Nigel J; Boonmee, Prawit; Peden, John F; Jarvis, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    Background Horizontal gene transfer is central to evolution in most bacterial species. The detection of exchanged regions is often based upon analysis of compositional characteristics and their comparison to the organism as a whole. In this study we describe a new methodology combining aspects of established signature analysis with textual analysis approaches. This approach has been used to analyze the two available genome sequences of H. pylori. Results This gene-by-gene analysis reveals a wide range of genes related to both virulence behaviour and the strain differences that have been relatively recently acquired from other sequence backgrounds. These frequently involve single genes or small numbers of genes that are not associated with transposases or bacteriophage genes, nor with inverted repeats typically used as markers for horizontal transfer. In addition, clear examples of horizontal exchange in genes associated with 'core' metabolic functions were identified, supported by differences between the sequenced strains, including: ftsK, xerD and polA. In some cases it was possible to determine which strain represented the 'parent' and 'altered' states for insertion-deletion events. Different signature component lengths showed different sensitivities for the detection of some horizontally transferred genes, which may reflect different amelioration rates of sequence components. Conclusion New implementations of signature analysis that can be applied on a gene-by-gene basis for the identification of horizontally acquired sequences are described. These findings highlight the central role of the availability of homologous substrates in evolution mediated by horizontal exchange, and suggest that some components of the supposedly stable 'core genome' may actually be favoured targets for integration of foreign sequences because of their degree of conservation. PMID:15676066

  14. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal name: Helicobacter pylori Related tests: Gastrin At a Glance Test ... else I should know? How is it used? Helicobacter pylori testing is used to diagnose an infection ...

  15. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helicobacter Pylori Infections Page Content Article Body Most people, ... always) caused by bacteria—specifically, an organism called Helicobacter pylori. H pylori infections occur at a low ...

  16. Helping women quit smoking: results of a community intervention program.

    PubMed Central

    Secker-Walker, R H; Flynn, B S; Solomon, L J; Skelly, J M; Dorwaldt, A L; Ashikaga, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This intervention was implemented to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among women. METHODS: We used community organization approaches to create coalitions and task forces to develop and implement a multicomponent intervention in 2 counties in Vermont and New Hampshire, with a special focus on providing support to help women quit smoking. Evaluation was by pre-intervention and post-intervention random-digit-dialed telephone surveys in the intervention counties and the 2 matched comparison counties. RESULTS: In the intervention counties, compared with the comparison counties, the odds of a woman being a smoker after 4 years of program activities were 0.88 (95% confidence interval = 0.78, 1.00) (P = .02, 1-tailed); women smokers' perceptions of community norms about women smoking were significantly more negative (P = .002, 1-tailed); and the quit rate in the past 5 years was significantly greater (25.4% vs 21.4%; P = .02, 1-tailed). Quit rates were significantly higher in the intervention counties among younger women (aged 18 to 44 years); among women with household annual incomes of $25,000 or less; and among heavier smokers (those who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily). CONCLUSIONS: In these rural counties, community participation in planning and implementing interventions was accompanied by favorable changes in women's smoking behavior. PMID:10846513

  17. Combination of Nigella sativa and Honey in Eradication of Gastric Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hashem-Dabaghian, Fataneh; Agah, Shahram; Taghavi-Shirazi, Maryam; Ghobadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric Helicobacter pylori is extremely common worldwide. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of combination of Nigella sativa and honey (Dosin) in eradication of gastric H. pylori infection. Patients and Methods Nineteen patients who had positive result for H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) without a past history of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer or gastrointestinal bleeding, were suggested to receive one teaspoon of the mixture of Dosin (6 g/day of N. sativa as ground seeds and 12 g/day of honey) three times a day after meals for two weeks. The second UBT was used to detect the presence of H. pylori four weeks after completion of the test. In addition, symptoms of dyspepsia were scored before and after the study and analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results Fourteen patients completed the study. Negative UBT was observed in 57.1% (8/14) of participants after intervention. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of total dyspepsia symptoms was significantly reduced from 5.5 (5 - 12) to 1 (0 - 4) (P = 0.005). All the patients tolerated Dosin except for one who was excluded due to mild diarrhea. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Dosin was concluded to be an anti H. pylori and an anti-dyspeptic agent. Further studies are recommended to investigate the effect of Dosin plus antibiotics (concurrently or following another) on gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:28191328

  18. Eradicating Helicobacter pylori and symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    PubMed Central

    Patchett, S; Beattie, S; Leen, E; Keane, C; O'Morain, C

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pylori on symptoms of non-ulcer dyspepsia. DESIGN--Four week prospective study. SETTING--One hospital outpatient and endoscopy department. PATIENTS--90 adults with persistent symptoms typical of non-ulcer dyspepsia but no clinical or endoscopic evidence of other peptic, biliary, pancreatic, or malignant disease; all had histological and microbiological evidence of infection with H pylori. 83 patients completed the treatment regimen. INTERVENTION--Colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times a day for four weeks (27 patients); metronidazole 400 mg and amoxycillin 500 mg each three times a day for one week (27); and bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times a day for four weeks, metronidazole 400 mg three times a day for one week, plus amoxycillin 500 mg three times a day for the first week (29). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Change in symptom scores determined with questionnaire; histological evidence of gastritis and microbiological evidence of presence of H pylori in biopsy specimens. RESULTS--Overall, H pylori was eradicated in 41 (49%) patients. Although gastritis scores improved significantly in only patients in whom H pylori had been eradicated (from 1.56 to 0.61, p less than 0.01 v from 1.83 to 1.07, p = 0.52) mean symptom scores after treatment were similar in patients in whom H pylori had or had not been eradicated (3.0 v 2.3, NS). Similarly the mean symptom score improved whether or not gastritis improved (2.8 v 3.1 respectively, p = 0.72). The observations were similar for treatment groups analysed individually. CONCLUSION--Antral infection with the organism does not seem to have an important aetiological role in non-ulcer dyspepsia short term. PMID:1747644

  19. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions. PMID:11283108

  20. Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility.

    PubMed

    Poppe, M; Feller, S M; Römer, G; Wessler, S

    2007-05-24

    Helicobacter pylori induces a strong motogenic response in infected gastric epithelial host cells, which is enhanced by translocation of the pathogenic factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into host cells via a specialized type IV secretion system. Once injected into the cytosol CagA is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases followed by Src inactivation. Hence, it remained unknown why CagA is constantly phosphorylated in sustained H. pylori infections to induce cell migration, whereas other substrates of Src kinases are dephosphorylated. Here, we identify the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as a crucial mediator of H. pylori-induced migration and novel CagA kinase in epithelial cells. Upon H. pylori infection c-Abl directly interacts with CagA and localizes in focal adhesion complexes and membrane ruffles, which are highly dynamic cytoskeletal structures necessary for cell motility. Selective inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by STI571 or shRNA abrogates sustained CagA phosphorylation and epithelial cell migration, indicating a pivotal role of c-Abl in H. pylori infection and pathogenicity. These results implicate c-Abl as a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in H. pylori-related gastric diseases.

  1. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  2. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  3. Helicobacter pylori: Eradication or Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50% of the world’s population and inevitably results in the development of gastritis. Of those infected, about 10% develop peptic ulcer disease and roughly 1% develop gastric cancer. Conversely, some take the view that H. pylori infection provides some protection against gastro-esophageal reflux disease and possibly asthma. This review aims to explore the case for and against eradication of the bacterium using a “test and treat” approach amongst the general population. PMID:22500191

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy on Platelet Recovery in Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Sheema, Khan; Arshi, Naz; Farah, Naz; Imran, Sheikh

    2017-01-01

    Background. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a bleeding disorder in which the immune system destroys native platelets. In this condition an autoantibody is generated against a platelet antigen. ITP affects women more often than men and is more common in children than adults. Objective. To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy (HPET) on platelet count in Helicobacter pylori associated chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (chronic ITP) in adult. Materials and Methods. It is an interventional prospective study conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, from 2014 to 2015. A set of 85 patients diagnosed with chronic ITP were included in the study via convenient sampling. Patients with platelets count < 100 × 109/L for >3 months were selected. They were posed to first-line investigations which comprised complete blood count (CBC) and peripheral blood smear examination followed by second-line tests including bone marrow examination and Helicobacter pylori stool specific antigen (HpSA-EIA). Standard H. pylori eradication therapy was offered and the patients were assessed at regular intervals for 6 months. Results. Of the 85 study patients, 32 (37.6%) were male and 53 (62.3%) were female. Mean ages of H. pylori positive and negative subjects were 43.89 ± 7.06 and 44.75 ± 7.91 years, respectively. Bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis and excluded other related BM disorders. H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) was detected in 34 (40%) patients and hence regarded as H. pylori positive; the rest were negative. Treatment with eradication therapy significantly improved the mean platelet counts from 48.56 ± 21.7 × 109/l to 94.2 ± 26.8 × 109/l. Conclusion. We concluded that the anti-H. pylori eradication therapy improves blood platelet counts in chronic immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:28194178

  5. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  6. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081

  7. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasni, S; Ippolito, A; Illei, GG

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a widely prevalent microbe, with between 50 and 80% of the population infected worldwide. Clinically, infection with H. pylori is commonly associated with peptic ulcer disease, but many of those infected remain asymptomatic. H. pylori has evolved a number of means to affect the host immune response and has been implicated in many diseases mitigated by immune dysregulation, such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), atrophic gastritis, and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren’s syndrome, are the result of a dysregulated host immune system which targets otherwise healthy tissues. The exact etiology of autoimmune diseases is unclear, but it has long been suggested that exposure to certain environmental agents, such as viral and bacterial infection or chemical exposures, in genetically susceptible individuals may be the catalyst for the initiation of autoimmune processes. Because of its prevalence and ability to affect human immune function, many researchers have hypothesized that H. pylori might contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the available literature regarding the role of chronic H. pylori infection in various autoimmune disease states. PMID:21902767

  8. Using food to reduce H. pylori-associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jacqueline I; Salm, Nina; Wallace, Alison J; Hampton, Mark B

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation is widely recognized as a risk factor for gastric H. pylori-associated disease and disruption of this process provides a potential target for intervention. Using an in vitro system, broccoli sprouts, manuka honey and omega-3 oil, singly and in combination, were screened for their ability to limit H. pylori-associated inflammation. Each food significantly attenuated the release of IL-8 by H. pylori-infected cells, although the magnitude of this effect was variable. Only broccoli sprouts (0.125 mg/mL, w/v) were able to inhibit IL-8 release in response to TNFα, suggesting it acted by a different mechanism to the other two foods. The combination of manuka honey (1.25%, v/v) with omega-3 oil (0.006%, v/v) failed further to reduce IL-8 levels below those observed with honey alone, but the same concentrations of omega-3 oil and manuka honey independently enhanced the antiinflammatory effect of the isothiocyanate-rich broccoli sprouts. The results suggest that in the future certain foods may find increased clinical use as a non-antimicrobial approach for reducing the inflammation that is a major risk factor for H. pylori-associated disease, notably gastric cancer.

  9. Treating Helicobacter pylori infection in primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia: the Canadian adult dyspepsia empiric treatment—Helicobacter pylori positive (CADET-Hp) randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Naoki; van Zanten, Sander J O Veldhuyzen; Sinclair, Paul; Ferguson, Ralph A; Escobedo, Sergio; Grace, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a “test for Helicobacter pylori and treat” strategy improves symptoms in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia in primary care. Design Randomised placebo controlled trial. Setting 36 family practices in Canada. Participants 294 patients positive for H pylori (13C- urea breath test) with symptoms of dyspepsia of at least moderate severity in the preceding month. Intervention Participants were randomised to twice daily treatment for 7 days with omeprazole 20 mg, metronidazole 500 mg, and clarithromycin 250 mg or omeprazole 20 mg, placebo metronidazole, and placebo clarithromycin. Patients were then managed by their family physicians according to their usual care. Main outcome measures Treatment success defined as no symptoms or minimal symptoms of dyspepsia at the end of one year. Societal healthcare costs collected prospectively for a secondary evaluation of actual mean costs. Results In the intention to treat population (n=294), eradication treatment was significantly more effective than placebo in achieving treatment success (50% v 36%; P=0.02; absolute risk reduction=14%; number needed to treat=7, 95% confidence interval 4 to 63). Eradication treatment cured H pylori infection in 80% of evaluable patients. Treatment success at one year was greater in patients negative for H pylori than in those positive for H pylori (54% v 39%; P=0.02). Eradication treatment reduced mean annual cost by $C53 (−86 to 180) per patient. Conclusions A “test for H pylori with 13C-urea breath test and eradicate” strategy shows significant symptomatic benefit at 12 months in the management of primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia. What is already known on this topicDyspepsia is a common problem in primary health care, although controversy exists about its definitionStudies of H pylori eradication in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia have shown reduced need for endoscopy and thus significant cost savings compared with a strategy

  10. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  11. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers.

  12. The correlation of Helicobacter Pylori with the development of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis: the results of a prospective clinical study in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Guraya, S Y; Ahmad, A A; El-Ageery, S M; Hemeg, H A; Ozbak, H A; Yousef, K; Abdel-Aziz, N A

    2015-10-01

    Gallstone disease is a common surgical ailment. Helicobacter pylori has a role in upper gastrointestinal disorders, including gallstones. This study aimed to determine the association of H. pylori with gallstones, so developing a preventative strategy for gallstone formations. A prospective study was conducted on 95 patients referred to the surgical clinic of Al-Meeqat General Hospital, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, with gallstone disease. Detection of H. pylori antibodies (IgG) in serum was done in all the patients who underwent cholecystectomy. H. pylori stool antigen (HPSA) using stool samples was done for IgG sero-positive patients prior to the cholecystectomy. The bile collected from the gall bladder during operation was examined for the presence of H. pylori by Gram stain, culture and HPSA assay. Gallbladder mucosa was examined for urease A gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients proven to be positive for stool or bile serology. Of the 95 patients, 75 (79%) were positive for H. pylori antibodies. Twenty-six (34.7%) patients were positive with H. pylori antigens in bile and 21 (28%) with H. pylori antigens in the stool samples. Among these 47 patients, PCR was positive in 29 (62%) subjects. H. pylori couldn't be detected among the studied patients by using either Gram stain or culture. The presence of H. pylori in bile may indicate a significant risk for cholelithiasis. PCR is a rapid reliable method for the detection of H. pylori DNA in bile. This rapid molecular approach together with culture and immunological methods could help clinicians to effectively manage patients at high risk of developing gallstones at an earlier stage.

  13. Interventions for the symptoms and signs resulting from jellyfish stings.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; McGee, Richard G; Isbister, Geoff; Webster, Angela C

    2013-12-09

    Jellyfish envenomations are common amongst temperate coastal regions and vary in severity depending on the species. Stings result in a variety of symptoms and signs, including pain, dermatological reactions and, in some species, Irukandji syndrome (including abdominal/back/chest pain, tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, piloerection, agitation and sometimes cardiac complications). Many treatments have been suggested for the symptoms and signs of jellyfish stings. However, it is unclear which interventions are most effective. To determine the benefits and harms associated with the use of any intervention, in both adults and children, for the treatment of jellyfish stings, as assessed from randomised trials. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2012 and again in October 2013: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL;The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2013); MEDLINE via Ovid SP (1948 to 22 October 2013); EMBASE via Ovid SP (1980 to 21 October 2013); and Web of Science (all databases; 1899 to 21 October 2013). We also searched reference lists from eligible studies and guidelines, conference proceedings and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and contacted content experts to identify trials. We included randomised controlled trials that compared any intervention(s) to active and/or non-active controls for the treatment of symptoms and signs of jellyfish sting envenomation. No language, publication date or publication status restrictions were applied. Two review authors independently conducted study selection and data extraction and assessed risk of bias using a standardised form. Disagreements were resolved by consensus with a third review author when necessary. We included seven trials with a total of 435 participants. Three trials focused on Physalia (Bluebottle) jellyfish, one trial on Carukia jellyfish and three on Carybdea alata (Hawaiian box) jellyfish. Two ongoing trials

  14. The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and ischemic heart disease: facts or fancy?

    PubMed

    Parente, F; Bianchi Porro, G

    1997-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated recently with an increased risk of developing ischemic heart disease. We critically reviewed the literature on the association between Helicobacter and ischemic heart disease. It has been suggested that a persistent low-grade inflammatory response resulting from chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori may increase the concentration of certain coagulation factors, such as fibrinogen, which are predictors of ischemic heart disease. After the appearance of the first studies indicating a moderately strong association, other researchers have investigated the potential association between these two conditions, yielding conflicting results. It must be emphasized that a relationship between fibrinogen or other hemostatic factors and H. pylori infection has been demonstrated only in cross-sectional studies, many of which included ischemic heart disease patients. The present evidence supporting the association between H. pylori infection and ischemic heart disease is based on cross-sectional surveys, in which it is difficult to separate cause and effect. The high prevalence in the population of both H. pylori and ischemic heart disease makes it very difficult to establish a causal association. Prospective or interventional studies eventually might help to clarify the question.

  15. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects.

  16. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  17. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:24914325

  19. Association between Helicobacter pylori status and metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Bum; Lee, Si Hyung; Bae, Seung Il; Jeong, Yo Han; Sohn, Se Hoon; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Tae Nyeun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status test and H. pylori eradication on the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer (EGC) and risk factors of MGC. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 433 patients (441 lesions) who underwent ESD for EGC from January 2005 to January 2015 in Yeungnam University Hospital. Patients were categorized into two groups; the H. pylori tested group (n = 257) and the H. pylori non-tested group (n = 176) based on performance of H. pylori status test after ESD of EGC. The H. pylori tested group was further categorized into three subgroups based on H. pylori status; the H. pylori-eradicated subgroup (n = 120), the H. pylori-persistent subgroup (n = 42), and the H. pylori-negative subgroup (n = 95). Incidences of MGC and risk factors of MGC were identified. RESULTS Median follow-up duration after ESD was 30.00 mo (range, 6-107 mo). Total 15 patients developed MGC during follow-up. MGC developed in 11 patients of the H. pylori tested group (7 in the H. pylori-negative subgroup, 3 in the H. pylori-eradicated subgroup, and 1 in the H. pylori-persistent subgroup) and 4 patients of the H. pylori non-tested group (P > 0.05). The risk factors of MGC were endoscopic mucosal atrophy in the H. pylori tested group and intestinal metaplasia in all patients. CONCLUSION H. pylori eradication and H. pylori status test seems to have no preventive effect on the development of MGC after ESD for EGC. The risk factors of MGC development were endoscopic mucosal atrophy in the H. pylori tested group alone and intestinal metaplasia in all patients. PMID:27956803

  20. [European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-EuReg protocol): The first results of Russian centers].

    PubMed

    Bordin, D S; Yanova, O B; Abdulkhakov, R A; Tsukanov, V V; Livzan, M A; Burkov, S G; Zakharova, N V; Plotnikova, E Yu; Osipenko, M F; Tarasova, L V; Maev, I V; Kucheryavyi, Yu A; Butov, M A; Sablin, O A; Kolbasnikov, S V; Voinovan, I N; Abdulkhakov, S R; Vasyutin, A V; Lyalyukova, E A; Golubev, N N; Savilova, I V; Grigoryeva, L V; Kononova, A G; O'Morain, Colm; Ramas, Mercedes; Mcnicholl, Adrian G; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-01-01

    Резюме Цель исследования. Оценка клинической практики диагностики и лечения больных с инфекцией Helicobacter pylori и сопоставление этой практики с международными рекомендациями в Европейском регистре (European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, протокол: «Hp-EuReg») — наблюдательном многоцентровом проспективном исследовании, инициированном Европейской группой по изучению H. pylori и микробиоты (EHMSG). Материалы и методы. Проведен анализ данных 813 больных, инфицированных H. pylori и внесенных в регистр Российскими центрами исследования «Hp-EuReg» в 2013—2015 гг. Результаты. Наиболее распространенными методами первичной диагностики инфекции H. pylori являются гистологический (40,3%), быстрый уреазный тест (35,7%) и серологический (17,2%). Длительность антихеликобактерной терапии в 18% случаев составила 7 дней, в 49,3% — 10 дней, в 25,1% — 14 дней. Для контроля эффективности лечения используются гистологический метод (34%), уреазный дыхательный тест (27,3%), антиген H. pylori в кале (22,8%), быстрый уреазный тест (16,3%). В 2,5% случаев использовался серологический метод. У 13,5% больных контроль не проводился. Средняя эффективность эрадикации

  1. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. Material and Methods A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Results Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Conclusions Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development. Key words:Campylobacter, elisa, h. pylori, Helicobacter Pylori, RAS, recurrent aphthous

  2. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of ... or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  3. Accumulating Knowledge: When Are Reading Intervention Results Meaningful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The three target articles provide examples of intervention studies that are excellent models for the field. They rely on rigorous and elegant designs, the interventions are motivated by attention to underlying theoretical mechanisms, and longitudinal designs are used to examine the duration of effects of interventions that occur. When studies are…

  4. Accumulating Knowledge: When Are Reading Intervention Results Meaningful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The three target articles provide examples of intervention studies that are excellent models for the field. They rely on rigorous and elegant designs, the interventions are motivated by attention to underlying theoretical mechanisms, and longitudinal designs are used to examine the duration of effects of interventions that occur. When studies are…

  5. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies.

  6. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen A A A What's in this article? ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria ...

  7. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    Wörz, Karl; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Non-interventional studies (NIS) have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the execution of non interventional (observational) studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP), with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies]) – Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut) on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres. This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials. PMID:21863135

  8. Dietary Intervention of Artemisia and Green Tea Extracts to Rejuvenate Helicobacter pylori-Associated Chronic Atrophic Gastritis and to Prevent Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Kangwan, Napapan; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Bok-Nam; Kim, Won-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-02-01

    As nonmicrobial dietary approach is capable of controlling Helicobacter pylori infection, we evaluated the efficacy of long-term dietary administration of Artemisia and/or green tea extracts on H. pylori-initiated, high-salt-promoted chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumorigenesis mouse model. Helicobacter pylori-infected and high-salt-diet-administered C57BL/6 mice were administered with Artemisia extracts (MP group) and/or green tea extracts (GT group) for 36 weeks in addition to the control group (ES group, gastroprotective drug, ecabet sodium 30 mg/kg, diet pellet). Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively, and their underlying molecular changes were measured in gastric homogenates. Detailed mechanisms were further evaluated in in vitro cell models. The erythematous and nodular changes and mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions were noted in the control group at 24 weeks. MP, GT, MPGT, and ES groups all showed significantly ameliorated pathologic lesion compared to the control group (p < .05). After the 36 weeks, scattered nodular masses with some central ulcers and thin gastric surface were noted in the control stomach, whereas no tumorous lesion and milder atrophic changes were observed in all MP, GT, and MPGT groups except ES group (p < .05). On molecular analysis, increased expressions of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, lipid peroxide, and activated STAT3 relevant to H. pylori infection were significantly decreased with MPGT administration (p < .01), whereas HSP70 was significantly increased. PGDH expressions, core tumor suppressor involved in carcinogenesis, were significantly decreased with H. pylori infection (p < .05), but significantly increased in MPGT group (p < .05). Increased mucosal apoptotic index noted in the control group was significantly decreased with MP and/or GT along with significantly preserved gastric gastroprotective mediators (p < .01) such as mucins, HSP27, and HSP70. H. pylori-induced serum

  9. Helicobacter pylori as an oncogenic pathogen, revisited.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2017-03-21

    Gastric cancer is an inflammation-associated malignancy aetiologically related to infection with the bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, which is considered a necessary but insufficient cause. Unless treated, H. pylori causes life-long acute and chronic gastric inflammation resulting in progressive gastric mucosal damage that may result in gastric cancer. The rate of progression from superficial gastritis, to an atrophic metaplastic mucosa, and ultimately to cancer relates to the virulence of the infecting H. pylori as well as host and environmental factors. H. pylori virulence is a reflection of its propensity to cause severe gastric inflammation. Both mucosal inflammation and H. pylori can cause host genomic instability, including dysregulation of DNA mismatch repair, stimulation of expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, abnormal DNA methylation and dysregulation of  micro RNAs, which may result in an accumulation of mutations and loss of normal regulation of cell growth. The difference in cancer risk between the most and least virulent H. pylori strain is only approximately 2-fold. Overall, none of the putative virulence factors identified to date have proved to be disease-specific. The presence, severity, extent and duration of inflammation appear to be the most important factors and current evidence suggests that any host, environmental or bacterial factor that reliably enhances the inflammatory response to the H. pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer.

  10. Incidence of and risk factors for metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection and successful Helicobacter pylori eradication: results of a large-scale, multicenter cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, Genki; Nakajima, Takeshi; Asada, Kiyoshi; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Maekita, Takao; Yokoi, Chizu; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Gotoda, Takuji; Ichinose, Masao; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Oda, Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A previous multicenter prospective randomized study from Japan showed that Helicobacter pylori eradication reduced the development of metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) after endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer. MGC risk, however, is not eliminated; yet few studies have evaluated its long-term incidence and risk factors. In this study, we investigated the incidence of and risk factors for MGC in patients who underwent endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer with successful H. pylori eradication. A total of 594 patients who underwent endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer and successful H. pylori eradication at three institutions (National Cancer Center Hospital, University of Tokyo Hospital, and Wakayama Medical University Hospital) were analyzed retrospectively. Annual endoscopic surveillance was performed after initial endoscopic resection. MGC was defined as a gastric cancer newly detected at least 1 year after successful H. pylori eradication. Ninety-four MGCs were detected in 79 patients during the 4.5-year median follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed the cumulative incidence of MGC 5 years after successful H. pylori eradication was 15.0 %; the incidence of MGC calculated by use of the person-year method was 29.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model revealed that male sex, severe gastric mucosal atrophy, and multiple gastric cancers before successful H. pylori eradication were independent risk factors for MGC. Eleven percent of MGCs (10 of 94) were detected more than 5 years after successful H. pylori eradication. Surveillance endoscopy for MGC in patients who have undergone endoscopic resection for early gastric cancer should be performed even after successful H. pylori eradication.

  11. Evaluation of the benefit of addition of clidinium C to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen

    PubMed Central

    Chorami, Maryam; Naderi, Nosratollah; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Mirsattari, Dariush; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the success of H.pylori eradication therapy in patients with dyspepsia by therapeutics regimes with and without clidinium C. Background Helicobacter pylori infections are reported in all parts of the world. Appropriate antibiotic therapy can treat infection. The ideal treatment regimen has not been specified. Patients and methods In a randomized, double blind clinical trials study, 250 patients with dyspepsia were enrolled. All patients were treated by Omeprazole, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin and Bismuth (OMAB) for two weeks. One tablet clidinium C before each meal was added to this regimen in the intervention group (A). Urea Breath Test (UBT) was carried out after 8-12 weeks after treatment for evaluation of H.pylori eradication. Results 132 patients in the intervention group (A) and 118 patients in the control group (B) were enrolled to the study. The rate of eradication in group A was significantly higher than group B (62.1% vs. 50%, p=0.04). Conclusion The results supported the effect of clidinium C for increasing of helicobacter pylori eradication, but further studies need to be performed. PMID:24834261

  12. Simple animal model of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn

    2014-06-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has become accepted as a human pathogen for the development of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcer. To develop a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with streptomycin suspended in tap water (5 mg/mL) for 3 d. The rats were inoculated by gavage at 1 mL/rat with H. pylori suspension (5 × 10(8)-5 × 10(10) CFU/mL) twice daily at an interval of 4 h for three consecutive days. Two weeks after inoculation, rats were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed. Antral biopsies were performed for urease test and the stomachs were taken for histopathology. Successful H. pylori inoculation was defined as a positive urease test and histopathology. We reported a 69.8%-83.0% success rate for H. pylori infection using the urease test, and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the results. Histopathological analysis detected bacteria along the mucous lining of the surface epithelium and crypt lumen and demonstrated mild to moderate gastric inflammation in successfully inoculated rats. We developed a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection for research into gastric microcirculatory changes and therapy with plant products.

  13. Helping women quit smoking: results of a community intervention program.

    PubMed

    Secker-Walker, R H; Flynn, B S; Solomon, L J; Skelly, J M; Dorwaldt, A L; Ashikaga, T

    2000-06-01

    This intervention was implemented to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among women. We used community organization approaches to create coalitions and task forces to develop and implement a multicomponent intervention in 2 counties in Vermont and New Hampshire, with a special focus on providing support to help women quit smoking. Evaluation was by pre-intervention and post-intervention random-digit-dialed telephone surveys in the intervention counties and the 2 matched comparison counties. In the intervention counties, compared with the comparison counties, the odds of a woman being a smoker after 4 years of program activities were 0.88 (95% confidence interval = 0.78, 1.00) (P = .02, 1-tailed); women smokers' perceptions of community norms about women smoking were significantly more negative (P = .002, 1-tailed); and the quit rate in the past 5 years was significantly greater (25.4% vs 21.4%; P = .02, 1-tailed). Quit rates were significantly higher in the intervention counties among younger women (aged 18 to 44 years); among women with household annual incomes of $25,000 or less; and among heavier smokers (those who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily). In these rural counties, community participation in planning and implementing interventions was accompanied by favorable changes in women's smoking behavior.

  14. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  15. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  16. Catechins and Sialic Acid Attenuate Helicobacter pylori-Triggered Epithelial Caspase-1 Activity and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jyh-Chin; Yang, Hung-Chih; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Teh-Hong; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Kao, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway in immune cells plays a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis; however, the regulation of this pathway in the gastric epithelium during Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of catechins (CAs), sialic acid (SA), or combination of CA and SA (CASA) on H. pylori-induced caspase-1-mediated epithelial damage, as well as H. pylori colonization in vitro (AGS cells) and in vivo (BALB/c mice). Our results indicate that the activity of caspase-1 and the expression of its downstream substrate IL-1β were upregulated in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In addition, we observed increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase gp91phox, CD68, caspase-1/IL-1β, and apoptosis, but decreased autophagy, in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. We have further demonstrated that treatment with CASA led to synergistic anti-H. pylori activity and was more effective than treatment with CA or SA alone. In particular, treatment with CASA for 10 days eradicated H. pylori infection in up to 95% of H. pylori-infected mice. Taken together, we suggest that the pathogenesis of H. pylori involves a gastric epithelial inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway, and our results show that CASA was able to attenuate this pathway and effectively eradicate H. pylori infection. PMID:23653660

  17. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  18. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  19. Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru.

    PubMed

    Hulten, K; Han, S W; Enroth, H; Klein, P D; Opekun, A R; Gilman, R H; Evans, D G; Engstrand, L; Graham, D Y; El-Zaatari, F A

    1996-04-01

    An association between water sources and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children was shown previously. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of H. pylori in drinking water in the same community. Forty-eight drinking water samples from different locations in pueblo jovenes (new towns) near Lima were collected. Samples were frozen until technology advanced to the point to the point at which H. pylori might be reliably detected. Immunomagnetic beads coated with anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin Gs were used to concentrate H. pylori, and two polymerase chain reaction assays based on different H. pylori genes were used. One was a polymerase chain reaction for the detection of the H. pylori adhesin subunit encoding gene, and the second was a previously validated H. pylori 16S ribosomal RNA reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The expected 375-base pair fragment from the adhesin gene was amplified from 24 water samples. The expected 500-base pair fragment of the 16S ribosomal RNA and the 375-base pair fragment of the adhesin gene were amplified from 11 of the samples. These results confirm the presence of H. pylori in drinking water in Peru and are consistent with conclusions from a previous epidemiological study of the same population. This provides additional evidence for waterborne transmission of H. pylori in some environments.

  20. Changes of gene expression in gastric preneoplasia following Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Tibshirani, Robert John; Yang, Shufang; Mohar, Alejandro; Guarner, Jeannette; Parsonnet, Julie

    2006-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes gastric preneoplasia and neoplasia. Eradicating H. pylori can result in partial regression of preneoplastic lesions; however, the molecular underpinning of this change is unknown. To identify molecular changes in the gastric mucosa following H. pylori eradication, we used cDNA microarrays (with each array containing approximately 30,300 genes) to analyze 54 gastric biopsies from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of H. pylori therapy. The 54 biopsies were obtained from 27 subjects (13 from the treatment and 14 from the placebo group) with chronic gastritis, atrophy, and/or intestinal metaplasia. Each subject contributed one biopsy before and another biopsy 1 year after the intervention. Significant analysis of microarrays (SAM) was used to compare the gene expression profiles of pre-intervention and post-intervention biopsies. In the treatment group, SAM identified 30 genes whose expression changed significantly from baseline to 1 year after treatment (0 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated). In the placebo group, the expression of 55 genes differed significantly over the 1-year period (32 up-regulated and 23 down-regulated). Five genes involved in cell-cell adhesion and lining (TACSTD1 and MUC13), cell cycle differentiation (S100A10), and lipid metabolism and transport (FABP1 and MTP) were down-regulated over time in the treatment group but up-regulated in the placebo group. Immunohistochemistry for one of these differentially expressed genes (FABP1) confirmed the changes in gene expression observed by microarray. In conclusion, H. pylori eradication may stop or reverse ongoing molecular processes in the stomach. Further studies are needed to evaluate the use of these genes as markers for gastric cancer risk.

  1. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  2. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, p<0.001). The grade of mononuclear infiltrates and neutrophil density was more severe in the H. pylori-positive group (p<0.001). Pan-gastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  3. Non-human reservoirs of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Fox, J G

    1995-01-01

    Early attempts to identify non-human reservoirs for Helicobacter pylori were largely unrewarding. The one exception being old-world macaques, which were found to be colonized with H. pylori; however, it is doubtful whether this species provides an important reservoir for human infection. The possibility of other animal reservoirs and zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been discussed, but until recently has not received serious study. Enthusiasm to initiate extensive studies in this area were further dampened by the inability to experimentally infect several different species of mammals with the organism. Reports using whole-cell enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) sonicate to monitor infection serologically, have cited a high incidence of H. pylori infection in abattoir workers. These results have been criticized because of potential antigenic cross-reactivity in workers' sera due to the constant exposure of these personnel to other gastrointestinal flora of animals. The large spiral gastric Helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs) commonly noted in dogs and cats are associated with approximately 0.08-1% of gastritis in humans. These GHLOs often infect patients who own pets, suggesting a zoonotic link. Thus, the recent isolation of H. pylori from the inflamed gastric mucosa of commercially reared cats, and the ability to experimentally infect cats with H. pylori, raises the possibility of zoonotic H. pylori transmission from infected animals who have close human contact. Water and raw vegetables have been linked with H. pylori transmission in a few epidemiologically-based studies in developing populations. The recent isolation of H. pylori from the faeces of adults and children implicates a faecal-oral transmission pathway and supports the theory that both food and water (via faecal contamination) could be a source of H. pylori. Providing conclusive evidence that H. pylori has the ability to exist in the environment as a viable, non-culturable coccoid form

  4. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  5. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in patients with head and neck cancer: Results from a prospective comparative study combining serology, polymerase chain reaction, and rapid urease test.

    PubMed

    Morand, Grégoire B; Fellmann, Jonas; Laske, Roman D; Weisert, Jan U; Soltermann, Alex; Zbinden, Reinhard; Probst, Rudolf; Huber, Gerhard F

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively the presence and impact of the gastric carcinogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the upper aerodigestive tract. Previous studies suggested it could represent a risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Serology, rapid urease test, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for H. pylori were performed in patients with head and neck cancer (N = 56) and cancer-free controls (N = 90). Comparison between groups was done using logistic regression analysis. Rates of positive serology and rapid urease test did not differ between the 2 groups in logistic regression analysis (p = .677 and p = .633, respectively). Birth in a developing country and age above 50 years old were predictors of positive serology (p < .001 and p = .040, respectively). Using qPCR, no biopsy showed the presence of H. pylori. This study challenges the concept that H. pylori may be a risk factor for HNSCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of dietary anti-Helicobacter pylori-urease immunoglobulin Y on Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Nomura, S; Masaoka, T; Goshima, H; Kamata, N; Kodama, Y; Ishii, H; Kitajima, M; Nomoto, K; Hibi, T

    2004-07-01

    Recently, chicken egg yolk was recognized as an inexpensive antibody source, and the therapeutic usefulness of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in oral passive immunization has been investigated. Although multiple antibiotic treatments eradicate most Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections, therapy fails in 10-15% of cases due to the development of drug resistance. Consequently, it is important that new, more broadly based therapies for the treatment of H. pylori infection should be identified. The present study evaluated the effect, on H. pylori infection, of IgY prepared from egg yolk of hens immunized with H. pylori urease (anti-HpU IgY). Seventeen asymptomatic volunteers diagnosed as H. pylori-positive by the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) were orally administered anti-HpU IgY for 4 weeks. Four weeks later, UBT values were significantly decreased although no case showed H. pylori eradication. An H. pylori-positive 53-year-old female gastritis patient administered anti-HpU IgY plus lansoprazole for 8 weeks showed a decrease in serum pepsinogen (PG) I and UBT values as well as an increase in the PG I/II ratio. In conclusion, anti-HpU IgY may mitigate H. pylori-associated gastritis and partially attenuate gastric urease activity. Furthermore, anti-HpU IgY combined with antacids appears to ameliorate gastric inflammation. These encouraging results may represent a novel approach to the management of H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal disease.

  7. [Helicobacter pylori -- 2014].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2015-02-08

    The author reviews the main achievements in Helicobacter pylori research in the past 2 years. Of the more than 1000 microRNAs described thus far, sets of over- and underexpressed samples were identified that are associated with either gastric cancer or precancerous lesions, and some of them could be either markers or therapeutic targets in the near future. Meta-analyses involved 95 new publications: the association between infection and oesophageal, colorectal, pancreatic and liver carcinomas is supported by the increased odds ratios, but the results do not reach the strength seen in gastric carcinoma. Epstein-Barr virus is an emerging pathogen: 10% of gastric cancers are virus-associated; the prevalence of the virus in normal mucosa, chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer are currently being studied. Current Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens frequently achieve suboptimal results: a few optimisation methods are presented, although not all are supported by the meta-analyses. In 2013, the European Helicobacter Study Group proposed the development of a pan-European registry; data from 5792 patients registered so far indicated that many therapeutic regimens resulted in a low eradication rate. In 2013, the Healthy Stomach Initiative was started with the aim of supporting and disseminating research performed in the field of healthy and diseased stomachs.

  8. Suppressed Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric tumorigenesis in Fat-1 transgenic mice producing endogenous ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Go, Eun-Jin; Kang, Jing X; Hong, Sung Pyo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Dietary approaches to preventing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastric carcinogenesis are widely accepted because surrounding break-up mechanisms are mandatory for cancer prevention, however, eradication alone has been proven to be insufficient. Among these dietary interventions, omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are often the first candidate selected. However, there was no trial of fatty acids in preventing H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis and inconclusive results have been reported, likely based on inconsistent dietary administration. In this study, we developed an H. pylori initiated-, high salt diet promoted-gastric tumorigenesis model and conducted a comparison between wild-type (WT) and Fat-1-transgenic (TG)-mice. Gross and pathological lesions in mouse stomachs were evaluated at 16, 24, 32, and 45 weeks after H. pylori infection, and the underlying molecular changes to explain the cancer preventive effects were investigated. Significant changes in: i) ameliorated gastric inflammations at 16 weeks of H. pylori infection, ii) decreased angiogenic growth factors at 24 weeks, iii) attenuated atrophic gastritis and tumorigenesis at 32 weeks, and iv) decreased gastric cancer at 45 weeks were all noted in Fat-1-TG-mice compared to WT-mice. While an increase in the expression of Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and reduced expression of the tumor suppressive 15-PGDH were observed in WT-mice throughout the experimental periods, the expression of Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was preserved in Fat-1-TG-mice. Using a comparative protein array, attenuated expressions of proteins implicated in proliferation and inflammation were observed in Fat-1-TG-mice compared to WT-mice. Conclusively, long-term administration of ω-3 PUFAs can suppress H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis through a dampening of inflammation and reduced proliferation in accordance with afforded rejuvenation. PMID:27528223

  9. Clinical outcomes resulting from telemedicine interventions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Background The use of telemedicine is growing, but its efficacy for achieving comparable or improved clinical outcomes has not been established in many medical specialties. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of telemedicine interventions for health outcomes in two classes of application: home-based and office/hospital-based. Methods Data sources for the study included deports of studies from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and HealthSTAR databases; searching of bibliographies of review and other articles; and consultation of printed resources as well as investigators in the field. We included studies that were relevant to at least one of the two classes of telemedicine and addressed the assessment of efficacy for clinical outcomes with data of reported results. We excluded studies where the service did not historically require face-to-face encounters (e.g., radiology or pathology diagnosis). All included articles were abstracted and graded for quality and direction of the evidence. Results A total of 25 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed. The strongest evidence for the efficacy of telemedicine in clinical outcomes comes from home-based telemedicine in the areas of chronic disease management, hypertension, and AIDS. The value of home glucose monitoring in diabetes mellitus is conflicting. There is also reasonable evidence that telemedicine is comparable to face-to-face care in emergency medicine and is beneficial in surgical and neonatal intensive care units as well as patient transfer in neurosurgery. Conclusions Despite the widespread use of telemedicine in virtually all major areas of health care, evidence concerning the benefits of its use exists in only a small number of them. Further randomized controlled trials must be done to determine where its use is most effective. PMID:11737882

  10. Helicobacter pylori: Friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Malnick, Stephen David Howard; Melzer, Ehud; Attali, Malka; Duek, Gabriel; Yahav, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative spiral bacterium that is present in nearly half the world’s population. It is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and a recognized cause of gastric carcinoma. In addition, it is linked to non-ulcer dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency, iron-deficient anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. These conditions are indications for testing and treatment according to current guidelines. An additional indication according to the guidelines is “anyone with a fear of gastric cancer” which results in nearly every infected person being eligible for eradication treatment. There may be beneficial effects of H. pylori in humans, including protection from gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, universal treatment will be extremely expensive (more than $32 billion in the United States), may expose the patients to adverse effects such as anaphylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection, as well as contributing to antibiotic resistance. There may also be an as yet uncertain effect on the fecal microbiome. There is a need for robust clinical data to assist in decision-making regarding treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25083071

  11. Helicobacter pylori: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Malnick, Stephen David Howard; Melzer, Ehud; Attali, Malka; Duek, Gabriel; Yahav, Jacob

    2014-07-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative spiral bacterium that is present in nearly half the world's population. It is the major cause of peptic ulcer disease and a recognized cause of gastric carcinoma. In addition, it is linked to non-ulcer dyspepsia, vitamin B12 deficiency, iron-deficient anemia and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. These conditions are indications for testing and treatment according to current guidelines. An additional indication according to the guidelines is "anyone with a fear of gastric cancer" which results in nearly every infected person being eligible for eradication treatment. There may be beneficial effects of H. pylori in humans, including protection from gastroesophageal reflux disease and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, universal treatment will be extremely expensive (more than $32 billion in the United States), may expose the patients to adverse effects such as anaphylaxis and Clostridium difficile infection, as well as contributing to antibiotic resistance. There may also be an as yet uncertain effect on the fecal microbiome. There is a need for robust clinical data to assist in decision-making regarding treatment of H. pylori infection.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Francavailla, Ruggiero

    2014-09-01

    This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Vetvickova, Jana; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a well-established natural molecule with significant biological and pharmaceutical effects. Its effects on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been repeatedly confirmed both in animal and human models. This study directly compared five different samples to evaluate if the effects are general or if they differ among samples. Methods Using a mouse model, we studied the effects of curcumin on lipid peroxide (LPO) level, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and urease activity, number of colonized bacteria, levels of anti-H. pylori antibodies, biofilm formation, IFN-γ, IL-4, gastrin and somatostatin levels in serum, and minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, we evaluated the effects on biofilm production and antibacterial antibody response. Results In all tests, one sample (Sabinsa) was consistently the most active. Conclusions All curcumin samples showed some anti-H. pylori effects, but only some of the tested samples had significant activity. PMID:28149841

  14. Thailand Consensus on Helicobacter pylori Treatment 2015.

    PubMed

    Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rojborwonwitaya, Jarin; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Mairiang, Pisaln; Praisontarangkul, Ong-Ard; Ovartlarnporn, Buncha; Sottisuporn, Jaksin; Pisespongsa, Pises; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Sony, Ravin; Sirinthornpunya, Siam; Chaiyamahapurk, Orawan; Wiwattanachang, Olarn; Sansak, Inchaya; Harnsomboon, Piyathida; Chitapanarux, Taned; Chuenrattanakul, Surapon

    2016-01-01

    Management of Helicobacter pylori infection is an important aspect of many upper gastrointestinal tract diseases, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The Thailand Consensus on H. pylori treatment 2015 consisted of 22 national experts who took active roles, discussed all important clinical information and investigated clinical aspects in four workshops, focuising on: (1) Diagnosis (2) Treatment (3) Follow-up after eradication and (4) H. pylori infection and special conditions. Experts were invited to participate on the basis of their expertise and contribution to H. pylori works and/or consensus methodology. The results of each workshop were taken to a final consensus vote by all experts. Recommendations were developed from the best evidence and availability to guide clinicians in management of this specific infection associated with variety of clinical outcomes.

  15. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane.

  17. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  18. Learning Instructor Intervention from MOOC Forums: Early Results and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika

    2015-01-01

    With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…

  19. Absence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque determined by immunoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Savoldi, E; Marinone, M G; Negrini, R; Facchinetti, D; Lanzini, A; Sapelli, P L

    1998-12-01

    Attempts to detect Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque have given contrasting results, and the possibility of an oral-oral transmission of the infection remains unclear. In this study, a sensitive and specific immunoperoxidase method has been employed to assess the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque. Dental plaque smears from 80 patients undergoing gastroscopy were analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase test, employing a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori. No immunostained bacteria were shown in any of the examined dental plaque samples. H. pylori is not usually present in dental plaque, indicating that oral-oral transmission of the infection could be due to intermittent esophageal reflux only.

  20. Helicobacter pylori and thrombocytopenia in the pregnant hispanic population.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Aaron; Wing, Deborah A; Ouzounian, Joseph G; Miller, David A; Lee, Richard H

    2012-12-01

    An association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and thrombocytopenia has been demonstrated in the literature in a non-pregnant population. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there is a similar association in the third trimester of pregnancy in a Hispanic population. This is a secondary analysis of 82 pregnant Hispanic women with and without hyperemesis gravidarum who underwent serologic evaluation for H. pylori IgG. Results of complete blood counts obtained in the third trimester were analysed for thrombocytopenia. Of the 82 subjects who had H. pylori testing, 54 subjects had both serum H. pylori IgG results and third trimester platelet levels. The prevalence of thrombocytopenia was 11.1% (6/54). Thirty-six subjects were seropositive for H. pylori IgG and 18 subjects were seronegative. Of the 36 subjects who were H. pylori seropositive, four (11.1%) developed thrombocytopenia compared to three of 18 (16.7%) H. pylori seronegative subjects (P = 0.67). There was no difference between the groups in their mean platelet values (205 K/cu mm vs. 212 K/cu mm, P = 0.69). In this limited study, we found no association between H. pylori and thrombocytopenia in the pregnant Hispanic population.

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2014-01-01

    Gastric remnants are an inevitable consequence of partial gastrectomy following resection for gastric cancer. The presence of gastric stumps is itself a risk factor for redevelopment of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is also a well-known characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization in the remnant stomach therefore draws special interest from clinicians in terms of stomach cancer development and pathogenesis; however, the H. pylori-infected gastric remnant is quite different from the intact organ in several aspects and researchers have expressed conflicting opinions with respect to its role in pathogenesis. For instance, H. pylori infection of the gastric stump produced controversial results in several recent studies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the gastric stump has varied among recent reports. Gastritis developing in the remnant stomach presents with a unique pattern of inflammation that is different from the pattern seen in ordinary gastritis of the intact organ. Bile refluxate also has a significant influence on the colonization of the stomach stump, with several studies reporting mixed results as well. In contrast, the elimination of H. pylori from the gastric stump has shown a dramatic impact on eradication rate. H. pylori elimination is recognized to be important for cancer prevention and considerable agreement of opinion is seen among researchers. To overcome the current discrepancies in the literature regarding the role of H. pylori in the gastric stump, further research is required. PMID:24659869

  2. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Taha, Mona M; Younis, Nahla N; Ibrahim, Khadiga S; Hamouda, Hamdi A; Eldosouky, Mohamed A; Soliman, Hala

    2010-10-01

    Gastritis, an inflammation of gastric mucosa, may be due to many pathological factors and infection, such as with Helicobacter pylori. The use of experimental models of gastritis is important to evaluate the biochemical changes and study chemotherapeutic intervention. In a previous study we demonstrated an acute gastritis model induced by iodoacetamide. Our objective in this study was to evaluate a new gastritis model induced by H. pylori infection in experimental rats in terms of certain biomarkers in serum and mucosal tissues in addition to histopathological examination. Gastritis was induced in 20 albino Wistar rats by H. pylori isolated from antral biopsy taken from a 49-year-old male patient endoscopically diagnosed as having H. pylori infection. Another ten rats were used as controls. Serum gastrin, pepsinogen I activity, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and gastric mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were measured. Immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation were used to further evaluate H. pylori-induced gastritis. Serum gastrin, IL-6, mucosal MPO activity, and PGE(2) demonstrated significant increases joined with a decreased serum pepsinogen I activity (P < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positive reaction for iNOS, nitrotyrosine and DNA fragmentation. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis models demonstrated massive oxidative stress and pronounced injury in mucosal tissue. Since our model in rats reflected the clinical picture of H. pylori infection, it can be considered as a consistent model to study chemotherapeutic intervention for this type of gastritis.

  3. Association between thyroid autoimmunity and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Tae Yong; Kim, Eui Young; Jang, Eun Kyung; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims There have been controversial reports linking Helicobacter pylori infection to autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). However, data regarding the relationship are limited for Asian populations, which have an extremely high prevalence of H. pylori infection. We performed this study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and AITD in Koreans. Methods This study involved adults aged 30 to 70 years who had visited a health promotion center. A total of 5,502 subjects were analysed. Thyroid status was assessed by free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori were measured as an indication of H. pylori infection. We compared the prevalence of TPO-Ab in subjects with and without H. pylori infection. Results H. pylori IgG antibodies were found in 2,875 subjects (52.3%), and TPO-Ab were found in 430 (7.8%). Individuals positive for H. pylori Ab were older than those negative for H. pylori Ab (p < 0.01). The proportion of females was significantly higher in the TPO-Ab positive group (41.0% vs. 64.2%, p < 0.01). Prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity was higher in subjects with H. pylori infection (8.6% vs. 7.00%, p = 0.03), and this association was significant after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.03; p = 0.04). Conclusions In our study, prevalence of TPO-Ab positivity is more frequent in subjects with H. pylori infection. Our findings suggest H. pylori infection may play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:28092700

  4. Cholesterol glucosylation by Helicobacter pylori delays internalization and arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Du, Shin-Yi; Wang, Hung-Jung; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Chen, Sheng-De; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and contributes to chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa. H. pylori persistence occurs because of insufficient eradication by phagocytic cells. A key factor of H. pylori, cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase encoded by capJ that extracts host cholesterol and converts it to cholesteryl glucosides, is important to evade host immunity. Here, we examined whether phagocytic trafficking in macrophages was perturbed by capJ-carrying H. pylori. J774A.1 cells were infected with H. pylori at a multiplicity of infection of 50. Live-cell imaging and confocal microscopic analysis were applied to monitor the phagocytic trafficking events. The viability of H. pylori inside macrophages was determined by using gentamicin colony-forming unit assay. The phagocytic routes were characterized by using trafficking-intervention compounds. Wild type (WT) H. pylori exhibited more delayed entry into macrophages and also arrested phagosome maturation more than did capJ knockout mutant. Pretreatment of genistein and LY294002 prior to H. pylori infection reduced the internalization of WT but not capJ-knockout H. pylori in macrophages. Cholesterol glucosylation by H. pylori interferes with phagosome trafficking via a lipid-raft and PI3K-dependent manner, which retards engulfment of bacteria for prolonged intracellular survival of H. pylori. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role in iron deficiency anemia? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xin-Hua; Huang, Xiao-Lu; Xiong, Ping; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Huang, You-Liang; Lu, Lun-Gen; Sun, Xu; Rong, Lan; Zhong, Liang; Sun, Da-Yu; Lin, Hai; Cai, Ming-Ci; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Bing; Wu, Lian-Ming; Jiang, Yi-Bin; Yan, Wei-Li

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA). METHODS: A defined search strategy was used to search Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Premedline and Healthstar. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate observational epidemiology studies, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was used to demonstrate the difference between control and intervention groups. RESULTS: Fifteen observational studies and 5 RCTs were identified and used for calculation. The pooled OR for observational studies was 2.22 (95% CI: 1.52-3.24, P < 0.0001). The WMD for hemoglobin (HB) was 4.06 g/L (95% CI: -2.57-10.69, P = 0.01), and the WMD for serum ferritin (SF) was 9.47 μg/L (95% CI: -0.50-19.43, P < 0.0001). Results were heterogeneous for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis on observational studies suggests an association between H. pylori and IDA. In RCTs, eradication of H. pylori can improve HB and SF levels but not significantly. PMID:20143469

  6. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori urease mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Segal, E D; Shon, J; Tompkins, L S

    1992-01-01

    The association between Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, and peptic ulcer is well established, and the association of infection with gastric cancer has been noted in several developing countries. However, the pathogenic mechanism(s) leading to disease states has not been elucidated. The H. pylori urease is thought to be a determinant of pathogenicity, since the enzyme is produced by all H. pylori clinical isolates. Evidence indicates that some H. pylori strains are more cytotoxic than others, with a correlation between the activity of the urease and the presence of a vacuolating cytotoxin having been made. However, the number of cytotoxins remains unknown at this time. The relationship between the urease and cytotoxicity has previously been examined with chemical inhibitors. To examine the role of the urease and its relationship to cytotoxicity, urease-deficient mutants were produced following ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of H. pylori 87A300. Two mutants (the ure1 and ure5 mutants) which were entirely deficient in urease activity (Ure-) were selected. Characterization of the isolates at the protein level showed that the urease subunits lacked the ability to complex and form the active urease enzyme. The ure1 mutant was shown to be sensitive to the effects of low pH in vitro and exhibited no cytotoxicity to eucaryotic cells, whereas the parental strain (Ure+) produced a cytotoxic effect in the presence of urea. Interaction between the H. pylori Ure+ and Ure- strains and Caco-2 cells appeared to be similar in that both bacterial types elicited pedestal formation and actin condensation. These results indicate that the H. pylori urease may have many functions, among them (i) protecting H. pylori against the acidic environment of the stomach, (ii) acting as a cytotoxin, with human gastric cells especially susceptible to its activity, and (iii) disrupting cell tight junctions in such a manner that the cells remain viable but an ionic flow between the cells occurs

  7. [Marburg Spelling Training program--results of a brief intervention].

    PubMed

    Schulte-Körne, G; Deimel, W; Hülsmann, J; Seidler, T; Remschmidt, H

    2001-02-01

    The Marburg Spelling Training Program was administered to a sample of 10 spelling-disabled primary school pupils (2nd-4th graders) over three months in an individual setting. Statistical analyses yielded significant improvements in spelling and reading test performances, but none yet in the emotional stress caused by the problems. The Marburg Spelling Training Program has now proven to be effective not only in long-term, but also in short-term intervention.

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Hyperplastic Polyps.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Bela; Pai, Rish K

    2016-12-01

    Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are routinely encountered during upper endoscopy and often arise in the setting of abnormal surrounding mucosa, particularly Helicobacter pylori, autoimmune gastritis, and reactive gastropathy. Not infrequently gastroenterologists fail to biopsy the surrounding mucosa, thus determining the underlying etiology of the gastric hyperplastic polyp can be difficult. Recently, the Rodger C. Haggitt Gastrointestinal Pathology Society published guidelines on the use of special stains. The society guidelines indicate that H pylori are not usually present in hyperplastic polyps and special stains in this setting may have limited utility. We analyzed the histologic features of 32 gastric hyperplastic polyps in which the nonpolypoid mucosa demonstrated H pylori gastritis. A consecutive series of 50 hyperplastic polyps in which no surrounding mucosa was sampled was also analyzed. When H pylori are identified in biopsies of the nonpolypoid mucosa, it is also commonly present within the polyp tissue (22/32, 69%). The majority of H pylori organisms were identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin stain (16/22, 72%). In contrast, H pylori were only seen in 2/50 consecutive hyperplastic polyps in which the surrounding mucosa was not sampled. Compared with the hyperplastic polyps that lack the organisms, H pylori associated hyperplastic polyps more commonly had dense lymphoplasmacytic inflammation (P = .0001) and neutrophils within gastric epithelium (P = .036). Polyp location, number, size, and presence of intestinal metaplasia was not associated with H pylori These results provide empirical data to guide evaluation of hyperplastic polyps for H pylori.

  9. Growth in children with Helicobacter pylori infection and dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Sood, M; Joshi, S; Akobeng, A; Mitchell, J; Thomas, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of children presenting with dyspeptic symptoms and Helicobacter pylori infection, to those with dyspepsia but without the infection. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 257 children was performed. 13C urea breath test was performed to detect H pylori infection; weight and height were recorded and BMI was calculated. Weight, height, and BMI SD scores were determined using the 1990 UK normative data. The Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 (IMD 2004) scores, which measure deprivation at small area level, were calculated from the patients' postcodes. Results: Ninety seven of the 257 children were H pylori positive. The mean age at diagnosis and presenting symptoms of H pylori positive and negative patients were similar. The mean IMD 2004 scores for children with H pylori infection were significantly higher compared to H pylori negative patients, suggesting that children with the infection came from relatively more deprived areas. The mean weight and height SD score were significantly lower for children with H pylori infection compared to those without. However, this difference was no longer significant after adjusting for socioeconomic deprivation and ethnic differences between the groups. Conclusion: Children with dyspepsia and H pylori infection were shorter and lighter than patients with similar symptoms but no infection. The differences in anthropometry may be due to socioeconomic and ethnic factors rather than H pylori infection. PMID:15956048

  10. Chronic Gastritis and its Association with H. Pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Fatema, J; Khan, A H; Uddin, M J; Rahman, M H; Saha, M; Safwath, S A; Alam, M J; Mamun, M A

    2015-10-01

    This cross sectional study was designed to see association of chronic gastritis including its type with H. pylori infection. Consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic examination having histopathological evidence of chronic gastritis were enrolled in the study and was done in Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College from July 2011 to June 2012. Biopsies were taken from antrum, body and fundus in all patients. Histopathological examinations were done using H-E stain and for detection of H. pylori, rapid urease test, anti-H.pylori antibody test and histopathological test with modified Giemsa stain were done. Patients having results positive in at least two methods were considered infected by H. pylori. Total 80 dyspeptic patients having chronic gastritis were evaluated. Out of them 67(83.8%) had H. pylori infection and 13(16.2%) were H. pylori negative. Among all patients 57(71.2%) had pangastritis and 23(28.8%) had antral gastritis with female and male predominance respectively. H. pylori infection was present in 49(86.0%) cases of pangastritis and 18(78.3%) cases of antral gastritis. H. pylori infection was a little higher among males (34, 50.7%) females (33, 49.3%). H. pylori infection is the predominant cause of chronic gastritis and pangastritis is the major type.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

  12. Age-dependent eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Mamori, Satoshi; Higashida, Akihiro; Kawara, Fumiaki; Ohnishi, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Akihiko; Senda, Eri; Ashida, Cho; Yamada, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To determine the general risk factors affecting the failure rate of first-line eradication therapy in Japanese patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: The present study enrolled 253 patients who had an H. pylori infection, underwent gastro-endoscopy, and were treated with H. pylori eradication therapy. Eradication therapy consisted of 30 mg lansoprazole plus 750 mg amoxicillin and 400 mg clarithromycin twice daily for 7 d. All of the patients underwent a 13C urea breath test at least 1 mo after the completion of eradication therapy. The current study investigated the independent factors associated with successful H. pylori eradication using a multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The overall success rate in the patients was 85.8%. Among the general factors examined in the multivariate analyses, only having an age less than 50 years was found to be significantly associated with a poor response to H. pylori eradication. Moreover, side effects were the only clinical factors in the patients who were under 50 years of age that significantly influenced the poor response to H. pylori eradication. CONCLUSION: H. pylori-positive elderly patients should undergo eradication therapy. In addition, it is necessary to improve H. pylori eradication therapy in younger patients. PMID:20806435

  13. Helicobacter pylori genome evolution during human infection

    PubMed Central

    Kennemann, Lynn; Didelot, Xavier; Aebischer, Toni; Kuhn, Stefanie; Drescher, Bernd; Droege, Marcus; Reinhardt, Richard; Correa, Pelayo; Meyer, Thomas F.; Josenhans, Christine; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    High genetic diversity is a hallmark of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We used 454 sequencing technology to perform whole-genome comparisons for five sets of H. pylori strains that had been sequentially cultured from four chronically infected Colombians (isolation intervals = 3–16 y) and one human volunteer experimentally infected with H. pylori as part of a vaccine trial. The four sets of genomes from Colombian H. pylori differed by 27–232 isolated SNPs and 16–441 imported clusters of polymorphisms resulting from recombination. Imports (mean length = 394 bp) were distributed nonrandomly over the chromosome and frequently occurred in groups, suggesting that H. pylori first takes up long DNA fragments, which subsequently become partially integrated in multiple shorter pieces. Imports were present at significantly increased frequency in members of the hop family of outer membrane gene paralogues, some of which are involved in bacterial adhesion, suggesting diversifying selection. No evidence of recombination and few other differences were identified in the strain pair from an infected volunteer, indicating that the H. pylori genome is stable in the absence of mixed infection. Among these few differences was an OFF/ON switch in the phase-variable adhesin gene hopZ, suggesting strong in vivo selection for this putative adhesin during early colonization. PMID:21383187

  14. An Appropriate Cutoff Value for Determining the Colonization of Helicobacter pylori by the Pyrosequencing Method: Comparison with Conventional Methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2015-10-01

    Sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene has improved the characterization of microbial communities. It enabled the detection of low abundance gastric Helicobacter pylori sequences even in subjects that were found to be H. pylori negative with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to obtain a cutoff value for H. pylori colonization in gastric mucosa samples by pyrosequencing method. Gastric mucosal biopsies were taken from 63 subjects whose H. pylori status was determined by a combination of serology, rapid urease test, culture, and histology. Microbial DNA from mucosal samples was amplified by PCR using universal bacterial primers. 16S rDNA amplicons were pyrosequenced. ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the cutoff value for H. pylori colonization by pyrosequencing. In addition, temporal changes in the stomach microbiota were observed in eight initially H. pylori-positive and eight H. pylori-negative subjects at a single time point 1-8 years later. Of the 63 subjects, the presence of H. pylori sequences was detected in all (28/28) conventionally H. pylori-positive samples and in 60% (21/35) of H. pylori-negative samples. The average percent of H. pylori reads in each sample was 0.67 ± 1.09% in the H. pylori-negative group. Cutoff value for clinically positive H. pylori status was approximately 1.22% based on ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.957; p < .001). Helicobacter pylori was successfully eradicated in five of seven treated H. pylori-positive subjects (71.4%), and the percentage of H. pylori reads in these five subjects dropped from 1.3-95.18% to 0-0.16% after eradication. These results suggest that the cutoff value of H. pylori sequence percentage for H. pylori colonization by pyrosequencing could be set at approximately 1%. It might be helpful to analyze gastric microbiota related to H. pylori sequence status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [How do primary care physicians manage their patients with Helicobacter pylori infection? Results of a survey and their implementation into the German S2k guideline 2016].

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Zerl, Annemarie; Klassert, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Background The German S3 guideline "H. pylori and gastroduodenal ulcer disease" clearly recommends how to diagnose H. pylori infection. It also states when and how eradication therapy should be done. However, there are only few data available on the management of these patients in daily routine. With this survey, we wanted to gather information on how primary care physicians are involved in the management of H. pylori infection and how they follow the guideline recommendations. From this, consequences for the update of the new S2k guideline 2016 and their communication should be derived. Methods A questionnaire with 16 items was sent to all registered primary care physicians in the district of Unterfranken, Germany. Of the 607 questionnaires sent out, 188 (31 %) were returned. Results A test for H. pylori was induced in 76 % of cases with a history of ulcers, 66 % of dyspepsia, 55 % of a family history of gastric cancer, 54 % of unspecific abdominal discomfort, and 9 % and 6 % before initiating NSAID or ASS medication, respectively. Eighty-six percent of the physicians referred their patients to a gastroenterologist for further diagnostics, 45,8 % initiated eradication therapy by themselves, and 75 % and 25 % favored the French and Italian protocol, respectively. The majority did not consider a possible primary resistance to clarithromycine. Twenty-six percent did not regularly control the success of first-line eradication therapy. In case of control, the time intervals after end of eradication treatment are nearly always considered. Second-line therapy is initiated in 99 %, and its success is checked in 87 %. Conclusion Management of patients with H. pylori infection does not always follow the recommendations of current guidelines. The reasons for that were addressed in the formulation of the updated S2k guideline and will be communicated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P<.05). No significant difference was observed between the susceptible strains and the resistant strains when the internalization levels were compared (P>.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients and the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Chao; Tuo, Bi-Guang; Wu, Wei-Min; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Qing-Qing; Zhao, Kui

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the prevalence of peptic ulcer in dyspeptic patients in China to analyze the influence of age, sex, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The results showed that the prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer increased with age. In patients under 60 years old, the prevalence of duodenal and gastric ulcers in females was markedly lower than that in males, especially the prevalence of duodenal ulcer. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer in H. pylori-infected patients was markedly higher than in patients without H. pylori infection. In the patients under 60 years old, sex differences were still seen in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcers was markedly increased with age in both H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, male sex, and H. pylori infection were three independent risk factors for gastric and duodenal ulcers.

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and its relation with body mass index in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chengfu; Yan, Ming; Sun, Yan; Joo, Jungsoo; Wan, Xingyong; Yu, Chaohui; Wang, Qunyan; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming; Coleman, William G

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed among adults who underwent health checkups at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was examined by (13)C urea breath tests, and the association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and BMI was analyzed. Of the 8820 participants enrolled, 3859 (43.8%) were positive for H. pylori infection. H. pylori-positive participants had a more unfavorable metabolic profile than H. pylori-negative participants. Overweight/obese participants showed a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that of lean participants, and a positive linear correlation between BMI and prevalence of H. pylori infection was observed. Both unadjusted and adjusted analysis revealed that BMI was significantly associated with risk factors of H. pylori infection. Our results showed that BMI was significantly and positively associated with H. pylori infection, and a high BMI was associated with an increased risk of the infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and atrophic gastritis in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Myint, Thein; Shiota, Seiji; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Ni, New; Aye, Than Than; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tran, Trang Thi Huyen; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To survey the detailed analyses for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric mucosal status in Myanmar. METHODS: A total of 252 volunteers with dyspeptic symptoms (155 female and 97 male; mean age of 43.6 ± 14.2 years) was participated in Yangon and Mandalay. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on 5 different tests including rapid urease test, culture, histology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Histological scores were evaluated according to the update Sydney system and the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment system. Pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 48.0%. There was no relationship between age and infection rate. Even in young group (less than 29 years old), the H. pylori infection rate was relatively high (41.9%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in Yangon than that of Mandalay. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the presence of gastric mucosal atrophy. All 7 subjects with peptic ulcer were infected with H. pylori. Although H. pylori-positive subjects showed stronger gastritis than H. pylori-negative subjects, most cases had mild gastritis. CONCLUSION: We revealed the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Myanmar. The H. pylori infection was a risk factor for peptic ulcer and stronger gastritis. PMID:25605987

  20. Platelet count response to H. pylori treatment in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura with and without H. pylori infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Donald M.; Bernotas, Ashley; Nazi, Ishac; Stasi, Roberto; Kuwana, Masataka; Liu, Yang; Kelton, John G.; Crowther, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Eradication of H. pylori improves thrombocytopenia in some patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura by mechanisms that remain obscure. Platelet count responses may occur independently of H. pylori infection as a result of the immune modulating effects of macrolide antimicrobials or the removal of other commensal bacteria. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect of H. pylori eradication therapy in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura by comparing the platelet response in patients who were, and who were not infected with H. pylori. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane central registry and abstracts from the American Society of Hematology (from 2003) were searched in duplicate and independently without language or age restrictions. Eleven studies, 8 from Japan, were included enrolling 282 patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura who received eradication therapy; 205 were H. pylori-positive and 77 were H. pylori-negative. The odds of achieving a platelet count response following eradication therapy were 14.5 higher (95% confidence interval 4.2 to 83.0) in patients with H. pylori infection (51.2% vs. 8.8%). No study reported bleeding or quality of life. Adverse events were reported in 12 patients. H. pylori eradication therapy was of little benefit for H. pylori-negative patients. These findings strengthen the causal association between H. pylori infection and immune thrombocytopenia in some patients. Randomized trials are needed to determine the applicability of H. pylori eradication therapy across diverse geographical regions. PMID:19483158

  1. In vitro activities of new quinolones against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, M; Fera, M T; Cecchetti, V; Tabarrini, O; Losi, E; Cusumano, V; Teti, G

    1997-01-01

    Compounds belonging to a new class of quinolones in which the fundamental C-6 fluorine atom was replaced were evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity against 32 Helicobacter pylori strains. Since these substitutions resulted in higher inhibitory activities, these new desfluoroquinolones may be useful in eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:9420062

  2. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  3. Helicobacter pylori: A Possible Risk Factor for Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yun Hee; Gwak, Jong Seop; Hong, Sung Woo; Hyeon, Jung Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Min; Oh, Seung Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may cause systemic inflammation and increase the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Unfortunately, bone mineral density also may be affected by these cytokines. This study aimed to evaluate the association between bone mineral density and H. pylori infection. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated 1,126 men undergoing a comprehensive health screening in a private Korean screening center. Subjects' sera were tested for H. pylori antibodies (immunoglobulin G) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and bone mineral densities (g/cm2) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the difference in bone mineral density according to H. pylori infection status, the adjusted mean bone mineral densities at each site were compared after adjusting for potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise. Results H. pylori infection was associated with a significant decrease in mean lumbar bone mineral density (H. pylori-positive, 1.190 g/cm2; H. pylori-negative, 1.219 g/cm2; P=0.006), which was greatest among men who were ≥50 years old (H. pylori-positive, 1.193 g/cm2; H. pylori-negative, 1.233 g/cm2; P=0.006). However, no significant association was observed in the bone mineral densities of the total femur and femoral neck. Conclusion In men, H. pylori infection was negatively associated with lumbar bone mineral density. This association may be useful in the early detection, prevention, and management of male osteoporosis. PMID:26435815

  4. Oral and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori: Effects and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio; Pereira, Carlos; Resende, Carlos; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Cirnes, Luis; Machado, José Carlos; Ferreira, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT). Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori. Results The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR)=1.64,95%CI=1.08-2.52), residence area (urban,OR=1.48,95%CI=1.03-2.29) and parents´ professional situation (unemployed,OR=1.22,95%CI=1.02-1.23). Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3). Conclusions The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status. PMID:26010595

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, P.; Kosunen, T. U.; Valle, J.; Riihelä, M.; Seppälä, K.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Serum IgG antibodies for H pylori were determined in 54 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of H pylori in gastric mucosa was also examined histologically (modified Giemsa) in 32 patients from whom adequate biopsy specimens of the antrum and corpus were available. Thirty five patients with gastrointestinal tumours outside the stomach and 48 with non-gastrointestinal malignancies served as controls. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 38 (70%) had H pylori antibodies (IgG) in their serum (three additional patients had H pylori antibodies IgA, class specific but not IgG specific). This prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that (49%) in the 35 controls. No differences in prevalence of H pylori antibodies were found between gastric cancer cases of intestinal (IGCA) or diffuse (DGCA) type, both these types showing H pylori antibodies (IgG) in 71% of the patients. In the subgroup of 32 subjects, five patients had normal gastric mucosa and four showed corpus limited atrophy ("pernicious anaemia type" atrophy of type A). All of these nine patients had no evidence of current or previous H pylori infection in serum (no IgG antibodies) or in tissue sections (negative Giemsa staining). The remaining 23 patients had antral or pangastritis, and all had evidence of current or previous H pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori associated chronic gastritis was the associated disease in 75% of the patients with gastric cancer occurring equally often in both IGCA and DGCA groups. About 25% of cases seem to have a normal stomach or severe corpus limited atrophy, neither of which showed evidence of concomitant H pylori infection. PMID:1577969

  6. Citalopram Intervention for Hostility: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamarck, Thomas W.; Haskett, Roger F.; Muldoon, Matthew; Flory, Janine D.; Anderson, Barbara; Bies, Rob; Pollock, Bruce; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Hostility is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because central serotonin may modulate aggression, we might expect selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to be effective in reducing hostility. Such effects have never been examined in individuals scoring high on hostility who are otherwise free from major DSM-IV Axis I psychopathology. 159 participants (ages 30–50, 50 % female) scoring high on 2 measures of hostility and with no current major Axis I diagnosis were randomly assigned to 2 months of citalopram (40 mg, fixed flexible dose) or placebo. Adherence was assessed by electronic measurement and by drug exposure assessment. Treated subjects showed larger reductions in state anger (condition-by-time p = .01), hostile affect (p = 02), and, among women only, physical and verbal aggression (p = .005) relative to placebo controls. Treatment was also associated with relative increases in perceived social support (p = .04). Findings have implications for understanding the CNS correlates of hostility, its associations with other psychosocial risk factors for CVD, and, potentially, for the design of effective interventions. PMID:19170463

  7. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed. PMID:24574741

  8. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-21

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed.

  9. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  10. Early and Midterm Results Following Interventional Coarctoplasty: Evaluation of Variables that Can Affect the Results

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri, Hossein Ali; Shafe, Omid; Sarpooshi, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stent coarctoplasty has been approved as the treatment of choice for adult patients with coarctation of the aorta. We have evaluated the early and midterm clinical and procedural results after interventional coarctoplasty. Also, variables that can affect these results were evaluated. Subjects and Methods Gathering clinical, angiographic and procedural data, we evaluated the pre-specified outcomes, including procedural success, complications, the incidence of hypertension after coarctoplasty etc., after the procedure. The effect of pre-specified variables including aortic arch shape, coarctation type and etc. on the procedural result was evaluated. Results Between February 2005 through March 2014, 133 stent coarctoplasty procedures were performed. Median age was 23.5 years old (interquartile range [IQR]:19-28), and 105 (71.9%) were male. Nearly all of the patients were undergone stent coarctoplasty, mostly with cheatham platinum (CP) stents. There was no association between aortic arch morphology and acute procedural complications. Balloon length more than 40 mm (p=0.028), aorta diameter at the site of Coarctation larger than 2.35 mm (p=0.008) was associated with higher rate of restenosis during follow-up. Comparison between the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) before and after coarctoplasty showed a significant reduction in the prevalence of HTN (117 [91.4%] vs. 95 [74.2%] p<0.001). Conclusion Stent coarctoplasty is a low-risk procedure with favorable early and delayed outcomes. Most mortality is related to the patient's comorbid conditions and not to the procedure. PMID:28154597

  11. Natural maternal transmission of H pylori in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Uk; Kim, Okjin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate maternal H pylori infection status to determine the potential of maternal transmission. METHODS: In the present study, we examined these issues in an experimental murine model, which is a Mongolian gerbil model that has been reported as an optimal laboratory animal model to study H pylori. Pregnant Mongolian gerbils, infected experimentally with H pylori, were divided into as four groups. Following the experimental design, the stomachs of the mother and litters were isolated and assessed for transmission of H pylori at the prenatal period, parturition day, 1-wk old and 3-wk old respectively. Bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine the presence of transmitted H pylori. RESULTS: All litters showed no transmission of H pylori during pregnancy and at parturition day. However, they revealed 33.3% and 69.6% at 1-wk and 3-wk of age respectively by PCR. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that vertical infection during the prenatal period or delivery procedure is unlikely as a route of mother-to-child H pylori infection. It may be that H pylori is acquired through breast-feeding, contaminated saliva and fecal-oral transmission during co-habitation. PMID:17007019

  12. Limitations Influencing Interventional Radiology in Canada: Results of a National Survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Baerlocher, Mark Otto Asch, Murray R.; Hayeems, Eran; Kachura, John R.; Collingwood, Peter

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. To describe the current state and limitations to interventional radiology (IR) in Canada through a large, national survey of Canadian interventional radiologists. Methods. An anonymous online survey was offered to members of the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA). Only staff radiologists were invited to participate. Results. Seventy-five (75) responses were received from a total of 247, giving a response rate of 30%. Respondents were split approximately equally between academic centers (47%) and community practice (53%), and the majority of interventional radiologists worked in hospitals with either 200-500 (49%) or 500-1,000 (39%) beds. Procedures listed by respondents as most commonly performed in their practice included PICC line insertion (83%), angiography and stenting (65%), and percutaneous biopsy (37%). Procedures listed as not currently performed but which interventional radiologists believed would benefit their patient population included radiofrequency ablation (36%), carotid stenting (34%), and aortic stenting (21%); the majority of respondents noted that a lack of support from referring services was the main reason for not performing these procedures (56%). Impediments to increasing scope and volume of practice in Canadian IR were most commonly related to room or equipment shortage (35%), radiologist shortage (33%), and a lack of funding or administrative support (28%). Conclusion. Interventional radiology in Canada is limited by a number of factors including funding, manpower, and referral support. A concerted effort should be undertaken by individual interventional radiologists and IR organizations to increase training capacity, funding, remuneration, and public exposure to IR in order to help advance the subspecialty.

  13. Optimizing the Growth of Stressed Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Crystal L.; Buchholz, Brittany J.; Ford, Timothy E.; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram -negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and is responsible for causing gastric ulcers. H. pylori is known to become stressed and nonculturable after exposure to unfavorable conditions. In this study, we enhanced previously published resuscitation procedures, characterized conditions under which stressed H. pylori can be recovered, and formulated a selective and differential resuscitation medium. Results showed that a specialized broth supplemented with trace minerals and lysed human erythrocytes and serum is required for the recovery of nonculturable H. pylori. The type of stress was an important factor in the efficacy of resuscitation, with cells exposed to atmospheric oxygen more readily resuscitated than nutrient deprived cells. After resuscitation, culturable cells were recovered from previously nonculturable oxygen stressed cells (24 and 72 hours of exposure) and nonculturable nutrient deprived cells (24 hours of exposure). The length of time the cells were exposed to the stress was also an important factor in the recovery of stressed H. pylori. RNA levels were quantified and transcription of the cell division related gene, cdrA (HP0066), was assessed by qRT-PCR. The low levels of RNA detected in stressed cells, after resuscitation, support the idea that a small population of viable cells may be responsible for the colonies recovered on solid agar. The modification of the resuscitation broth into a selective and differential slant culture medium also allowed the recovery of stressed H. pylori. The methods presented here highlight the benefits and limitations of using human blood products for recovering nonculturable H. pylori. PMID:21129415

  14. Antibiotic susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Anna Ingibjorg; Gudjonsson, Hallgrimur; Hardardottir, Hjordis; Jonsdottir, Karen Drofn; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) to antibiotics calls for constant re-evaluation of multidrug regimens that have been used to eradicate the infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori in an Icelandic cohort. Patients referred for gastroscopy were recruited prospectively. Those found to have a positive rapid urease test were included in the study. Susceptibility testing was conducted by the Epsilometer test (E-test) method for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline. Results were obtained after three days of incubation in microaerophilic conditions at 37 °C, except for the metronidazole were the first 24 hours were anaerobic. Of the 613 patients who underwent gastroscopy, 138 (23%) had a positive rapid urease test. H. pylori was successfully cultured from 105 (76%) of the urease test positive patients and the isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Five patients had prior H. pylori eradication. Antibiotic resistance for ampicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole and tetracycline was 0%, 9%, 4%, 1% and 0%, respectively. If those who had previously undergone eradication treatment were excluded, the resistance was 0%, 6%, 3%, 1% and 0%, respectively. Clarithromycin resistance was higher amongst women than men, 13% vs. 5%, however, not significantly. Clarithromycin resistance was 60% amongst those who had previously received eradication treatment compared to 6% of those who had not (p < .0001). Clarithromycin resistance amongst the H. pylori isolates can be considered relatively low. Therefore, in the current cohort, standard triple-drug clarithromycin-containing regimen should remain the first-line treatment against H. pylori.

  15. Novel sonographic clues for diagnosis of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Cakmakci, Emin; Ucan, Berna; Colak, Bayram; Cinar, Hasibe Gokçe

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out whether transabdominal sonography may have a predictive role for detection of antral gastritis and Helicobacter pylori infection in the antrum. A total of 108 patients and 54 control participants were allocated into 3 groups: group 1, controls without any symptoms or findings of antral gastritis and H pylori infection; group 2, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis in the absence of documented H pylori infection; and group 3, patients with symptoms and endoscopic findings consistent with gastritis and documented H pylori infection. These groups were compared in terms of demographics, antral wall thickness, mucosal layer (together with muscularis mucosa) thickness, and mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio. The groups had no statistically significant differences with respect to age, sex, body mass index, and smoking habits. However, it turned out that both antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers were thicker and the mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio was higher in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1 (P > .001). In addition, group 3 had statistically significantly thicker antral walls and muscularis mucosa layers and a significantly increased mucosal layer-to-antral wall thickness ratio than group 2 (P < .001). Our results suggest that antral gastritis caused by H pylori infection is associated with characteristic features such as thickening of antral walls and mucosal layers on sonography. These novel clues may be useful in the diagnosis of gastritis, and unnecessary interventions and measures can be avoided in some cases. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Helicobacter pylori invades the gastric mucosa and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Uchida, Keisuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Nagaoka, Sakae; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Ishige, Ikuo; Ishige, Yuki; Ishida, Noriko; Furukawa, Asuka; Muraoka, Hiroe; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Masaki; Ando, Noboru; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Takashige; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2008-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been considered to be non-invasive and to rarely infiltrate the gastric mucosa, even though there is an active Th1 immune response in the lamina propria of the H. pylori-infected stomach. To elucidate whether H. pylori invades the lamina propria and translocates to the gastric lymph nodes, we examined H. pylori in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections of stomach and gastric lymph nodes obtained from 51 cancer patients using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a novel anti-H. pylori monoclonal antibody that recognizes lipopolysaccharides. Fresh gastric lymph nodes were used to culture for H. pylori. In 46 patients with H. pylori in the stomach, the bacterium was found in the lymph nodes from 21 patients by culture, 37 patients by PCR, and 29 patients by IHC. H. pylori captured by macrophages was found in the lamina propria of 39 patients. In the lymph nodes, the bacterium was found in many macrophages and a few interdigitating dendritic cells at the paracortical areas. H. pylori was also found in the intracellular canaliculi of parietal cells in 21 patients, but intracytoplasmic invasion into gastric epithelial cells was not identified. When compared to the commercially available anti-H. pylori antibodies, the novel antibody showed the highest sensitivity to detect H. pylori-positive macrophages, whereas no difference was found for H. pylori in the mucous layer. The H. pylori-positive macrophages in the lamina propria correlated with chronic gastritis as well as translocation of such cells to the lymph nodes. These results suggest that H. pylori-induced gastric epithelial damage allows the bacteria to invade the lamina propria and translocate to the gastric lymph nodes, which may chronically stimulate the immune system. The bacteria captured by macrophages, whether remaining alive or not, may contribute to the induction and development of H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis.

  17. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  18. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  19. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  20. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  1. Helicobacter pylori modulates host cell responses by CagT4SS-dependent translocation of an intermediate metabolite of LPS inner core heptose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Saskia C; Faber, Eugenia; Bats, Simon H; Murillo, Tatiana; Speidel, Yvonne; Coombs, Nina; Josenhans, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA. Although these transported molecules are known to contribute to cellular responses to some extent, a major part of the cagPAI-induced signaling leading to IL-8 secretion remains unexplained. We report here that biosynthesis of heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), an important intermediate metabolite of LPS inner heptose core, contributes in a major way to the H. pylori cagPAI-dependent induction of proinflammatory signaling and IL-8 secretion in human epithelial cells. Mutants defective in the genes required for synthesis of HBP exhibited a more than 95% reduction of IL-8 induction and impaired CagT4SS-dependent cellular signaling. The loss of HBP biosynthesis did not abolish the ability to translocate CagA. The human cellular adaptor TIFA, which was described before to mediate HBP-dependent activity in other Gram-negative bacteria, was crucial in the cagPAI- and HBP pathway-induced responses by H. pylori in different cell types. The active metabolite was present in H. pylori lysates but not enriched in bacterial supernatants. These novel results advance our mechanistic understanding of H. pylori cagPAI-dependent signaling mediated by intracellular pattern recognition receptors. They will also allow to better dissect immunomodulatory activities by H. pylori and to improve the possibilities of intervention in cagPAI- and inflammation-driven cancerogenesis.

  2. Helicobacter pylori modulates host cell responses by CagT4SS-dependent translocation of an intermediate metabolite of LPS inner core heptose biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Eugenia; Bats, Simon H.; Murillo, Tatiana; Speidel, Yvonne; Coombs, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA. Although these transported molecules are known to contribute to cellular responses to some extent, a major part of the cagPAI-induced signaling leading to IL-8 secretion remains unexplained. We report here that biosynthesis of heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), an important intermediate metabolite of LPS inner heptose core, contributes in a major way to the H. pylori cagPAI-dependent induction of proinflammatory signaling and IL-8 secretion in human epithelial cells. Mutants defective in the genes required for synthesis of HBP exhibited a more than 95% reduction of IL-8 induction and impaired CagT4SS-dependent cellular signaling. The loss of HBP biosynthesis did not abolish the ability to translocate CagA. The human cellular adaptor TIFA, which was described before to mediate HBP-dependent activity in other Gram-negative bacteria, was crucial in the cagPAI- and HBP pathway-induced responses by H. pylori in different cell types. The active metabolite was present in H. pylori lysates but not enriched in bacterial supernatants. These novel results advance our mechanistic understanding of H. pylori cagPAI-dependent signaling mediated by intracellular pattern recognition receptors. They will also allow to better dissect immunomodulatory activities by H. pylori and to improve the possibilities of intervention in cagPAI- and inflammation-driven cancerogenesis. PMID:28715499

  3. Helicobacter pylori colonisation and eczema

    PubMed Central

    Herbarth, Olf; Bauer, Mario; Fritz, Gisela J; Herbarth, Petra; Rolle‐Kampczyk, Ulrike; Krumbiegel, Peter; Richter, Matthias; Richter, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the increase in atopic diseases may in part be due to diminished exposure to microorganisms. But it is unknown which type of infection does render protection. An epidemiological study was conducted in Leipzig, Germany, and its rural county, involving 3347 school starters. Two types of infection were considered: (1) gastrointestinal colonisation (Helicobacter pylori detection using in vivo [13C] urea breath test) and (2) respiratory infections (physician‐diagnosed lower (bronchitis) and upper (common cold) respiratory infections). H pylori colonisation was selected because it is very common and plays an important role in gastrointestinal disorders. Atopic eczema was selected as the (allergic) target variable because of its high frequency in the age of the study participants. The results, adjusted for relevant confounders, showed a significant inverse association between H pylori infection and eczema (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.31, p = 0.006) in children not predisposed to atopy. In contrast, bronchitis increased the risk of eczema (aOR = 1.98, p<0.001). Bacterial digestive tract colonisation (infection) seems to protect against eczema in comparison with the effect of respiratory tract infections. The hygiene hypothesis may be better explained when gastrointestinal and respiratory infections are subtly differentiated. PMID:17568058

  4. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kusters, Johannes G.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:16847081

  5. H. pylori Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pill, liquid or pudding that contains tagged carbon molecules. If you have an H. pylori infection, carbon ... uses a special device to detect the carbon molecules. Acid-suppressing drugs known as proton pump inhibitors ( ...

  6. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    ... special substance that has urea. Urea is a waste product the body produces as it breaks down protein. The urea used in the test has been made harmlessly radioactive. If H. pylori are present, the bacteria convert ...

  7. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Mitsuru; Kiriyama, Yuka; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cao, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents. PMID:28771198

  8. Helicobacter pylori does not release cysteamine into gastric juice.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, M B; Neithercut, W D; Gillen, D; McColl, K E

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori releases cysteamine into gastric juice as cysteamine is known to be ulcerogenic. METHODS: Samples of fasting gastric juice were collected from 22 individuals (four women); 10 subjects were H pylori negative. The presence of infection was confirmed by examination and culture of gastric biopsies. Cysteamine in gastric juice was measured by reversed phase gradient high performance liquid chromatography with a detection limit of 10 mumol/l. RESULTS: Cysteamine was not detected in any of the gastric juice samples or in extracts of cultured H pylori. CONCLUSIONS: If H pylori produces cysteamine then the amounts produced are insignificant and are unlikely to explain the association between H pylori infection and the development of duodenal ulcer disease. PMID:9389979

  9. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori colonization by an antiulcer agent, sulglycotide.

    PubMed

    Czajkowski, A; Piotrowski, J; Yotsumoto, F; Slomiany, A; Slomiany, B L

    1993-04-01

    Sulglycotide, a potent antiulcer agent derived from duodenal mucus glycopeptide through sulfation of the carbohydrate moieties, was evaluated with respect to its ability to interfere with H. pylori mucosal attachment. H. pylori cells were incubated with sulglycotide or human gastric mucin and then examined for their inhibitory capacity of H. pylori attachment to erythrocytes. Titration data revealed that the mucin inhibitory activity was confined to its sulfomucin fraction, the titer of which was found to be 16-fold higher than that of intact mucin. The data with sulglycotide showed that the inhibitory titer of this agent against H. pylori attachment was at least 30-fold higher than that of the sulfated gastric mucin fraction. The results point towards the involvement of sulfomucins in the protection of gastric mucosa from H. pylori colonization and demonstrate that sulglycotide, because of structural similarities, is ideally suited to augment the inherent mucosal defenses against this pathogen.

  10. Positive Association between Helicobacter pylori and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Aeri; Solomon, Aliza; Beneck, Debra; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial, particularly in children, since there are limited published data. Adult studies suggested that H. pylori infection may protect against GERD by causing atrophic gastritis, which leads to reduced gastric acid secretion. The objective of our study was to determine the role of H. pylori infection in the development of GERD in a pediatric population. Methods A retrospective analysis of 420 patients (M:F = 214:206) who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsies between January 2000 and April 2006 was conducted. Patient demographics, clinical indications for EGD and the prevalence of reflux esophagitis (RE), the biomarker for GERD, in two groups, H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative, were reviewed. The prevalence of RE in the H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative groups was further analyzed based on gender and age (< 1 yr, 1 – 10 yrs, > 10 yrs). The mean age of the study population was 8.2 years (range 0 – 20 yrs). The clinical indications for EGD were as follows: recurrent abdominal pain (n = 186, 44%), malabsorption (n = 80, 19%), persistent vomiting (n = 80, 19%), suspected eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (n = 63, 15%) and others such as upper GI bleeding or IBD surveillance (n = 11, 3%). Statistical analysis was performed by using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and multivariate logistical regression analysis. Results Among the 420 patients, 16 patients (3.8%) were positive for H. pylori and 167 patients (39.8%) were found to have RE. Thirteen patients with H. pylori were found to have histologic evidence of RE. The prevalence of RE in the H. pylori positive population was 81.3% compared to 38.1% in the H. pylori negative population (p ≤ 0.05). There were no patients with H. pylori in the youngest age group. In the second age group (1–10 yrs), 100% of the H. pylori positive patients had RE while 44.6% of

  11. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection by lactobacilli in a gnotobiotic murine model.

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, A M; Aiba, Y; Takagi, A; Kamiya, S; Miwa, T; Koga, Y

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which causes gastric inflammatory diseases. Oral inoculation of H pylori usually results in only a temporary colonisation without a successful infection in the stomach of conventional mice in which lactobacilli are the predominant indigenous bacteria. AIM: To determine whether lactobacilli exert an inhibitory effect on colonisation by H pylori in the stomach. METHODS: The effects of H pylori on attachment to murine and human gastric epithelial cells and the H pylori mediated release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by these cells were examined in vitro. Lactobacillus salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice and control germ free mice were inoculated orally with H pylori to examine whether L salivarius can inhibit colonisation by H pylori. RESULTS: L salivarius inhibited both the attachment and IL-8 release in vitro. H pylori could not colonise the stomach of L salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice, but colonised in large numbers and subsequently caused active gastritis in germ free mice. In addition, L salivarius given after H pylori implantation could eliminate colonisation by H pylori. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility of lactobacilli being used as probiotic agents against H pylori. Images PMID:9274471

  12. Recent results on pathogen intervention during poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Slaughter plant – focus has been on Campylobacter and Salmonella - Transport: Campylobacter cross contamination in live haul cages can be lessened by drying cages between uses - Applied after spray wash results in undetectable levels of Campylobacter: Time (24-48h), absorbent powder (2 h), hot air (...

  13. [Effect of early surgical interventions on results of burn treatment].

    PubMed

    Fistal', N M

    2009-01-01

    Results of treatment of 160 adults which were treated in the department of thermal defeats and plastic surgery of IURS named by V. K. Gusak AMS of Ukraine in 2005-2007 were analysed. 110 men in age 34.82 +/- 1.22 entered a basic group. All patients of this group were operated in early terms 1-2 days after a trauma. The group of comparison is made from 50 men in the same age with identical on an area and depth defeats. The patients of this group had prolongation of the specialized treatment, therefore primary surgical treatment began later. At the analysis of treatment results we found out that early surgical treatment of the burned adult brought to the decline burn disease, reduce the terms of treatment and amount of operative interferences, prevents formation of rough scars and deformations.

  14. Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shridhar; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Ghoshal, Uday C; Dhingra, Sadhna; Pandey, Rakesh; Singh, Manisha; Ayyagari, Archana; Naik, Sita

    2005-01-01

    Despite a possible role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinoma (GC), its pathogenesis is not clear. There is scanty data on apoptosis in GC in relation to H. pylori and CagA antibody. Therefore, we studied gastric epithelial apoptosis in GC and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) with or without H. pylori infection, and the degree of apoptosis in relation to CagA antibody status. 20 patients each with GC and NUD were investigated for H. pylori using rapid urease test (RUT), IgG anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA antibodies, histology of endoscopically normal-looking mucosa for H. pylori, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and apoptosis using TUNEL assay. Positivity to one tissue-based (RUT or histology) and one serology based (anti-H. pylori or CagA IgG) test was taken as diagnostic of active H. pylori infection, and negative result in both tissue-based tests suggested its absence. Patients with GC more often had anti-H. pylori IgG (16 of 20 vs. 8 of 20; p=0.02) and a trend towards higher apoptotic index (AI) (48.6 [19.2 to 71.7] vs. 41.4 [11.7 to 63.6]; p=0.06) than NUD. AI was higher in GC (66.7 [57.5 to 71.7] vs. 32.6 [19.2 to 39.8]; p<0.0001) and NUD (58.6 [50.7 to 63.6] vs. 24.4 [11.7 to 32.2]; p<0.0001) infected with H. pylori than in those without infection. AI was also higher in GC than in NUD with H. pylori infection (66.7 [57.5 to 71.7] vs. 58.6 [50.7 to 63.6]; p=0.01). Four of the 20 patients with GC and none with NUD had IM (p=ns). There was no difference in AI in relation to CagA antibody. AI positively correlated with patients' age in presence of H. pylori infection (correlation coefficient=0.5, p=0.03) but not in its absence. Exaggerated apoptosis may play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric diseases including carcinogenesis. AI increases with aging in patients infected with H. pylori.

  15. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  16. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  17. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction. PMID:24914316

  18. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  19. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui M; Machado, José C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major etiological factor of gastric carcinoma. This disease is the result of a long, multistep, and multifactorial process, which occurs only in a small proportion of patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric carcinoma development is influenced by host genetic susceptibility factors, environmental factors, and H. pylori virulence. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and variability that affects H. pylori virulence factors may be useful to identify strains with different degrees of pathogenicity. This review will focus on VacA and CagA that have polymorphic regions that impact their functional properties. The characterization of H. pylori vacA and cagA-associated could be useful for identifying patients at highest risk of disease, who could be offered H. pylori eradication therapy and who could be included in programs of more intensive surveillance in an attempt to reduce gastric carcinoma incidence.

  20. Prospective comparison of rapid urease tests (PyloriTek, CLO test) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic children: a pediatric multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Elitsur, Y; Hill, I; Lichtman, S N; Rosenberg, A J

    1998-02-01

    Rapid urease tests are reliable methods to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in the endoscopy suite. The PyloriTek test kit is a new rapid urease test that has the advantage of a 1-h final reading. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of PyloriTek and the test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. Children from four different pediatric gastroenterology centers were recruited prospectively into the study. These children were >5 yr old and had an upper endoscopy procedure. Antral biopsies were examined for both rapid urease tests in the endoscopy suite, and others were sent for routine histological examination. A total of 242 children were recruited into the study over approximately 1 yr. The concordance between PyloriTek and CLO test was 98% (238 of 242). Twenty-five children were positive for HP organisms by PyloriTek and CLO test, whereas four children were positive by PyloriTek but negative by CLO test. PyloriTek was comparable to CLO test for the diagnosis of HP organisms and HP-associated gastritis. Moreover, in 48% of the positive results, PyloriTek gave significantly faster results than CLO test. We conclude that PyloriTek is an appropriate rapid urease test to use in children and may have an advantage over the CLO test because of its shorter reading time.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Helicobacter pylori Diagnostic Methods in Patients with Atrophic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Takuro; Ohde, Sachiko; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2017-01-01

    Background. There are several diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A cost-effective analysis is needed to decide on the optimal diagnostic method. The aim of this study was to determine a cost-effective diagnostic method in patients with atrophic gastritis (AG). Methods. A decision-analysis model including seven diagnostic methods was constructed for patients with AG diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Expected values of cost and effectiveness were calculated for each test. Results. If the prevalence of H. pylori in the patients with AG is 85% and CAM-resistant H. pylori is 30%, histology, stool H. pylori antigen (SHPAg), bacterial culture (BC), and urine H. pylori antibody (UHPAb) were dominated by serum H. pylori IgG antibody (SHPAb), rapid urease test (RUT), and urea breath test (UBT). Among three undominated methods, the incremental cost-effective ratios (ICER) of RUT versus SHPAb and UBT versus RUT were $214 and $1914, respectively. If the prevalence of CAM-sensitive H. pylori was less than 55%, BC was not dominated, but its H. pylori eradication success rate was 0.86. Conclusions. RUT was the most cost-effective at the current prevalence of CAM-resistant H. pylori. BC could not be selected due to its poor effectiveness even if CAM-resistant H. pylori was more than 45%. PMID:28337217

  2. N-acetylcysteine prevents the development of gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sungil; Bak, Eun-Jung; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a human gastric pathogen, causing various gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been reported that combining N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with conventional antibiotic therapy increases the success rate of H. pylori eradication. We evaluated the effect of NAC itself on the growth and colonization of H. pylori, and development of gastritis, using in vitro liquid culture system and in vivo animal models. H. pylori growth was evaluated in broth culture containing NAC. The H. pylori load and histopathological scores of stomachs were measured in Mongolian gerbils infected with H. pylori strain 7.13, and fed with NAC-containing diet. In liquid culture, NAC inhibited H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner. In the animal model, 3-day administration of NAC after 1 week from infection reduced the H. pylori load; 6-week administration of NAC after 1 week from infection prevented the development of gastritis and reduced H. pylori colonization. However, no reduction in the bacterial load or degree of gastritis was observed with a 6-week administration of NAC following 6-week infection period. Our results indicate that NAC may exert a beneficial effect on reduction of bacterial colonization, and prevents the development of severe inflammation, in people with initial asymptomatic or mild H. pylori infection.

  3. Catalase, a specific antigen in the feces of human subjects infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Wakasugi, Masahiko; Nakaya, Seigo; Kokubo, Naomi; Sato, Masami; Kajiyama, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Ryoki; Hirata, Haruhisa; Ezure, Yohji; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Shimoyama, Takashi

    2002-07-01

    Recently, we reported the production of three new monoclonal antibodies with high specificity for a Helicobacter pylori antigen suitable for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to identify the antigen recognized by these monoclonal antibodies concerning both H. pylori and the feces of human subjects infected with H. pylori. The cellular antigen was purified from an H. pylori cell extract by immunoaffinity column chromatography with the monoclonal antibody as a ligand. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences (eight residues) of the purified antigen and H. pylori catalase were the same. The molecular weights of native and subunit, specific catalase activity, and UV and visible spectra of the purified antigen were in good agreement with those of H. pylori catalase. The human fecal antigens were purified from two fecal samples of two H. pylori-positive subjects by ammonium sulfate precipitation, CM-Sephadex C(50) chromatography, and the same immunoaffinity chromatography used for the H. pylori cellular antigen. The fecal antigens had catalase activity. The amino-terminal amino acid sequences (five residues) of the human fecal antigen and H. pylori catalase were the same. The monoclonal antibodies reacted with the native cellular antigen, but did not react with the denatured antigen, human catalase, and bovine catalase. The results show that the target antigen of the monoclonal antibodies is native H. pylori catalase and that the monoclonal antibodies are able to specifically detect the antigen, which exists in an intact form, retaining the catalase activity in human feces.

  4. Persistence of Helicobacter pylori in heterotrophic drinking-water biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gião, M S; Azevedo, N F; Wilks, S A; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2008-10-01

    Although the route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains unknown, drinking water has been considered a possible transmission vector. It has been shown previously that, in water, biofilms are a protective niche for several pathogens, protecting them from stressful conditions, such as low carbon concentration, shear stress, and less-than-optimal temperatures. In this work, the influence of these three parameters on the persistence and cultivability of H. pylori in drinking-water biofilms was studied. Autochthonous biofilm consortia were formed in a two-stage chemostat system and then inoculated with the pathogen. Total numbers of H. pylori cells were determined by microscopy using a specific H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe, whereas cultivable cells were assessed by standard plating onto selective H. pylori medium. Cultivable H. pylori could not be detected at any time point, but the ability of H. pylori cells to incorporate, undergo morphological transformations, persist, and even agglomerate in biofilms for at least 31 days without a noticeable decrease in the total cell number (on average, the concentration was between 1.54 x 10(6) and 2.25 x 10(6) cells cm(-2)) or in the intracellular rRNA content may indicate that the loss of cultivability was due to entry into a viable but noncultivable state. Unlike previous results obtained for pure-culture H. pylori biofilms, shear stress did not negatively influence the numbers of H. pylori cells attached, suggesting that the autochthonous aquatic bacteria have an important role in retaining this pathogen in the sessile state, possibly by providing suitable microaerophilic environments or linking biomolecules to which the pathogen adheres. Therefore, biofilms appear to provide not only a safe haven for H. pylori but also a concentration mechanism so that subsequent sloughing releases a concentrated bolus of cells that might be infectious and that could escape routine grab sample microbiological

  5. Helicobacter pylori's unconventional role in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Dorer, Marion S; Talarico, Sarah; Salama, Nina R

    2009-10-01

    The discovery of a bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, that is resident in the human stomach and causes chronic disease (peptic ulcer and gastric cancer) was radical on many levels. Whereas the mouth and the colon were both known to host a large number of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the microbiome, the stomach was thought to be a virtual Sahara desert for microbes because of its high acidity. We now know that H. pylori is one of many species of bacteria that live in the stomach, although H. pylori seems to dominate this community. H. pylori does not behave as a classical bacterial pathogen: disease is not solely mediated by production of toxins, although certain H. pylori genes, including those that encode exotoxins, increase the risk of disease development. Instead, disease seems to result from a complex interaction between the bacterium, the host, and the environment. Furthermore, H. pylori was the first bacterium observed to behave as a carcinogen. The innate and adaptive immune defenses of the host, combined with factors in the environment of the stomach, apparently drive a continuously high rate of genomic variation in H. pylori. Studies of this genetic diversity in strains isolated from various locations across the globe show that H. pylori has coevolved with humans throughout our history. This long association has given rise not only to disease, but also to possible protective effects, particularly with respect to diseases of the esophagus. Given this complex relationship with human health, eradication of H. pylori in nonsymptomatic individuals may not be the best course of action. The story of H. pylori teaches us to look more deeply at our resident microbiome and the complexity of its interactions, both in this complex population and within our own tissues, to gain a better understanding of health and disease.

  6. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori in reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Newton, M; Bryan, R; Burnham, W R; Kamm, M A

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the major pathophysiological abnormalities in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is thought to involve transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations. One component of the neural mechanism controlling the LOS appears to be a reflex are whose afferent limb originates in the gastric fundus. As inflammation is known to be associated with neural activation an investigation was made to determine whether gastric infection with H pylori is altered in prevalence or distribution in patients with reflux disease. METHODS: Five groups of subjects referred for endoscopy-group 1: 25 controls (asymptomatic individuals with anaemia and normal endoscopy); group 2: 36 subjects with erosive oesophagitis alone (Savary-Millar grades I-III); group 3: 16 subjects with duodenal ulcer alone; group 4: 15 subjects with oesophagitis with duodenal ulcer; group 5: 16 subjects with Barrett's oesophagus. No patients were receiving acid suppressants or antibiotics. An antral biopsy specimen was taken for a rapid urease test, and two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, fundus, and oesophagus (inflamed and non-inflamed) for histological evidence of inflammation and presence of H pylori using a Giemsa stain. RESULTS: Nine (36%) controls had H pylori. Patients with duodenal ulcer alone had a significantly higher incidence of colonisation by H pylori than other groups (duodenal ulcer 15 (94%); oesophagitis 13 (36%); oesophagitis+duodenal ulcer 6 (40%); Barrett's oesophagus 4 (25%)). H pylori was not more common in oesophagitis. When H pylori colonised the gastric antrum it was usually found in the gastric fundus. There was no difference in anatomical distribution of H pylori in the different patient groups. In Barrett's oesophagus H pylori was found in two of 16 in the metaplastic epithelium. CONCLUSION: H pylori is not more common and its distribution does not differ in those with oesophagitis compared with control subjects, and is therefore unlikely

  7. Helicobacter pylori arginase mutant colonizes arginase II knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Songhee H; Langford, Melanie L; Boucher, Jean-Luc; Testerman, Traci L; McGee, David J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of host and bacterial arginases in the colonization of mice by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: H. pylori produces a very powerful urease that hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which neutralizes acid. Urease is absolutely essential to H. pylori pathogenesis; therefore, the urea substrate must be in ample supply for urease to work efficiently. The urea substrate is most likely provided by arginase activity, which hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Previous work has demonstrated that H. pylori arginase is surprisingly not required for colonization of wild-type mice. Hence, another in vivo source of the critical urea substrate must exist. We hypothesized that the urea source was provided by host arginase II, since this enzyme is expressed in the stomach, and H. pylori has previously been shown to induce the expression of murine gastric arginase II. To test this hypothesis, wild-type and arginase (rocF) mutant H. pylori strain SS1 were inoculated into arginase II knockout mice. RESULTS: Surprisingly, both the wild-type and rocF mutant bacteria still colonized arginase II knockout mice. Moreover, feeding arginase II knockout mice the host arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine (BEC), while inhibiting > 50% of the host arginase I activity in several tissues, did not block the ability of the rocF mutant H. pylori to colonize. In contrast, BEC poorly inhibited H. pylori arginase activity. CONCLUSION: The in vivo source for the essential urea utilized by H. pylori urease is neither bacterial arginase nor host arginase II; instead, either residual host arginase I or agmatinase is probably responsible. PMID:21876618

  8. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  9. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  10. Association between Helicobacter pylori and end-stage renal disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Thongprayoon, Charat; Nissaisorakarn, Pitchaphon; Lekuthai, Natasorn; Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Nakkala, Kiran; Rajapakse, Ridhmi; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence and association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). METHODS SA comprehensive literature search was completed from inception until October 2016. Studies that reported prevalence, relative risks, odd ratios, hazard ratios or standardized incidence ratio of H. pylori among ESRD patients were included. Participants without H. pylori were used as comparators to assess the association between H. pylori infection and ESRD. Pooled risk ratios and 95%CI was calculated using a random-effect model. Adjusted point estimates from each study were combined by the generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. RESULTS Of 4546 relevant studies, thirty-seven observational studies met all inclusion criteria. Thirty-five cross-sectional studies were included in the analyses to assess the prevalence and association of H. pylori with ESRD. The estimated prevalence of H. pylori among ESRD patients was 44% (95%CI: 40%-49%). The pooled RR of H. pylori in patients with ESRD was 0.77 (95%CI: 0.59-1.00) when compared with the patients without ESRD. Subgroup analysis showed significantly reduced risk of H. pylori in adult ESRD patients with pooled RR of 0.71 (95%CI: 0.55-0.94). The data on the risk of ESRD in patients with H. pylori were limited. Two cohort studies were included to assess the risk of ESRD in patients with H. pylori. The pooled risk RR of ESRD in patients with H. pylori was 0.61 (95%CI: 0.03-12.20). CONCLUSION The estimated prevalence of H. pylori in ESRD patients is 44%. Our meta-analysis demonstrates a decreased risk of H. pylori in adult ESRD patients. PMID:28293097

  11. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Tag, Hee Sang; Jung, Su-Hyeon; Kim, Bu-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Bin; Lee, Aeran; Lee, Jin Soo; Shin, Seong Hoon; Kim, Yang Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has been confirmed; however, no clear evidence for the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication on ITP exists thus far. The purpose of this study was to investigate platelet recovery in chronic ITP after H. pylori eradication. Methods A total of 25 patients (18 male, 7 female; the median age of 55 years) diagnosed with ITP, whose platelet counts were less than 100×103/µL, were enrolled. They were tested for H. pylori infection by the rapid urea test or urea breath test. All patients received triple therapy for 7 or 14 days to eradicate H. pylori infection. Results Of the 25 patients, 23 (92%) were diagnosed with H. pylori infection. Of all the ITP patients, 11 (44%) exhibited a complete response (CR) to H. pylori eradication therapy; 6 (24%), a partial response (PR); and 8 (32%) were nonresponsive (NR). Predictive factors of response after H. pylori eradication therapy were platelet counts at the initial response (27.3% responders among patients with platelet counts <100×103/µL vs 100% responders among patients with platelet counts ≥100×103/µL, P<0.001) and H. pylori infectivity (73.9% responders among the H. pylori positive patients vs 0% responders among the H. pylori negative patients, P=0.032). Conclusion This study confirmed the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in increasing the platelet count in ITP patients. Further studies with a larger number of patients are necessary to identify the crucial predictive factors responsible for platelet recovery in chronic ITP patients with the H. pylori infection. PMID:21120192

  12. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  13. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2010-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication has been shown to have a prophylactic effect against gastric cancer. According to several international guidelines, the first-line therapy for treating H. pylori infection consists of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate, with any two antibiotics among amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, given for 7-14 days. However, even with these recommended regimens, H. pylori eradication failure is still seen in more than 20% of patients. The failure rate for first-line therapy may be higher in actual clinical practice, owing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The recommended second-line therapy is a quadruple regimen composed of tetracycline, metronidazole, a bismuth salt and a PPI. The combination of PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin is a good option as second-line therapy. In the case of failure of second-line therapy, the patients should be evaluated using a case-by-case approach. European guidelines recommend culture before the selection of a third-line treatment based on the microbial antibiotic sensitivity. H. pylori isolates after two eradication failures are often resistant to both metronidazole and clarithromycin. The alternative candidates for third-line therapy are quinolones, tetracycline, rifabutin and furazolidone; high-dose PPI/amoxicillin therapy might also be promising.

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Monsef Esfahani, Alireza; Bidari Zerehpoush, Farahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042). Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000), inside the blood vessels (P=0.003), inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036), and muscle layer (P=0.122). Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested. PMID:24578822

  15. Implication of Cytotoxic Helicobacter pylori Infection in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Delitala, Alessandro P.; Pes, Giovanni M.; Malaty, Hoda M.; Pisanu, Gavino; Delitala, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been linked to Helicobacter pylori infection, although results are conflicting. No previous study addressed a possible link between H. pylori infection and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). In this study, a correlation among H. pylori infection and the risk of autoimmune diabetes in comparison with T2D was investigated. Methods. Sera from 234 LADA patients, 105 patients with late-onset T1D, and 156 patients with T2D were analyzed for anti-H. pylori and the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA) IgG antibodies. Results. H. pylori seroprevalence was comparable in LADA (52%), late-onset T1D (45%), and T2D (49%) with no gender differences. The seroprevalence of CagA IgG was significantly higher in autoimmune diabetes (late-onset T1D: 45%, LADA: 40%) compared to T2D (25%; p < 0.028). Conclusions. Although H. pylori seroprevalence was similar in LADA, T1D, and T2D, anti-CagA positivity was significantly increased among patients with autoimmune diabetes, suggesting that more virulent H. pylori strains might be a trigger for immune mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. PMID:26824048

  16. Serologic Evidence for Fecal–Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E.; Harris, Robin B.; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal–oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal–oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal–oral route, fecal–oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  17. Effects of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Expressions and Functional Activities of Human Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Transport Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guorong; Jin, Hai; Deng, Shili; Xu, Jingyu; Liu, Xuemei; Xie, Rui; Tuo, Biguang

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced duodenal ulcerogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori infection on the expressions and functional activities of human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins and hope to further clarify the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. The experiments were performed in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, and H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion was measured by Ussing Chamber technology. The expressions of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) and SLC26A6 (solute-linked carrier 26 gene A6), in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were markedly lower than those in healthy controls. Basal and both forskolin- and prostaglandin E2 -stimulated duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretions in the patients with H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers were also lower than those in healthy controls. After anti-H. pylori treatment for H. pylori-associated duodenal ulcers, duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion and CFTR and SLC26A6 expressions in H. pylori-eradicated patients recovered to levels comparable to healthy controls, but those were found to be not significantly altered in non-H. pylori-eradicated patients. The further results showed that decreases in the H. pylori-induced CFTR and SLC26A6 expression were related to the severity and virulent factors of H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection impairs the expressions and functional activities of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate transport proteins, CFTR and SLC26A6, which contributes to the development of duodenal ulcer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Integrating an HIV/HCV Brief Intervention in Prisoner Reentry: Results of a Multisite Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steven S.; O’Connell, Daniel J.; Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Maiden, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Brief interventions to reduce harmful or problem behaviors have become increasingly popular in a variety of health fields, including HIV and hepatitis risk reduction. A central issue in intervention research involves the evaluation of what constitutes an effective “dose” of an intervention. This research examines the relative effectiveness of three alternative brief interventions of varying intensity designed to change the risk behaviors of inmates who are reentering society: a DVD-based, peer delivered intervention; the NIDA Standard HIV Intervention; and a standard practice condition (HIV educational video). All participants randomly received one of the interventions and were tested for HIV and HCV prior to release from custody. Thirty and ninety-day follow-ups examined changes in high-risk behaviors. Results reported here for 343 subjects who have completed the 90–day follow up indicate significant reductions in reported sexual risk behaviors for those participating the DVD intervention, compared to the other two brief interventions. This study is among the first to report any positive impacts on sexual behaviors among a population of inmates returning to the community. PMID:19283947

  19. Nutrition intervention for high-risk auto workers: results of the Next Step Trial.

    PubMed

    Tilley, B C; Glanz, K; Kristal, A R; Hirst, K; Li, S; Vernon, S W; Myers, R

    1999-03-01

    The Next Step Trial tested interventions encouraging prevention and early detection practices in automotive-industry employees at increased colorectal cancer risk. This article describes results of the nutrition intervention promoting low-fat, high-fiber eating patterns. Twenty-eight worksites (5,042 employees at baseline) were randomized to a 2-year nutrition intervention including classes, mailed self-help materials, and personalized dietary feedback. Control worksites received no intervention. Nutrition outcomes were assessed by mailed food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) Primary nutrition outcomes included percentage energy from fat and fiber density (g/1,000 kcal) at 1 year postrandomization. Secondary outcomes included servings of fruits/vegetables and dietary measures at 2 years postrandomization. Analyses were adjusted for within worksite correlations and baseline covariates. Fifty-eight percent of employees returned FFQs. At 1 year, there were modest but statistically significant intervention effects for fat (-0.9 %en), fiber (+0.5 g/1,000 kcal), and fruits/vegetables (+0.2 servings/day) (all P < 0.007). At 2 years, due to significant positive changes in control worksites, intervention effects were smaller, significant for fiber only. Intervention effects were larger in younger (<50 years), active employees and class attendees. The nutrition intervention produced significant but modest effects on dietary fat and fiber and fruits/vegetables in these high-risk employees. Age and dose effects suggest younger employees may be more responsive to this intervention. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  20. Bacteriology of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Owen, R J

    1995-09-01

    The discovery and first isolation of H. pylori in pure culture from gastric biopsies in 1982 provided the basis for a completely new area of microbiology. Since then, H. pylori has been an intensively pursued topic world-wide, and extensive data have been acquired on all aspects of its basic microbiology, both at the conventional phenotypic level and at the molecular level. H. pylori is a remarkable microorganism because of its ability to readily colonize a major proportion of human population worldwide and to persist successfully for long periods (probably decades) in a hostile environment. At the same time it interacts with the host immune system in such a way as to permit long-term survival. Blaser (1993) proposed a model in which both host and parasite adapt to down regulate inflammatory phenomena to promote survival. Urease production by H. pylori (an important factor in that process) is one of its most distinct features with a key role in its success as an infective agent. Another less obvious yet highly significant feature of H. pylori is the ability to achieve a high degree of interstrain diversity in genomic DNA nucleotide sequences, while maintaining overall genetic homology and phenotypic homogeneity amongst strains. The selective advantage this diversity provides the bacterium is not understood. A key objective of future microbiological studies should be to understand the population genetic structure of H. pylori. Most species of bacteria are clonal in natural population structure, yet all genomic data suggest the contrary is true for H. pylori. Furthermore, it is not clear if all strains of H. pylori are equally pathogenic, and that some subsets may possess additional pathogenicity factors that are responsible for the development of different disease pathologies. A phylogenetic framework of the genetic relationships of the clones within H. pylori would enable an examination of the total genetic diversity, with respect to ethnic or geographical

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection as a Risk Factor in Patients Suffering from Food Allergy and Urticaria.

    PubMed

    Shabrawy, Reham M; Gharib, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    H. pylori infection is common worldwide. Many intestinal and extra intestinal manifestations have been associated with H. pylori infection. H. pylori destruct the gastric lining which allows food allergens to get access to blood, predisposing to Food allergy. Previous works considered chronic urticaria as a known symptom for food allergy and a skin manifestation for H. pylori infection. The aim of this work is to provide evidence based recommendation for detecting H. pylori antigen in stool in patient suffering from both food allergy and chronic urticaria. We determined the frequency of H. pylori Ag in stool in a group of patients complaining from both disorders and compared it with a group of apparently healthy control subjects with no history of either urticaria or food allergy. Our results showed that the frequency of H. pylori Ag in stool in control group was 62.5 %, while, it was 97 % in patient group. When we calculated the risk of H. pylori infection in predisposing to both disorders, odds ratio was 18.6. According to these results we concluded that H. pylori is a risk factor for developing chronic urticaria and food allergy and we recommend testing for H. pylori Ag in stool in patients complaining from these disorders. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of Immunologists.

  2. [An urease enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Ding, S Z; Jia, B Q; Liu, X G

    1993-05-01

    A sensitive and specific serological diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori infection has been developed and validated in 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing endoscopy. This test is to use urease, a protein unique to H. pylori, as the basis for the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects serum H. pylori urease antibodies. The ELISA mean optical density (OD) in H. pylori-positive group is higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (0.57 +/- 0.23 vs 0.24 +/- 0.15, P < 0.001), a cut-off 0.3 OD yields a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 93%. Serum absorption test showed that Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia enterocolotica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysate do not influence serum H. pylori urease antibody level, though they all have urease except E. coli. The result implied that H. pylori urease can be a good antigen to detect serum H. pylori antibody and it would be useful for epidemiological survey and routine diagnostic approach. Nearly half of the blood donors showed positive result with H. pylori urease antibody. It is suggested that H. pylori infection is quite common in the asymptomatic population.

  3. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I; Kolber, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Retrospective chart review. Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori-related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  4. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  5. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tomoyuki; Kita, Masakazu; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Imamura, Shigeyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Mitsufuji, Shoji; Kodama, Tadashi; Kashima, Kei; Imanishi, JirO

    2003-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen responsible for gastroduodenal diseases in humans. Although the eradication of H. pylori using antibiotics often improves gastroduodenal diseases, resistance to the antibiotics is emerging. The antimicrobial effect of essential oils and the development of resistance to the essential oils were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Thirteen essential oils used in this study completely inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro at a concentration of 0.1% (v/v). Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) were bactericidal against H. pylori at 0.01% at pH 4.0 and 5.0. Resistance to lemongrass did not develop even after 10 sequential passages, whereas resistance to clarithromycin developed under the same conditions. In in vivo studies, the density of H. pylori in the stomach of mice treated with lemongrass was significantly reduced compared with untreated mice. These results demonstrate that the essential oils are bactericidal against H. pylori without the development of acquired resistance, suggesting that essential oils may have potential as new and safe agents for inclusion in anti-H. pylori regimens.

  6. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Helicobacter pylori seropositivity in subjects with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, B.; Martin, D.; Stephens, J.; Thompson, J. R.; Samani, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection increases the risk of myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. METHODS: Serological evidence of H pylori infection was determined in 342 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted into the coronary care unit and in 236 population-based controls recruited from visitors to patients on medical and surgical wards. RESULTS: 206/342 (60.2%) of cases were H pylori positive compared with 132/236 (55.9%) of controls (P = 0.30). Age and sex stratified odds ratio for myocardial infarction associated with H pylori seropositivity was 1.05 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.53, P = 0.87) and this remained non-significant (P = 0.46) when other risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were taken into account using logistic regression analysis. H pylori seropositivity was not associated with several coronary risk factors in either cases or controls. CONCLUSION: No increase was found in H pylori seropositivity in subjects with acute myocardial infarction. This suggests that previous H pylori infection is not a major risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Images PMID:8983674

  8. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  9. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  10. A study of recombinant protective H. pylori antigens

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zheng; Tao, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Ai-Long; Wang, Pi-Long

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant vector which can express Mr26000 outer membrane protein (OMP) from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and to obtain the vaccine protecting against H. pylori infection and a diagnostic reagent kit quickly detecting H. pylori infection. METHODS: The gene encoding the structural Mr26000 outer membrane protein of H. pylori was amplified from H. pylori chromosomal DNA by PCR, and inserted in the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a(+), which was transformed into the Top10 E. coli strain. Recombinant vector was selected, identified and transformed into BL-21(DE3) E. coli strain. The recombinant fusion proteins were expressed. The antigenicity of recombinant protein was studied by ELISA or immunoblotting and immunized Balb/c mice. RESULTS: The gene of Mr26000 OMP was amplified to be 594 base pairs, 1.1% of the cloned genes was mutated and 1.51% of amino acid residues was changed, but there was homogeneity between them. The recombinant fusion protein encoded objective polypeptides of 198 amino acid residues, corresponding to calculated molecular masses of Mr26000. The level of soluble expression products was about 38.96% of the total cell protein. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose resin columniation, the purity of objective protein became about 90%. The ELISA results showed that recombinant fusion protein could be recognized by patient serum infected with H. pylori and rabbit serum immunized with the recombinant protein. Furthermore, Balb/c mice immunized with the recombinant protein were protected against H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Mr26000 OMP may be a candidate vaccine preventing H. pylori infection. PMID:11925614

  11. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  12. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  13. Activities of muscadine grape skin and polyphenolic constituents against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Jiang, X

    2013-04-01

    To identify active phenolic constituents in muscadine grape skin (MGS) extracts and determine interactions among compounds while further exploring their anti-Helicobacter pylori potential in vitro. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and resveratrol, active polyphenols identified in MGS extracts, against H. pylori were investigated. Quercetin and resveratrol significantly (P < 0.05) reduced H. pylori counts regardless of pH with minimal bactericidal concentrations of 256 and 128 μg ml(-1), respectively. MGS extracts displayed the highest efficacy, suggesting additional unidentified compounds not determined in this study. Time-course viability experiments showed a dose-dependent anti-H. pylori response to quercetin and resveratrol. Interestingly, neither quercetin nor resveratrol affected H. pylori outer membrane (OM) integrity as determined by 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN) uptake assays. However, treatment with MGS extract did increase NPN uptake, indicating OM destabilization possibly by additional unknown components. Furthermore, quercetin was found to enter H. pylori as measured by HPLC supporting intracellular drug accumulation. Quercetin and resveratrol possess strong anti-H. pylori activity in vitro and are independent of pH. Our results also suggest that these compounds do not affect H. pylori OM integrity as previously hypothesized and that the primary antimicrobial activity of quercetin may be linked to interactions with intracellular components. The anti-H. pylori effects of quercetin and resveratrol suggest that these compounds may be useful in the dietary prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Accuracy of a new near patient test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wai Man; Lam, Shiu Kum; Xia, Harry H X; Tang, Vera Sy; Lai, Kam Chuen; Hu, Wayne H C; Chan, Chi Kuen; Cheung, Kwan Lok; Wong, Benjamin C Y

    2002-12-01

    The performance of existing near patient tests for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori remains unsatisfactory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a new near patient test (Signify H. pylori) for the diagnosis of H. pylori and the usefulness of the Signify H. pylori test for a test and treat strategy. Consecutive dyspeptic patients referred for upper endoscopy were recruited. Rapid urease test and histology were used as the gold standard. After endoscopy, blood was collected for the Signify H. pylori test and compared with a gold standard. Two hundred and forty-four patients were eligible for analysis and 121 (49.5%) were positive for H. pylori. The Signify H. pylori test showed a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 84.3, 89.4%, and 86.9%, respectively, for whole blood and 79.3, 88.6, and 84.0% for serum, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the Signify H. pylori whole blood test was 87.5 and 92.6% for patients less than 45-years-old and the accuracy was similar between patients referred from primary care physicians or gastroenterologists. The test is easy to operate and results are available within 5 min. The Signify H. pylori test is accurate for the near patient diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  15. H pylori status and angiogenesis factors in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Anita; Chiriatti, Annalisa; Ranieri, Girolamo; Abbate, Ines; Coviello, Maria; Simone, Giovanni; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Montemurro, Severino; Rucci, Antonello; Leo, Alfredo Di; Tommasi, Stefania; Berloco, Pasquale; Xu, Jian Ming; Paradiso, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate H pylori expression in gastric cancer patients in relation to primary tumor angiogenic markers, such as microvessel density (MVD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGF-R1), p53 and circulating VEGF levels. METHODS: Angiogenic markers were analyzed immunohistochemically in 56 primary gastric cancers. H pylori cytotoxin (vacA) and the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) amplification were evaluated using PCR assay. Serum H pylori IgG antibodies and serum/plasma circulating VEGF levels were detected in 39 and 38 patients by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 69% of patients were positive for circulating IgG antibodies against H pylori. cagA-positive H pylori strains were found in 41% of gastric patients. vacA was found in 50% of patients; s1 strains were more highly expressed among vacA-positive patients. The presence of the s1 strain was significantly associated with cagA (P = 0.0001). MVD was significantly correlated with both tumor VEGF expression (r = 0.361, P = 0.009) and serum VEGF levels (r = -0.347, P = 0.041). Conversely, neither VEGF-R1 expression nor MVD was related to p53 expression. However, H pylori was not related to any angiogenic markers except for the plasma VEGF level (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: H pylori antigen is related to higher plasma VEGF levels, but not to angiogenic characteristics. It can be hypothesized that the toxic effects of H pylori on angiogenesis occurs in early preclinical disease phase or in long-lasting aggressive infections, but only when high H pylori IgG levels are persistent. PMID:17006982

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroesophageal reflux in children.

    PubMed

    Lupu, V V; Ignat, A; Ciubotariu, G; Ciubară, A; Moscalu, M; Burlea, M

    2016-11-01

    Some studies suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection would be a protective factor for the gastroesophageal reflux. The aim of this study was to explore this fact. A group of 72 children, admitted in a pediatric gastroenterology regional center in Northeast Romania, diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux by 24-hour continuous esophageal pH monitoring (results were interpreted using the Boix-Ochoa score), underwent upper endoscopy with gastric biopsy to detect the presence of H. pylori by the rapid urease testing and for bacteriological and histologic examination. 19 children (26.39%) had H. pylori infection, while 53 (73.61%) did not. The grade of esophagitis was classified according to the Los Angeles classification system. Out of 47 children with esophagitis A, 16 (34.04%) had H. pylori infection, while out of the 25 children with esophagitis B, only 3 (12%) had H. pylori infection, with statistic significance (χ(2) = 54.69, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]). Regarding the value of the Boix-Ochoa score, it appears that the presence of the H. pylori determines lower pH-metry scores (F = 8.13, P = 0.0015, 95% CI). The presence of the H. pylori was not an important factor in the gastroesophageal reflux. On the other hand its relationship with esophagitis appears to be inverse ratio. The fact that the H. pylori presence is statistically greater in the grade A esophagitis could confirm the hypothesis that the bacteria would slow down the development of the esophagitis. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  17. Severe gastritis decreases success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Ismail Hakki; Sapmaz, Ferdane; Güliter, Sefa; Atasoy, Pınar

    2016-05-01

    In several studies, different risk factors other than antibiotic resistance have been documented with Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. We aimed in this study to investigate the relationship of gastric density of H. pylori, the occurrence/degree of gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM) with success rate of H. pylori eradication. Two hundred consecutive treatment naive patients who received bismuth containing standart quadruple treatment due to H. pylori infection documented by histopathological examination of two antral or two corpal biopsies entered this retrospective study. The updated Sydney system was used to grade the activity of gastritis, density of H. pylori colonization, atrophy, and IM. Stages III and IV of operative link for gastritis assessment (OLGA) or the operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia assessment (OLGIM) stages was considered as severe gastritis. H. pylori eradication was determined via stool H. pylori antigen test performed 4 weeks after the end of therapy. The presence of gastric atrophy and IM was significantly higher in patients with eradication failure (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Severe gastritis (OLGA III-IV and OLGIM III-IV) rates were higher in eradication failure group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that OLGA and OLGIM stages were to be independent risk factors for eradication failure (p = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively). Our results suggested that histopathologically severe gastritis may cause H. pylori eradication failure. In addition, we found that H. pylori density was not a risk factor for treatment failure in patients who receive quadruple treatment.

  18. Discrepancy in functional analysis results across two settings: implications for intervention design.

    PubMed

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey M; Langthorne, Paul; Franco, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses that were conducted in two settings (playground and classroom) indicated that problem behavior was sensitive to adult attention on the playground and tangible items in the classroom. Attention- and tangible-based interventions were designed based on the results from each of the assessment environments and were compared. The attention-based intervention was more effective on the playground, and the tangible-based intervention was more effective in the classroom. Findings are discussed in regards to the generality of functional analysis results across environments.

  19. Discovery – The Link to H.Pylori Bacteria

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supported research to solidify the link between H. pylori infections and stomach cancer. As a result, new cancer treatment and prevention strategies are being developed, encouraging scientists to carefully examine other cancers for viral and bacterial connections.

  20. Does a Quality Improvement Intervention for Anxiety Result in Differential Outcomes for Lower Income Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Chavira, Denise A.; Craske, Michelle G.; Gollineli, Daniela; Han, Xiaotong; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Stein, Murray B.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower income participants relative to those with higher incomes. The authors hypothesized that lower income patients might show less improvement or improve at a lower rate given that they experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. Alternatively, lower income patients could improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. Method The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (n=287) and higher (n=717) income using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the authors jointly modeled the outcomes at the four assessment times by study site; income; time; intervention; time and intervention; income and time; income and intervention; and time, intervention and income. Results Although lower-income participants were more ill and disabled at baseline than those in the higher income group, the two income groups were very similar in their clinical response. The lower income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. Conclusions These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations. PMID:23377641

  1. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Broglio, Steven P.; Cook, Summer B.; Cantu, Robert C.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Myers, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Football field. Patients or Other Participants Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). Intervention(s) The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Main Outcome Measure(s) Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Results Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). Conclusion A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season. PMID:26651278

  2. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Oladejo O; Rotimi, Olorunda; Okeke, Iruka

    2007-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and disease association of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dyspeptic patients in southwest Nigeria. Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-lfe, Nigeria. Consecutive dyspeptic patients for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from January 1996 to March 1997 were investigated for H. pylori in gastric biopsy by histopathology and culture. Patients without gastroduodenal ulcerations or neoplastic lesions constituted the nonulcer dyspeptic (NUD) group. 138 (92 males, 46 females) patients aged 4.5-85 years [mean (7) = 45+/-SD 17.8 years] who had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were analyzed for presence of H. pylori. Eighty-three had histopathology alone, while 55 others had both histology and culture. Endoscopic diagnosis included duodenal ulcer (DU) (n=35, 23%); gastric ulcer (n=4, 3%); gastric cancer (n=14, 9%); NUD, including gastritis (n=49, 32%); duodenitis (n=47, 31%); and normal (n=16, 11%). Overall, H. pylori was positive in 107 of 138 (77.5%) patients. There was a significant association of H. pylori with DU and NUD (p<0.000). Three-quarters of cases of normal endoscopy harbored H. pylori. The finding of 80% and 85% H. pylori in gastritis and duodenitis, respectively, was of interest. These findings suggest that DU and NUD were the main clinical expressions of H. pylori infection in southwest Nigerian dyspeptic patients similar to what is found in developed nations. Of note is the high incidence of H. pylori in endoscopically normal patients.

  3. Involvement of Aquaporin 3 in Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastric Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shen, Lizong

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common and lethal malignant cancers worldwide, and numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a key role in the development of gastric carcinomas. Our previous studies showed that aquaporin 3 (AQP3) is overexpressed in gastric carcinoma and promotes the migration and proliferation of human gastric carcinoma cells, suggesting that AQP3 may be a potentially important determinant of gastric carcinoma. However, the role of AQP3 in H. pylori carcinogenesis is unknown. Methods The AQP3 protein and H. pylori were detected in human gastric tissues by immunohistochemistry and modified Giemsa staining respectively. AQP3 knockdown was obtained by small interfering (si) RNA. Western blot assays and RT-PCR were used to evaluate the change of AQP3 in the human gastric cancer AGS and SGC7901 cell lines after co-culture with H. pylori. Sprague Dawley rats were orally inoculated with H. pylori to establish a rat model colonized by H. pylori. Results The present study found that AQP3 expression correlated with H. pylori infection status in gastric cancer tissues and corresponding normal mucosa, and H. pylori co-culture upregulated AQP3 expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. H. pylori infection also increased AQP3 expression in gastric mucosa colonized by H. pylori in a Sprague Dawley rat model. Conclusions These findings provide further information to understand the mechanism of H. pylori carcinogenesis and a potential strategy for the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinoma. PMID:23152856

  4. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hong; Tian, Yu; Gao, Wen; Li, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression. PMID:19248190

  5. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on outcomes in resected gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Jennifer M; Ozbek, Umut; Harpaz, Noam; Holcombe, Randall F; Ang, Celina

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a known risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) and has been linked with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Studies examining the relationship between H. pylori infection, GC characteristics and prognosis are limited and have yielded conflicting results. We report on the clinicopathologic characteristics and oncologic outcomes of gastric and GEJ cancer patients with and without a history of H. pylori treated at our institution. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients over the age of 18 years who underwent curative resection for GEJ and GC at Mount Sinai Hospital between 2007 and 2012 who had histopathologic documentation of the presence or absence of H pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, treatment characteristics and outcomes including recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared. Ninety-five patients were identified. The majority of patients were male (61%), white (36%) or Asian (34%), with median age at diagnosis 64. Tumors were stage I (51%), stage II (23%), stage III (25%), and stage IV (1%). H pylori infection status was documented at the time of cancer diagnosis in 89 (94%) patients, and following cancer diagnosis and treatment in 6 (6%) patients. Younger age at diagnosis, Asian race and Lauren histologic classification were associated with H Pylori infection. H pylori positive patients exhibited higher 5-year OS and 5-year RFS compared to H pylori negative patients, though the difference was not statistically significant in either univariate or multivariate analyses. In this retrospective series of predominantly early stage GC and GEJ cancers, H. pylori positive patients were significantly younger at cancer diagnosis and were more frequently Asian compared to H. pylori negative patients. Other demographic and histologic classifications except for Lauren histologic classification were similar between the two groups. H pylori positive patients appeared

  6. Results from a trial of an unsupported internet intervention for depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leykin, Yan; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Contreras, Omar; Latham, Melissa D.

    2014-01-01

    Internet interventions provide an option for those who either cannot or choose not to engage with traditional treatments. Most research on internet interventions involves guided or supported interventions. However, unsupported interventions offer considerably more scalability and cost-effectiveness, which makes them attractive for large-scale implementation. In this study, 309 participants recruited via Google AdWords entered an unsupported cognitive-behavioral internet intervention for depressive symptoms. To maximize the ecological validity of the study, participants received no incentives or live contact with study personnel. Furthermore, the study was open to individuals at any level of depressive symptoms, and all participants received the active intervention. The main outcome measures were depressive symptom level and self-efficacy in managing depressive symptoms. At follow-up, depression scores were significantly lower than baseline scores at each follow-up point (1, 2, 4, and 7 months), with pre-post effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Follow-up depression self-efficacy scores were significantly higher than baseline scores at each follow-up point, with pre-post effect sizes in the medium range. The results remained significant when analyzing only participants with depression scores indicative of a presence of a major depressive episode; results likewise remained significant when employing the conservative last observation carried forward convention, even in the presence of high attrition observed in this study. The results illustrate the potential of unsupported internet intervention to address the health needs of the global community. PMID:25485233

  7. Helicobacter pylori-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori infection in Digestive Diseases Week, 2016. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of this infection, infection rates continue to be high in developing countries. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly high in most countries and continues to rise. The management of H. pylori infection in patients with peptic ulcers still leaves much to be desired. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely avoid its appearance. The new rapid stool antigen tests show promising results. The efficacy of standard triple therapy is clearly inadequate and continues to decline, and cannot therefore be recommended. Vonoprazan, when associated with 2 antibiotics, is more effective than traditional proton pump inhibitors, especially in clarithromycin-resistant patients. Non-bismuth quadruple (concomitant) therapy achieves eradication rates of around 90% and has a good safety profile. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. Although some probiotics can increase the efficacy and tolerability of triple therapy, the utility of its association with quadruple concomitant therapy has not been established. If a first treatment with clarithromycin fails, both bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing triple therapy achieve good-but still suboptimal-results. The combination of bismuth and levofloxacin in the same regimen increases the efficacy of rescue therapy. The management of H. pylori infection by European gastroenterologists is widely heterogeneous and the eradication rates achieved by them are generally unacceptable. In Spain, the highest first-line eradication rate is obtained with quadruple concomitant therapy in 14-day regimens and with double doses of proton pump inhibitors; in second-line therapy, the use of

  8. JMJD2B is required for Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis via regulating COX-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinjin; Sun, Yundong; Ma, Fang; Liu, Zhifang; Yu, Han; Jia, Jihui; Li, Wenjuan

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the strongest risk factor for the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the role of H. pylori infection in JMJD2B upregulation and the mechanism underlying gastric carcinogenesis. We find that JMJD2B can be induced by H. pylori infection via β-catenin pathway. β-catenin directly binds to JMJD2B promoter and stimulates JMJD2B expression following H. pylori infection. Increased JMJD2B, together with NF-κB, binds to COX-2 promoter to enhance its transcription by demethylating H3K9me3 locally. JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is upregulated in H. pylori infected mice in vivo. Furthermore, JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is gradually increased in human gastric tissues from gastritis to gastric cancer. The level of JMJD2B and COX-2 in H. pylori-positive gastritis tissues is significantly higher than that in H. pylori-negative tissues. Moreover, a positive correlation between JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is found in both gastritis and gastric cancer tissues. Therefore, JMJD2B is a crucial factor in triggering H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation and progression of gastric carcinogenesis and it may serve as a novel target for the intervention of gastric cancer. PMID:27232941

  9. JMJD2B is required for Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis via regulating COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengjuan; Ren, Juchao; Zhang, Jinjin; Sun, Yundong; Ma, Fang; Liu, Zhifang; Yu, Han; Jia, Jihui; Li, Wenjuan

    2016-06-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the strongest risk factor for the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. However, the mechanism of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the role of H. pylori infection in JMJD2B upregulation and the mechanism underlying gastric carcinogenesis. We find that JMJD2B can be induced by H. pylori infection via β-catenin pathway. β-catenin directly binds to JMJD2B promoter and stimulates JMJD2B expression following H. pylori infection. Increased JMJD2B, together with NF-κB, binds to COX-2 promoter to enhance its transcription by demethylating H3K9me3 locally. JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is upregulated in H. pylori infected mice in vivo. Furthermore, JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is gradually increased in human gastric tissues from gastritis to gastric cancer. The level of JMJD2B and COX-2 in H. pylori-positive gastritis tissues is significantly higher than that in H. pylori-negative tissues. Moreover, a positive correlation between JMJD2B and COX-2 expression is found in both gastritis and gastric cancer tissues. Therefore, JMJD2B is a crucial factor in triggering H. pylori-induced chronic inflammation and progression of gastric carcinogenesis and it may serve as a novel target for the intervention of gastric cancer.

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection and atopic diseases: Is there a relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Angela; Garozzo, Maria Teresa; Filippelli, Martina; Tomarchio, Stefania; Ferrara, Viviana; Salpietro, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To review and conduct a meta-analysis of the existing literature on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atopy and allergic diseases. METHODS: Studies published in English assessing the prevalence of atopy and/or allergic diseases in patients with H. pylori infection and the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with atopy and/or allergic diseases were identified through a MEDLINE search (1950-2014). Random-effect model was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled results of case-control studies showed a significant inverse association of H. pylori infection with atopy/allergic disease or with exclusively atopy, but not with allergic disease, whereas pooled results of cross-sectional studies showed only a significant association between allergic disease and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence of an inverse association between atopy/allergic diseases and H. pylori infection, although further studied are needed. PMID:25516679

  11. [Drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a network Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Gou, Q Y; Yu, R B; Shi, R H

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and the risk of adverse effect of drug susceptibility test guided therapy and novel empirical quadruple therapy for Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection. Methods: Literature retrieval was conducted by using major databases. Related papers published up to June 2015 were considered eligible if they were randomized control trials comparing different pharmacological formulations for H. pylori infection and used in a network Meta-analysis and a single rate Meta-analysis to evaluate the relative and absolute rates of H. pylori eradication and the risk of adverse effect. The Jadad score was used to evaluate the methodological quality. Funnel plot was constructed to evaluate the risk of publication bias. Begg's rank correlation test or Egger's regression intercept test was done for the asymmetry of funnel plot. Results: Twenty randomized control trials for the treatment of 6 753 initial treated patients with H. pylori infection were included. Drug susceptibility test guided therapy was significantly superior to concomitant therapy, hybrid therapy, sequential therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy. The culture-based therapy had the highest likelihood of improving clinical efficacy, with lowest risk of adverse effect. Concomitant therapy had the highest probability of causing adverse effect despite its effectiveness. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy were associated with lower risk of adverse effect and higher effectiveness. Conclusion: Drug susceptibility test guided therapy showed superiority to other 4 interventions for H. pylori eradication mentioned above. Hybrid therapy and bismuth quadruple therapy might be applied in the settings where the culture-based strategy is not available.

  12. Helicobacter pylori Infection – A Boon or a Bane: Lessons from Studies in a Low-Prevalence Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. PMID:23607896

  13. Multimodal Intervention to Improve Osteoporosis Care in Home Health Settings: Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kilgore, Meredith L.; Outman, Ryan; Locher, Julie L.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Mudano, Amy; Kitchin, Beth; Saag, Kenneth G.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test an evidence-implementation intervention to improve the quality of care in the home health care setting for patients at high risk for fractures. Methods We conducted a cluster randomized trial of a multimodal intervention targeted at home care for high-risk patients (prior fracture or physician-diagnosed osteoporosis) receiving care in a statewide home health agency in Alabama. Offices throughout the state were randomized to receive the intervention or to usual care. The primary outcome was the proportion of high-risk home health patients treated with osteoporosis medications. A t-test of difference in proportions was conducted between intervention and control arms and constituted the primary analysis. Secondary analyses included logistic regression estimating the effect of individual patients being treated in an intervention arm office on the likelihood of a patient receiving osteoporosis medications. A follow-on analysis examined the effect of an automated alert built into the electronic medical record that prompted the home health care nurses to deploy the intervention for high risk patients using a pre-post design. Results Among the offices in the intervention arm the average proportion of eligible patients receiving osteoporosis medications post-intervention was 19.1%, compared with 15.7% in the usual care arm (difference in proportions 3.4%, 95% CI: −2.6 −9.5%). The overall rates of osteoporosis medication use increased from 14.8% prior to activation of the automated alert to 17.6% afterward, a non-significant difference. Conclusions The home health intervention did not result in a significant improvement in use of osteoporosis medications in high risk patients. PMID:23536256

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections.

  16. Intervention for infants with brain injury: Results of a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Garg, Meena; Kamath, Meghna

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trail (RCT) employed a 12-month individualized cognitive/sensorimotor stimulation program to look at the efficacy of the intervention on 62 infants with suspected brain injury. The control group infants received the State-funded follow-up program provided by the Los Angeles (LA) Regional Centers while the intervention group received intensive stimulation using the Curriculum and Monitoring System (CAMS) taught by public health nurses (PHNs). The developmental assessments and outcome measures were performed at 6, 12 and 18 months corrected age and included the Bayley motor and mental development, the Home, mother–infant interaction (Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS)), parental stress and social support. At 18 months, 43 infants remained in the study. The results indicate that the intervention had minimal positive effects on the Bayley mental and motor development scores of infants in the intervention group. Likewise, the intervention did not contribute to less stress or better mother–infant interaction at 12 or 18 months although there were significant differences in the NCAFS scores favoring the intervention group at 6 months. There was a significant trend, however, for the control group to have a significant decrease over time on the Bayley mental scores. Although the sample was not large and attrition was at 31%, this study provides further support to the minimal effects of stimulation and home intervention for infants with brain injury and who may have more significant factors contributing to their developmental outcome. PMID:17138264

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in older people

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders three decades ago, H. pylori has been the focus of active research and debate in the scientific community. Its linkage to several diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric malignancy is incontestable. In particular, it has been noticed that, as the aged population is increasing worldwide, older people are at increased risk of developing several gastroduodenal diseases and related complications. At the same time, gastric cancer is definitely more frequent in elderly than in adult and young people. In addition, it has been showed that peptic ulcer and related complications occur much more commonly in aged individuals than in young people, resulting in a significantly higher mortality. Although this infection plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal disorders affecting all age groups and in particular older people, only a few studies have been published regarding the latter. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapy of H. pylori infection in elderly people. PMID:24914358

  18. Uniform presentation of process evaluation results facilitates the evaluation of complex interventions: development of a graph.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Franka C; Persoon, Anke; Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-02-01

    Process evaluation is a highly essential element for the increasing number of studies regarding multi-component interventions. Yet, researchers are challenged to collect and present appropriate process outcomes in such way that it is easy and valuable to be used by other researchers and policy makers in interpreting and comparing intervention effects because of the absence of standards for conducting and publishing process evaluation. This article describes the development of a method to concisely summarize the results of process evaluations of complex multi-component interventions. Development of a graph with the aim to facilitate the reporting of process evaluation's results, based on a narrative review of the literature for process measures used in complex interventions for elderly people. Seventeen articles of process evaluations alongside effect studies of complex interventions were reviewed. From these articles, it was found that process evaluations should address whether the intervention (1) was implemented successfully; (2) was evaluated properly; and (3) can be continued in the future. A flow chart based on the essential components of an adequate process evaluation was developed. A simplified but highly informative figure reporting a summary of the results of the process evaluation is proposed and its use is explained by administering the figure to two studies including a process and effect evaluation of a complex intervention. A graphical approach - which includes the core results of process evaluation and can be used directly in reporting effectiveness studies - will help researchers and policy makers to interpret and compare effects of complex multi-component interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. What role does Helicobacter pylori play in dyspepsia and nonulcer dyspepsia? Arguments for and against H. pylori being associated with dyspeptic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Talley, N J; Hunt, R H

    1997-12-01

    A major role for Helicobacter pylori gastritis in nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is controversial. Gastroduodenal dysfunction may be associated with H. pylori infection, but there is little evidence for a causal link with dyspepsia. Population-based studies with appropriate methodology have generally failed to confirm an association between H. pylori and NUD. Furthermore, no definite association between subgroups of NUD (ulcer-like, dysmotility-like, reflux-like, and nonspecific) and H. pylori has been identified however the subgroups have been defined, and no specific symptom pattern characterizes patients with H. pylori infection. Whether H. pylori-induced alterations of gastric physiology can explain NUD remains open to debate while we await the results of more specific experiments. Although acid secretion in response to gastrin-releasing peptide may be increased in a subset of NUD patients who are infected with H. pylori, uninfected patients with NUD have not been assessed and the results require confirmation. Most studies suggest no association between H. pylori and gastroduodenal motor or sensory dysfunction in NUD. Treatment trials have been unconvincing. The trials with bismuth therapy have not been adequately blinded. Furthermore, some studies suggest that H. pylori-negative patients with NUD may respond to bismuth treatment, although the results have not been uniform. Therapies aimed at curing H. pylori infection have produced mixed results, with small positive and negative trials. The trials that have used adequate outcome measures have more often than not been negative. Based on current evidence, H. pylori is not established to be of causal importance in NUD.

  20. Value of whole-cell antigen extracts for serologic detection of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Salama, S M; Wefuan, J N; Shiro-Koulla, S; Mbakop, A; Tagni-Sartre, M; Ndam, E C; Ngu, J L; Taylor, D E

    1993-01-01

    Whole-cell protein extracts of Helicobacter pylori strains were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibody against H. pylori in 113 patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. These antigen preparations were of value for detecting infection by H. pylori in patients with high antibody titers (> or = 12,800), whereas for patients with lower titers, the results were inconclusive. PMID:8308132

  1. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I.; Kolber, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Participants Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. Results A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori–related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. PMID:27629690

  2. Resilience in Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation: Results of a Complementary Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peasant, Courtney; Barrera, Maru; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Huang, Qinlei; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT) are thought to be at risk for increased distress, adjustment difficulties, and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). We report results of a multisite trial designed to improve psychological adjustment and HRQL in children undergoing SCT. METHODS: A total of 171 patients and parents from 4 sites were randomized to receive a child-targeted intervention; a child and parent intervention; or standard care. The child intervention included massage and humor therapy; the parent intervention included massage and relaxation/imagery. Outcomes included symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress, HRQL, and benefit finding. Assessments were conducted by patient and parent report at admission and SCT week+24. RESULTS: Across the sample, significant improvements were seen on all outcomes from admission to week+24. Surprisingly, patients who had SCT reported low levels of adjustment difficulties at admission, and improved to normative or better than average levels of adjustment and HRQL at week+24. Benefit finding was high at admission and increased at week+24; however, there were no statistically significant differences between intervention arms for any of the measures. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results do not support the benefits of these complementary interventions in pediatric SCT, this may be explained by the remarkably positive overall adjustment seen in this sample. Improvements in supportive care, and a tendency for patients to find benefit in the SCT experience, serve to promote positive outcomes in children undergoing this procedure, who appear particularly resilient to the challenge. PMID:22311995

  3. [A new method for detection and erradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by stool antigens test].

    PubMed

    Amèndola, R; Doweck, J; Katz, J; Racca, J; Menendez, G; Schenone, L; Farìas, R; Barrantes, C; Quintanta, C; Zerbo, O; Kogan, Z; Valero, J; Bartellini, M A; Questa, U; Luna, P; Corti, R E

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays technics for Helicobacter pylori detection in stools like culture, and PCR, are expensive and difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate ELISA test efficacy for detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools comparing this results with standarized technics like histology (Giemsa), ureasa test and UBT C 14. 26 patients were evaluated in this study, ages between 15-75 with upper gastrointestinal symptoms; all of them required gastroduodenal endoscopy, status H. Pylori was determined with methods upon mentioned. 24 hours after endoscopy H. Pylori antigens in stools with the technique Premier Platinum Htsa, Elisa were determined. The detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools accurately identified active H. Pylori infection. The performance characteristics of this non-invasive method was similar in sensibility and specificity to conventional tests.

  4. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity and gastro-duodenal diseases in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Seevasant, Indran; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J; Mitchell, Hazel M; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-12-11

    Helicobacter pylori infection results in diverse clinical conditions ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the multiethnic population of Malaysia, Indians consistently have a higher H. pylori prevalence as compared with Chinese and Malays. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low incidence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In contrast, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease incidence is high in Chinese. H. pylori strains from Chinese strains predominantly belong to the hspEAsia subpopulation while Indian/Malay strains mainly belong to the hspIndia subpopulation. By comparing the genome of 27 Asian strains from different subpopulations, we identified six genes associated with risk of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study serves as an important foundation for future studies aiming to understand the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases.

  5. Helicobacter pylori Genetic Diversity and Gastro-duodenal Diseases in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Gunaletchumy, Selva Perumal; Seevasant, Indran; Tan, Mun Hua; Croft, Laurence J.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Goh, Khean Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection results in diverse clinical conditions ranging from chronic gastritis and ulceration to gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the multiethnic population of Malaysia, Indians consistently have a higher H. pylori prevalence as compared with Chinese and Malays. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori, Indians have a relatively low incidence of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. In contrast, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease incidence is high in Chinese. H. pylori strains from Chinese strains predominantly belong to the hspEAsia subpopulation while Indian/Malay strains mainly belong to the hspIndia subpopulation. By comparing the genome of 27 Asian strains from different subpopulations, we identified six genes associated with risk of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. This study serves as an important foundation for future studies aiming to understand the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori-induced gastro-duodenal diseases. PMID:25503415

  6. Bioactivity and immunological evaluation of LPS from different serotypes of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilli, Davoud; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohabati; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Hosseini, Ahmad Zavaran

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and a co-factor in development of gastric malignancies. LPS are among toxic substances produced by H. pylori exhibiting low endotoxic activity compared to typical bacterial LPS. The aim of this study was to investigate bioactivity of LPS produced by different serotypes of Helicobacter pylori compared to Escherichia coli and Brucella abortus LPS. Materials and Methods Bacterial LPS was extracted by the hot phenol-water method. Biological activities of LPS were determined via the limulus lysate assay, pyrogenic assay, and blood pressure and PBMC induction test in rabbits. Results Biological activity of O2 serotype LPS of H. pylori was less than the biological activity of other H. pylori serotypes. Conclusion Our data supported the hypothesis that the unique bacterial LPS of the O2 serotype must be included in the formulation of a multivalent H. pylori vaccine. PMID:23825732

  7. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  8. Results from an Online Computer-Tailored Weight Management Intervention for Overweight Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Empelen, Pepijn; Boon, Brigitte; Borsboom, Gerard; Visscher, Tommy; Oenema, Anke

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevention of weight gain has been suggested as an important strategy in the prevention of obesity and people who are overweight are a specifically important group to target. Currently there is a lack of weight gain prevention interventions that can reach large numbers of people. Therefore, we developed an Internet-delivered, computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults. The focus of the intervention was on making small (100 kcal per day), but sustained changes in dietary intake (DI) or physical activity (PA) behaviors in order to maintain current weight or achieve modest weight loss. Self-regulation theory was used as the basis of the intervention. Objective This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the computer-tailored intervention in weight-related anthropometric measures (Body Mass Index, skin folds and waist circumference) and energy balance-related behaviors (physical activity; intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks) in a randomized controlled trial. Methods The tailored intervention (TI) was compared to a generic information website (GI). Participants were 539 overweight adults (mean age 47.8 years, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.04, 30.9% male, 10.7% low educated) who where recruited among the general population and among employees from large companies by means of advertisements and flyers. Anthropometric measurements were measured by trained research assistants at baseline and 6-months post-intervention. DI and PA behaviors were assessed at baseline, 1-month and 6-month post-intervention, using self-reported questionnaires. Results Repeated measurement analyses showed that BMI remained stable over time and that there were no statistically significant differences between the study groups (BMI: TI=28.09, GI=27.61, P=.09). Similar results were found for waist circumference and skin fold thickness. Amount of physical activity increased and intake of fat, snacks and sweetened drinks decreased during the course of the

  9. Apoptosis, proliferation and p53 gene expression of H. pylori associated gastric epithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Hua; Dong, Ming; Wang, Lan; Gong, Yue-Hua

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric carcinoma and its possible pathogenesis by H. pylori. METHODS: DNEL technique and immunohistochemical technique were used to study the state of apoptosis, proliferation and p53 gene expression. A total of 100 gastric mucosal biopsy specimens, including 20 normal mucosa, 30 H. pylori-negative and 30 H. pylori-positive gastric precancerous lesions along with 20 gastric carcinomas were studied. RESULTS: There were several apoptotic cells in the superficial epithelium and a few proliferative cells within the neck of gastric glands, and no p53 protein expression in normal mucosa. In gastric carcinoma, there were few apoptotic cells, while there were a large number of proliferative cells, and expression of p53 protein significantly was increased. In the phase of metaplasia, the apoptotic index (AI, 4.36% ± 1.95%), proliferative index (PI, 19.11% ± 6. 79%) and positivity of p53 expression (46.7%) in H. pylori-positive group were higher than those in normal mucosa (P < 0.01). AI in H. pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (3.81% ± 1.76%), PI in H. pylori-positive group was higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (12.25% ± 5.63%, P < 0.01). In the phase of dysplasia, AI (2.31% ± 1.10%) in H. pylori-positive group was lower (3.05% ± 1.29%) than that in H. pylori-negative group, but PI (33.89% ± 11.65%) was significantly higher (22.09% ± 80.18%, P < 0.01). In phases of metaplasia, dysplasia and gastric cancer in the H. pylori-positive group, AIs had an evidently graduall decreasing trend (P < 0.01), while PIs had an evidently gradual increasing trend (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and there was also a trend of gradual increase in the expression of p53 gene. CONCLUSION: In the course of the formation of gastric carcinoma, proliferation of gastric mucosa can be greatly increased by H. pylori, and H. pylori can induce apoptosis in the phase of metaplasia, but

  10. The Clinical Evidence Linking Helicobacter pylori to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Steven F

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer. Based largely on randomized studies in high gastric cancer prevalence regions in East Asia, it appears that primary and tertiary intervention to eradicate H pylori can halve the risk of gastric cancer. Some public health authorities now are starting screening and treatment programs to reduce the burden of gastric cancer in these high-risk areas. However, there is currently much less enthusiasm for initiating similar attempts in the United States. This is partially because gastric cancer is a relatively less frequent cause of cancer in the United States, and in addition there are concerns about theoretical downsides of H pylori eradication, principally because of the consistent inverse relationship noted between H pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, establishing a link between chronic H pylori infection and gastric cancer has led to novel insights into cancer biology, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and on individual and population-based gastric cancer prevention strategies.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system. PMID:28287480

  12. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-03-11

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system.

  13. Individual and combined effects of foods on Helicobacter pylori growth.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jacqueline I; Salm, Nina; Hampton, Mark B; Wallace, Alison J

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of H. pylori can reduce the risk of non-cardia gastric cancer developing in infected humans. Thus, the consumption of foods that inhibit the growth of these bacteria may provide an alternative to current therapies that include antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and/or bismuth salts. This study describes a simple broth dilution assay developed to screen a range of foods for their individual and combined effects on H. pylori growth. It was found that foods with measurable anti-H. pylori activity have an effect greater in combination than the sum of foods tested singly, and that this was most noticeable with a combination of broccoli sprouts and blackcurrant oil. The results suggest that food synergy should be considered in any nutraceutical approach to H. pylori infection.

  14. Helicobacter Pylory infection in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poyrazoglu, Omer Bilgehan; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common esophageal diseases in the developing world, but the relationship between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection remains a neglected topic. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A second purpose was to determine the incidence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection following esophagectomy. METHOD: The microorganism was identified by testing the gastric biopsy materials from 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients (66 females; 39 were esophagectomized) for urease activity in a medium containing urea and a power of hydrogen detection reagent and comparing the results with those from a healthy population. Differences in patient characteristics were assessed with chi-square tests and t-tests for categorical and continuous factors, respectively. RESULTS: The patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had a significantly lower prevalence of Helicobacter pylori compared with the healthy population (p<0.001). The naive and esophagectomized patients, in contrast, showed no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori infection (p>0.005). Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma showed a significant association between leukocytosis and hypoglobulinemia and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.023 and p=0.045, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Helicobacter pylori is not an etiological factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between esophageal squamous cell cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. These findings may guide new strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy. PMID:28355360

  15. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  16. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  17. Allergies, Helicobacter pylori and the continental enigmas.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is known to be associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and is also a strong risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and lymphoma of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ordinarily, this should make a strong case for its eradication at par with any other infectious disease. However, the unique biology of H. pylori and the complexity of its interactions with humans, its only known natural host, do not permit the recommendation of unambiguous preventive and therapeutic measures. Moreover, this organism has co-evolved with humans as a practically universal member of the natural gastric microbiota over at least 100,000 years. H. pylori persists for a lifetime in mostly asymptomatic hosts, and causes clinical disease only in a minority of infections. Therefore, its potential contribution to the maintenance of human immune homeostasis, as is the case with the better-studied members of the intestinal microbiota, is certainly worthy of serious investigation. In this paper, we summarize some interesting and often anecdotal data drawn from recent studies, and examine their significance in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. We also examine whether the lower incidence of gastric cancer over large parts of the world in spite of a high prevalence of infection (the Asian and African enigmas) may be re-interpreted in terms of the hygiene hypothesis. Finally, it is suggested that an evolutionary-ecological approach to the study of H. pylori infection may help in the formulation of strategies for the management of this infection. This may well be an infectious disease wherein medical interventions may have to be personalized to ensure optimal outcomes.

  18. Statin Decreases Helicobacter pylori Burden in Macrophages by Promoting Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Huang, Mei-Zi; Wang, Michelle Lily; Lin, Chun-Jung; Lu, Tzu-Li; Lo, Horng-Ren; Pan, Yi-Jiun; Sun, Yu-Chen; Kao, Min-Chuan; Lim, Hui-Jing; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been found to provide protective effects against several bacterial infectious diseases. Although the use of statins has been shown to enhance antimicrobial treated Helicobacter pylori eradication and reduce H. pylori-mediated inflammation, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In this study, in vitro and ex vivo macrophage models were established to investigate the molecular pathways involved in statin-mediated inhibition of H. pylori-induced inflammation. Our study showed that statin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular H. pylori burden in both RAW264.7 macrophage cells and murine peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). Furthermore, statin yielded enhanced early endosome maturation and subsequent activation of the autophagy pathway, which promotes lysosomal fusion resulting in degradation of sequestered bacteria, and in turn attenuates interleukin (IL)-1β production. These results indicate that statin not only reduces cellular cholesterol but also decreases the H. pylori burden in macrophages by promoting autophagy, consequently alleviating H. pylori-induced inflammation. PMID:28144585

  19. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and vomiting induced by gastrointestinal cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiwei; Ji, Chushu; He, Yifu; Pan, Yueyin

    2017-07-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most common adverse reactions to chemotherapy. To discuss the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). A total of 112 patients with malignant tumours of the gastrointestinal tract was selected. Based on the 14C-urea breath test results, the patients were divided into H. pylori-positive (n = 59) and H. pylori-negative (n = 53) groups. Both groups received prophylactic antiemetic treatment during chemotherapy. The incidence of nausea and vomiting and their effects on the patients' life functions was recorded using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) Antiemetic Tool (MAT) and the Functional Living Index Emesis (FLIE) from 0-120 h after chemotherapy. Records of the H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups were compared. The rates of nausea and vomiting remission were higher in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group. The proportions of no effect in daily life (NIDL) patients in the nausea and vomiting section were 73.4 and 75.5% in the H. pylori -negative group respectively. There was a higher proportion of NIDL patients in the H. pylori -negative group than in the H. pylori -positive group (P < 0.001, P = 0.046). A multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, and the results showed that H. pylori infection was a factor affecting the nausea scores on the FLIE (odds ratio = 0.757, 95% confidence interval 0.597-0.960, P = 0.021). H. pylori infection in patients with cancer may be a factor that increases CINV. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Immunobiological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins.

    PubMed Central

    Tufano, M A; Rossano, F; Catalanotti, P; Liguori, G; Capasso, C; Ceccarelli, M T; Marinelli, P

    1994-01-01

    Studies were carried out on some biological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins in vitro. We extracted and purified a porin with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with H. pylori porins showed a decrease of chemotaxis, of adherence to nylon wool, and of chemiluminescence. Used as chemotaxins in place of zymosan-activated serum or as chemotaxinogens in place of zymosan, the porins induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration. Human monocytes and lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of H. pylori porins released cytokines. Release of the various cytokines studied was obtained with differentiated kinetics and at various porin concentrations. Starting only 3 h after culture, tumor necrosis factor alpha is released quickly, reaching a peak at 18 h, at a porin concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) appears later, with a peak at 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells. Lymphocytes stimulated by H. pylori porins release gamma interferon after 18 h of culture at higher concentrations of porins (20 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is released from 6 to 48 h at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, while both IL-3 and IL-4 are released after 18 h of culture at different porin concentrations (0.1 and 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, respectively). Our results lead us to think that during H. pylori infection, surface components, porins in particular, are able to induce a series of chain reactions ranging from the inflammatory to the immunological responses. Images PMID:8132346

  1. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  2. Dynamic Changes in Helicobacter pylori Status Following Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kichul; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Jong-Chan; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori eradication is recommended in patients with early gastric cancer. However, the possibility of spontaneous regression raises a question for clinicians about the need for “retesting” postoperative H. pylori status. Methods Patients who underwent curative gastrectomy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and had a positive H. pylori status without eradication therapy at the time of gastric cancer diagnosis were prospectively enrolled in this study. H. pylori status and atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) histologic status were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Results One hundred forty patients (mean age, 59.0 years; 60.7% male) underwent subtotal gastrectomy with B-I (65.0%), B-II (27.1%), Roux-en-Y (4.3%), jejunal interposition (0.7%), or proximal gastrectomy (4.3%). Preoperative presence of AG (62.9%) and IM (72.9%) was confirmed. The mean period between surgery and the last endoscopic follow-up was 38.0±25.6 months. Of the 140 patients, 80 (57.1%) were found to be persistently positive for H. pylori, and 60 (42.9%) showed spontaneous negative conversion at least once during follow-up. Of these 60 patients, eight (13.3%) showed more complex postoperative dynamic changes between negative and positive results. The spontaneous negative conversion group showed a trend of having more postoperative IM compared to the persistent H. pylori group. Conclusions A high percentage of spontaneous regression and complex dynamic changes in H. pylori status were observed after partial gastrectomy, especially in individuals with postoperative histological IM. It is better to consider postoperative eradication therapy after retesting for H. pylori. PMID:27840366

  3. Helicobacter pylori-induced lymphonodular hyperplasia: a new cause of gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Misra, S P; Misra, V; Dwivedi, M; Singh, P A

    1998-12-01

    A 30-year-old female was seen with symptoms and radiological evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. Endoscopic examination revealed findings suggestive of gastric outlet obstruction with nodularity of the antral mucosa leading to deformity of the pylorus. Endoscopic biopsies from the nodular antral mucosa showed presence of Helicobacter pylori-induced lymphonodular hyperplasia without evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Anti-H. pylori therapy resulted in eradication of the H. pylori infection and the signs and symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. The case demonstrates that H. pylori-induced lymphonodular hyperplasia can also cause gastric outlet obstruction. We believe this is the first such case to be reported.

  4. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity.

  5. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in saliva demonstrated by a novel PCR assay.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Musich, P R; Ha, T; Ferguson, D A; Patel, N R; Chi, D S; Thomas, E

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the saliva of patients infected with this bacterium. METHODS--A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect H pylori in saliva and gastric biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. RESULTS--Our PCR assay amplified a 417 base pair fragment of DNA from all 21 DNAs derived from H pylori clinical isolates but did not amplify DNA from 23 non-H pylori strains. Sixty three frozen gastric biopsy and 56 saliva specimens were tested. H pylori specific DNA was detected by PCR in all 39 culture positive biopsy specimens and was also identified from another seven biopsy specimens which were negative by culture but positive by histology. H pylori specific DNA was identified by PCR in saliva specimens from 30 (75%) of 40 patients with H pylori infection demonstrated by culture or histological examination, or both, and in three patients without H pylori infection in the stomach. CONCLUSION--The results indicate that the oral cavity harbours H pylori and may be the source of infection and transmission. Images PMID:7560176

  6. The Clinical Correlations of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Hsu, Ping-I; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Keng-Liang; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Ho, Ji-Chen; Chen, Wen-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Study Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) remains controversial. This study explored the role of H. pylori in CSU among different virulent genotypes patients. Patients and Methods. Patients infected by H. pylori were sorted into two groups as group A (with CSU) and group B (without CSU). The tissue materials were taken via endoscopy for polymerase chain reaction study to determine virulence factors. After H. pylori eradication therapy, the eradication rate and response of urticaria were evaluated by using C13-UBT and a three-point scale (complete remission, partial remission, or no improvement). Results. The results were comparable between patients of groups A and B in terms of H. pylori infection rates and eradication rate. Longitudinal follow-up of 23.5 months showed complete remission of urticaria in 63.6% but no improvement in 36.4% of the patients after H. pylori eradication. H. pylori infected patients with different virulence factors such as cytotoxin-associated gene A, vacuolating cytotoxin gene A signal region and middle region have similar remission rates for CSU. Conclusions. Current study suggests that H. pylori may play a role in the development and disease course of CSU but may be irrelevant to different virulent genotypes. PMID:23956739

  7. Alterations in metabolic pathways in stomach of mice infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Numerous studies of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been performed, but few studies have evaluated the effects of H. pylori infections using metabolome analysis, which involves the comprehensive study of low molecular weight metabolites. In this study, the metabolites in the stomach tissue of mice that had been infected with H. pylori SS1 for 1, 3, or 6 months were analyzed, and then evaluations of various metabolic pathways were performed to gain novel understandings of H. pylori infections. As a result, it was found that the glycolytic pathway, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the choline pathway tended to be upregulated at 1 month after the H. pylori SS1 infection. The urea cycle tended to be downregulated at 6 months after the infection. High levels of some amino acids were observed in the stomach tissue of the H. pylori SS1-infected mice at 1 month after the infection, whereas low levels of many amino acids were detected at 3 and 6 months after the infection. These results suggest that H. pylori infection causes various metabolic alterations at lesional sites, and these alterations might be linked to the crosstalk between H. pylori and the host leading to transition of disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Early apoptosis of monocytes induced by Helicobacter pylori infection through multiple pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Zhao, Huilin; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Li, Boqing

    2017-08-01

    Only a small percentage of people infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) will develop overt chronic gastric diseases. To understand the pathological mechanism, the action of H. pylori on monocyte apoptosis was detected. H. pylori co-culturing with peripheral blood monocytes, THP-1 or U937 cells result in early apoptosis at 6, 12, and 24 h after infection. The phosphorylated Bad and JNK were increased, and Bcl-2 was declined at 6, 12, and 24 h in peripheral blood monocytes after H. pylori infection. The phosphorylated Akt was augmented at 6 and 12 h post-infection. A slow apoptotic response was induced by H. pylori via Bad and Bcl-2 regulators, activated caspase-8 and caspase-9, and JNK at 24 h in THP-1 cells. Meanwhile, only Bad and JNK were involved in regulating U937 cells apoptosis at 24 h after infection. These results supported a novel mechanism of H. pylori escaping from monocytes by upregulation of early apoptosis and inhibition of late apoptosis. The differences among the three cells may reveal why H. pylori-derived disease occurs in relatively few people and provide a pathological mechanism whereby a treatment for H. pylori-derived disease may be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. "Social dangerousness and incurability in schizophrenia": results of an educational intervention for medical and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Oliviero, Nicoletta; D'Ambrosio, Antonio; Campitiello, Federica; Zaccaro, Antonella; Guizzaro, Lorenzo; Patalano, Melania

    2014-11-30

    This study explored the influence of an educational intervention addressing common prejudices and scientific evidence about schizophrenia on medical and psychology students' views of this disorder. The intervention--consisting in two three-hour lessons with an interval of a week between--was run at first for medical students and then for psychology students. Participants' views of schizophrenia were assessed at baseline vs. at post intervention by matched questionnaires. At medical school, participation was voluntary and also included a six-month online re-assessment, while at psychology school, participation was mandatory. A total of 211 students attended the educational initiative. At post intervention assessment, students more frequently mentioned psychosocial causes of schizophrenia, and more firmly believed that recovery in schizophrenia is possible and that persons with this disorder are not unpredictable and dangerous vs. their baseline assessment. The online six-month assessment confirmed favourable changes in medical students' views found at post intervention. These results confirm that an educational intervention including personal experiences and scientific evidence can be successful in reducing students' prejudices toward persons with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Improving Colorectal Cancer Screening in Asian Americans: Results of a Randomized Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Lin, Frances Lee; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Mori, Motomi; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Le, TD; Lieberman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test, using a randomized controlled trial design, the impact of an educational intervention delivered by specially trained community health workers among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese participants aged 50–75 on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and intention regarding colorectal cancer screening. Methods We collected baseline data on participants’ baseline demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about cancer, its risk factors and intention to keep up-to-date on cancer screening in the future. Fifteen intervention sessions were held between April and June of 2011. Follow-up surveys were administered in the post-test period to both intervention and control participants. Those randomized to the control group received educational pamphlets in their native language. Results The intervention had the greatest influence on the Chinese subgroup, which had improved scores relative to the control group for Perceived Behavior Control and Intentions (pre- vs. post- change in control group −0.16; change in intervention group 0.11, p=0.004), Behavioral Beliefs on Cancer Screening (pre- vs. post- change in control group −0.06; change in intervention group 0.24, p=0.0001), and for Attitudes Toward Behavior (pre- vs. post- change in control group −0.24; change in intervention group 0.35, p=<0.0001). The intervention had no effect on Behavioral Beliefs on Cancer, Control Beliefs, and Perceived Behavioral Control (Reliance on Family). Though intention to stay up-to-date for cancer screening increased in two study groups (Chinese and Vietnamese), these were not significant. Conclusions An educational program delivered by culturally specific community health educators using culturally appropriate language influences some knowledge, attitude and behavioral beliefs but not others. PMID:24595714

  11. A community intervention reduces BMI z-score in children: Shape Up Somerville first year results.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina D; Hyatt, Raymond R; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Must, Aviva; Naumova, Elena N; Collins, Jessica J; Nelson, Miriam E

    2007-05-01

    The objective was to test the hypothesis that a community-based environmental change intervention could prevent weight gain in young children (7.6 +/- 1.0 years). A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three culturally diverse urban cities in Massachusetts. Somerville was the intervention community; two socio-demographically-matched cities were control communities. Children (n = 1178) in grades 1 to 3 attending public elementary schools participated in an intervention designed to bring the energy equation into balance by increasing physical activity options and availability of healthful foods within the before-, during-, after-school, home, and community environments. Many groups and individuals within the community (including children, parents, teachers, school food service providers, city departments, policy makers, healthcare providers, before- and after-school programs, restaurants, and the media) were engaged in the intervention. The main outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. At baseline, 44% (n = 385), 36% (n = 561), and 43% (n = 232) of children were above the 85th percentile for BMI z-score in the intervention and the two control communities, respectively. In the intervention community, BMI z-score decreased by -0.1005 (p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval, -0.1151 to -0.0859) compared with children in the control communities after controlling for baseline covariates. A community-based environmental change intervention decreased BMI z-score in children at high risk for obesity. These results are significant given the obesigenic environmental backdrop against which the intervention occurred. This model demonstrates promise for communities throughout the country confronted with escalating childhood obesity rates.

  12. Low-sodium diet self-management intervention in heart failure: pilot study results

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Darlene; Lennie, Terry A; Marcinek, Regina; Biddle, Martha J; Abshire, Demetrius; Bentley, Brooke; Moser, Debra K

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-care management of a low-sodium diet is a critical component of comprehensive heart failure (HF) treatment. Aims The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention on reducing the dietary sodium intake of patients with HF. Secondary purposes were to examine the effects of the intervention on attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control towards following a low-sodium diet. Methods This was a randomized clinical trial of an educational intervention based on The Theory of Planned Behavior. Patients were randomized to either a usual care (n=25) or intervention group (n=27) with data collection at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention group received low-sodium diet instructions and the usual care group received no dietary instructions. Nutrition Data Systems-Research software was used to identify the sodium content of foods on food diaries. Attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control were measured using the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire. Results Analysis of covariance (between-subjects effects) revealed that dietary sodium intake did not differ between usual care and intervention groups at 6 weeks; however, dietary sodium intake was lower in the intervention group (F=7.3, df=1,29, p=0.01) at 6 months. Attitudes subscale scores were higher in the intervention group at 6 weeks (F=7.6, df=1, 38, p<0.01). Conclusion Carefully designed educational programmes have the potential to produce desired patient outcomes such as low-sodium diet adherence in patients with heart failure. PMID:22492785

  13. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world’s population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori’s avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

  14. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07-1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78-12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68-0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73-16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51-16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan.

  15. Oligonucleotide probe for detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, M; Hoshina, S; Green, P; Neu, H C; LoGerfo, P; Watanabe, I; Mutai, M; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a novel and practical DNA-RNA hybridization assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. This technique utilizes a [32P]ddATP-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a nucleotide sequence present in C. pylori 16S rRNA. This probe is very sensitive and reacted with all 23 strains of C. pylori tested. It is also highly specific, since there was no cross-reactivity with the heterologous organisms Campylobacter coli, C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni, and C. laridis or with Escherichia coli. Hybridization of the oligonucleotide probe with C. pylori RNA was completely inhibited by treatment of the membrane filters with RNase but not DNase. Although a gastric mucosa tissue homogenate slightly inhibited the hybridization, as few as 10(4) C. pylori cells could be detected even in the presence of 5 mg of gastric mucosa. Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from patients referred for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were tested for C. pylori infection by direct oligonucleotide hybridization, and the results were compared with those of bacteriological cultures, the urease test, and histological observations. A comparison of the urease test and the oligonucleotide hybridization results showed an excellent correlation between the two methods. The clinical usefulness of this oligonucleotide-RNA hybridization method is discussed. Images PMID:2480360

  16. A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. Methods During year 1 (2009–2010), parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010–2011), parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1) revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI); (2) a communication campaign to raise parents’ awareness of their child’s weight status; (3) the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4) a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents’ communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2–5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Results Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake). Trends were observed

  17. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on chronic periodontitis by the change of microecology and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhekai; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuedi; Kang, Wenyan; Han, Yingnan; Geng, Xiwen; Ge, Shaohua; Sun, Yundong

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a pathogen inducing peptic disease, is recently found to be binding to the progress of periodontitis. Most previous studies are case-controlled, and they investigate the risk of H. pylori infection in disease the development of while few studies evaluate the correlation between H. pylori and periodontal pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between H. pylori infection with periodontal parameters, periodontal pathogens and inflammation. The results indicated that patients with H. pylori showed significantly higher probing depth and attachment loss than those without (p < 0.05). Among 28 subgingival plaque samples from 14 patients, the frequencies of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola were significantly higher with H. pylori infection than those without H. pylori infection (p < 0.05). However, the frequency of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, after human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was stimulated with cagA-positive standard strains (cagA+ H. pylori 26695), the expression of periodontitis-related molecules Wnt5a, interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) significantly increased (p < 0.05). Conversely, the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was almost stable. Meanwhile, cagA+ H. pylori promoted significantly higher expression of IL-8 and Wnt5a than isogenic cagA mutants strains (cagA− H. pylori 26695) did. Taken together, our data suggested that H. pylori might promote the growth of some periodontal pathogens and aggravate the progress of chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602578

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection decreases metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuxin; Sun, Jiao; Wang, Xingsi; Tao, Xiaoming; Wang, Haidong; Tan, Wen

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed whether Helicobacter pylori infection could influence metformin tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Demographic, anthropometric, ultrasound, and laboratory data were obtained from 415 metformin-naive patients with diabetes. H. pylori infection was assessed based on the (13)C-labeled urea breath test ((13)C-UBT). The study duration was 4 weeks, and all subjects started metformin from 500 mg/day to 1,500 mg/day progressively. Gastrointestinal side effects were assessed each week, and the metformin doses were adjusted by the compliance. Gastrointestinal side effects were compared between H. pylori-positive and -negative groups. According to the (13)C-UBT results, 220 patients were categorized as H. pylori negative versus 195 as H. pylori positive. At baseline, the scoring of gastrointestinal symptoms showed no statistical difference between the two groups. After 4 weeks, for gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and anorexia, the respective percentages in H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects were 44.6% versus 21.8% (P < 0.01), 20.0% versus 9.6% (P < 0.01), 47.7% versus 23.2% (P < 0.01), and 32.8% versus 12.3% (P < 0.01). The final metformin dose was 951.28 ± 661.1 mg in H. pylori-positive subjects, significantly less than that in H. pylori-negative subjects (1,209.09 ± 522.91 mg) (P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, female gender, H. pylori infection, body mass index, triglycerides, age, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were the independent parameters associated with any gastrointestinal symptoms. Patients with diabetes having H. pylori infection demonstrated more gastrointestinal side effects than those without H. pylori infection after taking metformin. Furthermore, female gender, H. pylori infection, body mass index, triglycerides, age, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol are independent determinants of metformin's side effects.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Krishna, Uma; Hobbs, Stuart S.; Dempsey, Peter J.; Peek, Richard M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Helicobacter pylori infection disrupts the balance between gastric epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, which is likely to lower the threshold for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection is associated with EGF receptor (EGFR) activation through metalloproteinase-dependent release of EGFR ligands in gastric epithelial cells. Since EGFR signaling regulates cell survival, we investigated whether activation of EGFR following H. pylori infection promotes gastric epithelial survival. Methods Mouse conditionally immortalized stomach epithelial cells (ImSt) and AGS cells, as well as wild-type and kinase-defective EGFR (EGFRwa2) mice, were infected with the H. pylori cag+ strain 7.13. Apoptosis, caspase activity, EGFR activation (phosphorylation) and EGFR downstream targets were analyzed. Results Inhibiting EGFR kinase activity or decreasing EGFR expression significantly increased H. pylori-induced apoptosis in ImSt. Blocking H. pylori-induced EGFR activation with a heparin-binding (HB)-EGF neutralizing antibody or abrogating a disintegrin and matrix metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM-17) expression increased apoptosis of H. pylori-infected AGS and ImSt, respectively. Conversely, pretreatment of ImSt with HB-EGF completely blocked H. pylori-induced apoptosis. H. pylori infection stimulated gastric epithelial cell apoptosis in EGFRwa2, but not in wild-type mice. Furthermore, H. pylori-induced EGFR phosphorylation stimulated PI3K-depnedent activation of the anti-apoptotic factor Akt, increased expression of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, and decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax. Conclusions EGFR activation by H. pylori infection has an anti-apoptotic effect in gastric epithelial cells that appears to involve Akt signaling and Bcl family members. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of H. pylori-associated tumorigenesis. PMID:19250983

  20. Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Farzad; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Hosseini, Elham; Akbari, Mojtaba; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogenic bacterium that colonizes the stomachs of approximately 50% of the world’s population. Resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics is considered as the main reason for the failure to eradicate this bacterium. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of resistant H. pylori strains to various antimicrobial agents in different areas of Iran. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of literatures on H. pylori antibiotic resistance in Iran was performed within the time span of 1997 to 2013. Data obtained from various studies were tabulated as following, 1) year of research and number strains tested, 2) number of H. pylori positive patients, 3) study place, 4) resistance of H. pylori to various antibiotics as percentage, and 5) methods used for evaluation of antibiotic resistance. Results: Over the period, a total of 21 studies on H. pylori antibiotic resistance have been conducted in different parts of Iran. In these studies, H. pylori resistance to various antibiotics, including metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and furazolidone were 61.6%, 22.4%, 16.0%, 12.2%, 21.0%, 5.3% and 21.6%, respectively. We found no study on H. pylori resistance to rifabutin in Iran. Conclusion: Compared to the global average, we noted that the prevalence of H. pylori resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline has been rapidly growing in Iran. This study showed that in order to determine an appropriate drug regimen against H. pylori, information on antibiotic susceptibility of the bacterium within different geographical areas of Iran is required. PMID:25810869

  1. Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: an idea for how to live in peace.

    PubMed

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2014-08-07

    In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the "persistence mechanisms" of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria "invisible" to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts.

  2. Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: An idea for how to live in peace

    PubMed Central

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the “persistence mechanisms” of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria “invisible” to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

  3. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  4. Human gastric mucins differently regulate Helicobacter pylori proliferation, gene expression and interactions with host cells.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Emma C; Sjöling, Åsa; Navabi, Nazanin; Holgersson, Jan; Lundin, Samuel B; Lindén, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA) appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.

  5. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  6. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  7. Burnout hazard in teachers results of a clinical-psychological intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The study investigates whether established in-patient therapy for teachers with burnout results in long-acting success and whether gender gaps and differences between teachers of different school levels exist. According to our knowledge, our study is the most extensive inpatient intervention study on the burnout of a defined occupational group, i.e., teachers. Methods 200 teachers participated, 150 took part in a later performed katamnestic survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used and work-related data were recorded. The days of incapacity for work and the percentage of teachers endangered by burnout decreased, which supports the long-term success of the treatment. Results Significant differences between males and females and between teacher levels were found. However, the differences between teacher levels only showed up before treatment. Because males only underwent treatment at a more severe stage, further efforts in persuading males to start therapy earlier are needed. Conclusions The proven and long-term success of the performed intervention could have greater effects if people, especially males, undergo treatment more frequently. Our results are based on selectively high proposition of teachers of advanced age. Thus it is possible that the long term effect of the intervention, particularly on retirement age, is greater when the intervention is started earlier. Regular burnout tests could help to identify risk cases among teachers at an early stage and to offer a therapeutic intervention. PMID:22192422

  8. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: from environment to human host.

    PubMed

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and Clostridium difficile in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Yahav, Jacob; Samra, Zmira; Blau, Hannah; Dinari, Gabriel; Chodick, Gabriel; Shmuely, Haim

    2006-12-01

    We describe the prevalence of H. pylori and toxigenic Clostridium difficile (CD) infection and its relationship with gastrointestinal symptoms and pancreatic sufficiency (PS) or insufficiency (PI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Stool specimens from 30 consecutive patients with CF, aged 1-44, and from 30 healthy similarly aged subjects were tested for the H. pylori antigen by specific monoclonal antibodies and for CD toxins by Tox A/B assay and Tox A assay. CF patients were assessed clinically and tested for specific H. pylori serum antibodies and for mutations. In CF patients, the prevalence of H. pylori antigen was 16.6% (5/30), compared to 30% (9/30) in controls. Of the 26 CF patients with PI, only 2 (7.6%) were infected by H. pylori, compared with 3 of the 4 (75%) patients with PS (P=0.001). H. pylori infection was diagnosed in 3 of 5 (60%) CF patients carrying mild mutations, compared to 1 of 25 (4%) CF patients carrying severe mutations (P=0.01). Fourteen of 30 (46.6%) stool specimens from CF patients tested positive in the ToxA/B assay, and 3 of 14 tested positive for ToxA. No significant differences in antibiotic use, severity of lung disease, PI, chronic abdominal pain, or genotype were found between the two groups. None of the controls was positive for CD toxins. Prevalence of H. pylori infection in CF patients was lower than in similarly aged non-CF controls. CF patients with PI or a history of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome and those carrying mutations associated with a severe phenotype were protected against H. pylori infection. Almost half of the CF patients were asymptomatic carriers of CD producing mostly toxin B. More studies are needed to confirm our results in a larger group of CF patients.

  10. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: From environment to human host

    PubMed Central

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems. PMID:24914322

  11. Relatedness of Helicobacter pylori populations to gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Wang, Li-Li; Xin, Yong-Ning; Jiang, Man; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the human population. The infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcers. It is also a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Phylogenetic analysis of global strains reveals there are seven populations of H. pylori, including hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpEastAsia, hpEurope, hpNEAfrica, hpAsia2 and hpSahul. These populations are consistent with their geographical origins, and possibly result from geographical separation of the bacterium leading to reduced bacterial recombination in some populations. For each population, H. pylori has evolved to possess genomic contents distinguishable from others. The hpEurope population is distinct in that it has the largest genome of 1.65 mbp on average, and the highest number of coding sequences. This confers its competitive advantage over other populations but at the cost of a lower infection rate. The large genomic size could be a cause of the frequent occurrence of the deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in H. pylori strains from hpEurope. The incidence of gastric cancer varies among different geographical regions. This can be attributed in part to different rates of infection of H. pylori. Recent studies found that different populations of H. pylori vary in their carcinogenic potential and contribute to the variation in incidence of gastric cancer among geographical regions. This could be related to the ancestral origin of H. pylori. Further studies are indicated to investigate the bacterial factors contributing to differential virulence and their influence on the clinical features in infected individuals. PMID:23236231

  12. Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88–116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43–56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36–52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya. PMID:22589724

  13. Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Sexton, Rachael; Thompson, Kathryn C; Osorio, Soledad; Reyes, Italo Novoa; Crowley, John J; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gastric carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer mortality in Peru. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, is a Group 1 carcinogen due to its causal relationship to gastric carcinoma. While eradication of H. pylori can help prevent gastric cancer, characterizing regional antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to determine targeted treatment for each region. Thus, we examined primary antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with histologically proven H. pylori infection. Primary antibiotic resistance among isolates was examined using E-test strips. Isolates were examined for the presence of the cagA pathogenicity island and the vacA m1/m2 alleles via polymerase chain reaction. Results Seventy-six isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies. Clinical isolates showed evidence of antibiotic resistance to 1 (27.6%, n=21/76), 2 (28.9%, n=22/76), or ≥3 antibiotics (40.8%). Of 76 isolates, eight (10.5%) were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin, which are part of the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection. No trends were seen between the presence of cagA, vacA m1, or vacA m2 and antibiotic resistance. Conclusion The rate of antibiotic resistance among H. pylori isolates in Lima, Peru, is higher than expected and presents cause for concern. To develop more targeted eradication therapies for H. pylori in Peru, more research is needed to better characterize antibiotic resistance among a larger number of clinical isolates prospectively. PMID:28331349

  14. Prevalence and treatment of Helicobacter pylori in patients with blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Pascotto, Antonio; Venturino, Gian Maria; Prigione, Guido; Mastromarino, Antonio; Baldi, Franco; Bilardi, Claudio; Savarino, Vincenzo; Brusati, Carlo; Rebora, Alfredo

    2006-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major pathogen etiologically associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and primary gastric lymphoma. This study was conducted to investigate a possible association between Helicobacter pylori infection and blepharitis. Two hundred fifty consecutive patients with symptomatic blepharitis and 250 control subjects without blepharitis symptoms were evaluated. After exclusions, the blepharitis group consisted of 186 patients with blepharitis and a control group of 215 patients. Blepharitis was diagnosed on the basis of findings in ophthalmic and dermatologic examinations. All patients underwent a 13C-urea breath test (UBT) to detect H. pylori infection, and impression cytology was performed before and after eradication therapy. The follow-up period was 4 months +/- 28 days. The blepharitis group showed an H. pylori infection prevalence of approximately 76.3% (UBT-positive group with blepharitis: n = 142 patients), compared with 42.3% of the control group (UBT-positive group with blepharitis [although asymptomatic]: n = 66 patients; UBT-positive group without blepharitis: n = 25 patients). Furthermore, we observed blepharitis in 30.6% (n = 66 patients) of UBT-positive control subjects and 13.4% (n = 29 patients) of UBT-negative control subjects. Impression cytology revealed that blepharitis was more severe in UBT-positive patients than in negative ones, and a clinical improvement in blepharitis was noted in approximately 50% of patients after H. pylori eradication. Even though possible sources of error in defining the association of two highly prevalent conditions must be considered, the data seem to validate an association between H. pylori infection and blepharitis, but may not be indicative of a causal association. Eradication of H. pylori improved ocular cytology results. It is possible that chronic blepharitis is an extradigestive manifestation of H. pylori infection.

  15. Helicobacter pylori Antigens Inducing Early Immune Response in Infants.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji Hyun; Youn, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Eun A; Jun, Jin Su; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae Young; Woo, Hyang Ok; Youn, Hee Shang; Ko, Gyung Hyuck; Park, Jin Sik; Baik, Seung Chul; Lee, Woo Kon; Cho, Myung Je; Rhee, Kwang Ho

    2017-07-01

    To identify the Helicobacter pylori antigens operating during early infection in sera from infected infants using proteomics and immunoblot analysis. Two-dimensional (2D) large and small gel electrophoresis was performed using H. pylori strain 51. We performed 2D immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody immunoblotting using small gels on sera collected at the Gyeongsang National University Hospital from 4-11-month-old infants confirmed with H. pylori infection by pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoblot spots appearing to represent early infection markers in infant sera were compared to those of the large 2D gel for H. pylori strain 51. Corresponding spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The peptide fingerprints obtained were searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. Eight infant patients were confirmed with H. pylori infection based on urease tests, histopathologic examinations, and pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy. One infant showed a 2D IgM immunoblot pattern that seemed to represent early infection. Immunoblot spots were compared with those from whole-cell extracts of H. pylori strain 51 and 18 spots were excised, digested in gel, and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS. Of the 10 peptide fingerprints obtained, the H. pylori proteins flagellin A (FlaA), urease β subunit (UreB), pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), and translation elongation factor Ts (EF-Ts) were identified and appeared to be active during the early infection periods. These results might aid identification of serological markers for the serodiagnosis of early H. pylori infection in infants. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M; Li, Kaigang; Kranz, Sibylle; Lawson, Hal A

    2013-01-05

    Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. During year 1 (2009-2010), parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010-2011), parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1) revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI); (2) a communication campaign to raise parents' awareness of their child's weight status; (3) the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4) a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents' communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2-5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake). Trends were observed for BMI z-score, sedentary activity

  17. Synthesis and bioevaluation of novel 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylbenzimidazole derivatives that inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced pathogenesis in human gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Shiang; Liu, Ju-Fang; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Lin, Chia-Der; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Sing, Yu-Ting; Chen, Li-Yu; Kao, Min-Chuan; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2012-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and even gastric malignancy. H. pylori's antibiotic resistance is the major obstacle preventing its eradication. A series of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylbenzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-H. pylori activity. The compound, 2-fluorophenyl-5-methyl-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)benzimidazole (FMTMB), was determined as the most potent in the inhibition of H. pylori growth and pathogenesis of host cells. An in vitro H. pylori infection model revealed that FMTMB inhibited H. pylori adhesion and invasion of gastric epithelial cells. Results from this study provide evidence that FMTMB is a potent therapeutic agent that exhibits both anti-H. pylori growth properties and anti-H. pylori-induced pathogenesis of cells.

  18. Work-life balance among shift workers: results from an intervention study about self-rostering.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Karen; Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Ase Marie; Lund, Henrik; Hvid, Helge

    2014-04-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the effects of the implementation of IT-based tools for planning of rosters among shift workers on work-family-related outcomes and to interpret the results in light of the different implementation processes. A quasi-experimental intervention study was conducted with 12-month follow-up at 14 intervention and 14 reference worksites in Denmark. Workplaces planning to introduce IT-supported self-rostering were recruited, and three different kinds of interventions were implemented. Intervention A and B aimed at increasing workers satisfaction and well-being, while intervention C was designed to optimize the personnel resources. Questionnaire data were collected from 840 employees at baseline and 784 at follow-up. Process evaluation encompassed interviews with about 25 employees and 15 managers at baseline and follow-up. Work-family-related outcomes were work-life conflicts, work-life facilitation, marital conflicts and time with children. An overall decline in work-family conflicts and increase in work-family facilitation were found in the total intervention group. More specifically, in group B, work-family conflicts and marital conflicts decreased while work-family facilitation increased. In group C, work-family conflicts increased while work-family facilitation and time spend with children decreased, and no significant changes were observed in the reference group and in group A. An overall positive effect of the implementation of self-rostering was found on the balance between work and private life. However, results from the process evaluation suggested that the organizational aim with the intervention was crucial for the effect.

  19. Immunization with Recombinant Helicobacter pylori Urease in Specific-Pathogen-Free Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Solnick, Jay V.; Canfield, Don R.; Hansen, Lori M.; Torabian, Sima Z.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with urease can protect mice from challenge with Helicobacter pylori, though results vary depending on the particular vaccine, challenge strain, and method of evaluation. Unlike mice, rhesus monkeys are naturally colonized with H. pylori and so may provide a better estimate of vaccine efficacy in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of H. pylori urease as a vaccine in specific-pathogen (H. pylori)-free rhesus monkeys. Monkeys raised from birth and documented to be free of H. pylori were vaccinated with orogastric (n = 4) or intramuscular (n = 5) urease. Two control monkeys were sham vaccinated. All monkeys were challenged with a rhesus monkey-derived strain of H. pylori, and the effects of vaccination were evaluated by use of quantitative cultures of gastric tissue, histology, and measurement of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and salivary IgA. Despite a humoral immune response, all monkeys were infected after H. pylori challenge, and there were no differences in the density of colonization. Immunization with urease therefore does not fully protect against challenge with H. pylori. An effective vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection will require different or more likely additional antigens, as well as improvements in the stimulation of the host immune response. PMID:10768944

  20. Prostate stem cell antigen gene TT genotype and development of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Uotani, Takahiro; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Tanaka, Shingo; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Aim Gastric cancer is etiologically related to interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection, environmental, and host factors. Gastric carcinoma is associated with a cascade of increasing atrophic gastric mucosal damage. Prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. Here, we examined the interaction between prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms and H. pylori in the progression of H. pylori gastritis. Methods Prostate stem cell antigen polymorphisms (TT, TC and CC) among H. pylori infected and uninfected Bhutanese were compared with the severity of H. pylori gastritis (neutrophils, monocytes, atrophy scores, H. pylori density, and the presence and extent of intestinal metaplasia) using the updated Sydney system. Results Biopsies from 339 patients were included. The proportion of biopsies with intestinal metaplasia was also significantly (P<0.05) greater among those with the TT genotype than with either the CT or CC genotype. Despite no significant differences in inflammation or H. pylori density scores, the scores for the premalignant condition, intestinal metaplasia in both the gastric corpus and antrum, among H. pylori infected with the TT genotype was significantly (P <0.05) greater than C allele carriers. Conclusions Prostate stem cell antigen TT genotype was associated with more than a 3-fold increase in the prevalence and extent of gastric mucosal intestinal metaplasia compared to C allele carriers among H. pylori infected Bhutanese. PMID:26706772

  1. Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on severity of psoriasis and response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Onsun, Nahide; Arda Ulusal, Hande; Su, Ozlem; Beycan, Ismet; Biyik Ozkaya, Dilek; Senocak, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. pylori seropositivity in patients with psoriasis, to evaluate the relationship between PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) scores and H. pylori infection, and to assess the impact of H. pylori infection on the response to treatment. A total of 300 patients with psoriasis and 150 non-psoriatic healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patient PASI scores were recorded and H. pylori stool antigen tests performed in both patients and controls. Fifty patients with H. pylori infections were randomly assigned to one of two groups, one of which received acitretin with H. pylori treatment and the other acitretin alone. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and logistic regression tests. PASI scores were significantly higher in patients with H. pylori infections. Treatment aimed at eradicating H. pylori infection enhanced the effectiveness of acitretin therapy and shortened response times. Our results suggest that H. pylori infection plays a role in the severity of psoriasis, and that eradicating such infections enhances the effectiveness of psoriasis treatment.

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection is not associated with failure to thrive: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chi, Hsin; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Ting, Wei-Hsin; Chan, Wai-Tao; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Li, Sung-Tse; Lin, Chao-Hsu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The long-term impact of Helicobacter pylori infection is complex, and concerns about the need for eradication exist. We conducted this case control study to investigate the association between H. pylori infection and failure to thrive (FTT). Patients and methods From January 2009 to December 2011, 53 children with FTT group and matched children with the same sex and age and similar socioeconomic status without FTT (control group) were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered to the parents/guardian, and a 13C-urea breath test was performed to detect H. pylori infection. Results We found that the total prevalence of H. pylori infection was 29.2% and that there was no association between FTT and H. pylori infection (FTT group: 32%; control group: 26.4%; P=0.67). Short stature was more common in the FTT group and abdominal pain in the control group (FTT group: 37.7%; control group: 11.3%; P=0.003). In a comparison between the H. pylori-positive and -negative groups, abdominal pain (87.1% vs 64%; P=0.032) and the frequency of endoscopy (74.2% vs 32%; P<0.001) were significantly more common in the H. pylori-positive group. Conclusion We found that children with H. pylori infection are at an increased risk for abdominal pain and that FTT is not associated with H. pylori infection. The decision for eradication should be evaluated carefully and individualized. PMID:28260914

  3. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  4. Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    O’Mahony, Rachel; Al-Khtheeri, Huda; Weerasekera, Deepaka; Fernando, Neluka; Vaira, Dino; Holton, John; Basset, Christelle

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of 25 plants against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). METHODS: Twenty-five plants were boiled in water to produce aqueous extracts that simulate the effect of cooking. The bactericidal activity of the extracts was assessed by a standard kill-curve with seven strains of H pylori. The anti-adhesive property was assessed by the inhibition of binding of four strains of FITC-labeled H pylori to stomach sections. RESULTS: Of all the plants tested, eight plants, including Bengal quince, nightshade, garlic, dill, black pepper, coriander, fenugreek and black tea, were found to have no bactericidal effect on any of the isolates. Columbo weed, long pepper, parsley, tarragon, nutmeg, yellow-berried nightshade, threadstem carpetweed, sage and cinnamon had bactericidal activities against H pylori, but total inhibition of growth was not achieved in this study. Among the plants that killed H pylori, turmeric was the most efficient, followed by cumin, ginger, chilli, borage, black caraway, oregano and liquorice. Moreover, extracts of turmeric, borage and parsley were able to inhibit the adhesion of H pylori strains to the stomach sections. CONCLUSION: Several plants that were tested in our study had bactericidal and/or anti-adhesive effects on H pylori. Ingestion of the plants with anti-adhesive properties could therefore provide a potent alternative therapy for H pylori infection, which overcomes the problem of resistance associated with current antibiotic treatment. PMID:16437723

  5. Systemic and mucosal humoral responses to Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, J E; Wyatt, J I; Sobala, G M; Miller, G; Tompkins, D S; Primrose, J N; Morgan, A G

    1993-01-01

    The systemic IgG response to Helicobacter pylori was examined in 70 patients with gastric cancer. H pylori IgG antibodies were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and serological recognition of H pylori antigens was characterised by western blotting. A percentage of 78.5 were seropositive by ELISA. Two of five patients under age 50 were seronegative. Positivity was unrelated to age, sex, tumour type, or site. Ninety one per cent of ELISA positive cancer patients recognised the H pylori cytotoxin associated 120 kilodalton (kD) protein, significantly more than a control group of 47 ELISA positive patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (72%). Four of 15 ELISA negative cancer patients also showed recognition of this protein in western blots. Mucosal IgA responses to H pylori were examined by immunoblotting supernatants of in vitro cultured resected antral mucosa in an overlapping group of 19 gastric cancer patients. Eighteen had a positive response, including 10 of 11 negative for H pylori by biopsy urease testing. The systemic and local immunoblotting results show that the high seroprevalence of H pylori antibodies detected by ELISA is nevertheless an underestimate of past infection. Dyspepsia screening policies based solely on H pylori ELISA would miss some young patients with gastric cancer. Further study of the relation of the H pylori cytotoxin to gastric precancerous lesions is warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244098

  6. Characterization of feline Helicobacter pylori strains and associated gastritis in a colony of domestic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Stalis, I H; Rufo, R; Lee, G; Linn, J; Li, X; Kleanthous, H

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young adult domestic cats from a commercial vendor were found to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histopathologic analyses, selected electron microscopy, and urease mapping were performed on mucosal samples collected from the cardias and fundi, bodies, and antra of these cats' stomachs. H. pylori organisms were abundant in all areas of the stomach on the basis of histologic evaluation and urease mapping. H. pylori infection was associated with a moderate to severe lymphofollicular gastritis in 21 of 24 cats (88%). The gastritis was most pronounced in the antral region and consisted mainly of multifocal lymphoplasmacytic follicular infiltrates in the deep mucosa. The severity of gastritis in the antrum corresponded to high numbers of H. pylori there on the basis of the use of the urease assay as an indicator of H. pylori colonization. Ten of 24 cats (42%) also had small to moderate numbers of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. All 24 cats had gastric lymphoid follicles, with follicles being most prevalent in the antrum. Electron microscopy of gastric tissue revealed numerous H. pylori organisms, some of which were closely adhered to the mucosal epithelium. Human H. pylori gene-specific primers to ureA and ureB amplified products of similar sizes from H. pylori cat isolates. Digestion of the products with restriction enzymes resulted in fragments characteristic of the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of H. pylori isolates from humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7494015

  7. cag Pathogenicity island-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in infected patients with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sadeghiani, Marzieh; Bagheri, Nader; Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rashidi, Reza; Mahsa, Majid; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Salimi, Elaheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-07-12

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been involved in the pathogenesis of most important gastroduodenal diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of zincendopeptidases which play important roles in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we examined MMP-7 mRNA levels in the gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection and evaluated the effects of virulence factors, such as vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin-associated gene), in H. pylori-infected patients upon the MMP-7 mRNA mucosal levels. We also determined the correlation between mucosal MMP-7 mRNA levels and the types of disease. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 50 H. pylori-infected patients and 50 uninfected individuals. Mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and non-infected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presences of cagA and vacA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in biopsies of patients infected with H .pylori compared to uninfected individuals. In addition, mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected patients significantly associated with the cagA status and the types of disease. Our results suggest that MMP-7 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. Peptic ulcer was associated with cag pathogenicity island-dependent MMP-7 upregulation.

  8. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. Biofilm formation is critical not only for environmental survival but also for successful infection. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in humans. Some studies demonstrated that this microorganism has biofilm forming ability in the environment and on human gastric mucosa epithelium as well as on in vitro abiotic surfaces. In the environment, H. pylori could be embedded in drinking water biofilms through water distribution system in developed and developing countries so that the drinking water may serve as a reservoir for H. pylori infection. In the human stomach, H. pylori forms biofilms on the surface of gastric mucosa, suggesting one possible explanation for eradication therapy failure. Finally, based on the results of in vitro analyses, H. pylori biofilm formation can decrease susceptibility to antibiotics and H. pylori antibiotic resistance mutations are more frequently generated in biofilms than in planktonic cells. These observations indicated that H. pylori biofilm formation may play an important role in preventing and controlling H. pylori infections. Therefore, investigation of H. pylori biofilm formation could be effective in elucidating the detailed mechanisms of infection and colonization by this microorganism. PMID:26078970

  9. Efflux pump gene hefA of Helicobacter pylori plays an important role in multidrug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether efflux systems contribute to multidrug resistance of H pylori. METHODS: A chloramphenicol-induced multidrug resistance model of six susceptible H pylori strains (5 isolates and H pylori NCTC11637) was developed. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were selected and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of erythromycin, metronidazole, penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin in multidrug resistant strains and their parent strains was determined by agar dilution tests. The level of mRNA expression of hefA was assessed by fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR. A H pylori LZ1026 knockout mutant (ΔH pylori LZ1026) for (putative) efflux protein was constructed by inserting the kanamycin resistance cassette from pEGFP-N2 into hefA, and its susceptibility profiles to 10 antibiotics were evaluated. RESULTS: The MIC of six multidrug-resistant strains (including 5 clinical isolates and H pylori NCTC11637) increased significantly (≥ 4-fold) compared with their parent strains. The expression level of hefA gene was significantly higher in the MDR strains than in their parent strains (P = 0.033). A H pylori LZ1026 mutant was successfully constructed and the ΔH pylori LZ1026 was more susceptible to four of the 10 antibiotics. All the 20 strains displayed transcripts for hefA that confirmed the in vitro expression of these genes. CONCLUSION: The efflux pump gene hefA plays an important role in multidrug resistance of H pylori. PMID:18777600

  10. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  11. Growth phase-dependent composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Christina A; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Analysis of H. pylori protein secretion is complicated by the occurrence of bacterial autolysis. In this study, we analyzed the exoproteome of H. pylori at multiple phases of bacterial growth and identified 74 proteins that are selectively released into the extracellular space. These include proteins known to cause alterations in host cells, antigenic proteins, and additional proteins that have not yet been studied in any detail. The composition of the H. pylori exoproteome is dependent on the phase of bacterial growth. For example, the proportional abundance of the vacuolating toxin VacA in culture supernatant is higher during late growth phases than early growth phases, whereas the proportional abundance of many other proteins is higher during early growth phases. We detected marked variation in the subcellular localization of putative secreted proteins within soluble and membrane fractions derived from intact bacteria. By providing a comprehensive view of the H. pylori exoproteome, these results provide new insights into the array of secreted H. pylori proteins that may cause alterations in the gastric environment.

  12. H. pylori Management in ASEAN: the Bangkok Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Pittayanon, Rapat; Rojborwonwitaya, Jarin; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chotivitayatarakorn, Peranart; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Pisespongsa, Pises; Mairiang, Pisaln; Rani, Aziz; Leow, Alex; Mya, Swe Mon; Lee, Yi-Chia; Vannarath, Sengdao; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Chakravuth, Oung; Aung, Moe Myint; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Sollano, Jose D; Trong, Duc Quach; Sansak, Inchaya; Wiwattanachang, Olarn; Harnsomburana, Piyathida; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Fock, Kwong-Ming; Goh, Khean-Lee; Sugano, Kentaro; Graham, David

    2017-07-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection remains to be the major cause of important upper gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. H. pylori management in ASEAN: the Bangkok consensus report gathered key opinion leaders for the region to review and evaluate clinical aspects of H. pylori infection and to develop consensus statements, rationales and grades of recommendation for the management of H. pylori infection in clinical practice in ASEAN countries. This ASEAN Consensus consisted of 34 international experts from 10 ASEAN countries, Japan, Taiwan and the United States. The meeting mainly focused on four issues: 1) Epidemiology and Disease Association; 2) Diagnostic tests; 3) Management; and 4) Follow-up after eradication. The final results of each workshop were presented for consensus voting by all participants. Statements, rationale and recommendations were developed from the available current evidence to help clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori and its clinical diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  14. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by invasive and noninvasive tests.

    PubMed

    Pourakbari, Babak; Ghazi, Mona; Mahmoudi, Shima; Mamishi, Setareh; Azhdarkosh, Hossein; Najafi, Mehri; Kazemi, Bahram; Salavati, Ali; Mirsalehian, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Although several invasive and noninvasive tests have been developed for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, all of the tests have their limitations. We conducted a study to investigate and compare the suitability of rapid urease test (RUT), serology, histopathology and stool antigen tests with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori, and correlate the diagnostic methods with PCR. Eighty nine patients (61 adults, 28 children) referred to the Firoozgar Hospital and Children Medical Center Hospital for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered to the study and noninvasive tests such as immunoassay for serological antibodies against H. pylori and detection of its antigen in feces were measured. The biopsies were utilized for histological examination, RUT and PCR. The H. pylori statuses were evaluated by the positivity of ureC PCR in biopsy specimens and 53 subjects had H. pylori positive result. Histopathology showed high overall performance in adults and children with sensitivity and specificity 100% and 90%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for stool antigen test were 87.8%, 75% and 82%, respectively. Correlation of RUT, serology (IgG), histopathology and stool antigen tests with PCR were 0.82, 0.32, 0.91 and 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, the RUT and histopathology are as accurate as the PCR of biopsy and stool antigen test can consider as appropriate noninvasive test for detection of H. pylori infection.

  15. Biochemical and functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Annelie; Vallström, Anna; Petzold, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Schleucher, Jürgen; Carlsson, Sven; Haas, Rainer; Backert, Steffen; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Gröbner, Gerhard; Arnqvist, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease and/or gastric cancer. Adhesion of bacteria to the stomach mucosa is an important contributor to the vigour of infection and resulting virulence. H. pylori adheres primarily via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens and the binding of SabA adhesins to sialyl-Lewis x/a (sLex/a) antigens. Similar to most Gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori continuously buds off vesicles and vesicles derived from pathogenic bacteria often include virulence-associated factors. Here we biochemically characterized highly purified H. pylori vesicles. Major protein and phospholipid components associated with the vesicles were identified with mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of virulence factors present was confirmed by immunoblots. Additional functional and biochemical analysis focused on the vesicle BabA and SabA adhesins and their respective interactions to human gastric epithelium. Vesicles exhibit heterogeneity in their protein composition, which were specifically studied in respect to the BabA adhesin. We also demonstrate that the oncoprotein, CagA, is associated with the surface of H. pylori vesicles. Thus, we have explored mechanisms for intimate H. pylori vesicle–host interactions and found that the vesicles carry effector-promoting properties that are important to disease development. PMID:20659286

  16. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  17. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization on Histological Grading of Chronic Gastritis in Korean Patients with Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading of cultured H. pylori was reported on a scale 0 to 3. The histopathological features of biopsy specimens were reported according to the Sydney classification of chronic gastritis. Serum gastritis and pepsinogen concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: H. pylori was identified in 62.5% (20 of 32 GU, 30 of 48 DU) of the study group. Gastric clonization rate of H. pylori did not increased with age. Forty of 50 biopsy specimens with H. pylori and also 23 of 30 biopsy specimens without H. pylori showed active chronic gastritis. There was no significant correlation overall between the presence of H. pylori and histological grading of chronic gastritis, including activity, and also no association was found between the quantitative grading of H. pylori and the histological grading of chronic gastritis. With and without H. pylori, a mean of serum gastritis concentration (79.4±43.0 pg/ml and 80.2±31.9 pg/ml) showed no significant difference, but a mean of serum pepsinogen concentration (87.7±41.6 ng/ml and 119±34.4 ng/ml) showed significant difference between the populations with and without H. pylori (p=0.001) Conclusions: The influence of H. pylori on histological grading of chronic gastritis in Korean is less than that in prior studies of Western countries, and further investigation of pathogenesis of H. pylori in chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration is necessary. PMID:7495770

  18. Helicobacter pylori FliD protein is a highly sensitive and specific marker for serologic diagnosis of H. pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Khalifeh Gholi, Mohammad; Kalali, Behnam; Formichella, Luca; Göttner, Gereon; Shamsipour, Fereshteh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Busch, Dirk H; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Gerhard, Markus

    2013-12-01

    Screening for H. pylori in large populations continues to be a challenging task, since available tests have limited sensitivity and specificity, which, in population-based approaches, leads to significant numbers of false positive and false negative results. Various H. pylori proteins associated with virulence are highly immunogenic and therefore candidates to detect the infection. There are currently no defined markers that are recognized in all H. pylori infected patients and that do not show cross-reactivity with other bacterial proteins. We identified the H. pylori "hook-associated protein 2 homologue", FliD (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: P96786.4) as a novel marker of infection for serological analysis. The H. pylori FliD protein is an essential element in the assembly of the functional flagella. However, this virulence factor has not yet been tested as a diagnostic marker in serology. For this purpose FliD was recombinantly expressed in E. coli, purified by affinity chromatography and gel filtration and used to coat ELISA plates or immobilized on nitrocellulose stripes. To evaluate its antigenicity we screened a defined panel of patient sera. The recombinant H. pylori FliD protein reacted with a high percentage of human sera. Among 318 samples reported positive by histology, 310 (97.4%) were tested positive by FliD Line assay, and 165 out of 170 samples were tested positive by ELISA (97%). We could also reconfirm 297 out of 300 (99%) negative sera by Line assay and 73 from 76 (96%) by ELISA. Taken together, application of FliD in serological diagnosis of H. pylori infection presents a high specificity of up to 99% and a sensitivity of up to 97%. This makes especially the FliD ELISA a simple, cost effective and highly efficient tool to detect H. pylori infection in developing countries where prevalence is high and other screening methods are either not available or are unaffordable.

  19. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... TOPIC Peptic Ulcers Stool Tests Stool Test: Bacteria Culture Stool Test: Giardia Antigen Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Helicobacter pylori X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (Upper GI) Ugh! Ulcers Ulcers Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines ...

  20. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.

  1. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  2. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  3. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  4. Pilot Study Results from a Brief Intervention to Create Smoke-Free Homes

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lucja; Berg, Carla J.; Haardörfer, Regine; Yembra, Debbie; Schauer, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Very few community-based intervention studies have examined how to effectively increase the adoption of smoke-free homes. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term outcomes of a brief, four-component intervention for promoting smoke-free home policies among low-income households. We recruited forty participants (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers) to receive the intervention at two-week intervals. The design was a pretest-posttest with follow-up at two weeks after intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported presence of a total home smoking ban. At follow-up, 78% of participants reported having tried to establish a smoke-free rule in their home, with significantly more nonsmokers attempting a smoke-free home than smokers (P = .03). These attempts led to increased smoking restrictions, that is, going from no ban to a partial or total ban, or from a partial to a total ban, in 43% of the homes. At follow-up, 33% of the participants reported having made their home totally smoke-free. Additionally, smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Results suggest that the intervention is promising and warrants a rigorous efficacy trial. PMID:22675374

  5. Can internal medicine residents master microscopic urinalysis? Results of an evaluation and teaching intervention.

    PubMed

    Canaris, Gay J; Flach, Stephen D; Tape, Thomas G; Stierwalt, Kathyrn M; Haggstrom, David A; Wigton, Robert S

    2003-05-01

    Although microscopic urinalysis (micro UA) is commonly used in clinical practice, and residents are trained in micro UA, proficiency in this procedure has not been studied. In 1996-97, 38 residents in the University of Nebraska Medical Center's internal medicine (IM) residency program were evaluated on their technical ability to perform micro UA, and on their cognitive skills in recognizing common micro UA findings. After identifying deficits in the residents' cognitive competency, two educational interventions were applied and residents were tested after each intervention. A total of 24 residents (63%) correctly prepared the specimen for analysis (the technical portion). On the cognitive portion, only one of the 38 residents correctly identified 80% of all micro UA findings in the urinary sediment, although 11 (29%) residents identified UA findings specific to urinary tract infection (UTI). The first educational intervention did little to improve residents' performance. A second more intensive intervention resulted in 10 (45%) residents identifying 80% of all micro UA findings, and 19 (86%) residents correctly identifying UTI findings. Many residents were not proficient in performing micro UA, even after intensive educational interventions. Although micro UA is a simple procedure, residents' mastery cannot be assumed. Residency programs should assess competency in this procedure.

  6. Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies.

    PubMed

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Nielsen, Karina M; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2017-08-01

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions.

  7. Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Nielsen, Karina M; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Hasson, Henna

    2016-01-01

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions. PMID:28736455

  8. Improving perceptions of healthy food affordability: results from a pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong empirical support for the association between perceived food affordability and dietary intake amongst families with a lower socioeconomic position (SEP), there is limited evidence of the most effective strategies for promoting more positive perceptions of healthy food affordability among this group. This paper reports findings from a pilot intervention that aimed to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability amongst mothers. Findings Participants were 66 mothers who were the parents of children recruited from primary schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs. Intervention group participants viewed a slideshow focussed on healthy snack food affordability that illustrated cheaper healthier alternatives to common snack foods as well as food budgeting tips and price comparison education. A mixed between-within ANCOVA was conducted to examine group differences in perceived affordability of healthy food across three time points. Results revealed no difference in perceived affordability of healthy food between the two groups at baseline whereas at post-intervention and follow-up, mothers in the intervention group perceived healthy food as more affordable than the control group. Conclusions Focussing on education-based interventions to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability may be a promising approach that complements existing nutrition promotion strategies. PMID:24606876

  9. Results of an osteoporosis educational intervention randomized trial in a sample of Puerto-Rican women.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Vázquez, Miriam; Tejeda, Manuel J; Colin, Jessie; Matos, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an osteoporosis educational intervention on knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy in college-age Puerto Rican women. The Health Belief Model and Purnell Model formed the theoretical framework for the study. Three hypotheses were tested with a convenience, randomized sample of 51 experimental and 54 control subjects, ages 18-25. The findings support the hypotheses that educational intervention improved osteoporosis knowledge, health beliefs, but had no effect on self-efficacy. Results and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Do Reinforcement and Induction Increase Prosocial Behavior? Results of a Teacher-Based Intervention in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vidya; Bergin, Christi

    2009-01-01

    Teachers were trained to use reinforcement and induction to increase prosocial behavior in a sample of 98 children in Head Start-affiliated preschools, using a peer coaching model. There was one control group and three intervention groups: reinforcement-only, induction-only, and reinforcement-and-induction. Results indicated that the intervention…

  11. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…

  12. Discrepancy in Functional Analysis Results across Two Settings: Implications for Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Machalicek, Wendy; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Langthorne, Paul; Franco, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Functional analyses that were conducted in two settings (playground and classroom) indicated that problem behavior was sensitive to adult attention on the playground and tangible items in the classroom. Attention- and tangible-based interventions were designed based on the results from each of the assessment environments and were compared. The…

  13. Do Reinforcement and Induction Increase Prosocial Behavior? Results of a Teacher-Based Intervention in Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Vidya; Bergin, Christi

    2009-01-01

    Teachers were trained to use reinforcement and induction to increase prosocial behavior in a sample of 98 children in Head Start-affiliated preschools, using a peer coaching model. There was one control group and three intervention groups: reinforcement-only, induction-only, and reinforcement-and-induction. Results indicated that the intervention…

  14. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom…

  15. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred from...

  16. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred from...

  17. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred from...

  18. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred from...

  19. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred from...

  20. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  1. Results From a Lay Health Advisor Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning Among Rural Native American Children

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a community-based lay health advisor intervention for primary prevention of lead poisoning among Native American children who lived in a former mining area. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional population-based blood lead assessments of Native American and White children aged 1 to 6 years and in-person caregiver interviews before (n=331) and after (n=387) a 2-year intervention. Results. Mean childhood blood lead levels decreased and selected preventive behaviors improved for both Native American and White (comparison) communities. Several short-term outcomes also improved from pre- to postintervention, but only knowledge and hand-washing self-efficacy increased more among Native Americans than among Whites. Conclusions. Our findings provide limited support for the effectiveness of lay health advisor interventions as a primary lead poisoning prevention strategy for Native American communities. PMID:15451742

  2. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    PubMed

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  3. Gastric atrophy and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Boukthir, S; Mrad, S Mazigh; Kalach, N; Sammoud, A

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of gastric atrophy (GA) in Tunisia (a high prevalence region for Helicobacter pylori), and describe its histological, clinical and endoscopic features in children. 345 children, 151 male and 194 female, mean age 8.6 +/- 3.7 years, underwent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy with gastric biopsies for recurrent abdominal pain (n=232, 67.2%), vomiting (n=72, 20%) associated with or without upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n=59, 17.1%) and miscellaneous causes (n=53, 15.4 %). Biopsies performed both in the gastric antrum (n=2) and corpus (n=2) were analysed for histological assessment according to the updated Sydney classification system and bacterial culture. A positive result was recorded where histology and/or culture were positive, confirming the presence of H. pylori infection (H. pylori +ve). A negative result was recorded when both tests were concomitantly negative (H. pylori -ve). 9.3% (32/345) of the total population, and 14.5% (32/221) of chronic gastritis patients exhibited GA, M/F: 16/16, mean age (SD) 9.4 (3.4) years. Amongst the 32 children with GA, 30 (93.7%) were H. pylori +ve and 2 (6.3%) were H. pylori -ve. GA was localised in the antrum (n=26, 81.2%), the fundus (n=2, 6.3%) and was also seen in both (n=4, 12.5%). GA was categorised as mild, grade 1 (n=18, 56.3%); moderate, grade 2 (n=13, 46.6%); and severe, grade 3 (n=1, 3.1%). GA was associated with mild active gastritis in 18 cases (56.3%). The prevalence of moderate or severe antral GA was detected in 9/26 (34.6%) of H. pylori +ve vs. any of H. pylori -ve (p=0.4), whereas GA in the corpus was detected in 1/2 (50%) vs. none, respectively. None exhibited intestinal metaplasia. There were no clinical features specific to this pathology. UGI endoscopy in GA patients showed nodular gastritis (n=17, 53.1%), congestive gastritis (n=9, 28.1%), and normal tissue (n=6, 18.8%). GA was significantly associated with H. pylori infection (p<0.0001) and nodular gastritis (p<0

  4. Multiple Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Detection of Unmet Social Needs and Resulting Resource Referrals

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Bettenhausen, Jessica L.; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Plencner, Laura; Krager, Molly; Nelson, Brooke; Donnelly, Sara; Simmons, Julia; Higinio, Valeria; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is critical that pediatric residents learn to effectively screen families for active and addressable social needs (i.e., negative social determinants of health.) We sought to determine 1) whether a brief intervention teaching residents about IHELP, a social needs screening tool, could improve resident screening, and 2) how accurately IHELP could detect needs in the inpatient setting. Methods During an 18-month period, interns rotating on one of two otherwise identical inpatient general pediatrics teams were trained in IHELP. Interns on the other team served as the comparison group. Every admission history and physical (H&P) was reviewed for IHELP screening. Social work evaluations were used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of IHELP and document resources provided to families with active needs. During a 21-month post-intervention period, every third H&P was reviewed to determine median duration of continued IHELP use. Results 619 admissions met inclusion criteria. Over 80% of intervention team H&Ps documented use of IHELP. The percentage of social work consults was nearly 3 times greater on the intervention team than on the comparison team (P<0.001). Among H&Ps with documented use of IHELP, specificity was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87–0.99) and sensitivity was 0.63 (95% CI 0.50–0.73). Social work provided resources for 78% of positively screened families. The median duration of screening use by residents after the intervention was 8.1 months (IQR 1–10 months) Conclusions A brief intervention increased resident screening and detection of social needs, leading to important referrals to address those needs. PMID:26183003

  5. Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, referred to as Family-School Success (FSS), designed to improve the family and educational functioning of students in grades 2 through 6 who meet criteria for ADHD combined and inattentive types. Key components of FSS were conjoint behavioral consultation, daily report cards, and behavioral homework interventions. Methods FSS was provided over the course of 12 weekly sessions, which included 6 group sessions, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their children on medication; 43% of children were on medication at the time of random assignment. Children (n=199) were randomly assigned to FSS or a comparison group controlling for non-specific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post intervention and 3-month follow-up. The analyses controlled for child medication status. Results Study findings indicated that FSS had a significant effect on the quality of the family-school relationship, homework performance, and parenting behavior. Conclusions The superiority of FSS was demonstrated even though about 40% of the participants in FSS and CARE were on an optimal dose of medication and there were significant Time effects on each measure. This relatively brief intervention was able to produce effect sizes that were comparable to those of the more intensive MTA behavioral intervention. PMID:22506793

  6. Influence of a computer intervention on the psychological status of chronically ill rural women: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hill, Wade; Weinert, Clarann; Cudney, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Adaptation to chronic illness is a lifelong process presenting numerous psychological challenges. It has been shown to be influenced by participating in support groups. Rural women with chronic illness face additional burdens as access to information, healthcare resources, and sources of support are often limited. Developing virtual support groups and testing the effects on psychosocial indicators associated with adaptation to chronic illness may help remove barriers to adaptation. To examine the effects of a computer-delivered intervention on measures of psychosocial health in chronically ill rural women including social support, self-esteem, empowerment, self-efficacy, depression, loneliness, and stress. An experimental design was used to test a computer-delivered intervention and examine differences in psychosocial health between women who participated in the intervention (n = 44) and women in a control group (n = 56). Differences between women who participated in the intervention and controls were found for self-esteem, F(1,98) = 5.97, p =.016; social support, F(1,98) = 4.43, p =.038; and empowerment, F(1,98) = 6.06, p =.016. A comparison of means for depression, loneliness, self-efficacy, and stress suggests that differences for other psychosocial variables are possible. The computer-based intervention tested appears to result in improved self-esteem, social support, and empowerment among rural women with chronic illness. Descriptive but nonsignificant differences were found for other psychosocial variables (depression, loneliness, self-efficacy, and stress); women who participated in the intervention appeared to improve more than women in the control group.

  7. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  8. Lack of Association Found between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Feng; Xiong, Man; Ma, Zonghui; Huang, Senxiong; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is still controversial. Here we performed a retrospective study to explore this issue. Methods. A total of 502 inpatients with Rome III confirmed IBS-D and known H. pylori status from 8 hospitals were enrolled. H. pylori-positive patients, hospitalized in the recent year, were followed up to evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication on IBS-D clinical course. Results. Of the 502 IBS-D patients, 206 were H. pylori-positive, with an infection rate that has no significant difference with that of the general population in Guangdong province (p = 0.348). For patients followed up, no significant differences were noted as to overall symptoms (p = 0.562), abdominal pain/discomfort (p = 0.777), bloating (p = 0.736), stool frequency (p = 0.835), or stool characteristics (p = 0.928) between the H. pylori-eradicated group and the control group. The results were the same in long-term follow-up patients except the improvement of bloating, which showed that the bloating score in the H. pylori-eradicated group was significantly lower (p = 0.047). Conclusions. No significant correlation between H. pylori infection and IBS-D was noted. Overall, IBS-D patients may not benefit from H. pylori eradication. PMID:27493660

  9. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-14

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status.

  10. Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Elham; Poursina, Farkhondeh; de Wiele, Tom Van; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran. Methods: In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected. Results: We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory. Conclusions: Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search

  11. Changes in couples' communication as a result of a male-involvement family planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Miriam; Gilles, Kate; Shattuck, Dominick; Kerner, Brad; Guest, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Research suggests that spousal communication and male involvement in decision making can positively influence family-planning use and continuation. However, few existing studies explore the dynamics of this communication and how they factor into family-planning decision making. Building upon a recent evaluation of a theory-based male-involvement intervention in Malawi, this study aimed to fill this gap by examining the role of communication in the intervention's success, through semi-structured in-depth interviews with male participants and female partners of study participants. Results support the idea that communication is an integral component of successful interventions to increase male involvement in family planning. Participants reported improvements in spousal communication, increased frequency of communication, and an increase in shared decision making as a result of the study, which directly contributed to their family-planning use. This effect was often mediated through increased knowledge or reduced male opposition to family planning. Further analysis of communication and decision-making dynamics revealed shifts in gendered communication norms, leading to improvements in spousal relationships in addition to contraceptive uptake. This study shows that interventions can and should encourage spousal communication and shared decision making, and it provides an effective model for involving men in family-planning use.

  12. [Results of a health education intervention in the continuity of breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Molinero Diaz, Patricia; Burgos Rodríguez, María José; Mejía Ramírez de Arellano, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    evaluate the efficacy of a nursing intervention based on active observation and resolution of the problems of breastfeeding in the period 24-48h post-partum as regards stopping breastfeeding in mothers who gave birth in Hospital General Universitario, Ciudad Real. A clinical trial was conducted on 100 healthy women who had given birth to a healthy baby in the maternity unit of the Hospital General Universitario Ciudad Real. The results showed that 39.8% of women have problems, and 72% need help to initiate the breastfeeding. Approximately 79.9% continue with breastfeeding after hospital discharge as a result of our intervention. Breastfeeding was stopped by 31.1% of the control group, and by 10.9% in the experimental group (nursing intervention), with significant differences being observed in both groups, with RR 1.29 and 95% CI; 1.04-1.61. Hypogalactia (low milk production) was the most frequent reason for stopping, with no differences in both groups. At 3 months, 16.9% had stopped breastfeeding in the control group, and 9% in the experimental group. At 6 months, 19.3% of the control group did not continue with breastfeeding versus 15.9% in the experimental group. Action, and not only intervention, protocols in the period 48h pospartum when there were problems with breastfeeding were effective for initiation breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in waste pickers had not been previously studied. This study aims to determine the association of H. pylori seropositivity and waste picking activity; and to determine socio-demographic, clinical, work, and behavioral characteristics associated with H. pylori seropositivity in waste pickers. Methods Through a case-control study design, we examined 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical, work and behavioral characteristics of the waste pickers were also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 60 (66.7%) of the 90 waste pickers and in 51 (56.7%) of the 90 controls (P = 0.16). Stratification by age showed that waste pickers aged 14 -30 years old had significantly higher frequency of H. pylori infection than controls of the same age group (56.5% versus 35.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic status, residence, or housing conditions of waste pickers. The presence of underlying diseases and the frequency of gastritis were similar among H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative waste pickers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the duration (years) in the waste picking activity was positively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.22 - 6.25; P = 0.01). In contrast, consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.78; P = 0.01). Other work or behavioral characteristics of waste pickers including washing hands before eating, eating from the garbage, animal contacts, consumption of unpasteurized milk, unwashed raw vegetables, fruits, or untreated water, and contact with soil were not associated with H. pylori exposure. Conclusions This is the

  14. Presentation, clinical features, and results of intervention in upper extremity fibromuscular dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nancy; Sharma, Aditya; West, Jonathan K; Serhal, Maya; Brinza, Ellen; Gornik, Heather L; Kim, Esther S H

    2017-08-01

    medically (33.3%), surgical bypass in 2 limbs initially treated with angioplasty, surgical bypass in 1 limb initially treated with medical therapy, and sympathectomy in 1 limb (16.7%) initially treated with angioplasty. Both surgical bypass and angioplasty as secondary interventions resulted in complete symptom relief. Presenting symptoms for patients with UE FMD vary in severity from asymptomatic disease to digital ischemia. More than half of symptomatic limbs eventually require at least one invasive intervention for complete relief of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acquisition of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques Is Most Consistent with Oral-Oral Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Solnick, Jay V.; Fong, Julie; Hansen, Lori M.; Chang, Kikuko; Canfield, Don R.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Socially housed rhesus monkeys rapidly acquired Helicobacter pylori infection, although the organism was rarely cultivated from saliva, feces, or the environment. Since the concentrations of H. pylori in vomit were compatible with what is known about the infectious dose, our results are most consistent with an oral-oral means of transmission. PMID:17021115

  16. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  17. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  18. Population based Helicobacter pylori screening and eradication: advances versus side effects.

    PubMed

    Tepes, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world and second most common reason for cancer related death. Projections for the future predict that gastric cancer incidence will continue to rise. Risk factors for gastric cancer are Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, host genetic factors and environmental factors. H pylori is a class I carcinogen and responsible for 60 % - 80 % of all gastric cancers of intestinal and diffuse type, as well as gastric MALT lymphoma. From animal and intervention studies we know that premalignant gastric lesions development and gastric cancer can be prevented with early H pylori eradication. In countries with gastric cancer incidence higher than 20 / 100 000 per year national screening for H pylori infection and eradication of all H pylori infections should be performed. Type of eradication therapy depends on local antimicrobial resistance rates. Quadruple bismuth or non- bismuth therapies can achive more than 90 % eradication rate. The success of eradication therapy must be controlled with noninvasive test. Patients with extensive preneoplastic changes (atrophy, intestinal metaplasia) should have endoscopic and histologic controls. Endoscopic screening should be performed in intervals according to the risk stratification by OLGA / OLGIM staging system or A-D staging system. In countries with high gastric cancer incidence national screening with serological tests for pepsinogen I (PGI), PGI/PGII ratio and H pylori antibodies can select patients at higher risk for gastric cancer.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection and its related factors in junior high school students in Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshiko; Lin, Yingsong; Hongo, Minoru; Hidaka, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-04-01

    There have been few reports on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in asymptomatic Japanese children and adolescents. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is very low among Japanese children and that clinical variables such as serum pepsinogen and iron levels are associated with H. pylori infection. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 454 junior high school students aged 12-15 years in four areas in Nagano Prefecture. A commercial ELISA kit (E-plate Eiken H. pylori antibody) was used to measure IgG antibody against H. pylori. Serum pepsinogen and iron levels were also measured using standard methods. A urea breath test was performed for seropositive students. The overall prevalence of H. pylori was 3.1% (14/454). There were no significant differences in H. pylori prevalence among mountain, rural, and urban areas. The mean level of both serum pepsinogen (PG I) and PG II was significantly increased in the seropositive subjects compared with the seronegative subjects. When the cutoff values for adults (PG I: 70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio: 3) were used, 4 of 14 subjects had PG I ≤70 ng/mL and PG I/II ratio ≤3. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that low serum iron levels were significantly associated with H. pylori infection (P=.02). The prevalence of H. pylori infection is as low as 3% among junior high school students aged 12-15 years in Japan. The disappearance of H. pylori is accelerating in Japanese children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. Methods This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant’s samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4–8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Conclusions Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human. PMID:24708464

  1. Iron, zinc, and copper nutritional status in children infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Janjetic, Mariana A; Goldman, Cinthia G; Balcarce, Norma E; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; González, Andrea Beltrán; Fuda, Julián A; Meseri, Emiliano I; Torti, Horacio E; Barrado, Julieta; Zubillaga, Marcela B; López, Laura B; Boccio, José R

    2010-07-01

    : Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of about half of the world's population and it has been related to extragastrointestinal diseases. The present study sought to evaluate the association between H pylori infection and iron, zinc, and copper nutritional status in symptomatic children. : A cross-sectional study was carried out in 395 children (4-16 years) with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, who were tested for H pylori infection by the C-urea breath test. Iron status was determined by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptors. Copper and zinc serum concentrations were also evaluated. Epidemiological data, dietary assessment, and anthropometric indicators were analyzed as potential confounding factors. : Prevalence of H pylori infection was 24.3%. Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) were found in 12.0% and 14.3% of the H pylori-positive and 8.9% and 11.0% of the H pylori-negative children, respectively. There was no association between H pylori infection and anemia (odds ratio = 1.54 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73%-3.24%]) or ID (odds ratio = 1.35 [95% CI 0.67-2.70]). Crude beta coefficients showed that H pylori has no significant effect on hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptors, copper, and zinc concentrations. However, adjusted results suggested that H pylori-infected children had an increase of 9.74 microg/dL (95% CI 2.12-17.37 microg/dL) in copper concentrations. : This study revealed that H pylori infection was not associated with iron deficiency, anemia, or zinc concentrations; however, a positive relation with copper status was found after adjusting for confounding factors. The contribution of H pylori infection to higher copper concentrations needs to be confirmed by additional studies.

  2. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection with Atrophic Gastritis Is an Independent Risk Factor for Advanced Colonic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hye Won; Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Soo; Koo, Ja Eun; Chung, Eun Ju; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for atrophic gastritis (AG) and gastric cancer. The correlation between H. pylori, AG and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) has only been examined in a limited number of studies, and findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection status, AG and advanced CRN. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, AG, and advanced CRN in 6,351 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who underwent a screening colonoscopy. Results A total of 316 participants (5.0%) had advanced CRN. H. pylori seropositivity was 61.3%. In a univariate analysis, the presence of H. pylori infection was associated with advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.91; p=0.001). H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of advanced CRN after adjusting for clinically relevant confounders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.72; p=0.023). H. pylori-related AG was significantly associated with the risk of advanced CRN (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; p=0.030), whereas H. pylori infection without AG was not. Conclusions H. pylori infection increased the risk of advanced CRN, especially when it was combined with AG. Strict colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be warranted in those with H. pylori-positive AG. PMID:27458180

  4. The Association between Barrett’s Esophagus and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, Lori A.; Nordenstedt, Helena; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Gandhi, Subi; Dick-Onuoha, Sam; Lewis, Anthony; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The effect of Helicobacter pylori on Barrett’s esophagus is poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the existing literature examining the effect that H pylori has on Barrett’s esophagus. Design We performed a comprehensive search to identify studies pertaining to the association between H pylori and Barrett’s esophagus. We conducted meta-regression analyses to identify sources of variation in the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus. Results Our analysis included a total of 49 studies that examined the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus and 7 studies that examined the effect of cag A positivity on Barrett’s esophagus. Overall, H pylori, and even more so cag A, tended to be protective for Barrett’s esophagus in most studies; however there was obvious heterogeneity across studies. The effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus varied by geographic location and in the presence of selection and information biases. Only 4 studies were found without obvious selection and information bias, and these showed a protective effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus (Relative Risk = 0.46 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.60]). Conclusions Estimates for the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus were heterogeneous across studies. We identified selection and information bias as potential sources of this heterogeneity. Few studies without obvious selection and information bias have been conducted to examine the effect of H pylori on Barrett’s esophagus, but in these, H pylori infection is associated with a reduced risk of Barrett’s esophagus. PMID:22515353

  5. Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Different Siberian Ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, Vladislav V; Kasparov, Edward V; Tonkikh, Julia L; Shtygasheva, Olga V; Butorin, Nikolay N; Amelchugova, Olga S; Vasyutin, Alexander V; Bronnikova, Elena P; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in eastern Siberia is consistently established. In the same geographic area, however, fragmentary information is available on the epidemiology of the peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection (including CagA status) and PUD in different eastern Siberian ethnicities. An endoscopy population of 3149 eastern Siberian dyspeptic patients was considered [1727 Europoids and 1422 Mongoloids (Evenks = 792; Khakases = 630)]. H. pylori status was assessed by urease test and/or serum anti-H. pylori IgG and/or histology. CagA status was serologically assessed (anti-CagA antibodies). All the Siberian ethnicities featured high rates of H. pylori infection (Europoids = 87.1%, Evenks = 88.6%, Khakases = 85.4%). Among the 1504 H. pylori-positive Europoids, the prevalence of CagA-positive status (68.7%) was significantly higher than that featured by the 1240 H. pylori-positive Mongoloid ethnicities (46.9%; p < .001 for both comparisons). Peptic ulcer disease significantly prevailed among Europoids (prevalence among Europoid Evenks and Khakases: 8.9% and 8.3%, respectively; prevalence among Mongoloid Evenks and Khakases = 1.0% and 4.4%, respectively). eastern Siberian populations feature consistent high rates of H. pylori infection, but different prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. In particular, Europoids featured a prevalence of both CagA-positive status and peptic ulcer disease significantly higher than that of the Mongoloid ethnicities. These results suggest that both environmental factors (coexisting with the H. pylori infection) and host-related variables modulate the clinicopathological expression of the H. pylori -associated gastric diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Disease manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic Canada: using epidemiology to address community concerns

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Girgis, Safwat; Bailey, Robert; Morse, John; Fedorak, Richard N; Geary, Janis; Fagan-Garcia, Katharine; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Helicobacter pylori infection, linked to gastric cancer, is responsible for a large worldwide disease burden. H pylori prevalence and gastric cancer rates are elevated among indigenous Arctic communities, but implementation of prevention strategies is hampered by insufficient information. Some communities in northern Canada have advocated for H pylori prevention research. As a first step, community-driven research was undertaken to describe the H pylori-associated disease burden in concerned communities. Design Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a clinical interview and gastroscopy with gastric biopsies taken for histopathological examination in February 2008. Setting Study procedures were carried out at the health centre in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada (population ∼600). Participants All residents of Aklavik were invited to complete a clinical interview and gastroscopy; 194 (58% female participants; 91% Aboriginal; age range 10–80 years) completed gastroscopy and had gastric biopsies taken. Primary and secondary outcome measures This analysis estimates the prevalence of gastric abnormalities detected by endoscopy and histopathology, and associations of demographic and clinical variables with H pylori prevalence. Results Among 194 participants with evaluable gastric biopsies, 66% were H pylori-positive on histology. Among H pylori-positive participants, prevalence was 94% for acute gastritis, 100% for chronic gastritis, 21% for gastric atrophy and 11% for intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, while chronic inflammation severity was mild in 9%, moderate in 47% and severe in 43%. In a multivariable model, H pylori prevalence was inversely associated with previous gastroscopy, previous H pylori therapy and aspirin use, and was positively associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions In this population, H pylori-associated gastric histopathology shows a pattern compatible with elevated risk of gastric cancer. These

  7. Upfront immunohistochemistry improves specificity of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. A French pathology laboratory point of view.

    PubMed

    Ginestet, Florent; Guibourg, Briac; Doucet, Laurent; Théreaux, Jérémie; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Marcorelles, Pascale; Uguen, Arnaud

    2017-10-01

    There is no consensus about the histopathologic methods to detect Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies to date. We aimed to question about the value of upfront anti-H. pylori immunohistochemistry in this field. We led a retrospective study about the rate of H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies before and after the implementation of upfront immunohistochemistry, the inter-rater and intermethods agreements in H. pylori identification about Hematoxylin-Eosin Saffron (HES), Giemsa, and immunohistochemistry stains and the histopathologic features associated with low amounts of H. pylori. First, the rate of H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies significantly diminished after the implementation of upfront immunohistochemistry (from 21.15% to 12.56%, P<.0001), suggesting potential overdiagnosis of H. pylori infection before the use of immunohistochemistry. Secondly, immunohistochemistry was the most reproducible and performing stain (kappa values >0.80), but HES and Giemsa stains also presented good-to-very good agreements. Finally, less than 1% of gastric biopsies with inconspicuous H. pylori infection showed no mucosal injury pointing out that any HES-detected mucosal injury could help to preselect the gastric biopsies requiring ancillary stains for the detection of H. pylori. Albeit being considered as a gold standard in the detection of H. pylori, the interest of using immunohistochemistry as an upfront stain on gastric biopsies is still debated. In our opinion, its use in second line in case of ambiguous HE/HES-Giemsa result is more appropriate. Further effort is needed to optimize the inexpensive but feasible HE/HES-based detection of H. pylori. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  9. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of non-living, heat-killed form of lactobacilli including Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088.

    PubMed

    Aiba, Yuji; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2017-06-15

    Some strains of lactic acid bacteria are reported to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori and proposed to be useful to support so-called triple therapy for H. pylori. Although most strains must be alive to exert their anti-H. pylori activity, some lactobacilli strains are effective even when dead. One possible underlying mechanism of such an activity of non-living lactobacilli is reportedly co-aggregation with H. pylori. In this study, we found that a non-living heat-killed form of Lactobacillus johnsonii No.1088 (HK-LJ88) and also that of some other lactobacilli inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Furthermore, the number of H. pylori in the infected stomach of germ-free mice was significantly decreased by the repeated oral administration of HK-LJ88. Observation by scanning electron microscopy revealed that no co-aggregation had occurred between H. pylori and HK-LJ88; instead, deformations of H. pylori (e.g. disappearance of spiral, bending of cell body, coccoid formation, degradations, etc.) appeared after incubation for 24 h with HK-LJ88. These results suggest that HK-LJ88 inhibited H. pylori activity probably not by co-aggregation but by some unknown mechanism involving HK-LJ88's cell surface molecules and that even non-living lactobacilli are possibly useful to support H. pylori eradication therapy. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated.

  11. The effect of educational intervention on intercultural communication: results of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Hans; Bernsen, Roos; Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Thomas, Siep; Dorrenboom, Govert; Pinto, David; Bruijnzeels, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Background Due to worldwide migration to Western countries, physicians are increasingly encountering patients with different ethnic backgrounds. Communication problems can arise as a result of differences in cultural backgrounds and poor language proficiency. Aims To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on intercultural communication aimed to decrease inequalities in care provided between Western and non-Western patients. Design of study A randomised controlled trial with randomisation at the GP level and outcome measurements at the patient level. Setting General practice in Rotterdam. Method Thirty-eight Dutch GPs in the Rotterdam region, with at least 25% of inhabitants of non-Western origin, and 2407 visiting patients were invited to participate in the study. A total of 986 consultations were finally included. The GPs were educated about cultural differences and trained in intercultural communication. Patients received a videotaped instruction focusing on how to communicate with their GP in a direct way. The primary outcome measure was mutual understanding and the secondary outcomes were patient's satisfaction and perceived quality of care. The intervention effect was assessed for all patients together, for the ‘Western’ and ‘non-Western’ patients, and for patients with different cultural backgrounds separately. Results An intervention effect was seen 6 months after the intervention, as improvement in mutual understanding (and some improvement in perceived quality of care) in consultations with ‘non-Western’ patients. Conclusions A double intervention on intercultural communication given to both physician and patient decreases the gap in quality of care between ‘Western’ and ‘non-Western’ patients. PMID:15904552

  12. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  13. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  14. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-01-01

    Background The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. Results We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. Conclusion These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent. PMID:17584914

  15. Helicobacter pylori virulence and cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is human gastric pathogen that causes chronic and progressive gastric mucosal inflammation and is responsible for the gastric inflammation-associated diseases, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Specific outcomes reflect the interplay between host-, environmental- and bacterial-specific factors. Progress in understanding putative virulence factors in disease pathogenesis has been limited and many false leads have consumed scarce resources. Few in vitro-in vivo correlations or translational applications have proved clinically relevant. Reported virulence factor-related outcomes reflect differences in relative risk of disease rather than specificity for any specific outcome. Studies of individual virulence factor associations have provided conflicting results. Since virulence factors are linked, studies of groups of putative virulence factors are needed to provide clinically useful information. Here, the authors discuss the progress made in understanding the role of H. pylori virulence factors CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin, OipA and DupA in disease pathogenesis and provide suggestions for future studies.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Kalach, Nicolas; Bontems, Patrick; Raymond, Josette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in children differs from that in adults, from the point of view of epidemiology, host response, clinical features, related diseases, and diagnosis, as well as treatment strategies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection, in both children and adults, is decreasing in the Western World as well as in some developing countries, which contrasts with the increase in childhood asthma and allergic diseases. Recurrent abdominal pain is not specific during H. pylori infection in children. The role of H. pylori infection and failure to thrive, children's growth, type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease remains controversial. The main initial diagnosis is based on upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy-based methods. Nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. The infection eradication control is based on validated noninvasive tests. The main cause of treatment failure of H. pylori infection is its clarithromycin resistance. We recommend standard antibiotic susceptibility testing of H. pylori in pediatric patients prior to the initiation of eradication therapy. H. pylori treatment in children should be based on an evaluation of the rate of eradication in the local population, a systematic use of a treatment adapted to the susceptibility profile and a treatment compliance greater than 90%. The last meta-analysis in children did not show an advantage for sequential therapy when compared to a 14-day triple therapy. Finally, the high rate of antibiotic resistance responsible for therapy failure in recent years justifies the necessity of a novel vaccine to prevent H. pylori infection in children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Helicobacter pylori in lacrimal secretions.

    PubMed

    Batioglu-Karaaltin, Aysegul; Saatci, Ozlem; Akpinar, Meltem; Celik, Melih Ozgür; Develioglu, Omer; Yigit, Ozgur; Külekçi, Mehmet; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori in human lacrimal and nasal secretions. Eighty patients with complaints of dyspepsia who had undergone endoscopies and gastric antrum biopsies were included in the study. A total of five specimens, including 2 lacrimal secretion samples, 2 nasal mucosal swab samples, and 1 gastric antrum biopsy, were collected from each patient and investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods consisting of the urease enzyme coding gene GlmM (UreC) and the H pylori-specific 16S rRNA coding gene. The Reflux Symptom Index and ophthalmologic complaints of the patients were recorded. The detected positivity rates of the H pylori 16S rRNA coding gene in gastric biopsies and nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions were 55, 11.2, and 20%, respectively. The patients were grouped as gastric-antrum-biopsy-negative (Group I [n = 36]) and -positive (Group II [n = 44). In Group II, H pylori positivity in the lacrimal and nasal mucous secretions was 36.3 and 18%, respectively. A comparison between the groups in terms of H pylori presence in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions yielded statistically significant differences (p = 0.0001, p = 0.003). The simultaneous presence of H pylori in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions was 13.6% in Group II. H pylori positivity in nasal mucous and lacrimal secretions had a positive moderate correlation (r = 0.40; p = 0.0003). The present study is the first report on the presence of H pylori in lacrimal secretions through nested PCR, which suggested the presence of a number of mechanisms for H pylori transmission to lacrimal secretions.

  18. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Recently there has been emerging epidemiological data to suggest Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H. pylori and IBD has not been described. Methods The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was analyzed by cytokine production. The effect of H. pylori DNA on E. coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in vivo significance of H. pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a DSS-model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H. pylori-colonized and non-colonized patients. Results We showed that H. pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In vitro experiments revealed the inability of H. pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDCs or human pDCs. Additionally, H. pylori DNA was able to suppress E. coli-DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. Administration of H. pylori DNA prior to the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis as compared to E. coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H. pylori-colonized patients versus non-colonized controls. Conclusions Overall, our study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory responses from DCs and this may in part explain the inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. PMID:21471567

  19. A Comparative Study of Clinicopathological Features between Chronic Cholecystitis Patients with and without Helicobacter pylori Infection in Gallbladder Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-dong; Zhang, Yong; Gong, Wei; Quan, Zhi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori has been isolated from 10%–20% of human chronic cholecystitis specimens but the characteristics of “Helicobacter pylori positive cholecystitis” remains unclear. This study aims to compare the clinicopathological features between chronic cholecystitis patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa. Methods Three hundred and twenty-six chronic cholecystitis patients were divided into two groups according to whether Helicobacter pylori could be detected by culture, staining or PCR for Helicobacter 16s rRNA gene in gallbladder mucosa. Positive samples were sequenced for Helicobacter pylori-specific identification. Clinical parameters as well as pathological characteristics including some premalignant lesions and the expression levels of iNOS and ROS in gallbladder were compared between the two groups. Results Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa was detected in 20.55% of cholecystitis patients. These patients had a higher prevalence of acid regurgitation symptoms (p = 0.001), more histories of chronic gastritis (p = 0.005), gastric ulcer (p = 0.042), duodenal ulcer (p = 0.026) and higher presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach as compared to patients without Helicobacter pylori infection in the gallbladder mucosa. Helicobacter pylori 16s rRNA in gallbladder and gastric-duodenal mucosa from the same individual patient had identical sequences. Also, higher incidences of adenomyomatosis (p = 0.012), metaplasia (p = 0.022) and higher enhanced expressions of iNOS and ROS were detected in Helicobacter pylori infected gallbladder mucosa (p<0.05). Conclusions Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder mucosa is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori existed in stomach. Helicobacter pylori is also correlated with gallbladder premalignant lesions including metaplasia and adenomyomatosis. The potential mechanism might be related with higher ROS/RNS production

  20. Oregon Indigenous Farmworkers: Results of Promotor Intervention on Pesticide Knowledge and Organophosphate Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda; Runkle, Jennifer D.; Samples, Julie; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine changes in health beliefs, pesticide safety knowledge, and biomarkers of pesticide exposure in indigenous farmworker who received enhanced pesticide safety training compared to those receiving the standard training. Methods Farmworkers in Oregon were randomly assigned to either a promotores pesticide safety training program or a standard video-based training. Spot urine samples were analyzed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolites. Pre/post intervention questionnaires were used to measure pesticide safety knowledge, health beliefs and work practices. Results Baseline to follow-up improvements in total pesticide knowledge scores were higher in the promotor group compared to the video. Pairwise differences in mean concentrations of DAP metabolite levels showed declines from baseline to follow-up for both intervention groups. Conclusions Results showed reductions in pesticide exposure in indigenous-language speaking farmworkers who receive enhanced pesticide safety training. PMID:24064776

  1. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000 endoscopies when the infection rate in the endoscoped population is about 60%. Iatrogenic transmission has also been shown to be the cause of the so-called 'acute mucosal lesion' syndrome in Japan. Traditional cleaning and alcohol rinsing is insufficient to eliminate endoscope/forceps contamination. Only meticulous adherence to disinfection recommendations guarantees H. pylori elimination.

  2. Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children (FITOC): results of a clinical observation study.

    PubMed

    Korsten-Reck, U; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Wolfarth, B; Dickhuth, H-H; Berg, A

    2005-04-01

    The Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children (FITOC) is an interdisciplinary, outpatient program for obese children consisting of regular physical exercise and comprehensive dietary and behavioral education. Parental involvement is required. The study is designed as a longitudinal, nonrandomized clinical observation study. An 8-month intensive phase preceded a follow-up phase of 1 y or longer. Data were collected from 31 groups comprising 496 children (267 girls, 229 boys), with an average age of 10.5 y. Body height and weight, fasting total-cholesterol (CH), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and physical performance were measured initially and after 8.5 months. A group of n = 35 obese children (16 girls, 19 boys) who did not take part in this intervention program served as controls. After the intensive intervention phase, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) as well as BMI deviation scores (BMI-SDS) decreased in both sexes (P<0.001). In the controls, BMI increased (P<0.001) and BMI-SDS remained constant. Whereas CH was only significantly lower (P<0.01) in boys after 8.5 months, LDL-C decreased significantly in both sexes. HDL-C tended to increase in both sexes (not significant). The controls showed no significant changes in CH, LDL-C and HDL-C. The fitness levels (W/kg body weight) improved in the intervention group (P<0.001), but not in the control group. The results indicate that obese children can be successfully treated in such an intervention program. BMI-SDS and risk factors decreased and physical performance improved. To maintain therapeutical success, we highly recommended that these children enroll in community-based exercise programs in order to help them maintain a more active lifestyle after the follow-up phase.

  3. Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of extracts of Helicobacter pylori detected by the Ames test and in the micronucleus test using human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Ohta, Kaori; Yuhara, Yuta; Ayabe, Yuka; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Oguma, Keiji; Otsuka, Takanao

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and the development of gastric carcinoma. Chronic H.pylori infection increases the frequency of mutation in gastric epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which infection of H.pylori leads to mutation in gastric epithelial cells is unclear. We suspected that components in H.pylori may be related to the mutagenic response associated with DNA alkylation, and could be detected with the Ames test using a more sensitive strain for alkylating agents. Our investigation revealed that an extract of H.pylori was mutagenic in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, which is deficient in the DNA repair of O(6)-methylguanine. The extract of H.pylori may contain methylating or alkylating agents, which might induce O (6)-alkylguanine in DNA. Mutagenicity of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in the Ames test with S.typhimurium TA1535 was enhanced significantly in the presence of the extract of H.pylori. The tested extracts of H.pylori resulted in a significant induction of micronuclei in human-derived lymphoblastoid cells. Heat instability and dialysis resistance of the extracts of H.pylori suggest that the mutagenic component in the extracts of H.pylori is a heat-unstable large molecule or a heat-labile small molecule strongly attached or adsorbed to a large molecule. Proteins in the extracts of H.pylori were subsequently fractionated using ammonium sulphate precipitation. However, all fractions expressed enhancing effects toward MNU mutagenicity. These results suggest the mutagenic component is a small molecule that is absorbed into proteins in the extract of H.pylori, which resist dialysis. Continuous and chronic exposure of gastric epithelial cells to the alkylative mutagenic component from H.pylori chronically infected in the stomach might be a causal factor in the gastric carcinogenesis

  4. An Additive Effect of Oral N-Acetyl Cysteine on Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Hamidian, Seyed Mohammad-Taghi; Aletaha, Najmeh-sadat; Taslimi, Reza; Montazeri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori is highly adapted to the gastric environment where it lives within or beneath the gastric mucous layer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of N-acetyl cysteine to the treatment regimen of H. pylori infection would affect eradication rates of the disease. Methods. A total of 79 H. pylori positive patients were randomized to two therapeutic groups. Both groups received a 14-day course of three-drug regimen including amoxicillin/clarithromycin/omeprazole. Experimental group (38 subjects) received NAC, and control group (41 subjects) received placebo, besides three-drug regimen. H. pylori eradication was evaluated by urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the cessation of therapy. Results. The rate of H. pylori eradication was 72.9% and 60.9% in experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.005). By logistic regression modeling, female gender (OR 3.68, 95% CI: 1.06–5.79; P = 0.040) and treatment including NAC (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 0.68–3.15; P = 0.021) were independent factors associated with H. pylori eradication. Conclusion. The results of the present study show that NAC has an additive effect on the eradication rates of H. pylori obtained with three-drug regimen and appears to be a promising means of eradicating H. pylori infection. PMID:26421191

  5. Helicobacter pylori reinfection with identical organisms: transmission by the patients' spouses.

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, K; Hentschel, E; Dragosics, B; Hirschl, A M

    1995-01-01

    Reinfection with Helicobacter pylori after eradication is responsible for the recurrence of duodenal ulcer disease. The mode of transmission has not yet been established. In this study, 18 patients with chronic duodenal ulcers in whom H pylori had been eradicated with amoxicillin and metronidazole were entered into a prospective follow up study. Control endoscopies were performed 4, 8, 14, 27, and 43 months after starting treatment and the results of direct tests were compared with the kinetics of H pylori specific IgG titres. After eradication there was a noticeable and consistent fall in anti-H pylori IgG, while reinfections were characterised by a significant increase in specific titres. Reinfection was detected in two patients after 14 and 43 months, respectively. The H pylori strains responsible for these reinfections, the corresponding pretreatment isolates, and the strains isolated from the spouses of these patients were examined by polymerase chain reaction based DNA fingerprinting. Analysis showed that reinfection had been caused by the same H pylori strain and identified the spouses of these patients as carriers of the identical strain. Considering the genomic diversity and the interpatient heterogeneity of H pylori these results suggest a person to person transmission of H pylori reinfection. By the end of the observation period reflux oesophagitis had developed in 10 of the 16 patients who had not been reinfected. This surprising finding may be explained by the changed eating habits of patients after healing of duodenal ulcer disease. Images p832-a PMID:7615268

  6. Genotypic and phenotypic variation of Lewis antigen expression in geographically diverse Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mary Ann; Zhang, William; Shah, Sunny; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo L.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a persistent colonizer of the human gastric mucosa, which can lead to the development peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinomas. However, H. pylori can asymptomatically colonize a host for years. One factor that has been hypothesized to contribute to such persistence is the production of Lewis (Le) antigens in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the bacterial outer membrane as a form of molecular mimicry, since humans also express these antigens on their gastric mucosa. Humans and H. pylori both are polymorphic for Le expression, which is driven in H. pylori by variation at the Le synthesis loci. In this report we sought to characterize Le genotypic and phenotypic variation in geographically diverse H. pylori isolates. Materials and Methods From patients undergoing endoscopy in 29 countries, we determined Le phenotypes of 78 H. pylori strains, and performed genotyping of the galT and β-(1,3)galT loci in 113 H. pylori strains. Results Le antigen phenotyping revealed a significant (p <0.0001) association between type 1 (Lea and Leb) expression and strains of East-Asian origin. Genotyping revealed a significant correlation between strain origin and the size of the promoter region upstream of the Le synthesis gene, galT (p <0.0001). Conclusion These results indicate that the heterogeneity of human Le phenotypes are reflected in their H. pylori colonizing strains, and suggest new loci that can be studied to assess variation of Le expression. PMID:22059399

  7. Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology

    PubMed Central

    Grave, Ewa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Soh; Tamura, Arisa; Ohtaki-Mizoguchi, Takako; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Otaka, Michiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is used to treat patients suffering from peptic ulcers and gastritis. We examined the effect of GGA on Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative factor of gastrointestinal diseases. Previously, we have reported that GGA binds specifically to the molecular chaperone HSP70. In this paper, we report that GGA bounds to H. pylori HSP70 (product of the DnaK gene) with 26-times higher affinity than to human HSP70, and induced large conformational changes as observed from surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Binding of GGA suppressed the activity of the H. pylori chaperone. GGA also altered several characteristics of H. pylori cells. GGA-treated cells elicited enhanced interleukin-8 production by gastric cancer cell lines and potentiated susceptibility to complement as compared to untreated cells. GGA also caused morphological alterations in H. pylori as reflected in fewer coccoid-like cells, suggesting that GGA converts H. pylori to an actively dividing, spiral state (vegetative form) from a non-growing, coccoid state. This morphological conversion by GGA resulted in accelerated growth of H. pylori. These results suggest a model in which GGA sensitizes H. pylori to antibiotic treatment by converting the cells to an actively growing state. PMID:26345206

  8. Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology.

    PubMed

    Grave, Ewa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Soh; Tamura, Arisa; Ohtaki-Mizoguchi, Takako; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Otaka, Michiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2015-09-08

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is used to treat patients suffering from peptic ulcers and gastritis. We examined the effect of GGA on Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative factor of gastrointestinal diseases. Previously, we have reported that GGA binds specifically to the molecular chaperone HSP70. In this paper, we report that GGA bounds to H. pylori HSP70 (product of the DnaK gene) with 26-times higher affinity than to human HSP70, and induced large conformational changes as observed from surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Binding of GGA suppressed the activity of the H. pylori chaperone. GGA also altered several characteristics of H. pylori cells. GGA-treated cells elicited enhanced interleukin-8 production by gastric cancer cell lines and potentiated susceptibility to complement as compared to untreated cells. GGA also caused morphological alterations in H. pylori as reflected in fewer coccoid-like cells, suggesting that GGA converts H. pylori to an actively dividing, spiral state (vegetative form) from a non-growing, coccoid state. This morphological conversion by GGA resulted in accelerated growth of H. pylori. These results suggest a model in which GGA sensitizes H. pylori to antibiotic treatment by converting the cells to an actively growing state.

  9. Serum antibody responses to the N-acetylneuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D J; Evans, D G; Smith, K E; Graham, D Y

    1989-01-01

    We recently reported that Campylobacter pylori possesses a surface-associated fibrillar hemagglutinin which has an affinity for N-acetylneuraminyllactose; this hemagglutinin may function as a colonization factor for attachment to the gastric epithelium. In the present study we examined serum samples obtained from 65 C. pylori-infected individuals with gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers, or both and from 121 asymptomatic volunteers, including 62 who were infected with C. pylori, for immunoglobulin G (IgG) specific for the C. pylori neuramin-lactose-binding hemagglutinin (NLBH). The NLBH purified from a single isolate was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A positive result was obtained with serum from 81.5% (53 of 65) of the individuals with ulcers, 67.7% (42 of 62) of the C. pylori-infected volunteers, and 1.7% (1 of 59) of the C. pylori-negative volunteers. This result confirms that NLBH is produced in vivo. There are several possible explanations for the fact that only 75% of 127 C. pylori-infected individuals were positive for anti-NLBH IgG in serum. We favor the hypothesis that there are probably several antigenically distinct C. pylori NLBHs, i.e., NLBHs which would stimulate antibody that was undetectable by the antigen used in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay described here. PMID:2917777

  10. The Role of Helicobacter pylori in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ross; Kilty, Shaun J; Hutton, Brian; Bonaparte, James P

    2017-02-01

    Objective The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux. The secondary objective was determining if H pylori eradication leads to greater symptom improvement in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux as compared with standard proton pump inhibitor therapy alone. Data Sources EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, European Union Clinical Trials Register, Cochrane Library databases of clinical trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Review Methods A systematic review was performed of studies assessing the diagnosis or treatment of H pylori among patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series were included. A meta-analysis of prevalence data and assessment of heterogeneity was performed on relevant studies. Results Fourteen studies were analyzed in the review, with 13 eligible for the meta-analysis. We determined that the prevalence of H pylori among patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux was 43.9% (95% confidence interval, 32.1-56.5). The heterogeneity of studies was high, with an overall I(2) value of 92.3%. We were unable to quantitatively assess findings for our secondary outcome, since H pylori identification and treatment were not the primary focus of the majority of studies. Conclusion There is a high rate of H pylori infection among patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux. The infection rate in North America and Western Europe has not been adequately studied. There is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation regarding the testing and treatment of H pylori infection among patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

  11. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD.

  12. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-06-20

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent.

  13. Efficacy of a “Rescue” Ciprofloxacin-Based Regimen for Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection after Treatment Failures

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria Pina; Tadeu, Vincenza; Are, Bianca; Mura, Ida; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Massarelli, Giovannino; Piana, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a ciprofloxacin-based regimen for H. pylori eradication failures as an alternative to bismuth based quadruple therapy. Methods. Design: prospective single-center study. Patients in whom a first eradication trial with omeprazole/esomeprazole, clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or tinidazole/metronidazole had failed were included. H. pylori status: established by histology, rapide urease test and polymerase chain reaction. Intervention: esomeprazole 20 mg, ciprofloxacin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg, administered together before breakfast and dinner for 10 days. Susceptibility testing was performed by the Epsilometer test. Ciprofloxacin resistance was defined as a MIC of ≥1 μg/mL. Eradication was established by a negative 13C-UBT and 4–6 weeks post-therapy. Efficacy and side effects were determined. Results. 34 patients were enrolled, 32 completed the study. Compliance was excellent (100%). Side effects were mild. Ciprofloxacin-based therapy cured 65% (22/34) of patients by intention to treat and 69% (22/32) per protocol analysis. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was 8%. Conclusions. The effectiveness of ciprofloxacin-based therapy was greatly reduced despite the high prevalence of ciprofloxacin sensitive H. pylori strains. Bismuth based quadruple therapy still remain the best choice as a “rescue” regimen in our region. PMID:22666234

  14. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Kuder, Julia F; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva; Naumova, Elena N; Nelson, Miriam E; Economos, Christina D

    2013-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child's day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322.

  15. [Internet-based "e-training" as exercise intervention for health promotion: results from 2 intervention studies].

    PubMed

    Peters, S; Hentschke, C; Pfeifer, K

    2013-06-01

    Internet-based interventions open a chance to improve the sustainability of rehabilitation in general and of exercise therapy in particular. The internet can be the sole intervention component on the one hand as well as a supportive tool for a traditional "Face-to-Face" intervention on the other hand. In this article, 2 studies in the setting of health promotion are outlined. Those studies evaluated an e-Training program in different administration forms. Study 1: 90 adults with a sedentary lifestyle were randomized into 3 treatment groups: Group fitness ("Face-to-Face"), individually supervised training ("Face-to-Face") and e-Training (internet-based). The respective intervention took place across 3 months and each continued for a maintenance phase of 4 months. Muscular fitness, sports activities and health-related quality of life were assessed at 3 points in time: right before the intervention, after the first 3 months, and finally, after the maintenance -phase. Study 2: 509 adults with a high self-rated risk of recurrent back pain participated in the intervention "Rückengesundheit ERlangen", which lasted for 6 months: a combined program with its content delivered "Face-to-Face" and via e-Training. The analysis was conducted in a pre-post design without control group. Several psychosocial outcome variables were assessed (e.g., fear-avoidance beliefs/FABQ-D) and the cardio-pulmonary endurance capacity. In study 1 and in study 2, significant improvements over time in all intervention groups were measured in nearly all of the dependent variables, with the exception of the physical component summary of health-related quality of life (HRQL) (SF-36) in study 1, as well as its mental component summary (SF-36) and the endurance capacity in study 2. In study 1, the graphical comparison (confidence interval) of e-Training with the "Face-to-Face" interventions shows a similar efficacy of both of them. A gender-specific evaluation reveals that the mental component of HRQL

  16. [Clinical analysis of unsuccessful Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    PubMed

    Szadkowski, Aleksander; Chojnacki, Jan; Klupińska, Grazyna; Wojtuń, Stanisław

    2004-01-01

    Numerous medical reports claim that the effectiveness of H. pylori therapy decreases. The aim of the study was the analysis of the reasons of this phenomenon on own material. The study included 437 subjects, aged 19-64 years with chronic gastritis with H. pylori infection. All patients were subjected to: endoscopy, fast urease test, breath test (UBT-13C) and antibody titer in IgG class was determined. In the case of ineffective therapy bacteriological examination was performed. In the first stage of the therapy pantoprazol (2 x 40 mg) and amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg) with metronidazol (2 x 500 mg) were applied in 282 subjects for 7 days (group I), amoxicillin with clarithromycin (2 x 500 mg) in 182 subjects (group II) and clarithromycin with metronidazol in 43 subjects (group III). After 6 weeks negative breath test was observed on average in 65.68% without significant differences between the groups. Ineffective therapy was more frequent in subjects over 45 years of age with high intensity of H. pylori colonization and earlier treated with antibiotics due to other reasons; such differences were not observed dependently on the antibody titer. In the second stage of the therapy pantoprazol was still administered but antibacterial drugs were changed among the groups. From among 150 subjects eradication was obtained in 117 (78.0%). In 33 subjects with ineffective therapy bacteriological examination of gastric bioptates confirmed antibiotic resistance in 75.76%. It results from the study that the applied therapy, consistent with current recommendations of the experts, does not ensure H. pylori eradication in part of the patients, what points to the necessity of searching for other effective antibiotics.

  17. An African origin for the intimate association between humans and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Linz, Bodo; Balloux, François; Moodley, Yoshan; Manica, Andrea; Liu, Hua; Roumagnac, Philippe; Falush, Daniel; Stamer, Christiana; Prugnolle, Franck; van der Merwe, Schalk W; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y; Perez-Trallero, Emilio; Wadstrom, Torkel; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2007-02-22

    Infection of the stomach by Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous among humans. However, although H. pylori strains from different geographic areas are associated with clear phylogeographic differentiation, the age of an association between these bacteria with humans remains highly controversial. Here we show, using sequences from a large data set of bacterial strains that, as in humans, genetic diversity in H. pylori decreases with geographic distance from east Africa, the cradle of modern humans. We also observe similar clines of genetic isolation by distance (IBD) for both H. pylori and its human host at a worldwide scale. Like humans, simulations indicate that H. pylori seems to have spread from east Africa around 58,000 yr ago. Even at more restricted geographic scales, where IBD tends to become blurred, principal component clines in H. pylori from Europe strongly resemble the classical clines for Europeans described by Cavalli-Sforza and colleagues. Taken together, our results establish that anatomically modern humans were already infected by H. pylori before their migrations from Africa and demonstrate that H. pylori has remained intimately associated with their human host populations ever since.

  18. Association of Helicobacter pylori and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Zeyrek, Dost; Zeyrek, Fadile; Cakmak, Alpay; Cekin, Abdurrahim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the frequency and the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in children with recurrent abdominal pain. The study group included 98 patients and 88 healthy controls. Patients' sera were examined for anti-H. pylori specific IgG antibodies using H. pylori IgG ELISA. Analysis of stool samples was carried out by the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of giardiasis, all stool samples were examined by saline-Lugol and formalin-ethyl-acetate sedimentation methods. H. pylori was detected in 40 (49.0%) patients and 40 (45.5%) controls. G. intestinalis was detected in 30 (30.6%) patients and 18 (20.4%) controls. There was no significant difference in frequency between the groups in the distribution of H. pylori (p=0.6) and giardiasis (p=0.4). The frequency of the combination of H. pylori infection and giardiasis in the patient groups was 22.4% compared to 6.8% in the control groups and this result was statistically significant (p=0.002). It seems that the relationship of H. pylori infection and giardiasis represent an important ethiologic factor in children with recurrent abdominal pain.

  19. Activation of Helicobacter pylori causes either autoimmune thyroid diseases or carcinogenesis in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Astl, J; Šterzl, I

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in stimulation of immune system, development of autoimmune endocrinopathies as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and on other hand induction of immunosupresion activates gastric and extra-gastric diseases such as gastric ulcer or cancer. It causes persistent lifelong infection despite local and systemic immune response. Our results indicate that Helicobacter pylori might cause inhibition of the specific cellular immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with or without autoimmune diseases such as AT. We cannot also declare the carcinogenic effect in oropharynx. However the association of any infection agents and cancerogenesis exists. The adherence of Helicobacter pylori expression and enlargement of benign lymphatic tissue and the high incidence of the DNA of Helicobacter pylori in laryngopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer is reality. LTT appears to be a good tool for detection of immune memory cellular response in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and AT. All these complications of Helicobacter pylori infection can be abrogated by successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  20. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia; Barrado, Andrés; Janjetic, Mariana; Balcarce, Norma; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; Oshiro, Masaru; Calcagno, María L; Sarrasague, Margarita Martinez; Fuda, Julián; Weill, Ricardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Boccio, José

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity. METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroente-rology Unit of the Children Hospital “Sor Maria Ludovica” were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population. RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in this population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03) and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori. PMID:16981273

  1. The relationship between cytotoxin-associated gene A positive Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Ekiz, Fuat; Deveci, Murat; Sahin, Mustafa; Topaloglu, Oya; Karbek, Basak; Tutal, Esra; Ginis, Zeynep; Cakal, Erman; Ozbek, Mustafa; Yuksel, Osman; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between cagA [cytotoxin-associated gene A] positivity and thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid volume. This prospective study included 78 Helicobacter pylori-positive (H. pylori) dyspeptic patients in the study group, and 50 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched H. pylori-negative dyspeptic patients in the control group. All the controls were evaluated via upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy or breath test, and were found as H. pylori negative. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained via endoscopy and histological examination was performed for documentation of H. pylori. In all, 55.1% (n = 43) of the H. pylori-positive patients were cagA positive. There was no significant difference in metabolic syndrome parameters or thyroid function test results between the study and control groups. The frequency of anti-TPO and Hashimoto's thyroiditis positivity was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Thyroid volume was higher and severe parenchymal heterogeneity was more common in the H. pylori-positive patients. H. pylori infection might be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease and high thyroid volume in patients diagnosed with histological evaluation. However, cagA positivity has no additional effect on these parameters.

  2. Identification of Viable Helicobacter pylori in Drinking Water Supplies by Cultural and Molecular Techniques.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Paula; Moreno, Yolanda; Ferrús, M Antonía

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic bacterial infection in humans, directly related to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been suggested that H. pylori can be acquired through different transmission routes, including water. In this study, culture and qPCR were used to detect and identify the presence of H. pylori in drinking water. Furthermore, the combined techniques PMA-qPCR and DVC-FISH were applied for detection of viable cells of H. pylori. Among 24 drinking water samples, 16 samples were positive for the presence of H. pylori, but viable cells were only detected in six samples. Characteristic colonies, covered by a mass of bacterial unspecific growth, were observed on selective agar plates from an only sample, after enrichment. The mixed culture was submitted to DVC-FISH and qPCR analysis, followed by sequencing of the amplicons. Molecular techniques confirmed the growth of H. pylori on the agar plate. Our results demonstrate for the first time that H. pylori can survive and be potentially infective in drinking water, showing that water distribution systems could be a potential route for H. pylori transmission. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhe; Qin, Yu'e; Liu, Yi; Lu, Yi; Munker, Stefan; Chen, Lihua; Yu, Chaohui; Chen, Peng; Li, Youming

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with extragastric diseases. The thyroid may be one of the targets of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to investigate whether H. pylori infections were associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. A total of 988 euthyroid subjects from China were included in this cross-sectional study. Four hundred thirty-five (44.0%) subjects were diagnosed as having thyroid nodules, and 486 (49.2%) were diagnosed with H. pylori infections. The thyroid nodules group had a higher proportion of H. pylori infections than the control group (P = 0.002). Free thyroxine (FT4) levels were lower and the prevalence of thyroid nodules was higher in patients with H. pylori infection compared to those without infection, even after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI; all P < 0.05). The prevalence of H. pylori infection showed a decreasing trend as serum FT4 level increased (P(trend) = 0.020). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of thyroid nodules (odds ratio: 1.390, 95% confidence interval: 1.059-1.824, P = 0.018). Our results suggested that H. pylori infections were positively associated with the presence of thyroid nodules in the euthyroid population, whose thyroid functions were in the reference range.

  4. Activities of muscadine grape skin and quercetin against Helicobacter pylori infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, J C; Wang, J; Kasman, L; Jiang, X; Haley-Zitlin, V

    2011-01-01

    To explore the preventative potential of muscadine grape skin (MGS) and the single flavonoid, quercetin, as an alternative means for ameliorating Helicobacter pylori infection and/or the H. pylori-induced inflammatory response in mice. The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of MGS and quercetin, a major phenolic constituent, were evaluated against H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. The antimicrobial activity of quercetin was evaluated against 11 H. pylori strains in vitro with inhibition of all strains at 128-64 μg ml(-1) . In vivo studies showed a moderate reduction in H. pylori counts following treatment with 5 and 10% MGS or quercetin (25 mg kg(-1) body weight) in addition to significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IFN-γ) when compared with untreated mice. MGS and quercetin did not significantly reduce H. pylori growth in a mouse model. However, these products were effective in regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection. Our results suggest that H. pylori infection may be reduced or prevented via the consumption of fruits rich in certain phenolic compounds (e.g. quercetin) such as muscadine grapes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  6. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chi; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  7. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection

    PubMed Central

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection. PMID:26855818

  8. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  9. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and adherence to gastric mucosal cells by Pycnogenol.

    PubMed

    Rohdewald, Peter; Beil, Winfried

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains has necessitated the identification of alternative additive therapies for the treatment of this infection. The study tested whether a specific pine bark extract (Pycnogenol is effective in inhibiting the growth and adherence of H. pylori in vitro. Inhibition of H. pylori growth by Pycnogenol was tested in liquid medium as well as in an in vitro model by using sessile bacteria attached to AGS cells. Adherence was determined by co-incubation of gastric cells with Pycnogenol and H. pylori in vitro. Pycnogenol inhibited H. pylori growth in suspension with an MIC(50) of 12.5 microg/mL. Growth of H. pylori in infected cells was reduced to 10% of the control value by 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells was reduced by 70% after 3 h incubation with 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. The results show a significant, yet limited inhibition of growth and adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells by Pycnogenol. In vivo studies have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of these findings.

  10. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: Possible role of bacterium in liver and pancreas diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth MA; Roesler, Bruna M; Zeitune, José MR

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an ancient microorganism that has co-evolved with humans for over 60000 years. This bacterium typically colonizes the human stomach and it is currently recognized as the most common infectious pathogen of the gastroduodenal tract. Although its chronic infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, dysplasia, neoplasia, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, it has been suggested the possible association of H. pylori infection with several extragastric effects including hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Since a microorganism resembling H. pylori was detected in samples from patients with hepatobiliary disorders, several reports have been discussed the possible role of bacteria in hepatic diseases as hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis. Additionally, studies have reported the possible association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic diseases, especially because it has been suggested that this infection could change the pancreatic physiology. Some of them have related a possible association between the microorganism and pancreatic cancer. H. pylori infection has also been suggested to play a role in the acute and chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis, autoimmune pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Considering that association of H. pylori to liver and pancreas diseases needs further clarification, our work offers a review about the results of some investigations related to the potential pathogenicity of H. pylori in these extragastric diseases. PMID:26730276

  11. Current views of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li-Jing; Mao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and may play a potential role in certain extra-intestinal diseases. H. pylori infection are mainly acquired during childhood, and it has been reported that in endemic areas of China the infection rates are extraordinarily higher in HSP children, particular those with abdominal manifestations. Furthermore, eradication therapy may ameliorate Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) manifestations and decrease the recurrence of HSP. Therefore, results suggested that detection of H. pylori infection by appropriate method ought to be applied in HSP children. Current evidences indicate that local injury of gastric mucosa and immunological events induced by H. pylori infection are involved in the development of HSP. Increased serum IgA, cryoglobulins, C3 levels, autoimmunity, proinflammatory substances and molecular mimicry inducing immune complex and cross-reactive antibodies caused by H. pylori infection might play their roles in the course of HSP. However, there are no investigations confirming the causality between H. pylori infection and HSP, and the pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. More bench and clinical studies need to be executed to elaborate the complex association between H. pylori and HSP. PMID:26862506

  12. An African origin for the intimate association between humans and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Yoshan; Manica, Andrea; Liu, Hua; Roumagnac, Philippe; Falush, Daniel; Stamer, Christiana; Prugnolle, Franck; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y.; Perez-Trallero, Emilio; Wadstrom, Torkel; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Infection of the stomach by Helicobacter pylori is ubiquitous among humans. However, while H. pylori strains from different geographic areas are associated with clear phylogeographic differentiation1-4, the age of an association between these bacteria with humans remains highly controversial5, 6. Here we show, using sequences from a large dataset of bacterial strains that, as in humans, genetic diversity in H. pylori decreases with geographic distance from East Africa, the cradle of modern humans. We also observe similar clines of genetic isolation by distance (IBD) for both H. pylori and its human host at a worldwide scale. Like humans, simulations indicate that H. pylori seems to have spread from East Africa around 58,000 years ago. Even at more restricted geographic scales, where IBD tends to become blurred, principal component clines in H. pylori from Europe strongly resemble the classical clines for Europeans described by Cavalli-Sforza and colleagues7. Taken together, our results establish that anatomically modern humans were already infected by H. pylori prior to their migrations from Africa and demonstrate that H. pylori has remained intimately associated with their human host populations ever since. PMID:17287725

  13. NikR mediates nickel-responsive transcriptional induction of urease expression in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Poppelaars, Sophie W; Davies, Beverly J; Stoof, Jeroen; Bereswill, Stefan; Kist, Manfred; Penn, Charles W; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G

    2002-06-01

    The important human pathogen Helicobacter pylori requires the abundant expression and activity of its urease enzyme for colonization of the gastric mucosa. The transcription, expression, and activity of H. pylori urease were previously demonstrated to be induced by nickel supplementation of growth media. Here it is demonstrated that the HP1338 protein, an ortholog of the Escherichia coli nickel regulatory protein NikR, mediates nickel-responsive induction of urease expression in H. pylori. Mutation of the HP1338 gene (nikR) of H. pylori strain 26695 resulted in significant growth inhibition of the nikR mutant in the presence of supplementation with NiCl(2) at > or =100 microM, whereas the wild-type strain tolerated more than 10-fold-higher levels of NiCl(2). Mutation of nikR did not affect urease subunit expression or urease enzyme activity in unsupplemented growth media. However, the nickel-induced increase in urease subunit expression and urease enzyme activity observed in wild-type H. pylori was absent in the H. pylori nikR mutant. A similar lack of nickel responsiveness was observed upon removal of a 19-bp palindromic sequence in the ureA promoter, as demonstrated by using a genomic ureA::lacZ reporter gene fusion. In conclusion, the H. pylori NikR protein and a 19-bp operator sequence in the ureA promoter are both essential for nickel-responsive induction of urease expression in H. pylori.

  14. Influence of efflux pump inhibitors on the multidrug resistance of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Tang, Fu-Ai; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) on multidrug resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated and cultured on Brucella agar plates with 10% sheep’s blood. The multidrug resistant (MDR) H. pylori were obtained with the inducer chloramphenicol by repeated doubling of the concentration until no colony was seen, then the susceptibilities of the MDR strains and their parents to 9 antibiotics were assessed with agar dilution tests. The present study included periods before and after the advent of the EPIs, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), reserpine and pantoprazole), and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined accordingly. In the same way, the effects of 5 proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), used in treatment of H. pylori infection, on MICs of antibiotics were evaluated. RESULTS: Four strains of MDR H. pylori were induced successfully, and the antibiotic susceptibilities of MDR strains were partly restored by CCCP and pantoprazole, but there was little effect of reserpine. Rabeprazole was the most effective of the 5 PPIs which could decrease the MICs of antibiotics for MDR H. pylori significantly. CONCLUSION: In vitro, some EPIs can strengthen the activities of different antibiotics which are the putative substrates of the efflux pump system in H. pylori. PMID:20222174

  15. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  16. Sparking a Reading Revolution: Results of Early Literacy Interventions in Egypt and Jordan.

    PubMed

    Gove, Amber; Brombacher, Aarnout; Ward-Brent, Michelle

    2017-03-01

    This article examines the effects of two early grade reading interventions in two Arabic-speaking contexts (Egypt and Jordan), developed in partnership with ministries of education. The interventions relied on similar research bases for improving reading instruction in Arabic. In Egypt, the results of a 166-school pilot led to the national scale-up of the Early Grade Reading Program for more than 4 million children in grades 1-3. Informed by Egypt's experience, a demonstration effort in 43 schools led to a national rollout in Jordan's 2,651 public primary schools and the creation of a remediation program. We reflect on the conditions that influenced the pilot and scale-up outcomes given the commitments made to "inclusive and equitable quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all" under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Cullen, Thomas W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori is one of several pathogens that persist within the host despite a robust immune response. H. pylori elicits a proinflammatory response from host epithelia, resulting in the recruitment of immune cells which manifests as gastritis. Relatively little is known about how H. pylori survives antimicrobials, including calprotectin (CP), which is present during the inflammatory response. The data presented here suggest that one way H. pylori survives the nutrient sequestration by CP is through alteration of its outer membrane. CP-treated H. pylori demonstrates increased bacterial fitness in response to further coculture with CP. Moreover, CP-treated H. pylori cultures form biofilms and demonstrate decreased cell surface hydrophobicity. In response to CP, the H. pylori Lpx lipid A biosynthetic enzymes are not fully functional. The lipid A molecules observed in H. pylori cultures treated with CP indicate that the LpxF, LpxL, and LpxR enzyme functions are perturbed. Transcriptional analysis of lpxF, lpxL, and lpxR indicates that metal restriction by CP does not control this pathway through transcriptional regulation. Analyses of H. pylori lpx mutants reveal that loss of LpxF and LpxL results in increased fitness, similar to what is observed in the presence of CP; moreover, these mutants have significantly increased biofilm formation and reduced cell surface hydrophobicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism of H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobial activity of CP via lipid A modification strategies and resulting biofilm formation. PMID:26646009

  18. Can senior volunteers deliver reminiscence and creative activity interventions? Results of the legacy intervention family enactment randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allen, Rebecca S; Harris, Grant M; Burgio, Louis D; Azuero, Casey B; Miller, Leslie A; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K; Csikai, Ellen L; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of the time left to live, or the expectation of the patient's death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline assessments, 28 completed postintervention and 24 completed follow-up assessments. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by the research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P=0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P=0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning of Life Scale (P=0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients' emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P=0.024). Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients' emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers' meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In situ targeted MRI detection of Helicobacter pylori with stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunjie; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Ding; Zou, Yuxiu; Xu, Yiting; Wang, Xuewei; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is implicated in the aetiology of many diseases. Despite numerous studies, a painless, fast and direct method for the in situ detection of H. pylori remains a challenge, mainly due to the strong acidic/enzymatic environment of the gastric mucosa. Herein, we report the use of stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules (MGNs), for in situ targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of H. pylori. Several layers of graphene as the shell effectively protect the magnetic core from corrosion while retaining the superior contrast effect for MRI in the gastric environment. Boronic-polyethylene glycol molecules were synthesized and modified on the MGN surface for targeted MRI detection. In a mouse model of H. pylori-induced infection, H. pylori was specifically detected through both T2-weighted MR imaging and Raman gastric mucosa imaging using functionalized MGNs. These results indicated that enhancement of MRI using MGNs may be a promising diagnostic and bioimaging platform for very harsh conditions. PMID:28643777

  20. Characterization of the Cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori from naturally infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Emma C; Deck, Samuel L; Entwistle, Hasan D; Hansen, Lori M; Solnick, Jay V

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori commonly infects the epithelial layer of the human stomach and in some individuals causes peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma or gastric lymphoma. Helicobacter pylori is a genetically diverse species, and the most important bacterial virulence factor that increases the risk of developing disease, versus asymptomatic colonization, is the cytotoxin associated gene pathogenicity island (cagPAI). Socially housed rhesus macaques are often naturally infected with H. pylori similar to that which colonizes humans, but little is known about the cagPAI. Here we show that H. pylori strains isolated from naturally infected rhesus macaques have a cagPAI very similar to that found in human clinical isolates, and like human isolates, it encodes a functional type IV secretion system. These results provide further support for the relevance of rhesus macaques as a valid experimental model for H. pylori infection in humans. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Serum Helicobacter pylori NapA antibody as a potential biomarker for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Huimin; Zhang, Tingting; Ren, Xiyun; Nadolny, Christina; Dong, Xiaoqun; Huang, Lina; Yuan, Kexin; Tian, Wenjing; Jia, Yunhe

    2014-02-20

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is strongly associated with gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected individuals ever develop gastric cancer. This risk stratification may be in part due to differences among strains. The relationship between neutrophil-activating protein (NapA) and gastric cancer is unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of NapA as a biomarker in gastric cancer. We used enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the status of H. pylori infection. Indirect ELISA method was used for detection of NapA antibody titer in the serum of H. pylori infected individuals. Unconditional logistic regressions were adopted to analyze the variables and determine the association of NapA and gastric cancer. The results of study indicated serum H. pylori NapA antibody level were associated with a reduced risk for development of gastric cancer. It may be used in conjugation with other indicators for gastric cancer detection.

  2. Management of Helicobacter pylori infection-the Maastricht V/Florence Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Malfertheiner, P; Megraud, F; O'Morain, C A; Gisbert, J P; Kuipers, E J; Axon, A T; Bazzoli, F; Gasbarrini, A; Atherton, J; Graham, D Y; Hunt, R; Moayyedi, P; Rokkas, T; Rugge, M; Selgrad, M; Suerbaum, S; Sugano, K; El-Omar, E M

    2017-01-01

    Important progress has been made in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection and in this fifth edition of the Maastricht Consensus Report, key aspects related to the clinical role of H. pylori were re-evaluated in 2015. In the Maastricht V/Florence Consensus Conference, 43 experts from 24 countries examined new data related to H. pylori in five subdivided workshops: (1) Indications/Associations, (2) Diagnosis, (3) Treatment, (4) Prevention/Public Health, (5) H. pylori and the Gastric Microbiota. The results of the individual workshops were presented to a final consensus voting that included all participants. Recommendations are provided on the basis of the best available evidence and relevance to the management of H. pylori infection in the various clinical scenarios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Helicobacter pylori: the balance between a role as colonizer and pathogen.

    PubMed

    Otero, Laura Llorca; Ruiz, Victoria E; Perez Perez, Guillermo I

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Helicobacter pylori from the human stomach produced significant changes in how gastroenterologists, immunologists, epidemiologists, pathologists and microbiologists have approached gastro-duodenal diseases in the last half of the XX century. However, research of this organism has progressed greatly in the first decade of this century, evidence suggest that H. pylori is associated with disease only in humans older than 40 years, while, the lack of H. pylori colonization is associated with the emergence of new diseases, particularly in younger individuals. These differing effects of H. pylori colonization have created two contrasting concepts: the 'bad' and the 'good' Helicobacter. Following from renewed interest in the normal human microbiome, we need to reconsider our definitions and perhaps recognize that H. pylori might be a normal member of the human gastric microbiome in ancient humans that gradually, as results of the improvement in our environment, is disappearing.

  4. Unusual Helicobacter pylori in gastric resection specimens: an old friend with a new look.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Snyder, Patricia; Owens, Scott R

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemical staining is useful in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. The authors encountered gastric resection specimens with an unusual pattern of reactivity on H pylori immunostains where the typical morphology of the organism was not recognizable, but the characteristic chronic gastritis associated with infection was present. The authors sought to explore this phenomenon by retrospectively reviewing and immunostaining 28 gastric resection specimens for H pylori. Six cases with large clumps of immunohistochemically positive but morphologically unrecognizable material were identified on light microscopy, corresponding on electron microscopy to clusters of predominantly coccoid H pylori, some located intracellularly. Such organisms were not identifiable without immunohistochemistry, and the phenomenon was not encountered in gastric biopsies. The authors conclude that this staining pattern reflects true H pylori infection that is not diagnosable without immunohistochemistry. Based on its occurrence only in resections, it may be the result of hypoxic or other stress induced when the mucosa is not promptly fixed.

  5. Preliminary investigations into surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiaying; Sun, Yinjing; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Liu, Yu; Xie, Cao; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports investigations into the preparation and characterization of surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (SMINs) designed to adhere to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Imprinted nanoparticles were prepared by the inverse microemulsion polymerization method. A fraction of Lpp20, an outer membrane protein of H. pylori known as NQA, was chosen as template and modified with myristic acid to facilitate its localization on the surface of the nanoparticles. The interaction between these SMINs with the template NQA were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), change in zeta potential and fluorescence polarization (FP). The results were highly consistent in demonstrating a preferential recognition of the template NQA for SMINs compared with the control nanoparticles. In vitro experiments also indicate that such SMINs are able to adhere to H. pylori and may be useful for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26713273

  6. In situ targeted MRI detection of Helicobacter pylori with stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunjie; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Ding, Ding; Zou, Yuxiu; Xu, Yiting; Wang, Xuewei; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Tan, Weihong

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is implicated in the aetiology of many diseases. Despite numerous studies, a painless, fast and direct method for the in situ detection of H. pylori remains a challenge, mainly due to the strong acidic/enzymatic environment of the gastric mucosa. Herein, we report the use of stable magnetic graphitic nanocapsules (MGNs), for in situ targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of H. pylori. Several layers of graphene as the shell effectively protect the magnetic core from corrosion while retaining the superior contrast effect for MRI in the gastric environment. Boronic-polyethylene glycol molecules were synthesized and modified on the MGN surface for targeted MRI detection. In a mouse model of H. pylori-induced infection, H. pylori was specifically detected through both T2-weighted MR imaging and Raman gastric mucosa imaging using functionalized MGNs. These results indicated that enhancement of MRI using MGNs may be a promising diagnostic and bioimaging platform for very harsh conditions.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of tests for Helicobacter pylori in an Alaska Native population

    PubMed Central

    Bruden, Dana L; Bruce, Michael G; Miernyk, Karen M; Morris, Julie; Hurlburt, Debby; Hennessy, Thomas W; Peters, Helen; Sacco, Frank; Parkinson, Alan J; McMahon, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of two non-invasive tests in a population of Alaska Native persons. High rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, H. pylori treatment failure, and gastric cancer in this population necessitate documentation of infection status at multiple time points over a patient’s life. METHODS: In 280 patients undergoing endoscopy, H. pylori was diagnosed by culture, histology, rapid urease test, 13C urea breath test (UBT), and immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori in serum. The performances of 13C-UBT and antibody test were compared to a gold standard defined by a positive H. pylori test by culture or, in case of a negative culture result, by positive histology and a positive rapid urease test. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the 13C-UBT were 93% and 88%, respectively, relative to the gold standard. The antibody test had an equivalent sensitivity of 93% with a reduced specificity of 68%. The false positive results for the antibody test were associated with previous treatment for an H. pylori infection [relative risk (RR) = 2.8]. High levels of antibodies to H. pylori were associated with chronic gastritis and male gender, while high scores in the 13C-UBT test were associated with older age and with the H. pylori bacteria load on histological examination (RR = 4.4). CONCLUSION: The 13C-UBT outperformed the antibody test for H. pylori and could be used when a non-invasive test is clinically necessary to document treatment outcome or when monitoring for reinfection. PMID:22180710

  8. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease is known as the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Relation between this disease and some infections such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has been shown in several studies. The purpose of this study was to dermine the relationship between Hypylori and mycardical infarctions. Methods: Seventy-three myocardial infarction patients and 78 individuals with no history of this disease were compared. Patients and control matched for age and sex person to person by the match method. Levels of serum IgA and IgG antibodies against H. pylori were measured by Elisa method. Also, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL measured in both groups and data were compared between two groups in terms of relation with cardiac risk factors. Results: From 151 participants, 73 were patients and 78 were control subjects. The percentage of IgG positive cases against H. pylori was 57.5% in the case group and 32.1% in the control group (p=0.002, OR: 2.87 CI: 95%; 1.5-5.6). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in IgA positive cases between the two groups (42.5% and 48.7% in the case and control groups, respectively) (p=0.44; OR: 0.78 95% CI; 0.41-1.48). The study showed 74.2% of cases in the case group and 45.2% in the control group were positive for both IgG and IgA (p=0.01; OR: 3.5 95% CI; 1.3-9.5). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of relation between H. pylori related antibodies level and heart disease classic risk factors (smoking, hypertension,…), sex, and age, but between dyslipidemia and H. pylori related antibodies was significant differences in case group (p=0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, it seems there is a relation between H. pylori infection and myocardial infarction. Also, between dislipidemia and H. Pylori antibodies in case group were significant difference. Therefore, H. pylori can be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis or can be exacerbate effect of other risk factors

  9. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  10. Hatha yoga and vascular function: results from cross-sectional and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Tarumi, Takashi; Dhindsa, Mandeep S; Nualnim, Nantinee; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hatha yoga on arterial elasticity and endothelial function. First, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine whether yoga practitioners would demonstrate greater arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation than their sedentary peers. Second, an intervention study involving 13 sedentary middle-aged and older adults (51 ± 7 years) was performed to determine whether 12 weeks of hatha yoga would elicit increases in arterial compliance and endothelial function. In the cross-sectional study involving a total of 34 subjects, there were no group differences in body fatness, blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, carotid artery compliance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Hemoglobin A1c was lower in yoga practitioners than in sedentary adults (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c decreased after the intervention (P < 0.05) while carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD did not change. The results of both cross-sectional and interventional studies indicate that regular practice of hatha yoga is not associated with improvements in vascular functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  12. Stagnant perceptions of nursing among high school students: results of a shadowing intervention study.

    PubMed

    Porter, Gloria; Edwards, Pamela B; Granger, Bradi B

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into high school students' perceptions of the role of the nurse and to explore students' impressions of nursing following a nurse-shadowing intervention. Often nurses abandon staffing positions in the first 1-2 years, reporting a "poor fit" with nursing. Few studies have examined expectations and perceptions of nursing among high school students; a population of potential nurses in whom a more accurate view of nursing opportunities and professionalism may be fostered. High school students from two North Carolina counties participated in a nurse-shadowing intervention. Constant comparison and thematic coding were used for analysis of post-intervention in-depth interviews. Sixteen of 24 students completed the study. Misperception of nursing was the dominant theme. Five sub-themes were professional role responsibility, teamwork, caring relationships, tools and technology, and medication management. Experiential knowledge of nursing was a core need for students interested in nursing careers. These data suggest that a nurse shadowing program may positively influence perceptions of nursing, and may result in improved recruitment and retention in the workplace.

  13. Preventing alcohol use with a universal school-based intervention: results from an effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Henriette Kyrrestad; Adolfsen, Frode; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Natvig, Henrik; Eisemann, Martin; Martinussen, Monica; Koposov, Roman

    2015-04-09

    The effectiveness of the universal school-based alcohol prevention program "Unge & Rus" [Youth & Alcohol] was tested by an independent research group. The program aims to prevent alcohol use and to change adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes. The main outcome measure was frequency of monthly alcohol use, favorable alcohol attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC), positive alcohol expectancy and alcohol-related knowledge. Junior high school students (N = 2,020) with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in this longitudinal pre, post and one-year follow-up study with a quasi-experimental design, involving an intervention group and a comparison group recruited from 41 junior high schools in Norway. Multilevel analysis was used to account for the repeated observations (level 1) nested within students (level 2) who in turn were clustered within school classes (level 3). Results showed an increased level of alcohol-related knowledge in the intervention group (p < .005) as compared to the comparison group at one-year follow-up. However, no significant difference in change was found between the intervention group and the comparison group in frequency of monthly alcohol use, alcohol-related attitudes, PBC or alcohol expectancy at one-year follow-up. This study offers adequate data on the effectiveness of a school-based alcohol prevention program widely implemented in Norway. Under its current method of implementation, use of the program cannot be supported over the use of standard alcohol curriculum within schools.

  14. High Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Inmates: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in inmates has not been previously studied. Therefore, we determine the seroepidemiology of H. pylori infection in inmates. Methods Through a case-control study, inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango, Mexico and subjects without incarceration of the same city were examined for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, incarceration, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the inmates was also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 140 (83.3%) of 168 inmates and in 101 (60.1%) of 168 controls. Seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was significantly higher in inmates than in controls (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.71; P = 0.000002). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, or socioeconomic status of inmates. Seropositivity to H. pylori was found in 3 of 3 inmates with peptic ulcer and in 1 of 2 inmates with gastritis. The seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure was high regardless the jail section, duration (years) in incarceration and number of incarcerations. Multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori exposure was positively associated with having tattoos (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.14 - 9.70; P = 0.02), and negatively associated with drug abuse (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.70; P = 0.007). Conclusions Seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure in inmates is higher than those found in non-incarcerated people and other populations in the region. Results indicate that inmates may represent a new risk group for H. pylori exposure. Results warrant for further research on the potential role of incarceration and behavioral features of inmates for H. pylori infection. PMID:27785257

  15. Prevalence of H. pylori-infection in family members of H. pylori positive and its influence on the reinfection rate after successful eradication therapy: a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Knippig, C; Arand, F; Leodolter, A; Nilius, M; Bayerdörffer, E; Klein, U; Malfertheiner, P

    2002-06-01

    Living conditions (e. g. domestic crowding) may influence the infection rate. Some studies suggested that the reappearance of H. pylori in H. pylori positive patients after successful eradication therapy might be a result of transmission by H. pylori positive spouses. Therefore this study has been performed to evaluate the effect of the H. pylori status of family members on the reinfection rate of H. pylori positive patients after successful eradication therapy. 108 H. pylori positive patients (64 male, 44 female, aged 48.7 years, range 18-76 years) who presented with dyspeptic symptoms for upper GI-endoscopy have been included into this study. H. pylori status has been defined by culture and/or histology, rapid urease test and serology. For eradication therapy patients received omeprazole 20 mg bd, clarithromycine 250 mg bd and metronidazole 400 mg bd. H. pylori status was controlled by (13)C-urea breath test 28 days (n = 96), 6 (n = 35), 12 (n = 28) and 24 months (n = 25) after eradication therapy. Additionally H. pylori status of 170 family members (82 spouses, 68 children, 20 siblings/parents, aged 3-83 years) was defined by (13)C-urea breath test (n = 167), upper GI-endoscopy (n = 2) or serology (n = 1). The eradication rate was 98 % (94/96). H. pylori prevalence in all family members was 40 % (56 % in spouses, 20 % in children). No reinfection has been found in successful eradicated patients within the two-years follow-up. These results suggest that reinfection is not dependent on the H. pylori prevalence in family members and that H. pylori reinfection after successful eradication therapy is an unlikely event.

  16. TAILORING A FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTERVENTION ON ETHNIC IDENTITY: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Davis, Rachel; Zhang, Nanhua; Saunders, Ed; Strecher, Victor; Tolsma, Dennis; Calvi, Josephine; Alexander, Gwen; Anderson, Julia; Wiese, Cheryl; Cross, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many targeted health interventions have been developed and tested with African American (AA) populations; however, AAs are a highly heterogeneous group. One characteristic that varies across AAs is Ethnic Identity (EI). Despite the recognition that AAs are heterogeneous with regard to EI, little research has been conducted on how to incorporate EI into the design of health messages and programs. Design This randomized trial tested whether tailoring a print-based fruit and vegetable (F & V) intervention based on individual EI would enhance program impact beyond that of social cognitive tailoring alone. AA adults were recruited from two integrated healthcare delivery systems, one based in the Detroit Metro area and the other in the Atlanta Metro area, and then randomized to receive three newsletters focused on F & V behavior change over three months. One set of newsletters was tailored only on demographic, behavioral, and social cognitive variables (control condition) whereas the other (experimental condition) was additionally tailored on EI. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome for the study was F & V intake, which was assessed at baseline and three months later using the composite of two brief self-report frequency measures. Results A total of 560 eligible participants were enrolled, of which 468 provided complete 3-month follow-up data. The experimental group increased their daily mean F & V intake by 1.1 servings compared to .8 servings in the control group (p = .13). Several variables were found to interact with intervention group. For instance, Afrocentric experimental group participants showed a 1.4 increase in F & V servings per day compared to a .43 servings per day increase among Afrocentric controls (p < .05). Conclusions Although the overall between-group effects were not significant, this study confirms that AAs are a highly diverse population and that tailoring dietary messages on ethnic identity may improve intervention impact for some

  17. Volume Navigation with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Image Fusion for Percutaneous Interventions: First Results

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstetter, Patrick; Dendl, Lena Marie; Klebl, Frank; Agha, Ayman; Wiggermann, Phillipp; Stroszcynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas Georg

    2012-01-01

    Objective Assessing the feasibility and efficiency of interventions using ultrasound (US) volume navigation (V Nav) with real time needle tracking and image fusion with contrast enhanced (ce) CT, MRI or US. Methods First an in vitro study on a liver phantom with CT data image fusion was performed, involving the puncture of a 10 mm lesion in a depth of 5 cm performed by 15 examiners with US guided freehand technique vs. V Nav for the purpose of time optimization. Then 23 patients underwent ultrasound-navigated biopsies or interventions using V Nav image fusion of live ultrasound with ceCT, ceMRI or CEUS, which were acquired before the intervention. A CEUS data set was acquired in all patients. Image fusion was established for CEUS and CT or CEUS and MRI using anatomical landmarks in the area of the targeted lesion. The definition of a virtual biopsy line with navigational axes targeting the lesion was achieved by the usage of sterile trocar with a magnetic sensor embedded in its distal tip employing a dedicated navigation software for real time needle tracking. Results The in vitro study showed significantly less time needed for the simulated interventions in all examiners when V Nav was used (p<0.05). In the study involving patients, in all 10 biopsies of suspect lesions of the liver a histological confirmation was achieved. We also used V Nav for a breast biopsy (intraductal carcinoma), for a biopsy of the abdominal wall (metastasis of ovarial carcinoma) and for radiofrequency ablations (4 ablations). In 8 cases of inflammatory abdominal lesions 9 percutaneous drainages were successfully inserted. Conclusion Percutaneous biopsies and drainages, even of small lesions involving complex access pathways, can be accomplished with a high success rate by using 3D real time image fusion together with real time needle tracking. PMID:22448281

  18. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  19. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence, and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA, and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cagPAI, CagA, VacA, and gastrointestinal microbiota. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  1. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  2. Characterization of feline Helicobacter pylori strains and associated gastritis in a colony of domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Stalis, I H; Rufo, R; Lee, G; Linn, J; Li, X; Kleanthous, H

    1995-09-01

    Twenty-four young adult domestic cats from a commercial vendor were found to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histopathologic analyses, selected electron microscopy, and urease mapping were performed on mucosal samples collected from the cardias and fundi, bodies, and antra of these cats' stomachs. H. pylori organisms were abundant in all areas of the stomach on the basis of histologic evaluation and urease mapping. H. pylori infection was associated with a moderate to severe lymphofollicular gastritis in 21 of 24 cats (88%). The gastritis was most pronounced in the antral region and consisted mainly of multifocal lymphoplasmacytic follicular infiltrates in the deep mucosa. The severity of gastritis in the antrum corresponded to high numbers of H. pylori there on the basis of the use of the urease assay as an indicator of H. pylori colonization. Ten of 24 cats (42%) also had small to moderate numbers of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. All 24 cats had gastric lymphoid follicles, with follicles being most prevalent in the antrum. Electron microscopy of gastric tissue revealed numerous H. pylori organisms, some of which were closely adhered to the mucosal epithelium. Human H. pylori gene-specific primers to ureA and ureB amplified products of similar sizes from H. pylori cat isolates. Digestion of the products with restriction enzymes resulted in fragments characteristic of the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of H. pylori isolates from humans. In the domestic cat, H. pylori infection is associated with a lymphofollicular gastritis, consisting of lymphocytic and plasmacytic infiltration into the lamina propria, and the organism appears to provide chronic antigenic stimulation resulting in the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles.

  3. Novel detection of Helicobacter pylori in fish: A possible public health concern.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Saeed, Hossam; Samir, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human pathogens worldwide with serious clinical outcomes. Although, H. pylori is a major water-borne pathogen, its occurrence in fish is still unknown. This leads us to conduct the current study in order to clarify this point and to investigate the potential role of fish in the epidemiology of H. pylori. For this purpose, fecal samples were obtained from 315 fish from different species and were caught from various aquatic environments at different localities in Egypt. The obtained fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of H. pylori using monoclonal antibody based lateral flow immunoassay for antigen detection and after then the positive samples were confirmed by PCR. In addition, fecal samples from 18 fish handlers were also examined for the presence of H. pylori by lateral flow technique. The overall prevalence rates of H. pylori in the examined fish were 6.7% and 1.9% for LF and PCR, respectively, whereas 61.1% of fish handlers were positive. Only tilapia fish showed positive results by both techniques in rates 10.9% and 3.1%, respectively. Interestingly, H. pylori was detected in cultured and wild tilapia in various aquatic environments at different localities, whereas all other fish species were negative even those that were collected from the same water source where positive tilapia were caught. These results concluded that tilapia fish may be considered as a potential zoonotic reservoir for H. pylori and thus, H. pylori may become a new fish-borne pathogen. Further studies are needed to investigate the occurrence of H. pylori in other fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolates in Israeli children and adults.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Johad; Geffen, Yuval; Shaul, Ron; Sholy, Hisham; Chowers, Yehuda; Saadi, Tarek

    2017-09-01

    Failure of standard therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections results primarily from increasing antibiotic resistance. Patients in Israel are referred for H. pylori culture after failure of at least two therapeutic regimens. To estimate the prevalence of secondary antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori in Israel. We retrospectively collected results of H. pylori cultures performed by gastric biopsies at Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between the years 2012-2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility to five drugs was tested by gradient-diffusion. 107 patients, 46 adults and 61 children, were referred for performance of H. pylori cultures. Cultures were positive in 64 samples (63.7%). In adults, 23 (50%) patients had positive H. pylori cultures; 8.69% showed resistance to amoxicillin (AM), 39.1% to clarithromycin (CH), 61.9% to metronidazole (MZ), 8.69% to tetracycline (TC), and 21.7% to levofloxacin (LEV). In children, 41 (67%) patients had positive H. pylori cultures; 5.1% showed resistance to AM, 42.5% to CH, 46.66% to MZ, 2.5% to TC and 0% to LEV. In children, 94.9% of H. pylori strains were susceptible to both AM and LEV. In adults, 82.6% of the strains were susceptible to both AM and TC. 28.6% of adults and 24.1% children were resistant to both MZ and CH. The sensitivity of H. pylori culture was low. Resistance of H. pylori to MZ and CH was very high after failure of two therapeutic regimens in both adults and children. No LEV resistance was detected in children. AM resistance was higher in adults than in children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Implementing for results: program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin.

    PubMed

    Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010-2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management

  6. Helicobacter pylori Stores Nickel To Aid Its Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Stéphane L.; Miller, Erica F.

    2013-01-01

    The transition metal nickel (Ni) is critical for the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori. Indeed the element is a required component of two enzymes, hydrogenase and urease, that have been shown to be important for in vivo colonization of the host gastric mucosa. Urease accounts for up to 10% of the total cellular H. pylori protein content, and therefore the bacterial Ni demand is very high. H. pylori possess two small and abundant histidine-rich, Ni-binding proteins, Hpn and Hpn-like, whose physiological role in the host have not been investigated. In this study, special husbandry conditions were used to control Ni levels in the host (mouse), including the use of Ni-free versus Ni-supplemented food. The efficacy of each diet was confirmed by measuring the Ni concentrations in sera of mice fed with either diet. Colonization levels (based on rank tests) of the Δhpn Δhpn-like double mutants isolated from the mice provided Ni-deficient chow were statistically lower than those for mice given Ni in their diet. In contrast, H. pylori wild-type colonization levels were similar in both host groups (e.g., regardless of Ni levels). Our results indicate that the gastric pathogen H. pylori can utilize stored Ni via defined histidine-rich proteins to aid colonization of the host. PMID:23230291

  7. Contemporary Diagnostic Strategies for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elfant, Adam B.; Howden, Colin W.; Stollman, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent, affecting approximately half of the world’s population. While the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is associated with certain diseases, including peptic ulcers (either duodenal or gastric), gastritis, and 2 malignancies—gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Many of the epidemiologic associations between these diseases and H. pylori infection have been further validated by treatment studies, which show that effective eradication therapy correlates with a decreased risk of disease. A variety of testing strategies are used to detect H. pylori infection. Serologic techniques are widely available and inexpensive, but they are no longer preferred as they have low sensitivities and specificities, and they may show a positive result for a long period following effective therapy. The remaining testing methods are divided into 2 categories: invasive tests (which require endoscopy) and noninvasive tests. Noninvasive test methods such as the urea breath test and stool antigen test have gained popularity due to their high sensitivities and specificities. Further, both of these methods may be used to confirm the absence of infection following eradication therapy. Due to the increasing incidence of treatment failure (caused in part by antibiotic resistance), post-treatment testing is recommended to confirm H. pylori eradication. PMID:24847180

  8. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in clinical gastric wash samples.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shuichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Oikawa, Ritsuko; Ono, Shoko; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Kudo, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a key factor in the development of gastric cancer; indeed, clearance of H. pylori helps prevent gastric cancer. However, the relationship between gastric cancer and the abundance and diversity of H. pylori genotypes in the stomach remains unknown. Here, we present, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of H. pylori genotypes in gastric washes. A method was first developed to assess diversity and abundance by pyrosequencing and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a gene associated with clarithromycin resistance. This method was then validated using arbitrarily mixed plasmids carrying 23S rRNA with single nucleotide polymorphisms. Multiple strains were detected in many of 34 clinical samples, with frequency 24.3 ± 24.2 and 26.3 ± 33.8 % for the A2143G and A2144G strains, respectively. Importantly, results obtained from gastric washes were similar to those obtained from biopsy samples. The method provides opportunities to investigate drug resistance in H. pylori and assess potential biomarkers of gastric cancer risk, and should thus be validated in large-scale clinical trials.

  9. Recurrence of chronic urticaria caused by reinfection by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bruscky, Dayanne Mota V; Bruscky, Dayanne Melo V; da Rocha, Luiz Alexandre R; Costa, Aldo José F

    2013-06-01

    To describe a case of chronic urticaria in a female adolescent associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, confirmed in two different occasions, with improvement of urticaria after the antibacterial treatment. A 13-year-old female patient sought medical care with chronic urticaria and epigastric pain unresponsive to medical treatment. Laboratorial tests for further investigation were normal except for the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy showing moderate chronic active gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori. After specific and appropriate treatment, the patient had remission of the symptoms. A new upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to control the treatment after nine months was normal. After five years, the patient returned with recurrence of urticaria and epigastric pain. She was taking antihistamines, without any improvement. It was again submitted to screening protocol for chronic urticaria with normal results. She was submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which showed positive urease test. The patient started a new treatment for Helicobacter pylori with disappearance of chronic urticaria and epigastric pain within seven days. The reported case suggests a causal relationship between the positive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori and the occurrence of chronic urticaria, showing the remission of symptoms after the institution of effective therapy for this agent. Chronic urticaria is a disease of complex etiology, and although controversial, there is growing evidence of Helicobacter pylori involvement with extraintestinal diseases, including chronic urticaria.

  10. Helicobacter pylori does not use spermidine synthase to produce spermidine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Au, Shannon Wing Ngor

    2017-08-26

    Helicobacter pylori is the primary pathogen associated to gastritis and gastric cancer. Growth of H. pylori depends on the availability of spermidine in vivo. Interestingly, the genome of H. pylori contains an incomplete set of genes for the classical pathway of spermidine biosynthesis. It is thus not clear whether some other genes remained in the pathway would have any functions in spermidine biosynthesis. Here, we study spermidine synthase, which is responsible for the final catalytic process in the classical route. Protein sequence alignment reveals that H. pylori SpeE (HpSpeE) lacks key residues for substrate binding. By using