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Sample records for pylori interventions results

  1. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  2. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed.

  3. Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori antigens and gastric noncardia cancer risk in the nutrition intervention trial cohort.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gwen; Freedman, Neal D; Michel, Angelika; Fan, Jin-Hu; Taylor, Philip R; Pawlita, Michael; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2015-10-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the strongest known risk factor for gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). We used multiplex serology to determine whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins is associated with the subsequent development of noncardia gastric cancer in Linxian, China. We included 448 GNCA cases and 1242 controls from two time points within the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial, Linxian. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was defined as positivity to ≥4 of the 15 included antigens. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for major GNCA risk factors. In addition, we undertook a meta-analysis combining H. pylori multiplex serology data from both time points. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with a significant increase in risk of GNCA at one time point (1985; OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.91, 6.19) and this association remained significant following adjustment for H. pylori or CagA ELISA seropositivity (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.56, 5.47). Combining data from both time points in a meta-analysis H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of GNCA, as were six individual antigens: GroEL, HP0305, CagA, VacA, HcpC and Omp. CagM was inversely associated with risk of GNCA. We identified six individual antigens that confer an increase in risk of GNCA within this population of high H. pylori seroprevalence, as well as a single antigen that may be inversely associated with GNCA risk. We further determined that the H. pylori multiplex assay provides additional information to the conventional ELISA methods on risk of GNCA.

  4. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Katicic, Miroslava; Filipec Kanizaj, Tajana; Niv, Yaron

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has declined over the last few decades, particularly in Western populations, most likely as a result of the decrease in Helicobacter pylori infection and the widespread use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPI) in patients with dyspepsia. The hospital admission rate for uncomplicated duodenal and gastric ulcers has significantly decreased worldwide. In contrast, admissions for complicated ulcer disease, such as bleeding peptic ulcers and perforation, remained relatively stable. Prophylactic H. pylori eradication was found to be associated with a reduced risk of both gastric and duodenal ulcers and their complications, including bleeding in chronic users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The recent Helicobacter Eradication Relief of Dyspeptic Symptoms trial presented important data relating to symptoms and quality of life of H. pylori-positive patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and also demonstrated significant benefits from eradication compared with the control group. The new Asian consensus report on FD recommended that dyspepsia accompanied by H. pylori infection should be considered a separate disease entity from FD and that H. pylori infection should be eradicated before diagnosing FD. The association of H. pylori with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is still controversial. Treatment for H. pylori does not seem to increase GERD symptoms or reflux esophagitis. However, documented eradication of H. pylori appears to significantly improve GERD symptoms. Additional long-term intervention studies are needed to provide more information on which to base clinical decisions.

  5. Disruption of Nitric Oxide Signaling by Helicobacter pylori Results in Enhanced Inflammation by Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Verriere, Thomas; Scull, Brooks P.; de Sablet, Thibaut; Glumac, Ashley; Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    A strong cellular crosstalk exists between the pathogen Helicobacter pylori and high-output NO production. However, how NO and H. pylori interact to signal in gastric epithelial cells and modulate the innate immune response is unknown. We show that chemical or cellular sources of NO induce the anti-inflammatory effector heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in gastric epithelial cells through a pathway that requires NF-κB. However, H. pylori decreases NO-induced NF-κB activation, thereby inhibiting HO-1 expression. This inhibitory effect of H. pylori results from activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 by the H. pylori virulence factor CagA and by the host signaling molecules ERK1/2 and JNK. Consistent with these findings, HO-1 is downregulated in gastric epithelial cells of patients infected with cagA+, but not cagA− H. pylori. Enhancement of HO-1 activity in infected cells or in H. pylori-infected mice inhibits chemokine generation and reduces inflammation. These data define a mechanism by which H. pylori favors its own pathogenesis by inhibiting HO-1 induction through the action of CagA. PMID:21987660

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: long-term results of bacterium eradication and association with bacterium virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Giovanni; Luppi, Mario; Zucchini, Patrizia; Morselli, Monica; Potenza, Leonardo; Forghieri, Fabio; Volzone, Francesco; Jovic, Gordana; Leonardi, Giovanna; Donelli, Amedea; Torelli, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may lead to improvement of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), although its efficacy over time is uncertain. We report the results of H pylori screening and eradication in 75 consecutive adult patients with ITP. We also used molecular methods to investigate lymphocyte clonality and H pylori genotypes in the gastric biopsies from 10 H pylori-positive patients with ITP and 19 H pylori-positive patients without ITP with chronic gastritis. Active H pylori infection was documented in 38 (51%) patients and successfully eradicated in 34 (89%) patients. After a median follow-up of 60 months, a persistent platelet response in 23 (68%) of patients with eradicated infection was observed; 1 relapse occurred. No differences in mucosal B- or T-cell clonalities were observed between patients with ITP and control participants. Of note, the frequency of the H pylori cagA gene (P = .02) and the frequency of concomitant H pylori cagA, vacAs1, and iceA genes (triple-positive strains; P = .015) resulted statistically higher in patients with ITP than in control participants. All asymptomatic H pylori-positive patients with ITP were suffering from chronic gastritis. Our data suggest a sustained platelet recovery in a proportion of patients with ITP by H pylori eradication alone. Overrepresentation of specific H pylori genotypes in ITP suggests a possible role for bacterium-related factors in the disease pathogenesis. PMID:17652264

  7. Early or late antibiotic intervention prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhua; Lee, Dong Soo; Morrissey, Rhiannon; Aponte-Pieras, Jose R; Rogers, Arlin B; Moss, Steven F

    2014-12-01

    H. pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Eradicating H. pylori prevents ulcers, but to what extent this prevents cancer remains unknown, especially if given after intestinal metaplasia has developed. H. pylori infected wild-type (WT) mice do not develop cancer, but mice lacking the tumor suppressor p27 do so, thus providing an experimental model of H. pylori-induced cancer. We infected p27-deficient mice with H. pylori strain SS1 at 6-8 weeks of age. Persistently H. pylori-infected WT C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Mice in the eradication arms received antimicrobial therapy (omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin) either "early" (at 15 weeks post infection, WPI) or "late" at 45 WPI. At 70 WPI, mice were euthanized for H. pylori determination, histopathology and cytokine/chemokine expression. Persistently infected mice developed premalignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia, whereas those given antibiotics did not. Histologic activity scores in the eradication groups were similar to each other, and were significantly decreased compared with controls for inflammation, epithelial defects, hyperplasia, metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia. IP-10 and MIG levels in groups that received antibiotics were significantly lower than controls. There were no significant differences in expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α or MIP-1β among the three groups. Thus, H. pylori eradication given either early or late after infection significantly attenuated gastric inflammation, gastric atrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the p27-deficient mice model of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, irrespective of the timing of antibiotic administration. This was associated with reduced expression of IP-10 and MIG.

  8. Cancer development based on chronic active gastritis and resulting gastric atrophy as assessed by serum levels of pepsinogen and Helicobacter pylori antibody titer.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeichi; Kato, Jun; Inoue, Izumi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Oka, Masashi; Watanabe, Mika; Enomoto, Shotaro; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iwane, Masataka; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-03-15

    Our study investigated the relationship between gastric cancer development and activity of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis or the resulting chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A cohort of 4,655 healthy asymptomatic subjects, in whom serum pepsinogen (PG) and H. pylori antibody titer had been measured to assess the activity and stage of H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, was followed for up to 16 years, and cancer development was investigated. In subjects with a serologically diagnosed healthy stomach (H. pylori-negative/CAG-negative), cancer incidence rate was low, at 16/100,000 person-years. With the establishment of H. pylori infection and progression of chronic gastritis, significant stepwise cancer risk elevations were seen from CAG-free subjects (H. pylori-positive/CAG-negative) [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-54.7] to subjects with CAG (H. pylori-positive/CAG-positive) (HR = 17.7, 95% CI = 5.4-108.6) and finally to subjects with metaplastic gastritis (H. pylori-negative/CAG-positive) (HR = 69.7, 95% CI = 13.6-502.9). In H. pylori-infected CAG-free subjects, significantly elevated cancer risk was observed in the subgroup with active inflammation-based high PG II level or potent immune response-based high H. pylori antibody titer; the former was associated with a particularly high risk of diffuse-type cancer, and both subgroups showed high cancer incidence rates of around 250/100,000 person-years, comparable to that in subjects with CAG. No such risk elevation was observed in H. pylori-infected subjects with CAG. These results clearly indicate that gastric cancer develops mainly from the gastritis-atrophy-metaplasia-cancer sequence and partly from active inflammation-based direct carcinogenesis, and that serum levels of PG and H. pylori antibody titer provide indices of cancer development in H. pylori-infected subjects.

  9. Evaluation of a new immunodiagnostic assay for Helicobacter pylori antibody detection: correlation with histopathological and microbiological results.

    PubMed Central

    Pronovost, A D; Rose, S L; Pawlak, J W; Robin, H; Schneider, R

    1994-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been associated with the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis and gastric and duodenal ulcer disease. Detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori offers a simple alternative to direct detection of the organism in biopsied tissue by culture or histopathological methods. A rapid flow-through membrane-based enzyme immunoassay for the detection of human immunoglobulin G antibodies to H. pylori has been developed and evaluated. Clinical evaluations were performed with 256 patient serum samples obtained from four clinical sites. Biopsy samples were obtained by endoscopic procedures at the same time as the serum samples, and were histopathologically and microbiologically categorized for the presence or absence of H. pylori. Sensitivity and specificity for this rapid enzyme immunoassay were 92 and 88%, respectively, compared directly with endoscopy results. After discordant results were resolved by a quantitative microwell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the resulting sensitivity and specificity were 94 and > 99%, respectively. These results indicate that this rapid enzyme immunoassay is a useful technique to determine H. pylori infection status and is a viable alternative to invasive endoscopic procedures. PMID:8126203

  10. Diet and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Imiela, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has accompanied man for thousands of years. In some infected patients, a complex and dynamic pathogen-host reaction triggers pathogenic pathways resulting in development, inter alia, of atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease (both gastric and duodenal), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Large-scale eradication therapy is associated with a rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, gut flora composition disturbances, and increased risk of development, inter alia, of paediatric infectious diarrhoeas, atopic diseases, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Our diet contains many substances with potent antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Dietary interventions enable a decrease in H. pylori colonisation and result in a decrease in gastritis prevalence, thus potentially lowering the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27713775

  11. [Is chronic laryngitis associated with Helicobacter pylori? Results of a prospective study].

    PubMed

    Jaspersen, D; Weber, R; Diehl, K L; Kind, M; Arps, H; Draf, W

    1998-05-01

    H. pylori is found in the stomach of patients with chronic gastritis. The infection is usually transmitted by the gastro-oral route and bacteria could be identified in saliva and dental plaque. An essential cause of chronic laryngitis is gastroesophageal reflux. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a H.pylori-associated chronic laryngitis exists. 38 patients with chronic laryngitis underwent gastroscopy. Biopsies were taken from the gastric antrum and body, lower, middle and upper esophagus. H. pylori was diagnosed by rapid urease test and histology. 14 of the patients (36.8%) were H.pylori-positive, but the bacteria could not be identified between stomach and larynx. 24 patients were H. pylori-negative. Seven patients (18.4%) suffered from esophagitis, six of these patients were H. pylori-negative. The H. pylori-infected patients received triple therapy for one week, in case of esophogitis Omeprazole 20 mg BID was prescribed. Six weeks later a follow-up endoscopy was performed. The eradication rate was 12/14 (85.7%), in all patients with reflux the esophagitis was cured. The laryngitis was clinically and endoscopically unchanged in ten of the twelve (83.3%) patients after successful treatment for H. pylori; in the remaining two patients as well as in the two H. pylori-positive patients the laryngitis was improved. In six out of the seven patients with esophagitis the laryngitis had healed completely and was improved in the remaining patient. It may be concluded that there is no evidence for the existence of H. pylori-associated laryngitis, suggesting that acid reflux is the underlying etiology.

  12. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  13. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  14. Recurrent coarctation: interventional techniques and results.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) accounts for 5% to 8% of all congenital heart defects. With all forms of interventions for native CoA, repeat intervention may be required due to restenosis and/or aneurysm formation. Restenosis rates vary from 5% to 24% and are higher in infants and children and in those with arch hypoplasia. Although repeat surgery can be done for recurrent CoA, guidelines from a number of professional societies have recommended balloon angioplasty with or without stenting as the preferred intervention for patients with isolated recoarctation. For infants and young children with recurrent coarctation, balloon angioplasty has been shown to be safe and effective with low incidence of complications. However, the rates of restenosis and reinterventions are high with balloon angioplasty alone. Endovascular stent placement is indicated, either electively in adults or as a bailout procedure in those who develop a complication such as dissection or intimal tear after balloon angioplasty. Conventionally bare metal stents are used; these can be dilated later if required. Covered stents, introduced more recently, are best reserved for those who have aneurysm at the site of previous repair or who develop a complication such as aortic wall perforation or tear. Stents produce complete abolition of gradients across the coarct segment in a majority of cases with good opening of the lumen on angiography. The long-term results are better than that of balloon angioplasty alone, with very low rates of restenosis. However, endovascular stenting is a technically demanding procedure and can be associated with serious complications rarely.

  15. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy. PMID:27698543

  16. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy.

  17. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  18. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  19. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  20. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  1. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  2. Helping women quit smoking: results of a community intervention program.

    PubMed Central

    Secker-Walker, R H; Flynn, B S; Solomon, L J; Skelly, J M; Dorwaldt, A L; Ashikaga, T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This intervention was implemented to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among women. METHODS: We used community organization approaches to create coalitions and task forces to develop and implement a multicomponent intervention in 2 counties in Vermont and New Hampshire, with a special focus on providing support to help women quit smoking. Evaluation was by pre-intervention and post-intervention random-digit-dialed telephone surveys in the intervention counties and the 2 matched comparison counties. RESULTS: In the intervention counties, compared with the comparison counties, the odds of a woman being a smoker after 4 years of program activities were 0.88 (95% confidence interval = 0.78, 1.00) (P = .02, 1-tailed); women smokers' perceptions of community norms about women smoking were significantly more negative (P = .002, 1-tailed); and the quit rate in the past 5 years was significantly greater (25.4% vs 21.4%; P = .02, 1-tailed). Quit rates were significantly higher in the intervention counties among younger women (aged 18 to 44 years); among women with household annual incomes of $25,000 or less; and among heavier smokers (those who smoked 25 or more cigarettes daily). CONCLUSIONS: In these rural counties, community participation in planning and implementing interventions was accompanied by favorable changes in women's smoking behavior. PMID:10846513

  3. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pylori stool antigen test; H. pylori breath test; Urea breath test; CLO test; Rapid urease test (RUT) ... of H. pylori antigen in a stool sample Urea breath test A person drinks a liquid containing ...

  4. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking ...

  5. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two- ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of ...

  6. Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT): 18-Month Results

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081

  7. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  8. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  9. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  10. Helicobacter pylori activation of PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Carlos W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori produces a cache of virulence factors that promote colonization and persistence, which, in turn, contributes to a robust inflammatory response at the host-pathogen interface. Recently, we reported that H. pylori activates the abundant nuclear regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, resulting in the production of the catabolite poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARP-1 is emerging as a key player in establishing homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. In this article, we summarize the discovery of H. pylori-dependent PARP-1 activation, and discuss potential roles for PARP-1 in H. pylori-mediated gastric disease. In light of the remarkable successes that have reported for treating inflammatory disorders and cancers with PARP-1 inhibitors, we discuss the prospects of targeting PARP-1 for treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. PMID:21468218

  11. Validation of the string test for the recovery of Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions and correlation of its results with urea breath test results, serology, and gastric pH levels.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Camorlinga, M; Pérez-Peréz, G; Gonzalez, G; Muñoz, O

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the "gold standard," the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions.

  12. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions. PMID:11283108

  13. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers.

  14. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  15. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  16. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria: effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mogaddam, Majid Rostami; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Ardabili, Nastaran Safavi; Isazadeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as the presence of urticaria on most days of the week for a period of 6 weeks or longer. Some studies have reported an association between CU and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Aim To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection using the stool antigen test in patients with idiopathic CU and to investigate the infected patients with CU following eradication of H. pylori. Material and methods One hundred patients with idiopathic CU and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic between May 2012 and June 2013 and were tested for H. pylori antigen. The patients infected with H. pylori received quadruple therapy for 2 weeks. To assess eradication efficacy, a repeated H. pylori stool antigen test was performed in each patient 6 weeks after the end of anti-H. pylori therapy. The effectiveness of eradication therapy on CU was assessed 3 months after treatment. Results Thirty-six percent patients with idiopathic CU were infected with H. pylori while 23% of the controls were infected. Response to eradication therapy was evident in 33 (91.67%) patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated while 3 (8.33%) patients showed no response despite eradication of H. pylori. Clinical follow-up of 33 successfully treated patients 3 months later revealed complete remission of urticaria in 54.5%, partial remission in 18.2%, and no improvement in 27.3%. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that H. pylori infection should be included in diagnostic workup of patients with no response to habitual treatment for CU or symptomatic gastrointestinal patients. For the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, one should consider the costs and accessibility of the population to the HpSA® stool antigen test and Urea breath test (UBT). PMID:25821422

  17. A virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori: role of heat shock protein in mucosal inflammation after H. pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, S; Yamaguchi, H; Osaki, T; Taguchi, H

    1998-01-01

    Among the various virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori the role of its heat shock protein 60 (HSP60, HspB) in mucosal inflammation after H. pylori infection was examined. In flow cytometric analysis, the expression of HSP60 on the cell surface was different, depending on the H. pylori strain used. The HSP60 epitope was also detected on the surface of both human gastric cancer cells (MKN45, KATOIII, and MKN28) and human gastric biopsy specimens. The intensity of the expression of HSP60 on the cell surface correlated significantly with the adhesion of H. pylori to MKN45 cells, but not with urease activity and production of vacuolating cytotoxin. A monoclonal antibody to H. pylori HSP60 inhibited the adhesion of H. pylori to MKN45 cells. These results suggest that HSP60 of H. pylori might act as an important virulence factor after H. pylori infection. PMID:9872496

  18. Experimental studies in explicitly paradoxical interventions: results and implications.

    PubMed

    Strong, S R

    1984-09-01

    A dozen experimental studies have assessed the effectiveness of paradoxical interventions with agoraphobia, depression, insomnia and procrastination. The studies suggest that paradoxical interventions are more effective than no treatment and placebo treatment and are as effective and, in some instances, more effective than other behavioral interventions. Several studies show that the wording of paradoxical interventions affects their impact.

  19. [Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role in extragastric diseases?].

    PubMed

    de Korwin, Jean-Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), numerous studies have considered the possibility that it plays a role in different extragastric diseases. Most of these studies may be classified as epidemiological studies or investigations of H. pylori eradication, but there are also case reports and in vitro studies. This review reveals the limitations common to most of them. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is the disease for which the strongest association with H. pylori infection has been shown. Data are also accumulating about the role of H. pylori infection in idiopathic iron deficiency anemia and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Interesting results show that H. pylori infection affects atherosclerosis and is weakly associated with ischemic heart disease and stroke. Moreover, CagA-positive H. pylori strains may play a role in the natural history of atherosclerotic stroke. Recent studies suggest a link between H. pylori and Parkinson's disease. Preliminary data indicate that H. pylori infection impairs gastric ghrelin production and may influence nutritional status. The association between H. pylori infection and other extragastric diseases remains controversial. H. pylori infection may cause extragastric manifestations directly or indirectly, by various mechanisms including atrophic gastritis, the release of inflammatory mediators, molecular mimicry, and systemic immune response. Evidence suggests that anti-H. pylori therapy improves idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (significant increase of platelet count in half of the cases), iron-deficiency anemia, and chronic urticaria (30% remission rate), but the data from randomized controlled trials are insufficient to confirm these positive effects.

  20. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yi; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lu, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P = 0.06). There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P < 0.05). The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327). PMID:25548772

  1. Proposed interventions to decrease the frequency of missed test results.

    PubMed

    Wahls, Terry L; Cram, Peter

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference in 2008, attendees attended two focus groups dedicated to identification of strategies to lower the frequency of missed results. The recommendations were reviewed and summarized. Improved standardization of the steps involved in the flow of test result information, greater involvement of patients to insure the follow up of test results, and systems re-engineering to improve the management and presentation of data. Focusing the initial interventions on the specific tests which have been identified as high risk for adverse impact on patient outcomes such as tests associated with a possible malignancy or acute coronary syndrome will likely have the most significant impact on clinical outcome and patient satisfaction with care. PMID:19669920

  2. Accumulating Knowledge: When Are Reading Intervention Results Meaningful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The three target articles provide examples of intervention studies that are excellent models for the field. They rely on rigorous and elegant designs, the interventions are motivated by attention to underlying theoretical mechanisms, and longitudinal designs are used to examine the duration of effects of interventions that occur. When studies are…

  3. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  4. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects.

  5. Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Eli; Delgado, Jorge-Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet’s disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. PMID:24587626

  6. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  7. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. Material and Methods A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Results Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Conclusions Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development. Key words:Campylobacter, elisa, h. pylori, Helicobacter Pylori, RAS, recurrent aphthous

  8. [European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-EuReg protocol): The first results of Russian centers].

    PubMed

    Bordin, D S; Yanova, O B; Abdulkhakov, R A; Tsukanov, V V; Livzan, M A; Burkov, S G; Zakharova, N V; Plotnikova, E Yu; Osipenko, M F; Tarasova, L V; Maev, I V; Kucheryavyi, Yu A; Butov, M A; Sablin, O A; Kolbasnikov, S V; Voinovan, I N; Abdulkhakov, S R; Vasyutin, A V; Lyalyukova, E A; Golubev, N N; Savilova, I V; Grigoryeva, L V; Kononova, A G; O'Morain, Colm; Ramas, Mercedes; Mcnicholl, Adrian G; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-01-01

    Резюме Цель исследования. Оценка клинической практики диагностики и лечения больных с инфекцией Helicobacter pylori и сопоставление этой практики с международными рекомендациями в Европейском регистре (European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, протокол: «Hp-EuReg») — наблюдательном многоцентровом проспективном исследовании, инициированном Европейской группой по изучению H. pylori и микробиоты (EHMSG). Материалы и методы. Проведен анализ данных 813 больных, инфицированных H. pylori и внесенных в регистр Российскими центрами исследования «Hp-EuReg» в 2013—2015 гг. Результаты. Наиболее распространенными методами первичной диагностики инфекции H. pylori являются гистологический (40,3%), быстрый уреазный тест (35,7%) и серологический (17,2%). Длительность антихеликобактерной терапии в 18% случаев составила 7 дней, в 49,3% — 10 дней, в 25,1% — 14 дней. Для контроля эффективности лечения используются гистологический метод (34%), уреазный дыхательный тест (27,3%), антиген H. pylori в кале (22,8%), быстрый уреазный тест (16,3%). В 2,5% случаев использовался серологический метод. У 13,5% больных контроль не проводился. Средняя эффективность эрадикации

  9. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  10. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  11. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies. PMID:24447914

  12. Helicobacter pylori's cholesterol uptake impacts resistance to docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Correia, Marta; Casal, Susana; Vinagre, João; Seruca, Raquel; Figueiredo, Ceu; Touati, Eliette; Machado, José C

    2014-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the world population and is associated with gastric cancer. We have previously demonstrated that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects, directly inhibits H. pylori growth in vitro and in mice. Nevertheless, the concentration of DHA shown to reduce H. pylori mice gastric colonization was ineffective in vitro. Related to the auxotrophy of H. pylori for cholesterol, we hypothesize that other mechanisms, in addition to DHA direct antibacterial effect, must be responsible for the reduction of the infection burden. In the present study we investigated if DHA affects also H. pylori growth, by reducing the availability of membrane cholesterol in the epithelial cell for H. pylori uptake. Levels of cholesterol in gastric epithelial cells and of cholesteryl glucosides in H. pylori were determined by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The consequences of epithelial cells' cholesterol depletion on H. pylori growth were assessed in liquid cultures. We show that H. pylori uptakes cholesterol from epithelial cells. In addition, DHA lowers cholesterol levels in epithelial cells, decreases its de novo synthesis, leading to a lower synthesis of cholesteryl glucosides by H. pylori. A previous exposition of H. pylori to cholesterol influences the bacterium response to the direct inhibitory effect of DHA. Overall, our results suggest that a direct effect of DHA on H. pylori survival is modulated by its access to epithelial cell cholesterol, supporting the notion that cholesterol enhances the resistance of H. pylori. The cholesterol-dependent resistance of H. pylori to antimicrobial compounds raises new important aspects for the development of new anti-bacterial strategies.

  13. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) ...

  14. Helicobacter pylori inhibits gastric cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A; Smoot, D; Littleton, G; Tackey, R; Walters, C S; Kashanchi, F; Allen, C R; Ashktorab, H

    2000-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa is associated with changes in gastric epithelial cell proliferation. In vitro studies have shown that exposure to H. pylori inhibits proliferation of gastric cells. This study sought to investigate the cell cycle progression of gastric epithelial cell lines in the presence and absence of H. pylori. Unsynchronized and synchronized gastric epithelial cell lines AGS and KatoIII were exposed to H. pylori over a 24-h period. Cell cycle progression was determined by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI), and by analysis of cyclin E, p21, and p53 protein expression using Western blots. In the absence of H. pylori 40, 45, and 15% of unsynchronized AGS cells were in G(0)-G(1), S, and G(2)-M phases, respectively, by flow cytometry analysis. When AGS cells were cultured in the presence of H. pylori, the S phase decreased 10% and the G(0)-G(1) phase increased 17% after 24 h compared with the controls. KatoIII cells, which have a deleted p53 gene, showed little or no response to H. pylori. When G1/S synchronized AGS cells were incubated with media containing H. pylori, the G(1) phase increased significantly (25%, P < 0.05) compared with controls after 24 h. In contrast, the control cells were able to pass through S phase. The inhibitory effects of H. pylori on the cell cycle of AGS cells were associated with a significant increase in p53 and p21 expression after 24 h. The expression of cyclin E was downregulated in AGS cells following exposure of AGS cells to H. pylori for 24 h. This study shows that H. pylori-induced growth inhibition in vitro is predominantly at the G(0)-G(1) checkpoint. Our results suggest that p53 may be important in H. pylori-induced cell cycle arrest. These results support a role for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the G(1) cell cycle arrest exerted by H. pylori and its involvement in changing the regulatory proteins, p53, p21, and cyclin E in the cell cycle. PMID:11008106

  15. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  16. Catechins and Sialic Acid Attenuate Helicobacter pylori-Triggered Epithelial Caspase-1 Activity and Eradicate Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jyh-Chin; Yang, Hung-Chih; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Teh-Hong; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Kao, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    The inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway in immune cells plays a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis; however, the regulation of this pathway in the gastric epithelium during Helicobacter pylori infection is yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of catechins (CAs), sialic acid (SA), or combination of CA and SA (CASA) on H. pylori-induced caspase-1-mediated epithelial damage, as well as H. pylori colonization in vitro (AGS cells) and in vivo (BALB/c mice). Our results indicate that the activity of caspase-1 and the expression of its downstream substrate IL-1β were upregulated in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. In addition, we observed increased oxidative stress, NADPH oxidase gp91phox, CD68, caspase-1/IL-1β, and apoptosis, but decreased autophagy, in the gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected mice. We have further demonstrated that treatment with CASA led to synergistic anti-H. pylori activity and was more effective than treatment with CA or SA alone. In particular, treatment with CASA for 10 days eradicated H. pylori infection in up to 95% of H. pylori-infected mice. Taken together, we suggest that the pathogenesis of H. pylori involves a gastric epithelial inflammasome/caspase-1 signaling pathway, and our results show that CASA was able to attenuate this pathway and effectively eradicate H. pylori infection. PMID:23653660

  17. Global burden of gastric cancer attributable to Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Martyn; Franceschi, Silvia; Vignat, Jérôme; Forman, David; de Martel, Catherine

    2015-01-15

    We previously estimated that 660,000 cases of cancer in the year 2008 were attributable to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), corresponding to 5.2% of the 12.7 million total cancer cases that occurred worldwide. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that immunoblot (western blot) is more sensitive for detection of anti-H. pylori antibodies than ELISA, the detection method used in our previous analysis. The purpose of this short report is to update the attributable fraction (AF) estimate for H. pylori after briefly reviewing new evidence, and to reassess the global burden of cancer attributable to H. pylori. We therefore reviewed the literature for studies comparing the risk of developing non-cardia gastric cancer (NCGC) in cases and controls, using both ELISA and multiple antigen immunoblot for detection of H. pylori. The results from prospective studies were combined, and the new pooled estimates were applied to the calculation of the AF for H. pylori in NCGC, then to the burden of infection-related cancers worldwide. Using the immunoblot-based data, the worldwide AF for H. pylori in NCGC increased from 74.7% to 89.0%. This implies approximately 120,000 additional cases of NCGC attributable to H. pylori infection for a total of around 780,000 cases (6.2% instead of 5.2% of all cancers). These updated estimates reinforce the role of H. pylori as a major cause of cancer.

  18. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  19. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  20. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  1. Learning Instructor Intervention from MOOC Forums: Early Results and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika

    2015-01-01

    With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Francavailla, Ruggiero

    2014-09-01

    This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children.

  3. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Mentis, Andreas; Lehours, Philippe; Mégraud, Francis

    2015-09-01

    During the period reviewed, prevalence studies were essentially performed in less economically advanced countries and a high prevalence was found. The traditional risk factors for Helicobacter pylori positivity were mostly found. Transmission studied by molecular typing showed a familial transmission. The eventual role of water transmission was explored in several studies with controversial results. Concerning diagnosis, most of the invasive and noninvasive methods used for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection are long standing with efficient performance. The most interesting recent improvements in H. pylori diagnosis include advances in endoscopy, developments in molecular methods, and the introduction of omics-based techniques. Interpretation of old or newer method should take into account the pretest probability and the prevalence of H. pylori in the population under investigation.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

  6. [Helicobacter pylori and the mouth cavity--overview and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schein, W; Meryn, S

    1994-01-01

    In view of the possibility of reinfection after successful treatment and the pitfalls in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) from gastric mucosa, it is of great interest to identify natural reservoirs for this organism, other than the stomach. This review discusses the results of investigations as to whether H. pylori can be harboured in the microaerobic environment of dental plaques in saliva. Only few data are available on the prevalence of H. pylori in the mouth. Data from conventional microbiological technique studies are contradictory, with the prevalence varying from 3.4% to 100%. Different diagnostic procedures were used to identify H. pylori, but only a few seem to be reliable enough to detect H. pylori in clinical samples taken from the mouth. Moreover, insufficient information is provided on the role of hygienic conditions in the investigated oral cavity and the existence of gingival or periodontal disease. The mechanisms of oral colonisation with H. pylori are still unknown. Human periodontal disease is associated with a complex microflora in which more than 350 microbial species can be encountered. The periodontal pocket may be important as a natural reservoir for H. pylori, because it can provide microaerobic conditions. Recently reported molecular techniques such as the highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may help to clarify the prevalence of oral carriage of H. pylori in future.

  7. Helicobacter pylori screening: options and challenges.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Goni, Elisabetta; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis is the most frequent infectious disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical sequelae of the infection including peptic ulcer disease, sporadic gastric cancer (GC) and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (MALT-lymphoma) may develop in up to 20% of the infected individuals. The H. pylori screen-and-treat strategy is addressed to members of communities with high GC incidence, and first-degree relatives of GC patients. For primary GC prevention, H. pylori screen-and-treat is most effective in patients without precancerous conditions. In populations at moderate risk, strategies for GC prevention need to be explored. A special clinical scenario for primary and secondary prevention of H. pylori related benign complications are patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and low-dose aspirin. Vaccination represents another option for eliminating H. pylori infection in the population and a new H. pylori vaccine has shown promising results. However, long-term effects with the use of vaccine are not available. PMID:26619972

  8. Citalopram intervention for hostility: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kamarck, Thomas W; Haskett, Roger F; Muldoon, Matthew; Flory, Janine D; Anderson, Barbara; Bies, Robert; Pollock, Bruce; Manuck, Stephen B

    2009-02-01

    Hostility is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because central serotonin may modulate aggression, we might expect selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to be effective in reducing hostility. Such effects have never been examined in individuals scoring high on hostility who are otherwise free from major Axis I psychopathology according to criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). A total of 159 participants (ages 30?50 years, 50% female) scoring high on 2 measures of hostility and with no current major Axis I diagnosis were randomly assigned to 2 months of citalopram (40 mg, fixed-flexible dose) or placebo. Adherence was assessed by electronic measurement and by drug exposure assessment. Treated participants showed larger reductions in state anger (Condition x Time; p = .01), hostile affect (p = 02), and, among women only, physical and verbal aggression (p = .005) relative to placebo controls. Treatment was also associated with relative increases in perceived social support (p = .04). The findings have implications for understanding the central nervous system correlates of hostility, its associations with other psychosocial risk factors for CVD, and, potentially, the design of effective interventions. PMID:19170463

  9. [Coronary interventions : Current developments for improved long-term results].

    PubMed

    Seidler, T

    2016-09-01

    Based on solid scientific evidence, new generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have become established as the standard of care in interventional cardiology. With at least similar safety and superior efficacy over uncoated bare metal stents (BMS) in various scenarios and including patients with increased bleeding risk, there are probably no remaining indications favoring the use of BMS. Additional developments regarding the platform, drug elution characteristics and polymer design were aimed at optimizing DES with even better outcomes. Although there is no lack of new variations, none has proven to be superior and several non-inferiority trials lacked statistical power, which precludes the label third generation (over second generation or new generation DES). While it is recognized that potential long-term advantages of bioresorbable scaffolds cannot be expected at this stage from the current ABSORB III trial, the safety and efficacy are encouraging. Beyond procedural aspects, such as intracoronary imaging, variations in duration of antiplatelet therapy should help to improve outcomes but still require careful individual weighting of ischemic vs. bleeding risk. PMID:27506215

  10. Safe handling of agricultural pesticides in Minnesota: results of a county-wide educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Mandel, J H; Carr, W P; Hillmer, T; Leonard, P R; Halberg, J U; Sanderson, W T; Mandel, J S

    2000-01-01

    Safe pesticide handling in a group of Minnesota farmers, aged 40 years and older, was influenced through the use of a multifaceted, countywide educational intervention. Two intervention counties and two control counties were involved in this effort. The intervention consisted of mailed pesticide information to farm households, educational programs on pesticides for county physicians, elementary school training modules on pesticides and the use of safe pesticide handling displays in key business areas by agricultural extension agents. Five hundred eight farmers were identified as pesticide users (186 in the intervention counties and 322 in the control counties). The use of gloves and other protective clothing while handling pesticides increased in the intervention group. Improvement was greater in those who had used protective equipment the least before the intervention. From these results, it appears that a broad-based educational intervention might have a modest impact in how farmers protect themselves when using pesticides.

  11. Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Goni, Elisabetta; Franceschi, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    During the past year, many articles were published on the extragastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori infection. This supports the theory that some microorganisms may cause diseases even far from the primary site of infection by interfering with different biologic processes. The role of H. pylori on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sideropenica anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency is well known. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the bacterium's association with cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, head and neck, and uro-gynecologic diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, with very promising results. This review has been aimed at summarizing the results of the most relevant studies published over the last year on this fascinating topic. PMID:27531539

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, P.; Kosunen, T. U.; Valle, J.; Riihelä, M.; Seppälä, K.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Serum IgG antibodies for H pylori were determined in 54 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of H pylori in gastric mucosa was also examined histologically (modified Giemsa) in 32 patients from whom adequate biopsy specimens of the antrum and corpus were available. Thirty five patients with gastrointestinal tumours outside the stomach and 48 with non-gastrointestinal malignancies served as controls. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 38 (70%) had H pylori antibodies (IgG) in their serum (three additional patients had H pylori antibodies IgA, class specific but not IgG specific). This prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that (49%) in the 35 controls. No differences in prevalence of H pylori antibodies were found between gastric cancer cases of intestinal (IGCA) or diffuse (DGCA) type, both these types showing H pylori antibodies (IgG) in 71% of the patients. In the subgroup of 32 subjects, five patients had normal gastric mucosa and four showed corpus limited atrophy ("pernicious anaemia type" atrophy of type A). All of these nine patients had no evidence of current or previous H pylori infection in serum (no IgG antibodies) or in tissue sections (negative Giemsa staining). The remaining 23 patients had antral or pangastritis, and all had evidence of current or previous H pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori associated chronic gastritis was the associated disease in 75% of the patients with gastric cancer occurring equally often in both IGCA and DGCA groups. About 25% of cases seem to have a normal stomach or severe corpus limited atrophy, neither of which showed evidence of concomitant H pylori infection. PMID:1577969

  13. Oral and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori: Effects and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio; Pereira, Carlos; Resende, Carlos; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Cirnes, Luis; Machado, José Carlos; Ferreira, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT). Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori. Results The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR)=1.64,95%CI=1.08-2.52), residence area (urban,OR=1.48,95%CI=1.03-2.29) and parents´ professional situation (unemployed,OR=1.22,95%CI=1.02-1.23). Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3). Conclusions The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status. PMID:26010595

  14. Preliminary study of pancreatic cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Ai, Fulu; Hua, Xiangdong; Liu, Yefu; Lin, Jie; Feng, Zhaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship about Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and pancreatic, and this study was set to investigate how H. pylori infection is correlated with pancreatic cancer and provide references for the clinical prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. 56 cases of pancreatic cancer patients admitted to the hospital from August 2012 to August 2013 were collected as the observation group. The anti-Hp IgG (H. pylori-specific antibodies), Hp IgM (H. pylori antibodies), and CagA-Hp-IgG (H. pylori serotoxin-associated protein a antibody) in the serum were measured and compared with the related indicators of control group (60 cases of healthy subjects). The H. pylori infection rate was 64.29% in the observation group, and that in the control group was 46.67%. Our results showed that the H. pylori infection rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, which was statistically different (P < 0.01). The positive rate of CagA-Hp in the observation group was 38.88, and 21.53% in the control group, for which the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The occurrence of H. pylori infection in patients with pancreatic cancer was also positively correlated with the smoking history and the history of chronic pancreatitis (P < 0.05). Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and the patients with positive CagA-Hp have the higher risk, so the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection would be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  16. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-21

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed.

  17. Probiotics for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed. PMID:24574741

  18. [Therapy of Campylobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Börsch, G

    1988-02-01

    A simple and efficient therapy eradicating C. pylori with high reliability from gastroduodenal mucosae is presently unknown. In regard to such a "puristic" approach, antibiotics given as monotherapy are presently as ineffective as bismuth salts, which may temporarily reduce the bacterial density, but yield a low complete bacterial eradication rate of not more than 10% to 30% of all patients. Pilot studies are being performed in many centers to identify more efficacious drugs or combinations. Alternative modalities, such as manipulation of mucus, active vaccination, or clearing of bacterial sources in the environment, presently represent nothing but hypothetical models. Bismuth salts might play an important future role in a more "pragmatic" approach, which investigates any potential clinical benefit derived from a mere suppression of bacterial growth, possibly resulting in a temporary restoration of the mucosal integrity. However, this approach will probably fail to modify the long-term natural history of C. pylori-associated chronic gastritis and its sequelae.

  19. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Keom

    2016-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric diseases. The clinical implications of H. pylori infection in various diseases outside the gastrointestinal system have also been reported, including in some respiratory disorders. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with mild to moderate COPD in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Also, we aimed to elucidate the association between the seroprevalence of H. pylori and the decline of lung function in patients with COPD. Methods Participants who underwent a medical checkup for H. pylori at a referral hospital in Korea were recruited for this study. All participants were tested for H. pylori infection using an immunoassay of the H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and a rapid urease test at the time of endoscopy with a gastric mucosal specimen. We assessed the decline in lung function using the spirometric data of those who underwent spirometry more than three times. Results In total, 603 participants (201 patients with COPD and 402 controls) were analyzed. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in the patients and controls was 45.8% and 52.2%, respectively (P=0.134). The H. pylori IgG level in patients with COPD was not significantly different from that of the controls (114.8 and 109.6 units/mL, respectively; P=0.549). In addition, there were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity. Conclusion This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population. PMID:27621611

  1. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Keom

    2016-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric diseases. The clinical implications of H. pylori infection in various diseases outside the gastrointestinal system have also been reported, including in some respiratory disorders. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with mild to moderate COPD in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Also, we aimed to elucidate the association between the seroprevalence of H. pylori and the decline of lung function in patients with COPD. Methods Participants who underwent a medical checkup for H. pylori at a referral hospital in Korea were recruited for this study. All participants were tested for H. pylori infection using an immunoassay of the H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and a rapid urease test at the time of endoscopy with a gastric mucosal specimen. We assessed the decline in lung function using the spirometric data of those who underwent spirometry more than three times. Results In total, 603 participants (201 patients with COPD and 402 controls) were analyzed. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in the patients and controls was 45.8% and 52.2%, respectively (P=0.134). The H. pylori IgG level in patients with COPD was not significantly different from that of the controls (114.8 and 109.6 units/mL, respectively; P=0.549). In addition, there were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity. Conclusion This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population.

  2. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  3. A PARENT–ADOLESCENT INTERVENTION TO INCREASE SEXUAL RISK COMMUNICATION: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent–adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HTV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6– and 12–month follow–ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent–adolescent communication related to general and sex–specific communication. PMID:18956979

  4. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  5. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2006-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori.

  6. Helicobacter pylori in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Hojsak, Iva; Kolaček, Sanja

    2012-09-01

    This review summarizes important pediatric studies published from April 2011 up to March 2012. Proteomics profile of ulcerogenic Helicobacter pylori strains was defined in the most interesting study of the last year. The antigen stool test is becoming the "gold standard" in prevalence studies, and according to the last epidemiologic studies, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in childhood is not decreasing any more in the developed world. The resistance rate of H. pylori strains is high in children. Therefore, among other important issues concerning H. pylori in pediatrics, guidelines published by ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN last year also recommended culture and susceptibility testing before first-line treatment in areas with high or unknown antibiotic resistance rates.

  7. Association Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Samarai, V.; Sharifi, N.; Nateghi, Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the prevalence of Pylori infection in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and control group with cataract. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study. The participants were organized in two groups. First group (case) consisted of 35 patients with POAG and second group consisted of 35 age matched participants with cataract whose optic disk could be evaluated. Serum levels of anti H. pylori IgG antibody were evaluated with the method of ELISA. Results: The seroprevalence of Pylori infection was 89.1 % (33 of 37) in patients with POAG and 59.5 % (25 of 42) in the control group. The difference was significant (P=0.008). The odds ratio for association between Pylori and POAG was 5.69 and the range of 95% confidence interval was from 1.58 to 20.50. Conclusion: This study suggests that Helicobacter Pylori infection might be associated with primary open angle glaucoma. PMID:25363173

  8. Helicobacter pylori defense against oxidative attack.

    PubMed

    Stent, Andrew; Every, Alison L; Sutton, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative pathogen of the human stomach. Despite the chronic active gastritis that develops following colonization, H. pylori is able to persist unharmed in the stomach for decades. Much of the damage caused by gastric inflammation results from the accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species within the stomach environment, which can induce oxidative damage in a wide range of biological molecules. Without appropriate defenses, this oxidative damage would be able to rapidly kill nearby H. pylori, but the organism employs a range of measures, including antioxidant enzymes, biological repair systems, and inhibitors of oxidant generation, to counter the attack. Despite the variety of measures employed to defend against oxidative injury, these processes are intimately interdependent, and any deficiency within the antioxidant system is generally sufficient to cause substantial impairment of H. pylori viability and persistence. This review provides an overview of the development of oxidative stress during H. pylori gastritis and examines the methods the organism uses to survive the resultant damage.

  9. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  10. Helicobacter pylori and hormones.

    PubMed Central

    Calam, J.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori affects gastric acid secretion via several mechanisms. One of these is by changing gastric regulatory physiology. The infection elevates plasma gastrin levels and decreases gastric mucosal expression of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. These changes may be due to products of H. pylori itself or inflammatory cytokines released in H. pylori infection: acid secretion is inhibited less by a low intra-gastric pH, infusions of cholecystokinin and gastric distention in infected persons. Eradication of H. pylori rapidly decreases basal acid secretion and gastrin-releasing, peptide-stimulated acid secretion. There are now reports that maximally-stimulated acid secretion, a measure of the parietal cell mass, falls significantly six and 12 months after eradication of H. pylori from duodenal ulcer patients. This might be due to withdrawal of the trophic effect of gastrin. However H. pylori can also decrease gastric acid secretion, both through the mechanisms described in Dr. Cave's paper and by causing gastric mucosal atrophy with loss of parietal cells. The net effect on acid presumably depends on which mechanism predominates. The processes involved may be crucial determinants of clinical outcome. For example, infection with little atrophy and high acid secretion is associated with duodenal ulcers, while infection with atrophy and low acid secretion increases the risk of gastric cancer of the intestinal-type. PMID:9041688

  11. Integrating an HIV/HCV Brief Intervention in Prisoner Reentry: Results of a Multisite Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Steven S.; O’Connell, Daniel J.; Inciardi, James A.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Maiden, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    Brief interventions to reduce harmful or problem behaviors have become increasingly popular in a variety of health fields, including HIV and hepatitis risk reduction. A central issue in intervention research involves the evaluation of what constitutes an effective “dose” of an intervention. This research examines the relative effectiveness of three alternative brief interventions of varying intensity designed to change the risk behaviors of inmates who are reentering society: a DVD-based, peer delivered intervention; the NIDA Standard HIV Intervention; and a standard practice condition (HIV educational video). All participants randomly received one of the interventions and were tested for HIV and HCV prior to release from custody. Thirty and ninety-day follow-ups examined changes in high-risk behaviors. Results reported here for 343 subjects who have completed the 90–day follow up indicate significant reductions in reported sexual risk behaviors for those participating the DVD intervention, compared to the other two brief interventions. This study is among the first to report any positive impacts on sexual behaviors among a population of inmates returning to the community. PMID:19283947

  12. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  13. Helicobacter pylori and Egyptian infantile colic.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel S A; Borei, Maher B M

    2013-08-01

    Excessive infant crying is a common and often stress-inducing condition for parents that can ultimately result in infant abuse. Although the infantile colic is reported commonly and causes appreciable distress for both parents and pediatricians, its pathogenesis remains unclear, despite 40 years of research. This work studied the role of H. pylori in infantile colic. This study was conducted in a primary health care office in Sharkia Governorate. The study included 50 infants with infantile colic according to Wessel's criteria, along with age and sex matched 50 healthy controls. All-infants without apparent cause for their colic underwent full history taking, clinical examination and H. pylori antigen in their stools. This study supports the new evidence for the role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of infantile colic. H. pylori stool antigen was present in 31 (62%) of cases in contrast to 10 (20%) of controls (P<0.0001). Normal vaginal delivery, male, vomiting and breast feeding may be risk factors for H. pylori infection in this age period.

  14. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  15. Prior H. pylori infection ameliorates S. typhimurium induced colitis: mucosal crosstalk between stomach and distal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Peter D.R.; Johnson, Laura A.; Luther, Jay; Zhang, Min; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with a lower risk of chronic autoimmune diseases including IBD. H. pylori modulates the gastric immune response, decreasing the local inflammatory response to itself. In mice, chronic Salmonella typhimurium infection induces colitis similar to Crohn’s disease characterized by inflammation which progresses towards fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior H. pylori infection acts at a distance to modulate the immune response of S. typhimurium-induced colitis. Methods Mice were infected with the mouse-adapted strain of H. pylori (SS1), followed by infection with S. typhimurium. The effect of H. pylori on colitis was determined by gross pathology, histopathology, cytokine response, and development of fibrosis in the cecum. Gastritis and systemic immune response was measured in response to infection. Results H. pylori suppresses the Th17 response to S. typhimurium infection in the mouse cecum, but does not alter the Th2 or Treg response or the development of fibrosis. H. pylori infection induces IL-10 in the mesenteric lymph nodes, suggesting an extra-gastric mechanism for immunomodulation. H. pylori/S. typhimurium co-infection decreases inflammation in both the cecum and the stomach. Conclusions This study demonstrates a potential mechanism for the negative association between H. pylori and IBD in humans. H. pylori represses the lower gastrointestinal tract Th17 response to bacterially induced colitis via extra-gastric immunomodulatory effects, illustrating immunological crosstalk between the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21560200

  16. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  17. Persistence of Helicobacter pylori in heterotrophic drinking-water biofilms.

    PubMed

    Gião, M S; Azevedo, N F; Wilks, S A; Vieira, M J; Keevil, C W

    2008-10-01

    Although the route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains unknown, drinking water has been considered a possible transmission vector. It has been shown previously that, in water, biofilms are a protective niche for several pathogens, protecting them from stressful conditions, such as low carbon concentration, shear stress, and less-than-optimal temperatures. In this work, the influence of these three parameters on the persistence and cultivability of H. pylori in drinking-water biofilms was studied. Autochthonous biofilm consortia were formed in a two-stage chemostat system and then inoculated with the pathogen. Total numbers of H. pylori cells were determined by microscopy using a specific H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe, whereas cultivable cells were assessed by standard plating onto selective H. pylori medium. Cultivable H. pylori could not be detected at any time point, but the ability of H. pylori cells to incorporate, undergo morphological transformations, persist, and even agglomerate in biofilms for at least 31 days without a noticeable decrease in the total cell number (on average, the concentration was between 1.54 x 10(6) and 2.25 x 10(6) cells cm(-2)) or in the intracellular rRNA content may indicate that the loss of cultivability was due to entry into a viable but noncultivable state. Unlike previous results obtained for pure-culture H. pylori biofilms, shear stress did not negatively influence the numbers of H. pylori cells attached, suggesting that the autochthonous aquatic bacteria have an important role in retaining this pathogen in the sessile state, possibly by providing suitable microaerophilic environments or linking biomolecules to which the pathogen adheres. Therefore, biofilms appear to provide not only a safe haven for H. pylori but also a concentration mechanism so that subsequent sloughing releases a concentrated bolus of cells that might be infectious and that could escape routine grab sample microbiological

  18. Helicobacter pylori: new developments and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M; Hunt, R H

    1997-01-01

    The authors highlight new developments in research on Helicobacter pylori. There is now consensus that all patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent duodenal or gastric ulcers who have a positive test result for H. pylori should be treated for the infection. Patients presenting with complications of ulcers, such as bleeding, should also be treated. H. pylori has recently been classified as a definite human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In treatment, new combination regimens, consisting of 3 or 4 different drugs, cure the infection in more than 80% of patients. Currently, the best combinations are: (1) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and metronidazole, (2) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, (3) bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole, and (4) omeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole. PMID:9176424

  19. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread.

  20. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  1. Antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation as a marker of immune response in guinea pigs with sustained Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Eliza; Walencka, Maria; Rudnicka, Karolina; Matusiak, Agnieszka; Rudnicka, Wiesława; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria are human pathogens causing symptomatic gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. Little is known about the kinetics of immune responses in H. pylori infected patients because the initial moment of infection has not been identified. Various animal models are used to investigate the immune processes related to H. pylori infection. In this study we checked whether H. pylori infection in guinea pigs, mimicking natural H. pylori infection in humans, resulted in the development of specific immune responses to H. pylori antigens by measuring the proliferation of lymphocytes localized in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and peripheral blood. The maturity of macrophages and cytokines, delivered by monocyte-macrophage lineage or lymphocytes, were considered as mediators, which might influence the lymphocyte blastogenic response. The obtained results showed the activation of T cells localized in mesenteric lymph nodes by H. pylori antigens in H. pylori infected guinea pigs four weeks postinfection. The blastogenic activity of lymphocytes was shaped by their interaction with antigen presenting cells, which were present in the cell cultures during the whole culture period. Moreover, the balance between cytokines derived from adherent leukocytes including interleukin 8--IL-8 as well as interferon gamma--IFN-γ, and transforming growth factor beta--TGF-β delivered by lymphocytes, was probably important for the successful proliferation of lymphocytes. The H. pylori specific lymphocytes were not propagated in peripheral blood and spleen of H. pylori infected animals. The modulation of immunocompetent cells by H. pylori antigens or their different distribution cannot be excluded.

  2. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  3. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  4. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  5. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX. PMID:27630835

  6. Helicobacter pylori and Antibiotic Resistance, A Continuing and Intractable Problem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Bin; Dai, Jinfeng

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a human pathogen with a high global prevalence, is the causative pathogen for multiple gastrointestinal diseases, especially chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric malignancies. Antibiotic therapies remain the mainstay for H. pylori eradication; however, this strategy is hampered by the emergence and spread of H. pylori antibiotic resistance. Exploring the mechanistic basis of this resistance is becoming one of the major research questions in contemporary biomedical research, as such knowledge could be exploited to devise novel rational avenues for counteracting the existing resistance and devising strategies to avoid the development of a novel anti-H. pylori medication. Encouragingly, important progress in this field has been made recently. Here, we attempt to review the current state and progress with respect to the molecular mechanism of antibiotic resistance for H. pylori. A picture is emerging in which mutations of various genes in H. pylori, resulting in decreased membrane permeability, altered oxidation-reduction potential, and a more efficient efflux pump system. The increased knowledge on these mechanisms produces hope that antibiotic resistance in H. pylori can ultimately be countered.

  7. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed.

  8. Severe gastritis in guinea-pigs infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sturegård, E; Sjunnesson, H; Ho, B; Willén, R; Aleljung, P; Ng, H C; Wadström, T

    1998-12-01

    An appropriate animal model is essential to study Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if H. pylori can colonise the guinea-pig stomach and whether the infection causes gastritis and a serological response similar to that observed in man. Guinea-pigs were infected either with fresh H. pylori isolates from human gastric biopsies or with a guinea-pig passaged strain. When the animals were killed, 3 and 7 weeks after inoculation, samples were taken for culture, histopathology and serology. H. pylori was cultured from 22 of 29 challenged animals. All culture-positive animals exhibited a specific immune response against H. pylori antigens in Western blotting and gastritis in histopathological examination. Antibody titres in enzyme immunoassay were elevated among animals challenged with H. pylori. The inflammatory response was graded as severe in most animals and consisted of both polymorphonuclear leucocytes and lymphocytes. Erosion of the gastric epithelium was found in infected animals. These results suggest that the guinea-pig is suitable for studying H. pylori-associated diseases. Moreover, guinea-pigs are probably more similar to man than any other small laboratory animal as regards gastric anatomy and physiology.

  9. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262

  10. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins-including the previously unknown DUF466 family-in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  11. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  12. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  13. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  14. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in aberrant DNA methylation along multistep gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Jung, Younmu; Park, Ji Hyun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    CpG island hypermethylation is frequently found during gastric carcinogenesis. We investigated methylation profiles of p16, LOX, HAND1, THBD, p41ARC, and APC along multistep gastric carcinogenesis and determined their association with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methylation levels in these six genes were evaluated in noncancerous gastric biopsy specimens using quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 459 patients with gastric cancer (GC), 137 with dysplasia, and 248 controls. Controls were divided into four subgroups sorted by current H. pylori infection status (active vs past or negative infection) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (IM). In controls, active H. pylori infection significantly increased methylation levels in THBD, LOX, and HAND1 (all P < 0.001), and hypermethylation of THBD, HAND1, and APC was associated with IM. Aberrant DNA hypermethylation was correlated well with activity of H. pylori-associated gastritis. However, methylation levels in LOX, HAND1, THBD, and p41ARC remained increased in cases with past H. pylori infection compared to those that were H. pylori negative (all P < 0.05). Hypermethylation of THBD, and possibly p16, was significantly associated with GC, regardless of the status of current H. pylori infection (all P < 0.05). These results suggest that aberrant DNA hypermethylation caused by H. pylori-associated gastritis occurs in a gene-specific manner along gastric carcinogenesis, which can be persistent even after the disappearance of H. pylori. Aberrant methylation of THBD might provide a link between H. pylori infection and development of GC.

  15. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mahmood Reza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Bikdeli, Bavand; Zahedani, Mohsen Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis. PMID:17006984

  16. Reporting of results of interventional studies by the information service of the National Institutes of Health

    PubMed Central

    Shamliyan, Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 mandated that sponsors of applicable studies must provide results within one year of study completion. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with reporting of results from interventional studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov. On May 20, 2010, we retrieved 20 available fields from 57,233 closed studies on the website and identified 31,161 interventional studies that were required to post results. We compared the proportion of studies with results versus studies without results by age, gender, and disease status of participants, by interventions, sponsors, phase of clinical trials, and completion dates. The results of studies were reported for 4.7% of applicable studies, 8% of industry-sponsored studies, 7.5% of Phase II and 6.5% of Phase IV clinical trials, 4.9% of drug studies, and 0% of genetic studies. Withdrawn (n = 486) and suspended (n = 414) interventions did not provide results. The percentage of studies with results varied from 0% to 21% among different sponsors. The first studies with results were completed in 1992. The proportion of studies with results increased over time. Completion dates were not available for 7446 studies. The database does not have fields available to facilitate routine analysis of the rate of compliance with federal law for posting results. The analysis of accuracy of the protocols in relation to the results and publications is not possible without time-consuming evaluation of individual postings and individual publications. PMID:22291502

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection and stem cells at the origin of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bessède, E; Dubus, P; Mégraud, F; Varon, C

    2015-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori infection is now recognized as the main and specific infectious cause of cancer in the world. It is responsible for gastric adenocarcinomas of both intestinal and diffuse types, which are the long-term consequences of the chronic infection of the gastric mucosa. Case-control studies have shown an association between the two, recognized as early as 1994 and further substantiated by interventional studies in which H. pylori eradication has led to the prevention of at least part of the gastric cancers. Experimental studies have highlighted the role of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and particularly mesenchymal stem cells, in the neoplastic process in about a quarter of the cases and possibly an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the other cases. Different studies have confirmed that chronic infection with H. pylori induces a chronic inflammation and subsequent damage of the gastric epithelial mucosa, leading to BMDC recruitment. Once recruited, these cells home and differentiate by cell-cell fusion with local gastric epithelial cells, bearing local stem cell failure and participating in tissue regeneration. The context of chronic infection and inflammation leads to an EMT and altered tissue regeneration and differentiation from both local epithelial stem cells and BMDC. EMT induces the emergence of CD44+ cells possessing mesenchymal and stem cell properties, resulting in metaplastic and dysplastic lesions to give rise, after additional epigenetic and mutational events, to the emergence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and adenocarcinoma.

  18. Discovery – The Link to H.Pylori Bacteria

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supported research to solidify the link between H. pylori infections and stomach cancer. As a result, new cancer treatment and prevention strategies are being developed, encouraging scientists to carefully examine other cancers for viral and bacterial connections.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with gallstones: Epidemiological survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fen-Ming; Yu, Chao-Hui; Chen, Hong-Tan; Shen, Zhe; Hu, Feng-Ling; Yuan, Xiao-Ping; Xu, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prevalence and risk factors for gallstones, primarily focusing on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. METHODS: A total of 10016 Chinese subjects, who had undergone physical examination, fasting 13C urea breath test and abdominal ultrasonography, had sufficient blood test data, and had finished a questionnaire, were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants (n = 1122) who had previous eradication of H. pylori were studied separately. RESULTS: Gallstones were discovered in 9.10% of men and 8.58% of women, with no significant sex difference. Multivariate analyses displayed that age, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, H. pylori infection, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and fatty liver had a significant association with gallstones (P < 0.05). Successive multiple logistic regression analysis including index of odds ratio (OR) and standardized coefficient (β) indicated that older age (OR/β = 1.056/0.055), H. pylori infection (OR/β = 1.454/0.109), HCV infection (OR/β = 1.871/0.123), and fatty liver (OR/β = 1.947/0.189) had a significant positive association with gallstones. After age stratification, H. pylori infection and fatty liver still had a significant positive association with gallstones in any age-specific groups, whereas HCV infection had a significant positive association in patients aged > 40 years. The prevalence of gallstones among H. pylori-positive, H. pylori-eradicated, and H. pylori-negative subjects was 9.47%, 9.02%, and 8.46%, respectively. The matched analysis showed that gallstones among H. pylori eradicated subjects was significantly lower compared with H. pylori-positive subjects (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection and fatty liver have a significant positive association with gallstones. H. pylori eradication may lead to prevention of gallstones. PMID:26269681

  20. "Social dangerousness and incurability in schizophrenia": results of an educational intervention for medical and psychology students.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Sagliocchi, Alessandra; Oliviero, Nicoletta; D'Ambrosio, Antonio; Campitiello, Federica; Zaccaro, Antonella; Guizzaro, Lorenzo; Patalano, Melania

    2014-11-30

    This study explored the influence of an educational intervention addressing common prejudices and scientific evidence about schizophrenia on medical and psychology students' views of this disorder. The intervention--consisting in two three-hour lessons with an interval of a week between--was run at first for medical students and then for psychology students. Participants' views of schizophrenia were assessed at baseline vs. at post intervention by matched questionnaires. At medical school, participation was voluntary and also included a six-month online re-assessment, while at psychology school, participation was mandatory. A total of 211 students attended the educational initiative. At post intervention assessment, students more frequently mentioned psychosocial causes of schizophrenia, and more firmly believed that recovery in schizophrenia is possible and that persons with this disorder are not unpredictable and dangerous vs. their baseline assessment. The online six-month assessment confirmed favourable changes in medical students' views found at post intervention. These results confirm that an educational intervention including personal experiences and scientific evidence can be successful in reducing students' prejudices toward persons with schizophrenia.

  1. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcer drugs that act as covalent inhibitors of the gastric acid pump are targeted to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase by virtue of accumulation in acid and conversion to the active sulfenamide. This results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion. Appropriate dosage is able to optimize acid control therapy for reflux and peptic ulcer disease as compared to H2 receptor antagonists. However, clinical data on recurrence show that Helicobacter pylori eradication should accompany treatment of the lesion. These drugs have been found to synergize with many antibiotics for eradication. The survival of aerobes depends on their ability to maintain a driving force for protons across their inner membrane, the sum of a pH and potential difference gradient, the protonmotive force (pmf). The transmembrane flux of protons across the F1F0 ATPase, driven by the pmf, is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The internal pH of H. pylori was measured using the fluorescent dye probe, BCECF, and the membrane potential defined by the uptake of the carbocyanine dye, DiSC3 [5] at different pHs to mimic the gastric environment. The protonmotive force at pH 7.0 was composed of a delta pH of 1.4 (-84mV) and a delta potential difference of -131mV, to give a pmf of -215 mV. The effect of variations in external pH on survival of the bacteria in the absence of urea correlated with the effect of external pH on the ability of the bacteria to maintain a pmf. The effect of the addition of 5 mM urea on the pmf was measured at different medium pH values. Urea restored the pmf at pH 3.0 or 3.5, but abolished the pmf at pH 7.0 or higher, due the production of the alkalinizing cation, NH3. Hence H. pylori is an acid-tolerant neutrophile due to urease activity, but urease activity also limits its survival to an acidic environment. These data help explain the occupation of the stomach by the organism and its distribution between fundus and antrum. This distribution and its alteration by proton pump

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and atopic diseases: Is there a relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Angela; Garozzo, Maria Teresa; Filippelli, Martina; Tomarchio, Stefania; Ferrara, Viviana; Salpietro, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To review and conduct a meta-analysis of the existing literature on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atopy and allergic diseases. METHODS: Studies published in English assessing the prevalence of atopy and/or allergic diseases in patients with H. pylori infection and the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with atopy and/or allergic diseases were identified through a MEDLINE search (1950-2014). Random-effect model was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled results of case-control studies showed a significant inverse association of H. pylori infection with atopy/allergic disease or with exclusively atopy, but not with allergic disease, whereas pooled results of cross-sectional studies showed only a significant association between allergic disease and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence of an inverse association between atopy/allergic diseases and H. pylori infection, although further studied are needed. PMID:25516679

  3. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... medical privacy law, including any information needed to determine whether the appropriate care can be... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an... Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention....

  4. Mechanism of H. pylori Intracellular Entry: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Semino-Mora, C.; Dubois, Andre

    2012-01-01

    The majority of Helicobacter pylori reside on gastric epithelial cell surfaces and in the overlying mucus, but a small fraction of H. pylori enter host epithelial and immune cells. To explore the role of the nudA invasin in host cell entry, a ΔnudA deletion derivative of strain J99 was constructed and transformants were verified by PCR and by fluorescence in situ hybridization. AGS cells were inoculated with either wild type (WT) strain J99 or its ΔnudA mutant to determine the fraction of bacteria that were bound to the cells and were present inside these cells using the gentamicin protection assay. We observed no significant difference between either the density of H. pylori bound to AGS cell membranes or the density of intracellular H. pylori. To further explore this finding, separate chambers of each culture were fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunogold TEM. This addition to the “classical” gentamicin assay demonstrated that there were significantly more intracellular, and fewer membrane-bound, H. pylori in WT-infected AGS cells than in ΔnudA allele infected cells. Thus, the sum of intracellular and membrane-bound H. pylori was similar in the two groups. Since no other similar TEM study has been performed, it is at present unknown whether our observations can be reproduced by others Taken together however, our observations suggest that the “classical” gentamicin protection assay is not sufficiently sensitive to analyze H. pylori cell entry and that the addition of TEM to the test demonstrates that nudA plays a role in H. pylori entry into AGS cells in vitro. In addition, deletion of the invasin gene appears to limit H. pylori to the AGS cell surface, where it may be partly protected against gentamicin. In contrast, this specific environment may render H. pylori more vulnerable to host defense and therapeutic intervention, and less prone to trigger normal immune, carcinogenic, and other developmental response

  5. At the Bedside: Helicobacter pylori, dysregulated host responses, DNA damage, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Rahul S.; Moss, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials performed in populations at high GC risk have demonstrated that eradication of Helicobacter pylori from the stomach with a course of combination antimicrobials helps prevent gastric carcinogenesis when they are administered before precancerous lesions have yet developed. In this review, we consider the insights into H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis that have been gained from these and many other clinical studies in the field to highlight priority areas for basic research and clinical investigation. Among these are defining the magnitude of the risk reduction that may be achieved in clinical practice and at a population level by H. pylori eradication and investigating when, during the slow multistep progression to GC, intervention will be of the most benefit. Additional strategies to prevent GC induced by H. pylori, including chemoprevention, dietary modification, and close endoscopic surveillance, may also have value in augmenting the risk reduction. Why only a small subpopulation of those infected by H. pylori go on to develop GC may be partially explained by genetic susceptibility related to SNPs in several genes regulating the intensity of the gastric inflammatory response to H. pylori. Investigation of the basic mechanisms underlying the promotion of GC by H. pylori and the associated inflammatory response will likely continue to improve clinical strategies for the prevention of one of the most common causes of cancer death globally. See related review, At the Bench: H. pylori, dysregulated host responses, DNA damage, and gastric cancer. PMID:24823809

  6. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  7. Helicobacter pylori status among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Colmers-Gray, Isabelle N.; Vandermeer, Ben; Greidanus, Robert I.; Kolber, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the Helicobacter pylori status of patients who underwent gastroscopy. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Peace River Community Health Centre in rural northwestern Alberta. Participants Data were collected from patients who had a gastroscopy performed by either of 2 family physicians between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Main outcome measures The proportion of patients who had positive test results for H pylori overall and among first-time gastroscopy patients. For first-time gastroscopy patients, the associations between H pylori infection and patient age, sex, residence, and procedural indications and findings were explored. Results A total of 251 gastroscopies were conducted in 229 unique patients during the study period. Overall, 12.4% (95% CI 8.3% to 16.4%) of patients had positive results for H pylori and among the 159 first-time gastroscopy patients, 17.6% (95% CI 11.7% to 23.5%) had positive test results for H pylori. Helicobacter pylori status did not differ significantly by geography, sex, or age. The prevalence of H pylori was higher among patients with H pylori–related indications for gastroscopy (such as dyspepsia and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding) than among patients with other indications; however, H pylori infection was not statistically significantly greater in patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer disease. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection among patients undergoing gastroscopy in rural northern Alberta appears lower than other Canadian estimates. In regions with low H pylori rates, patients with dyspepsia might be better served by acid suppression and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug cessation before investigating for H pylori infection. Population-based research is required to further describe regional differences in H pylori rates. PMID:27629690

  8. [In vitro activities of faropenem against clarithromycin resistance Helicobacter pylori isolates].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Saika, T; Matsuzaki, K; Kobayashi, I; Fujioka, T; Nasu, M; Saionji, K; Igari, J

    1998-03-01

    Agar dilution and semi-solid agar dilution were used to determine the MIC of faropenem (FRPM) against 24 H. pylori isolates. FRPM was active against clarithromycin resistance H. pylori isolates. And, the MICs obtained by both methods were in agreement. The results suggest that FRPM was not affected by pH and is a clinically useful oral antibiotic for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infections. PMID:9585692

  9. [A new method for detection and erradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by stool antigens test].

    PubMed

    Amèndola, R; Doweck, J; Katz, J; Racca, J; Menendez, G; Schenone, L; Farìas, R; Barrantes, C; Quintanta, C; Zerbo, O; Kogan, Z; Valero, J; Bartellini, M A; Questa, U; Luna, P; Corti, R E

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays technics for Helicobacter pylori detection in stools like culture, and PCR, are expensive and difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate ELISA test efficacy for detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools comparing this results with standarized technics like histology (Giemsa), ureasa test and UBT C 14. 26 patients were evaluated in this study, ages between 15-75 with upper gastrointestinal symptoms; all of them required gastroduodenal endoscopy, status H. Pylori was determined with methods upon mentioned. 24 hours after endoscopy H. Pylori antigens in stools with the technique Premier Platinum Htsa, Elisa were determined. The detection of H. Pylori antigens in stools accurately identified active H. Pylori infection. The performance characteristics of this non-invasive method was similar in sensibility and specificity to conventional tests.

  10. Allergies, Helicobacter pylori and the continental enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is known to be associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and is also a strong risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and lymphoma of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ordinarily, this should make a strong case for its eradication at par with any other infectious disease. However, the unique biology of H. pylori and the complexity of its interactions with humans, its only known natural host, do not permit the recommendation of unambiguous preventive and therapeutic measures. Moreover, this organism has co-evolved with humans as a practically universal member of the natural gastric microbiota over at least 100,000 years. H. pylori persists for a lifetime in mostly asymptomatic hosts, and causes clinical disease only in a minority of infections. Therefore, its potential contribution to the maintenance of human immune homeostasis, as is the case with the better-studied members of the intestinal microbiota, is certainly worthy of serious investigation. In this paper, we summarize some interesting and often anecdotal data drawn from recent studies, and examine their significance in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. We also examine whether the lower incidence of gastric cancer over large parts of the world in spite of a high prevalence of infection (the Asian and African enigmas) may be re-interpreted in terms of the hygiene hypothesis. Finally, it is suggested that an evolutionary-ecological approach to the study of H. pylori infection may help in the formulation of strategies for the management of this infection. This may well be an infectious disease wherein medical interventions may have to be personalized to ensure optimal outcomes. PMID:26106380

  11. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  12. Improving perceptions of healthy food affordability: results from a pilot intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong empirical support for the association between perceived food affordability and dietary intake amongst families with a lower socioeconomic position (SEP), there is limited evidence of the most effective strategies for promoting more positive perceptions of healthy food affordability among this group. This paper reports findings from a pilot intervention that aimed to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability amongst mothers. Findings Participants were 66 mothers who were the parents of children recruited from primary schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs. Intervention group participants viewed a slideshow focussed on healthy snack food affordability that illustrated cheaper healthier alternatives to common snack foods as well as food budgeting tips and price comparison education. A mixed between-within ANCOVA was conducted to examine group differences in perceived affordability of healthy food across three time points. Results revealed no difference in perceived affordability of healthy food between the two groups at baseline whereas at post-intervention and follow-up, mothers in the intervention group perceived healthy food as more affordable than the control group. Conclusions Focussing on education-based interventions to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability may be a promising approach that complements existing nutrition promotion strategies. PMID:24606876

  13. Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and its implications for gastric infection, periodontal health, immunology and dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, M; Bielanski, W; Guzik, T J; Loster, B; Konturek, S J

    2005-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important gastrointestinal pathogen associated with gastritis as well as gastric or duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The oral cavity has been considered as a potential reservoir for the gastric infection and reinfection. The objective of our studies was to evaluate the influence of oral H. pylori for the stomach infection and the release of gut hormones affecting food intake such as ghrelin and gastric secretion such as gastrin. Additionally, the contribution of H. pylori in the periodontal disease has been examined. H. pylori infection in stomach was assessed by (13)C- Urease Breath Test and presence of the bacteria in oral cavity by culture. The periodontal status was measured by pockets depth with the periodontal probe. We estimated the serum level of IgG anti-H. pylori, anti-VacA, anti-CagA, ghrelin, gastrin, TNF-alpha and IL-8 in blood and the level of IgA anti-H. pylori in saliva. The presence of H. pylori in oral cavity was detected in 54.1% of examined individuals, whereas the H. pylori gastric infection in tested group was found in 51% cases. However, the correlation analysis between those two groups of patients involving together about 100 subjects showed that within the group of patients with positive gastric H. pylori infection only 45.1% did not show the presence of H. pylori in saliva and 43.1% showed no H. pylori in supragingival plaque. In line of these findings patients who did not have gastric H. pylori infection, 53.2% showed presence of H. pylori in saliva and 42.9% in supragingival plaques. Serum level of ghrelin and gastrin in subjects with oral H. pylori inoculation but without gastric H. pylori infection were not significantly different from those without the presence of this germ in oral cavity. In contrast, gastric H. pylori infection resulted in significant reduction in serum ghrelin levels and significant elevation of gastrin as compared to those who were gastric H. pylori negative. We concluded

  14. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  15. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom and school…

  16. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES Condition of Participation for the Use of Restraint or Seclusion in... Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... medical care or acute psychiatric care; (2) Medical and other information needed for care of the...

  17. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  18. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  19. Testing for Helicobacter pylori in primary care: trouble in store?

    PubMed Central

    Foy, R.; Parry, J. M.; Murray, L.; Woodman, C. B.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of testing for Helicobacter pylori in the management of dyspeptic patients in primary care. DESIGN: Selective review of literature frequently quoted to support use of H pylori testing. MAIN RESULTS: Testing for H pylori and referral of only positive cases for endoscopy aims to reduce the number of "unnecessary" endoscopies. Patients with negative results may receive short-term reassurance and subsequently place fewer demands on health services. However, studies to date have only assessed this practice in secondary care settings. Given the relatively high prevalence of both dyspepsia and H pylori infection, the transfer of this practice to primary care may lead to a paradoxical increase in endoscopy referrals. Identification of H pylori and prescribing of eradication treatment also aims to reduce endoscopy referrals. No primary care trials have yet assessed this approach. Given that fewer than one in four of dyspeptic patients have peptic ulceration, a high proportion may fail to respond to eradication treatment and subsequently require referral for endoscopy. The longer term clinical and psychosocial sequelae of treating or labelling patients with an infection associated with gastric cancer remain unknown. CONCLUSIONS: Given uncertainty concerning the possible adverse effects of H pylori testing in primary care, we suggest a moratorium on its use in this setting until results from relevant clinical trials become available.   PMID:9764281

  20. Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Michele; Cadeddu, Federica; Villa, Massimo; Attinà, Grazia Maria; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Nigro, Casimiro; Rulli, Francesco; Farinon, Attilio M

    2008-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis is still not clear. To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and GERD taking into account endoscopic, pH-metric and histopathological data. Methods Between January 2001 and January 2003 a prospective study was performed in 146 patients with GERD in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection at gastric mucosa; further the value of the De Meester score endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric parameters, i.e. reflux episodes, pathological reflux episodes and extent of oesophageal acid exposure, of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection were studied and statistically compared. Finally, univariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed in order to evaluate the statistical correlation with reflux esophagitis. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, HP infected and HP negative patients, regarding age, gender and type of symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding severity of symptoms and manometric parameters. The value of the De Meester score and the ph-metric parameters were similar in both groups. On univariate analysis, we observed that hiatal hernia (p = 0,01), LES size (p = 0,05), oesophageal wave length (p = 0,01) and pathological reflux number (p = 0,05) were significantly related to the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Conclusion Based on these findings, it seems that there is no significant evidence for an important role for H. pylori infection in the development of GERD and erosive esophagitis. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence to define the relationship between HP and GERD. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted. PMID:18601740

  1. Immunobiological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins.

    PubMed Central

    Tufano, M A; Rossano, F; Catalanotti, P; Liguori, G; Capasso, C; Ceccarelli, M T; Marinelli, P

    1994-01-01

    Studies were carried out on some biological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins in vitro. We extracted and purified a porin with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with H. pylori porins showed a decrease of chemotaxis, of adherence to nylon wool, and of chemiluminescence. Used as chemotaxins in place of zymosan-activated serum or as chemotaxinogens in place of zymosan, the porins induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration. Human monocytes and lymphocytes cultivated in the presence of H. pylori porins released cytokines. Release of the various cytokines studied was obtained with differentiated kinetics and at various porin concentrations. Starting only 3 h after culture, tumor necrosis factor alpha is released quickly, reaching a peak at 18 h, at a porin concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) appears later, with a peak at 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells, while IL-8 is released after 6 h of culture, with a peak at 24 h, at a porin concentration of 10 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells. Lymphocytes stimulated by H. pylori porins release gamma interferon after 18 h of culture at higher concentrations of porins (20 micrograms/ml/10(6) cells). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor is released from 6 to 48 h at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, while both IL-3 and IL-4 are released after 18 h of culture at different porin concentrations (0.1 and 1 microgram/ml/10(6) cells, respectively). Our results lead us to think that during H. pylori infection, surface components, porins in particular, are able to induce a series of chain reactions ranging from the inflammatory to the immunological responses. Images PMID:8132346

  2. Dyslipidemia and H pylori in gastric xanthomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sun Young

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship among gastric xanthomatosis (GX), H pylori, dyslipidemia, and gastritis in Korea, a well-known H pylori endemic area. METHODS: A total of 771 patients who had undergone gastroduodenoscopy by one endoscopist were included in this study. Among them, 54 patients with GX were assessed for H pylori infection and their endoscopic characteristics and serum lipid profiles. The findings were compared with 54 age- and sex-matched control subjects without GX. RESULTS: The prevalence of GX was 7% (54/771) with no sex difference. GX was mainly single (64.8%) and located in the antrum (53.7%). The mean diameter was 7 ± 3 mm. Mean body mass index (BMI) of patients with GX was 23.1 ± 2.8 and no one was above 30. Compared with the controls, lipid profiles of GX group showed significantly lower HDL-cholesterol (48.8 ± 12.3 vs 62.9 ± 40.5, P = 0.028) and higher LDL-cholesterol (112.9 ± 29.9 vs 95.9 ± 22.4, P = 0.032). The level of total serum cholesterol, triglyceride and the existence of dyslipoproteinemia were not related to the presence of GX. However, GX showed a close relationship with endoscopically determined atrophic gastritis and histologic severity (24/53, 44.4% vs 8/54, 14.8%, P = 0.0082). H pylori infection and bile reflux gastritis were not significantly related with GX. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GX is 7% and it may be an increasing entity in Korea. Moreover, dyslipidemia and atrophic gastritis are found to be related to GX, but H pylori infection is not. PMID:17729413

  3. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  4. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity.

  5. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in saliva demonstrated by a novel PCR assay.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Musich, P R; Ha, T; Ferguson, D A; Patel, N R; Chi, D S; Thomas, E

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the saliva of patients infected with this bacterium. METHODS--A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect H pylori in saliva and gastric biopsy specimens from patients undergoing endoscopy. RESULTS--Our PCR assay amplified a 417 base pair fragment of DNA from all 21 DNAs derived from H pylori clinical isolates but did not amplify DNA from 23 non-H pylori strains. Sixty three frozen gastric biopsy and 56 saliva specimens were tested. H pylori specific DNA was detected by PCR in all 39 culture positive biopsy specimens and was also identified from another seven biopsy specimens which were negative by culture but positive by histology. H pylori specific DNA was identified by PCR in saliva specimens from 30 (75%) of 40 patients with H pylori infection demonstrated by culture or histological examination, or both, and in three patients without H pylori infection in the stomach. CONCLUSION--The results indicate that the oral cavity harbours H pylori and may be the source of infection and transmission. Images PMID:7560176

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Ahmadi, R; Moradi, N; Fadaei, R; Sezavar, S H; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether impact of the seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on ferritin and iron levels is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anti H pylori IgG, IgA levels, serum ferritin and iron concentration of 86 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results of present study showed that seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients was higher than controls and CAD patients with negative anti H pylori IgG and IgA significantly. A significant negative correlation was found between seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA, ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients with seronegativity and seronegativity to H pylori IgG and IgA in comparison with controls. The achieved results from present study suggest that the involvement of H pylori infection in atherosclerosis process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. Moreover, impact of the presence of H pylori infection on reduction of the ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients as a risk factor independent of other classic factors including lipid profiles and inflammatory factors was remarkable. PMID:27545208

  7. Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with ADHD that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. Objective This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, referred to as Family-School Success (FSS), designed to improve the family and educational functioning of students in grades 2 through 6 who meet criteria for ADHD combined and inattentive types. Key components of FSS were conjoint behavioral consultation, daily report cards, and behavioral homework interventions. Methods FSS was provided over the course of 12 weekly sessions, which included 6 group sessions, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their children on medication; 43% of children were on medication at the time of random assignment. Children (n=199) were randomly assigned to FSS or a comparison group controlling for non-specific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post intervention and 3-month follow-up. The analyses controlled for child medication status. Results Study findings indicated that FSS had a significant effect on the quality of the family-school relationship, homework performance, and parenting behavior. Conclusions The superiority of FSS was demonstrated even though about 40% of the participants in FSS and CARE were on an optimal dose of medication and there were significant Time effects on each measure. This relatively brief intervention was able to produce effect sizes that were comparable to those of the more intensive MTA behavioral intervention. PMID:22506793

  8. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and occurrence of gastroduodenal lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Gabriele I; Beil, Winfried; Bleck, Joerg S; Manns, Micheal P; Wagner, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The role of H. pylori in the pathogenesis of ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients is poorly defined. Therefore, we sought to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the occurrence of gastroduode-nal lesions in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods and Patients: Seroprevalence of H. pylori was tested in 110 patients with liver cirrhosis and 44 asymptomatic patients with chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis using an anti-H. pylori-IgG-ELISA. Cirrhotic patients underwent upper intestinal endoscopy for macroscopic and histological evaluation of gastric mucosa, and for the detection of mucosal colonisation of H. pylori using Giemsa staining and urease test. Results: There was no significant difference between the H. pylori seroprevalence in patients with liver cirrhosis (76/110; 69%) and patients with chronic viral hepatitis (27/44, 63%, p=0.465). Gastric mucosal colonization with H. pylori in cirrhotic patients was significantly lower than the serologically determined H. pylori prevalence (45% vs. 69%, p=0.001). Etiology of liver cirrhosis did not influence the prevalence of H. pylori infection. 8 of 110 cirrhotic patients had gastric ulcers and 10 had duodenal ulcers. 61% of cirrhotic patients with peptic ulcers were asymptomatic. H. pylori was histologically identified in 61% of gastroduodenal ulcers, and 47% of gastroduodenal erosions. Conclusions: Patients with liver cirrhosis have a high prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcers. The lack of a firm association between H. pylori prevalence and ulcer frequency in cirrhotic patients argues against a pivotal role of H. pylori in the etiology of ulcers in cirrhotic patients. PMID:21394283

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea: Nationwide multicenter study over 13 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the time trend of seropositivity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) over the period of 13 years in an asymptomatic Korean population, and investigate associated risk factors. Methods This cross-sectional nationwide multicentre study surveyed anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies in 19,272 health check-up subjects (aged [greater than and equal to]16 years) in 2011. Risk factors for H. pylori infection were investigated using logistic regression. Seropositivity in asymptomatic subjects without H. pylori eradication was compared between the years 1998 and 2005. Birth cohort effects were also evaluated. Results After exclusion of subjects with a history of H. pylori eradication therapy (n = 3,712, 19.3%) and gastric symptoms (n = 4,764, 24.7%), the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was 54.4% in 10,796 subjects. This was significantly lower than the seroprevalence of 59.6% in 2005 and that of 66.9% in 1998, and this decrease of seropositivity of H. pylori became widespread across all ages and in most areas of the country. This decreasing trend could be explained by cohort analysis. All younger birth cohorts had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori than older birth cohorts at the same age. Decreased seroprevalence within the same birth cohorts also accounted for this phenomenon. Clinical risk factors of H. pylori infection were higher cholesterol level ([greater than and equal to] 240 mg/dl) (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.14-1.54), male gender, older age, low income, and residence in a rural area. Conclusions A decreasing trend of H. pylori seroprevalence due to a birth cohort effect requires further studies on its related human host factors as well as socio-economic and hygienic factors. In addition, the relationship between H. pylori infection and high cholesterol level needs more investigation regarding underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23800201

  10. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  11. Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88–116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43–56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36–52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya. PMID:22589724

  12. Relatedness of Helicobacter pylori populations to gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quan-Jiang; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Wang, Li-Li; Xin, Yong-Ning; Jiang, Man; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects half of the human population. The infection is associated with chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa and peptic ulcers. It is also a major risk factor for gastric cancer. Phylogenetic analysis of global strains reveals there are seven populations of H. pylori, including hpAfrica1, hpAfrica2, hpEastAsia, hpEurope, hpNEAfrica, hpAsia2 and hpSahul. These populations are consistent with their geographical origins, and possibly result from geographical separation of the bacterium leading to reduced bacterial recombination in some populations. For each population, H. pylori has evolved to possess genomic contents distinguishable from others. The hpEurope population is distinct in that it has the largest genome of 1.65 mbp on average, and the highest number of coding sequences. This confers its competitive advantage over other populations but at the cost of a lower infection rate. The large genomic size could be a cause of the frequent occurrence of the deletion of the cag pathogenicity island in H. pylori strains from hpEurope. The incidence of gastric cancer varies among different geographical regions. This can be attributed in part to different rates of infection of H. pylori. Recent studies found that different populations of H. pylori vary in their carcinogenic potential and contribute to the variation in incidence of gastric cancer among geographical regions. This could be related to the ancestral origin of H. pylori. Further studies are indicated to investigate the bacterial factors contributing to differential virulence and their influence on the clinical features in infected individuals. PMID:23236231

  13. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: From environment to human host

    PubMed Central

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems. PMID:24914322

  14. Helicobacter pylori environmental interactions: effect of acidic conditions on H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal interleukin-8 production

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Il Ju; Fujimoto, Saori; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Summary To explore the interactions between the host, environment and bacterium responsible for the different manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection, we examined the effect of acidic conditions on H. pylori-induced interleukin (IL)-8 expression. AGS gastric epithelial cells were exposed to acidic pH and infected with H. pylori [wild-type strain, its isogenic cag pathogenicity island (PAI) mutant or its oipA mutant]. Exposure of AGS cells to acidic pH alone did not enhance IL-8 production. However, following exposure to acidic conditions, H. pylori infection resulted in marked enhancement of IL-8 production which was independent of the presence of the cag PAI and OipA, indicating that H. pylori and acidic conditions act synergistically to induce gastric mucosal IL-8 production. In neutral pH environments H. pylori-induced IL-8 induction involved the NF-κB pathways, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)→ c-Fos/c-Jun→activating protein (AP-1) pathways, JNK→c-Jun→AP-1 pathways and the p38 pathways. At acidic pH H. pylori-induced augmentation of IL-8 production involved markedly upregulated the NF-κB pathways and the ERK→c-Fos→AP-1 pathways. In contrast, activation of the JNK→c-Jun→AP-1 pathways and p38 pathways were pH independent. These results might explain the clinical studies in which patients with duodenal ulcers had higher levels of IL-8 in the antral gastric mucosa than patients with simple H. pylori gastritis. PMID:17517062

  15. Extracellular galectin-3 counteracts adhesion and exhibits chemoattraction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Ho, Bow

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside lectin that is upregulated and rapidly secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. An earlier study reported the involvement of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) in the expression of intracellular Gal-3. However, the role of extracellular Gal-3 and its functional significance in H. pylori-infected cells remains uncharacterized. Data presented here demonstrate secretion of Gal-3 is an initial host response event in gastric epithelial cells during H. pylori infection and is independent of CagA. Previously, Gal-3 was shown to bind to H. pylori LPS. The present study elaborates the significance of this binding, as extracellular recombinant Gal-3 (rGal-3) was shown to inhibit the adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric epithelial cells. Interestingly, a decrease in H. pylori adhesion to host cells also resulted in a decrease in apoptosis. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated a chemoattractant role of extracellular rGal-3 in the recruitment of THP-1 monocytes. This study outlines the previously unidentified roles of extracellular Gal-3 where it acts as a negative regulator of H. pylori adhesion and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and as a chemoattractant to THP-1 monocytes. Our findings could contribute to the better understanding of how Gal-3 acts as a modulator under H. pylori-induced pathological conditions. PMID:27283429

  16. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  17. Biofilm Formation by Helicobacter pylori and Its Involvement for Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. Biofilm formation is critical not only for environmental survival but also for successful infection. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of bacterial infection in humans. Some studies demonstrated that this microorganism has biofilm forming ability in the environment and on human gastric mucosa epithelium as well as on in vitro abiotic surfaces. In the environment, H. pylori could be embedded in drinking water biofilms through water distribution system in developed and developing countries so that the drinking water may serve as a reservoir for H. pylori infection. In the human stomach, H. pylori forms biofilms on the surface of gastric mucosa, suggesting one possible explanation for eradication therapy failure. Finally, based on the results of in vitro analyses, H. pylori biofilm formation can decrease susceptibility to antibiotics and H. pylori antibiotic resistance mutations are more frequently generated in biofilms than in planktonic cells. These observations indicated that H. pylori biofilm formation may play an important role in preventing and controlling H. pylori infections. Therefore, investigation of H. pylori biofilm formation could be effective in elucidating the detailed mechanisms of infection and colonization by this microorganism. PMID:26078970

  18. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  19. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  20. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Labio, Roger William de; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Queiroz, Valdeir Fagundes de; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001) and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in children.

    PubMed

    Sustmann, Andrea; Okuda, Masumi; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood may differ in many aspects compared to infection in adulthood: the immune response in the gut, the type and prevalence of complications within and outside the stomach, and the impact on long-term health. In high prevalence countries, transient infections seem to be common in infants and toddlers, and the consequences of this phenomenon on the short- and long-term immune response are still unclear. Other controversial issues are related to the question of which H. pylori-infected children benefit from treatment and which is the best regimen to eradicate the infection in the presence of a worldwide increasing antibiotic resistance. The first large-scale randomized placebo-controlled vaccination trial in schoolchildren indicates that prevention of the infection may be possible. PMID:27531540

  2. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie S W; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-10-28

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes.

  3. Helicobacter pylori increases proliferation of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, X G; Kelleher, D; Fan, X J; Xia, H X; Keeling, P W

    1996-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of helicobacter pylori on cell kinetics of gastric epithelial cell line AGS were investigated by flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positive cells and by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positivity permits detection of cells that are in S-phase, whereas the MTT assay is a colometric measure of the number of viable cells. In the absence of added stimulants, 23.06 (4.88)% mean (SD) of AGS cells were Ki-67 positive. When cells were preincubated in the presence of H pylori, there was a significant increase in Ki-67 positivity (66.20 (7.89)%, p < 0.001). This increase was not seen in cells cultured in the presence of Campylobacter jejuni (24.63 (8.11)% or Escherichia coli (21.66 (9.78)%). Pre-incubation of AGS cells with supernatants from both H pylori and mitogen activated peripheral blood lymphocytes also increased the per cent of cells that were Ki-67 positive (72.93 (8.68) and 69.96 (12.35)%; p, 0.001) respectively. Similar results were also found in MTT assay. These data show that both H pylori directly and the immune/inflammatory response to H pylori indirectly can influence the rate of epithelial cell proliferation, suggesting this bacterium may be an initiating step in gastric carcinogenesis and an important co-carcinogenic factor in H pylori positive subjects.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kayoko; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kaida, Shogo; Nishida, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG): Group A [H. pylori (−) PG (−)], Group B [H. pylori (+) PG (−)], Group C [H. pylori (+) PG (+)], and Group D [H. pylori (−) PG (+)]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1) high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2) high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3) low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1), every two years in (2), and annually in (3) should be considered. PMID:26494936

  5. Biochemical and functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Annelie; Vallström, Anna; Petzold, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Schleucher, Jürgen; Carlsson, Sven; Haas, Rainer; Backert, Steffen; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Gröbner, Gerhard; Arnqvist, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease and/or gastric cancer. Adhesion of bacteria to the stomach mucosa is an important contributor to the vigour of infection and resulting virulence. H. pylori adheres primarily via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens and the binding of SabA adhesins to sialyl-Lewis x/a (sLex/a) antigens. Similar to most Gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori continuously buds off vesicles and vesicles derived from pathogenic bacteria often include virulence-associated factors. Here we biochemically characterized highly purified H. pylori vesicles. Major protein and phospholipid components associated with the vesicles were identified with mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of virulence factors present was confirmed by immunoblots. Additional functional and biochemical analysis focused on the vesicle BabA and SabA adhesins and their respective interactions to human gastric epithelium. Vesicles exhibit heterogeneity in their protein composition, which were specifically studied in respect to the BabA adhesin. We also demonstrate that the oncoprotein, CagA, is associated with the surface of H. pylori vesicles. Thus, we have explored mechanisms for intimate H. pylori vesicle–host interactions and found that the vesicles carry effector-promoting properties that are important to disease development. PMID:20659286

  6. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  7. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and Nonmalignant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Georgios S; Axon, Anthony T R

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for most peptic ulcers, plays a role in functional dyspepsia and is thought by some to influence the course of gastroesophageal reflux disease. This article addresses recent studies that have been published in connection with these diseases. H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer is declining in prevalence but the incidence of perforation and bleeding remains high especially in the elderly. All H. pylori associated peptic ulcers should be treated by eradication of the infection. Dyspepsia is a common disorder that affects up to 25% of the population. About 8% of cases that are infected with H. pylori will respond to treatment of the infection. The association between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease continues to be debated, a number of studies have shown that there is a negative association between H. pylori infection and Gastroesophageal reflux disease but treatment of H. pylori has not been shown to induce reflux or to affect the response to medication. Gastric atrophy is known to extend when acid suppression is used in infected patients implying that H. pylori treatment should be used in infected patients who are to undergo long-term Proton Pump Inhibitor therapy.

  9. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zagari, Rocco M; Bazzoli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    Medline and PubMed databases were searched on epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori for the period of April 2013-March 2014. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of H. pylori is still high in most countries. In north European and North American populations, about one-third of adults are still infected, whereas in south and east Europe, South America, and Asia, the prevalence of H. pylori is often higher than 50%. H. pylori remains highly prevalent in immigrants coming from countries with high prevalence of H. pylori. However, the lower prevalence of infection in the younger generations suggests a further decline of H. pylori prevalence in the coming decades. Low socioeconomic conditions in childhood are confirmed to be the most important risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although the way the infection is transmitted is still unclear, interpersonal transmission appears to be the main route. Finally, H. pylori recurrence after successful eradication can still occur, but seems to be an infrequent event.

  10. Results From an Intervention to Improve Rural Home Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Alcantara, Iris; Veluswamy, J. K.; Haardörfer, Regine; Hotz, James A.; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological models of healthy eating and physical activity emphasize the influence of behavioral settings such as homes and worksites in shaping behavior. Research on home environments suggests that both social and physical aspects of the home may impact physical activity and healthy eating. Objective Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the Emory Prevention Research Center (EPRC), Cancer Coalition of South Georgia, and the EPRC’s Community Advisory Board (CAB) designed and tested a coach-based intervention to make the home environment more supportive of healthy eating and physical activity for rural adults. Methods The 6-week intervention consisted of a tailored home environment profile, goal-setting, and behavioral contracting delivered through two home visits and two telephone calls. The study used a quasi-experimental design with data collected via telephone interviews at baseline, 2 and 4 months post-baseline. Ninety households (n = 90) completed all three telephone interviews. Results Multilevel models indicated that intervention households reported significant improvements in household food inventories, purchasing of fruit and vegetables, healthier meal preparation, meals with the TV off, and family support for healthy eating, relative to comparison households. Intervention households also reported increased exercise equipment and family support for physical activity relative to comparison households. Percent of fat intake decreased significantly, but no changes were observed for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, or weight among intervention relative to comparison households, although trends were generally in a positive direction. Conclusion Coaching combined with a focus on the home environment may be a promising strategy for weight gain prevention in adults. PMID:22982840

  11. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Demiray, Ebru

    2007-02-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods, the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult. Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro. PMID:17278188

  12. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  13. Oregon Indigenous Farmworkers: Results of Promotor Intervention on Pesticide Knowledge and Organophosphate Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Linda; Runkle, Jennifer D.; Samples, Julie; Williams, Bryan; Muniz, Juan F; Semple, Marie; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Examine changes in health beliefs, pesticide safety knowledge, and biomarkers of pesticide exposure in indigenous farmworker who received enhanced pesticide safety training compared to those receiving the standard training. Methods Farmworkers in Oregon were randomly assigned to either a promotores pesticide safety training program or a standard video-based training. Spot urine samples were analyzed for dialkylphosphate (DAP) urinary metabolites. Pre/post intervention questionnaires were used to measure pesticide safety knowledge, health beliefs and work practices. Results Baseline to follow-up improvements in total pesticide knowledge scores were higher in the promotor group compared to the video. Pairwise differences in mean concentrations of DAP metabolite levels showed declines from baseline to follow-up for both intervention groups. Conclusions Results showed reductions in pesticide exposure in indigenous-language speaking farmworkers who receive enhanced pesticide safety training. PMID:24064776

  14. Preoperative nutritional deficiencies in severely obese bariatric candidates are not linked to gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Rahel; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Severely obese subjects have been found to show a high prevalence of distinct nutritional deficiencies even without any bariatric intervention but the underlying reasons remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with increased nutritional deficiency rates. Taking advantage of our large database, we identified 404 patients who had undergone a gastroscopy--as a standard diagnostic assessment before bariatric surgery--along with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies with concurrent nutritional blood measurements. Eighty-five (21 %) of the obese patients included in the study displayed a gastric H. pylori infection. Sex distribution, age and body mass index did not differ between H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients (P > 0.29). Referring to nutritional markers, neither serum levels of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, ferritin, zinc, copper, vitamin B12, folate and 25-OH vitamin D3 nor respective deficiency rates differed between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients group (all P > 0.13). Overall, 49.5 % of the bariatric candidates displayed at least one nutritional deficiency. Our data confirm previous reports on high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies in severely obese subjects. However, they do not provide evidence for a contributing role of gastric H. pylori infection to these nutritional alterations. PMID:23430478

  15. Diet, Helicobacter pylori strain-specific infection, and gastric cancer risk among Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Gao, Jing; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the association of diet and gastric cancer is equivocal, and the majority of previous studies have not evaluated the interaction of diet and infection with Helicobacter pylori, the leading risk factor for gastric cancer. We examined these associations among 226 cases and 451 controls nested within a prospective cohort. Dietary intakes were calculated from validated food frequency questionnaires. Blood levels of 15 antibodies to Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression. Among individuals infected with high-risk Helicobacter pylori (sero-positivity to 5-6 virulent H. pylori proteins), increasing intake of red meat, heme iron, and sodium increased risk (comparing highest tertile to lowest: ORs [95% confidence interval {CI}]: 1.85 [1.01-3.40]; 1.95 [1.06-3.57]; and 1.76 [0.91-3.43], respectively) while increasing intake of fruit decreased gastric cancer risk (comparing highest tertile of intake to lowest: OR [95% CI]: 0.52 [0.28-0.94]). No associations of diet with risk were found among individuals infected with low-risk H. pylori (P for interaction for red meat and sodium: 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). In this population with over 90% prevalence of CagA-positive H. pylori infection, categorizing individuals using H. pylori multiplex serology may identify individuals for whom a diet intervention may be effective. PMID:24666234

  16. Lack of Association Found between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Feng; Xiong, Man; Ma, Zonghui; Huang, Senxiong; Li, Aimin; Liu, Side

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is still controversial. Here we performed a retrospective study to explore this issue. Methods. A total of 502 inpatients with Rome III confirmed IBS-D and known H. pylori status from 8 hospitals were enrolled. H. pylori-positive patients, hospitalized in the recent year, were followed up to evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication on IBS-D clinical course. Results. Of the 502 IBS-D patients, 206 were H. pylori-positive, with an infection rate that has no significant difference with that of the general population in Guangdong province (p = 0.348). For patients followed up, no significant differences were noted as to overall symptoms (p = 0.562), abdominal pain/discomfort (p = 0.777), bloating (p = 0.736), stool frequency (p = 0.835), or stool characteristics (p = 0.928) between the H. pylori-eradicated group and the control group. The results were the same in long-term follow-up patients except the improvement of bloating, which showed that the bloating score in the H. pylori-eradicated group was significantly lower (p = 0.047). Conclusions. No significant correlation between H. pylori infection and IBS-D was noted. Overall, IBS-D patients may not benefit from H. pylori eradication. PMID:27493660

  17. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug.

  18. Lack of Association Found between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Feng; Xiong, Man; Ma, Zonghui; Huang, Senxiong; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is still controversial. Here we performed a retrospective study to explore this issue. Methods. A total of 502 inpatients with Rome III confirmed IBS-D and known H. pylori status from 8 hospitals were enrolled. H. pylori-positive patients, hospitalized in the recent year, were followed up to evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication on IBS-D clinical course. Results. Of the 502 IBS-D patients, 206 were H. pylori-positive, with an infection rate that has no significant difference with that of the general population in Guangdong province (p = 0.348). For patients followed up, no significant differences were noted as to overall symptoms (p = 0.562), abdominal pain/discomfort (p = 0.777), bloating (p = 0.736), stool frequency (p = 0.835), or stool characteristics (p = 0.928) between the H. pylori-eradicated group and the control group. The results were the same in long-term follow-up patients except the improvement of bloating, which showed that the bloating score in the H. pylori-eradicated group was significantly lower (p = 0.047). Conclusions. No significant correlation between H. pylori infection and IBS-D was noted. Overall, IBS-D patients may not benefit from H. pylori eradication. PMID:27493660

  19. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Waste Pickers: A Case Control Seroprevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in waste pickers had not been previously studied. This study aims to determine the association of H. pylori seropositivity and waste picking activity; and to determine socio-demographic, clinical, work, and behavioral characteristics associated with H. pylori seropositivity in waste pickers. Methods Through a case-control study design, we examined 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched control subjects for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical, work and behavioral characteristics of the waste pickers were also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 60 (66.7%) of the 90 waste pickers and in 51 (56.7%) of the 90 controls (P = 0.16). Stratification by age showed that waste pickers aged 14 -30 years old had significantly higher frequency of H. pylori infection than controls of the same age group (56.5% versus 35.6%, respectively; P = 0.04). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic status, residence, or housing conditions of waste pickers. The presence of underlying diseases and the frequency of gastritis were similar among H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative waste pickers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the duration (years) in the waste picking activity was positively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.22 - 6.25; P = 0.01). In contrast, consumption of alcohol was negatively associated with H. pylori exposure (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.78; P = 0.01). Other work or behavioral characteristics of waste pickers including washing hands before eating, eating from the garbage, animal contacts, consumption of unpasteurized milk, unwashed raw vegetables, fruits, or untreated water, and contact with soil were not associated with H. pylori exposure. Conclusions This is the

  1. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    León-Barúa, R; Recavarren-Arce, S; Berendson, R; Gilman, R H

    1995-01-01

    A review is done on the evidence in favor of a link between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer of the intestinal type. In countries at high risk of gastric cancer, like Perú, Hp infection begins early in life and is highly frequent and persistent. When Hp colonizes the gastric mucosa, it causes active chronic gastritis. Initially, the gastritis is of the superficial type. With time, and probably as a result of the concurrent action of nutritional, epidemiologic and immunologic modulating factors, chronic superficial gastritis may give rise to a progressive gastric pathology that leads to gastric premalignant lesions (chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of the gastric mucosa) and increases the predisposition to gastric cancer. The principal modulating factors are described. The epidemiology of gastric premalignant lesions in Perú is also described. Finally, a discussion is done on the effect that eradication of Hp infection might have on the prevalence of gastric cancer.

  2. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection with Atrophic Gastritis Is an Independent Risk Factor for Advanced Colonic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Park, Hye Won; Choi, Ji Young; Lee, Jong-Soo; Koo, Ja Eun; Chung, Eun Ju; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for atrophic gastritis (AG) and gastric cancer. The correlation between H. pylori, AG and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) has only been examined in a limited number of studies, and findings have been inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association between H. pylori infection status, AG and advanced CRN. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between the presence of serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, AG, and advanced CRN in 6,351 consecutive asymptomatic subjects who underwent a screening colonoscopy. Results A total of 316 participants (5.0%) had advanced CRN. H. pylori seropositivity was 61.3%. In a univariate analysis, the presence of H. pylori infection was associated with advanced CRN (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.91; p=0.001). H. pylori infection was associated with an increased risk of advanced CRN after adjusting for clinically relevant confounders (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.72; p=0.023). H. pylori-related AG was significantly associated with the risk of advanced CRN (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; p=0.030), whereas H. pylori infection without AG was not. Conclusions H. pylori infection increased the risk of advanced CRN, especially when it was combined with AG. Strict colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be warranted in those with H. pylori-positive AG. PMID:27458180

  4. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. Methods This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant’s samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4–8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Conclusions Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human. PMID:24708464

  5. Disease manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic Canada: using epidemiology to address community concerns

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Girgis, Safwat; Bailey, Robert; Morse, John; Fedorak, Richard N; Geary, Janis; Fagan-Garcia, Katharine; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Helicobacter pylori infection, linked to gastric cancer, is responsible for a large worldwide disease burden. H pylori prevalence and gastric cancer rates are elevated among indigenous Arctic communities, but implementation of prevention strategies is hampered by insufficient information. Some communities in northern Canada have advocated for H pylori prevention research. As a first step, community-driven research was undertaken to describe the H pylori-associated disease burden in concerned communities. Design Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a clinical interview and gastroscopy with gastric biopsies taken for histopathological examination in February 2008. Setting Study procedures were carried out at the health centre in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada (population ∼600). Participants All residents of Aklavik were invited to complete a clinical interview and gastroscopy; 194 (58% female participants; 91% Aboriginal; age range 10–80 years) completed gastroscopy and had gastric biopsies taken. Primary and secondary outcome measures This analysis estimates the prevalence of gastric abnormalities detected by endoscopy and histopathology, and associations of demographic and clinical variables with H pylori prevalence. Results Among 194 participants with evaluable gastric biopsies, 66% were H pylori-positive on histology. Among H pylori-positive participants, prevalence was 94% for acute gastritis, 100% for chronic gastritis, 21% for gastric atrophy and 11% for intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, while chronic inflammation severity was mild in 9%, moderate in 47% and severe in 43%. In a multivariable model, H pylori prevalence was inversely associated with previous gastroscopy, previous H pylori therapy and aspirin use, and was positively associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions In this population, H pylori-associated gastric histopathology shows a pattern compatible with elevated risk of gastric cancer. These

  6. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  7. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training.

  8. Stagnant perceptions of nursing among high school students: results of a shadowing intervention study.

    PubMed

    Porter, Gloria; Edwards, Pamela B; Granger, Bradi B

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into high school students' perceptions of the role of the nurse and to explore students' impressions of nursing following a nurse-shadowing intervention. Often nurses abandon staffing positions in the first 1-2 years, reporting a "poor fit" with nursing. Few studies have examined expectations and perceptions of nursing among high school students; a population of potential nurses in whom a more accurate view of nursing opportunities and professionalism may be fostered. High school students from two North Carolina counties participated in a nurse-shadowing intervention. Constant comparison and thematic coding were used for analysis of post-intervention in-depth interviews. Sixteen of 24 students completed the study. Misperception of nursing was the dominant theme. Five sub-themes were professional role responsibility, teamwork, caring relationships, tools and technology, and medication management. Experiential knowledge of nursing was a core need for students interested in nursing careers. These data suggest that a nurse shadowing program may positively influence perceptions of nursing, and may result in improved recruitment and retention in the workplace.

  9. TAILORING A FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTERVENTION ON ETHNIC IDENTITY: RESULTS OF A RANDOMIZED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Resnicow, Ken; Davis, Rachel; Zhang, Nanhua; Saunders, Ed; Strecher, Victor; Tolsma, Dennis; Calvi, Josephine; Alexander, Gwen; Anderson, Julia; Wiese, Cheryl; Cross, William

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many targeted health interventions have been developed and tested with African American (AA) populations; however, AAs are a highly heterogeneous group. One characteristic that varies across AAs is Ethnic Identity (EI). Despite the recognition that AAs are heterogeneous with regard to EI, little research has been conducted on how to incorporate EI into the design of health messages and programs. Design This randomized trial tested whether tailoring a print-based fruit and vegetable (F & V) intervention based on individual EI would enhance program impact beyond that of social cognitive tailoring alone. AA adults were recruited from two integrated healthcare delivery systems, one based in the Detroit Metro area and the other in the Atlanta Metro area, and then randomized to receive three newsletters focused on F & V behavior change over three months. One set of newsletters was tailored only on demographic, behavioral, and social cognitive variables (control condition) whereas the other (experimental condition) was additionally tailored on EI. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome for the study was F & V intake, which was assessed at baseline and three months later using the composite of two brief self-report frequency measures. Results A total of 560 eligible participants were enrolled, of which 468 provided complete 3-month follow-up data. The experimental group increased their daily mean F & V intake by 1.1 servings compared to .8 servings in the control group (p = .13). Several variables were found to interact with intervention group. For instance, Afrocentric experimental group participants showed a 1.4 increase in F & V servings per day compared to a .43 servings per day increase among Afrocentric controls (p < .05). Conclusions Although the overall between-group effects were not significant, this study confirms that AAs are a highly diverse population and that tailoring dietary messages on ethnic identity may improve intervention impact for some

  10. Helicobacter pylori and nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, Enzo; Goni, Elisabetta; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Di Mario, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding and recurrence rate are strongly linked to Helicobacter pylori infection even if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a relevant role in this setting. Further studies confirm that H. pylori eradication lowers the risk of recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. Therefore, a test-and-treat strategy appears to be mandatory for patients with a history of ulcer bleeding and NSAIDs and/or aspirin use. Concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), evidence clearly shows that H. pylori status has no effect on symptoms and treatment. Therefore, H. pylori treatment is not contraindicated in patients with GERD. The exact role of H. pylori in functional dyspepsia (FD) remains controversial. Novel possible mechanisms by which H. pylori may elicit dyspeptic symptoms include alterations of gastric motility, as well as endocrine and acid-secretory abnormalities. Hunger sensations, acid secretion, and gastrointestinal motility are regulated by ghrelin, particularly produced by the gastric enteroendocrine cell compartment. The improvement of symptoms correlates with enhanced plasma ghrelin levels. Apart from the need for more trials on this topic, these findings may give insight into the underlying pathophysiology of FD symptoms. Recent reports suggest that the presence of bacterial DNA in the oral cavity may be relevant to its transmission. A potential protective role of H. pylori on inflammatory bowel diseases needs to be better elucidated.

  11. CagA and VacA Helicobacter pylori antibodies in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suriani, Renzo; Colozza, Maurilio; Cardesi, Enrico; Mazzucco, Dario; Marino, Maria; Grosso, Silvia; Sanseverinati, Sabina; Venturini, Ivo; Borghi, Athos; Zeneroli, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with different genotypes of virulent Helicobacter pylori strains (cytotoxin-associated gene A [CagA]-and/or vacuolating cytotoxin A [VacA]-positive) can play a role in the development of atrophic gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU) and gastric cancer (GC). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with GC and H pylori-negative histological staining had previously been infected with H pylori CagA- and/or VacA-positive virulent strains. METHODS: Twenty-three GC patients with a mean (± SD) age of 68.14±9.8 years who tested H pylori-negative on histological staining took part in the study. Three control groups were included. The first group comprised 19 patients with past H pylori infection and DUs eradicated 10 years earlier, with a mean age of 58±18.2 years. H pylori-negative status for this group was determined every year with Giemsa staining, and follow-up testing occured 120±32 months (mean ± SD) after therapy. The subsequent control groups included 20 asymptomatic children, with a mean age of 7±4.47 years, and with H pylori-negative fecal tests; the final group contained 30 patients without clinical symptoms of H pylori infection, with a mean age of 68±11.6 years, who tested H pylori-negative by histological staining. RESULTS: Prevalence of CagA and VacA seropositivity, respectively was 82.6% and 73.91% in GC patients; 84.2% and 84.2% in H pylori-negative DU patients; 25% and 5% in H pylori-negative children; and 36.6% and 16.6% in the patients without clinical symptoms on histological staining. CagA and VacA antibody positivity was not significantly different between GC patients and patients with DUs that had been eradicated 10 years earlier. Significant positivity was found between the children’s group and the H pylori-negative (with past DUs) group (P<0.001). A statistically significant difference was found in age between groups (P<0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with GC, even when H pylori-negative at the time of the present study, may

  12. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  13. Quantitative study of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus by competitive PCR using synthetic DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Furuta, T; Kaneko, E; Suzuki, M; Arai, H; Futami, H

    1996-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is closely related to upper gastrointestinal diseases, and the precise evaluation of H. pylori infection is necessary for the treatment of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish a method for the quantitative detection of H. pylori. We applied a competitive PCR method using various amounts of synthetic DNA fragments containing the same primer-binding and a subset of the same template sequences as the target competing for primer binding and amplification in order to quantify H. pylori in gastric mucus. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of histological examination, the rapid urease test, bacterial culture, the [13C]urea breath test, and urea and ammonia measurements in gastric juice. As the quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus increased, the rates of positivity of histological examination, the rapid urease test, and bacterial culture increased. The quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus was also significantly correlated with the results of the [13C]urea breath test and was negatively correlated with the urea/ammonia ratio in gastric juice. The competitive PCR method provides an objective measure of the quantity of H. pylori and makes it possible to distinguish true negatives from false negatives due to incomplete PCR and true positives from false positives due to contamination. This method is very useful for the precise evaluation of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:8880492

  14. Implementing for results: program analysis of the HIV/STI interventions for sex workers in Benin.

    PubMed

    Semini, Iris; Batona, Georges; Lafrance, Christian; Kessou, Léon; Gbedji, Eugène; Anani, Hubert; Alary, Michel

    2013-01-01

    HIV response has entered a new era shaped by evidence that the combination of interventions impacts the trajectory of the epidemic. Even proven interventions, however, can be ineffective if not to scale, appropriately implemented, and with the right combination. Benin is among the pioneering countries that prioritized HIV prevention for sex workers and clients early on. Effective implementation up to 2006 resulted in consistent condom use among sex workers increasing from 39% to 86.2% and a decline in prevalence of gonorrhea from 5.4% to 1.6%. This study responds to the growing concern that, although proven interventions for female sex workers (FSWs) were expanded in Benin since 2008, indicators of coverage and behaviors are far from satisfactory. The quest to better understand implementation and how to render service delivery efficient and effective resonates with increased emphasis in the international arena on return for investments. Quantitative and qualitative methods were utilized to collect data. The output measured is the number of sex workers seeking Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) care at user-friendly STI Clinics (SCs). Data were collected for 2010-2011 in nine regions of Benin. While recognizing that commitment to scale up is commendable, the study revealed deficiencies in program design and implementation that undermine outcomes. The selected mix of interventions is not optimal. Allocation of funds is not proportionate to the needs of FSW across regions. Only 5 of 41 SCs were fully functional at time of study. Free distribution of condoms covers only 10% of needs of FSWs. Funding and financing gaps resulted in extended interruptions of services. Successful HIV prevention in Benin will depend on the effective and efficient implementation of well-funded programs in sex work setting. Resources should be aligned to local sex work typology and presence in communities. A national framework defining an appropriate mix of interventions, management

  15. Identification of the Helicobacter pylori anti-sigma28 factor.

    PubMed

    Colland, F; Rain, J C; Gounon, P; Labigne, A; Legrain, P; De Reuse, H

    2001-07-01

    Flagellar motility is essential for colonization of the human gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori. The flagellar filament is composed of two subunits, FlaA and FlaB. Transcription of the genes encoding these proteins is controlled by the sigma28 and sigma54 factors of RNA polymerase respectively. The expression of flagellar genes is regulated, but no sigma28-specific effector was identified. It was also unclear whether H. pylori possessed a checkpoint for flagellar synthesis, and no gene encoding an anti-sigma28 factor, FlgM, could be identified by sequence similarity searches. To investigate the sigma28-dependent regulation, a new approach based on genomic data was used. Two-hybrid screening with the H. pylori proteins identified a protein of unknown function (HP1122) interacting with the sigma28 factor and defined the C-terminal part of HP1122 (residues 48-76) as the interaction domain. HP1122 interacts with region 4 of sigma28 and prevents its association with the beta-region of H. pylori RNA polymerase. Thus, HP1122 presented the characteristics of an anti-sigma28 factor. This was confirmed in H. pylori by RNA dot-blot hybridization and electron microscopy. The level of sigma28-dependent flaA transcription was higher in a HP1122-deficient strain and was decreased by the overproduction of HP1122. The overproduction of HP1122 also resulted in H. pylori cells with highly truncated flagella. These results demonstrate that HP1122 is the H. pylori anti-sigma28 factor, FlgM, a major regulator of flagellum assembly. Potential anti-sigma28 factors were identified in Campylobacter jejuni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thermotoga maritima by sequence homology with the C-terminal region of HP1122.

  16. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  17. Survival of Helicobacter pylori in the wastewater treatment process and the receiving river in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Xi, Chuanwu; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Contaminated water may play a key role in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori, resulting in gastrointestinal diseases in humans. The wastewater treatment process is an important barrier to control the transmission of H. pylori. However, the presence and viability of H. pylori in the treatment process is not well known. In this paper, the real colony morphology of H. pylori was confirmed by two types of culture media. The survival of H. pylori through the tertiary wastewater treatment process, especially UV disinfection, and in the receiving Huron River in Ann Arbor, Michigan, was investigated by plates cultivation, regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and quantitative real-time PCR from DNA. The results demonstrated that H. pylori was not only present, but also viable in all processed wastewater samples in the Ann Arbor wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). H. pylori can be found in a higher concentration in the receiving Huron River. There are many kinds of antibiotic- and UV-resistant bacteria, including H. pylori, in the final effluent of Ann Arbor WWTP. PMID:27441864

  18. Up-regulated Smad5 mediates apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Nagasako, Tomokazu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Mizushima, Takuji; Miura, Yosuke; Kato, Mototsugu; Asaka, Masahiro

    2003-02-14

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori activates epithelial cell signaling pathways, and its infection induces changes in the expression of several genes in infected human gastric tissues. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of H. pylori to regulate epithelial cell responses depends on the presence of an intact cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). We investigated altered mRNA expression of gastric epithelial cells after infection with H. pylori, both cagPAI-positive and cagPAI-negative strains, by cDNA microarray, reverse transcription PCR, and Northern blot analysis. Our results indicated that cagPAI-positive H. pylori strains (ATCC 43504 and clinical isolated strains) significantly activated Smad5 mRNA expression of human gastric epithelial cells (AGS, KATOIII, MKN28, and MKN45). We further examined whether the up-regulated Smad5 was related to apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H. pylori. Smad5 RNA interference completely inhibited H. pylori-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that Smad5 is up-regulated in gastric epithelial cells through the presence of cagPAI of H. pylori and that Smad5 mediates apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H. pylori infection. PMID:12473652

  19. Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology

    PubMed Central

    Grave, Ewa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Soh; Tamura, Arisa; Ohtaki-Mizoguchi, Takako; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Otaka, Michiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is used to treat patients suffering from peptic ulcers and gastritis. We examined the effect of GGA on Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative factor of gastrointestinal diseases. Previously, we have reported that GGA binds specifically to the molecular chaperone HSP70. In this paper, we report that GGA bounds to H. pylori HSP70 (product of the DnaK gene) with 26-times higher affinity than to human HSP70, and induced large conformational changes as observed from surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Binding of GGA suppressed the activity of the H. pylori chaperone. GGA also altered several characteristics of H. pylori cells. GGA-treated cells elicited enhanced interleukin-8 production by gastric cancer cell lines and potentiated susceptibility to complement as compared to untreated cells. GGA also caused morphological alterations in H. pylori as reflected in fewer coccoid-like cells, suggesting that GGA converts H. pylori to an actively dividing, spiral state (vegetative form) from a non-growing, coccoid state. This morphological conversion by GGA resulted in accelerated growth of H. pylori. These results suggest a model in which GGA sensitizes H. pylori to antibiotic treatment by converting the cells to an actively growing state. PMID:26345206

  20. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742

  1. Combining Environmental and Individual Weight Management Interventions in a Work Setting Results From the Dow Chemical Study

    PubMed Central

    DeJoy, David M.; Parker, Kristin M.; Padilla, Heather M.; Wilson, Mark G.; Roemer, Enid C.; Goetzel, Ron Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of environmental weight loss interventions alone versus in combination with an individual intervention. Methods A quasiexperimental design compared with outcomes for two levels of environmental interventions and for participants who did or did not simultaneously self-select into an individually focused weight loss intervention (YW8). ANCOVA and logistic regression techniques were used to examine risk outcomes. Results Employees who participated in YW8 were no more successful at losing weight than those exposed to only the environmental interventions. Approximately, 13.5% of each group lost at least 5% of their body weight; overall changes in mean body weight and body mass index were negligible in both groups. Conclusions Simple worksite environmental modifications may help with weight maintenance, but are not likely to result in substantial weight reductions even when combined with low-intensity individual interventions. PMID:21346636

  2. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Gabriele; Karnholz, Arno; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Merchant, Juanita L; Haas, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type IV secretion system. METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pylori typeIstrain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 ΔcagY (defective type IV secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase, lipase, and glucose levels were determined. RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%. Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immuno-histochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased. Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue, but not in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type IV secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer. PMID:17663507

  3. Experimental Helicobacter pylori gastric infection in miniature pigs.

    PubMed

    Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Sato, K; Takahashi, K; Kikuchi; Miura, T; Takenouchi, T; Narita, T; Iwata, M

    2002-03-01

    An experimental Helicobacter pylori infection in miniature pigs was developed and investigated. Eighteen miniature pigs were inoculated with an H. pylori strain that has high virulence in mice at c. 5 x 10(10) cfu. H. pylori infection in miniature pigs was achieved by the administration of agar 1% in brucella broth with fetal bovine serum 10% just before inoculation. The bacterial colonisation and distribution were analysed by mapping of viable cell counts in the stomach in pigs of three different ages. The mapping assay was achieved on post-infection day 3 for the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, and between days 41 and 43 for 3-month-old pigs. The highest cell counts were observed in 5-day-old pigs, which averaged 4.9 x 10(6) cfu/g of mucosa (n = 4). The bacteria were colonised mainly in the cardiac and fundus gland region in the 5-day-old and 2-week-old pigs, whereas the colonisation sites did not depend on the region in the 3-month-old pigs. Biopsy assay of the antral mucosa of a 3-month-old pig after H. pylori infection showed that this infection persisted for >22 months. Serum antibody against H. pylori was detected in the infected pigs but not in the uninfected animal. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of bacteria on the epithelial surface of the infected pigs. A microscopic finding common to all the infected pigs, focal gastritis with infiltration of lymphocytes detected on the lesser curvature of the stomach, resembled the microscopic appearance in H. pylori-infected human patients. These results suggest that miniature pigs might be a suitable model for studying H. pylori infection.

  4. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD. PMID:27005340

  5. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients

    PubMed Central

    Archampong, Timothy Nii Akushe; Asmah, Richard Harry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Gyasi, Richard Kwasi; Nkrumah, Kofi Nyaako; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative urease-producing bacterium causally linked with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection is more frequent and acquired at an earlier age in developing countries compared to European populations. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients was 75.4%. However, epidemiological factors associated with infection vary across populations. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to consecutively sample dyspeptic patients at the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra between 2010 and 2012. The study questionnaire elicited their epidemiological clinical characteristics. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination of antral biopsies at upper Gastro-intestinal endoscopy. Results The sample population of dyspeptic patients attending the Endoscopy Unit for upper GI endoscopy yielded 242 patients of which 47.5% were females. The age distribution of H. pylori-infection was even across most age – groups, ranging from 69.2% (61 – 70) years to 80% (21 – 30) years. Helicobacter pylori prevalence decreased across areas mapping to the three residential classes in accordance with increasing affluence with rural areas having the highest prevalence. The unemployed and patients in farming had relatively high Helicobacter pylori infection rates of 92.3% and 91.7% respectively. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is endemic in Ghana but the persistently high prevalence across age groups despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from multiple sources in a developing country. Socio-cultural factors such as residential class and farming may be facilitating factors for its continued prevalence. PMID:26430475

  6. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. Methods This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child’s day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Results Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Conclusions Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322. PMID

  7. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  8. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, E F; Armstrong, D; Idström, J P; Labenz, J; Stolte, M; Dorta, G; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that omeprazole treatment produces higher intragastric pH values in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects than in H pylori negative subjects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curing H pylori on the intragastric pH in both the presence and absence of omeprazole therapy. Twenty four hour intragastric pH recordings were performed before and after a one week course of omeprazole (20 mg once daily) in 18 H pylori positive subjects and were repeated after the infection had been cured. In the absence of omeprazole, the total 24 hour pH values before cure did not differ from those afterwards. During omeprazole treatment the 24 hour pH values were much higher before (median (95% CI) 5.4: 4.3, 6.0), than after cure of infection (3.6: 2.1, 4.4; p < 0.001). The omeprazole induced fall in H+ activity before cure of H pylori did not, however, differ from that afterwards. It is concluded that the apparently greater antisecretory effect of omeprazole during H pylori infection may be a result of the production of acid neutralising compounds by the H pylori. Although a direct interaction between H pylori and omeprazole cannot be excluded, it seems unlikely. PMID:8537042

  9. Activation of Helicobacter pylori causes either autoimmune thyroid diseases or carcinogenesis in the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Astl, J; Šterzl, I

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in stimulation of immune system, development of autoimmune endocrinopathies as autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and on other hand induction of immunosupresion activates gastric and extra-gastric diseases such as gastric ulcer or cancer. It causes persistent lifelong infection despite local and systemic immune response. Our results indicate that Helicobacter pylori might cause inhibition of the specific cellular immune response in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with or without autoimmune diseases such as AT. We cannot also declare the carcinogenic effect in oropharynx. However the association of any infection agents and cancerogenesis exists. The adherence of Helicobacter pylori expression and enlargement of benign lymphatic tissue and the high incidence of the DNA of Helicobacter pylori in laryngopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer is reality. LTT appears to be a good tool for detection of immune memory cellular response in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection and AT. All these complications of Helicobacter pylori infection can be abrogated by successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection.

    PubMed

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection.

  11. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  12. Current views of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li-Jing; Mao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and may play a potential role in certain extra-intestinal diseases. H. pylori infection are mainly acquired during childhood, and it has been reported that in endemic areas of China the infection rates are extraordinarily higher in HSP children, particular those with abdominal manifestations. Furthermore, eradication therapy may ameliorate Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) manifestations and decrease the recurrence of HSP. Therefore, results suggested that detection of H. pylori infection by appropriate method ought to be applied in HSP children. Current evidences indicate that local injury of gastric mucosa and immunological events induced by H. pylori infection are involved in the development of HSP. Increased serum IgA, cryoglobulins, C3 levels, autoimmunity, proinflammatory substances and molecular mimicry inducing immune complex and cross-reactive antibodies caused by H. pylori infection might play their roles in the course of HSP. However, there are no investigations confirming the causality between H. pylori infection and HSP, and the pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. More bench and clinical studies need to be executed to elaborate the complex association between H. pylori and HSP. PMID:26862506

  13. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: Possible role of bacterium in liver and pancreas diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth MA; Roesler, Bruna M; Zeitune, José MR

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an ancient microorganism that has co-evolved with humans for over 60000 years. This bacterium typically colonizes the human stomach and it is currently recognized as the most common infectious pathogen of the gastroduodenal tract. Although its chronic infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, dysplasia, neoplasia, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, it has been suggested the possible association of H. pylori infection with several extragastric effects including hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Since a microorganism resembling H. pylori was detected in samples from patients with hepatobiliary disorders, several reports have been discussed the possible role of bacteria in hepatic diseases as hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis. Additionally, studies have reported the possible association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic diseases, especially because it has been suggested that this infection could change the pancreatic physiology. Some of them have related a possible association between the microorganism and pancreatic cancer. H. pylori infection has also been suggested to play a role in the acute and chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis, autoimmune pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Considering that association of H. pylori to liver and pancreas diseases needs further clarification, our work offers a review about the results of some investigations related to the potential pathogenicity of H. pylori in these extragastric diseases. PMID:26730276

  14. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection

    PubMed Central

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection. PMID:26855818

  15. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  16. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  17. Association between serum pepsinogen A and C levels, serum gastrin concentrations and Helicobacter pylori antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kullich, W; Pöllmann, G; Czerwenka, C; Klein, G

    1999-01-01

    Pepsinogen A and C as well as gastrin were measured in the serum of 117 patients with rheumatic diseases. Moreover, the patients were divided up in groups by aids of a semiquantitative, rapid enzyme immunoassay for detection of Helicobacter pylori: 20 patients without H. pylori antibodies (AB) negative, 18 positive + (= weak AB-titre), 21 positive +2 (medium AB-titre), and 58 positive +3 (high AB-titre). The semiquantitative determinations of H. pylori-AB correlated with pepsinogen A, C and gastrin. Patients with H. pylori-AB positive +3 showed significantly higher values of pepsinogen C (p < or = 0.01) as well as pepsinogen A and gastrin (p < or = 0.05) than H. pylori-AB negative patients. Significantly increased levels of pepsinogen A (> 150 ng/ml) and C (> 25 ng/ml) were found to occur in 39% and 100% of patients with high H. pylori-AB titres. The measurement of serum pepsinogen C concentrations may provide additional diagnostic information of the extent of mucosal lesions in patients with positive H. pylori-AB titres treated with antirheumatic drugs. Our findings suggest that the semi-quantitative classification of positive AB-results can be useful in cases determining H. pylori infection and mucosal irritation if other investigations are not available.

  18. ATP-Dependent Lon Protease Contributes to Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bin; Wang, Minggang; Hou, Nengyi; Hu, Xiao; Jia, Guiqing; Qin, Xianpeng; Zuo, Xiaofei; Liu, Yang; Luo, Kun; Song, Wei; Wang, Kang; Pang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Host cellular stress responses, including inflammatory and immune responses, have been reported highly linked to H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. However, whether mitochondrial regulation and metabolic reprogramming, which are potently associated with various cancers, play a role in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Here we revealed that Lon protease (Lonp1), which is a key inductive of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and is required to maintain the mitochondrial quality, was greatly induced in H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells. Importantly, we uncovered that knockdown of Lonp1 expression significantly diminished the metabolic switch to glycolysis and gastric cell proliferation associated with low multiplicity of H. pylori infection. In addition, Lonp1 overexpression in gastric epithelial cells also promoted glycolytic switch and cell overgrowth, suggesting H. pylori effect is Lonp1 dependent. We further demonstrated that H. pylori induced Lonp1 expression and cell overgrowth, at least partially, via HIF-1α regulation. Collectively, our results concluded the relevance of Lonp1 for cell proliferation and identified Lonp1 as a key regulator of metabolic reprogramming in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27108387

  19. Influence of pretreatment with H2 receptor antagonists on the cure rates of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Tokoro, Chikako; Inamori, Masahiko; Koide, Tomoko; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Endo, Hiroki; Hosono, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Yasuzaki, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masami; Abe, Yasunobu; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Kawana, Ichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Matsuda, Reikei; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Pretreatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) reportedly decreases the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, however, the effect of pretreatment with an H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) on H. pylori eradication has not yet been studied. We compared the efficacy of eradication regimen (lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin) in patients with H. pylori infection with or without H2RA pretreatment. Material/Methods In this retrospective study conducted at three centers, 310 patients with H. pylori infection were treated. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made using the rapid urease test, bacterial cultures and histological examination of endoscopic biopsy specimens. The patients were assigned to receive an eradication regimen first or following pretreatment with H2RA. Eradication was assessed using the 13C-urea breath test more than 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. Results Overall, H. pylori was eradicated in 79.7% of the cases: the eradication rate was 81.6% in the pretreatment group, and 77.6% in the eradication first group (p=0.3799, chi-square test). No significant difference in the eradication rate was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Pretreatment with H2RA had no significant influence on the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:21525804

  20. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27573783

  1. Cure of peptic gastric ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Finnish Gastric Ulcer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, K; Pikkarainen, P; Sipponen, P; Kivilaakso, E; Gormsen, M H

    1995-06-01

    The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on ulcer healing and the relapse rate were investigated in a multicentre trial of 239 gastric ulcer patients. Patients with H pylori positive gastric ulcer were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (A) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole and eight weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) (84 patients); (B) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole placebo and eight weeks with CBS (73 patients); or (C) ranitidine (82 patients). At 12 weeks in 210 patients, gastric ulcer was present in three (9%) of 35 H pylori negative patients, and in 45 (26%) of 175 H pylori positive patients (p < 0.05). Results after one year of follow up were available for 205 patients. Between 12 and 52 weeks, two (7%) ulcer relapses occurred in 29 H pylori negative patients and in 60 (47%) of 128 H pylori positive patients (p < 0.001). After two weeks of open triple therapy (CBS 120 mg four times daily, amoxicillin 500 mg four times daily, and metronidazole 400 mg three times daily), given to the patients with ulcer relapse, only one (an NSAID user) of 55 successfully treated patients had an ulcer relapse during the one year follow up. Healing of gastric ulcer is rapid and recurrence is infrequent after successful H pylori eradication. H pylori eradication changes the natural history of the gastric ulcer disease.

  2. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery.

  4. A possible role of GDDR in the development of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Fei; Fang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Shuang, Jianbo; Chu, Guanghui; Hu, Sijun; Chen, Lin; Du, Jianjun

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important part in the development of gastric carcinoma. GDDR has been confirmed as a tumor suppressor gene in gastric tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of GDDR in H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is not well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathological significance and possible molecular mechanism of GDDR in gastric cancer associated with H. pylori. Western blot, real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression level of GDDR with or without H. pylori infection. The function and possible related molecular mechanisms of GDDR were further explored in vitro and in vivo. The variability of GDDR expression appeared in the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis with positive H. pylori infection status. GDDR might inhibit the progression of normal gastric epithelial cells to cancer cells by suppressing NF-kappaB signaling pathway, which in turn could be regulated by H. pylori infection. Our results suggested, for the first time, that the gradual change in GDDR expression might not only be directly related to H. pylori infection but also be an early molecular event in the development of gastric carcinoma.

  5. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chi; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  6. Survival of Helicobacter pylori in Turkish fermented sucuk and heat-treated sucuk during production.

    PubMed

    Guner, Ahmet; Kav, Kursat; Tekinsen, Kemal Kaan; Dogruer, Yusuf; Telli, Nihat

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of Helicobacter pylori during production of sucuk (Turkish fermented sausage). The sucuk mixture was inoculated with H. pylori ATCC 43504 to produce a final level in the mixture of ∼5 × 10(6) CFU/g. Samples in group I were fermented and dried traditionally at 22°C for 7 days. Samples in groups II and III were subjected to the traditional fermentation at 22°C for 3 days. After fermentation, group II samples were fermented and dried at 35°C for 4 days and group III samples were treated with heat until the core temperature reached 65°C. On the first day of fermentation, a 1-log reduction in H. pylori was found in all groups. The H. pylori levels in all groups increased by about 1 log CFU/g by the third day of fermentation and reached the inoculation level. On the fifth and seventh days of fermentation, no appreciable change occurred in the level of H. pylori in groups I and II. After heat treatment, the H. pylori levels were below the level of detection. These results suggest that H. pylori can grow during sucuk fermentation and that a heat treatment should be used during sucuk processing to destroy H. pylori. PMID:22186045

  7. Prevalence of antibodies against heat-stable antigens from Helicobacter pylori in patients with dyspeptic symptoms and normal persons.

    PubMed

    Andersen, L P; Raskov, H; Elsborg, L; Holck, S; Justesen, T; Fischer Hansen, B; Møller Nielsen, C; Gaarslev, K

    1992-09-01

    Heat-stable antigens from Helicobacter pylori were investigated for the detection of serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against H. pylori by an ELISA technique. Antibody titers against H. pylori were measured in 167 dyspeptic patients, of whom 96 were H. pylori positive confirmed by culture or microscopy, and in 482 controls (0-98 years). Increased IgG antibody titers were found significantly more often in dyspeptic patients with active chronic gastritis than in patients with normal morphology, as well as in H. pylori-positive patients as compared to H. pylori-negative patients, independent of the endoscopic findings. The heat-stable antigens were compared with acid glycine-extracted antigens and a high degree of concordance was found in the results obtained with the two antigen preparations. The differences in the IgA antibody titers against H. pylori between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative dyspeptic patients were significant and may be useful to confirm a borderline IgG result. No differences were found in IgM antibody titer between H. pylori-positive and -negative patients. The greatest age-dependent increase in IgG and IgA antibody titers was found in children, and if a lower cut-off level is used for children than for adults, as has been proposed, the proportion of people with increased antibody titers against H. pylori would be almost constant from the age of between five and 10 years until the time between 61 and 80 years. Comparison of H. pylori IgG antibodies with IgG antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni and total antibodies against cytomegalovirus (CMV) showed a greater similarity between H. pylori and C. jejuni (R = 0.51) than between H. pylori and CMV (R = 0.22). This may possibly be caused by cross-reactions between H. pylori and C. jejuni. The H. pylori heat-stabile antigen seems not to be very different from other crude H. pylori antigens like acid glycine-extracted antigens, but purification and characterization of the antigens are

  8. Pyramid of Interventions: Results of a School Counselor's Action Research Study at One Suburban Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of the Pyramid of Interventions (POI) at a suburban Georgia Middle School through an examination of teacher understanding, assessment of overall effectiveness, and the need for further professional development. The Pyramid of Interventions is the response to intervention (RTI) component of the Individuals…

  9. Results of a Rural School-Based Peer-Led Intervention for Youth: Goals for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forneris, Tanya; Fries, Elizabeth; Meyer, Aleta; Buzzard, Marilyn; Uguy, Samy; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh; Lewis, Carol; Danish, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Background: School-based interventions are critical for enhancing the health of youth. The "Goals for Health (GFH)" school-based project was a goal-setting and life-skills intervention conducted in rural areas to increase self-efficacy, knowledge, and positive behaviors related to healthy eating. The intervention was peer-led with high school…

  10. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Cullen, Thomas W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori is one of several pathogens that persist within the host despite a robust immune response. H. pylori elicits a proinflammatory response from host epithelia, resulting in the recruitment of immune cells which manifests as gastritis. Relatively little is known about how H. pylori survives antimicrobials, including calprotectin (CP), which is present during the inflammatory response. The data presented here suggest that one way H. pylori survives the nutrient sequestration by CP is through alteration of its outer membrane. CP-treated H. pylori demonstrates increased bacterial fitness in response to further coculture with CP. Moreover, CP-treated H. pylori cultures form biofilms and demonstrate decreased cell surface hydrophobicity. In response to CP, the H. pylori Lpx lipid A biosynthetic enzymes are not fully functional. The lipid A molecules observed in H. pylori cultures treated with CP indicate that the LpxF, LpxL, and LpxR enzyme functions are perturbed. Transcriptional analysis of lpxF, lpxL, and lpxR indicates that metal restriction by CP does not control this pathway through transcriptional regulation. Analyses of H. pylori lpx mutants reveal that loss of LpxF and LpxL results in increased fitness, similar to what is observed in the presence of CP; moreover, these mutants have significantly increased biofilm formation and reduced cell surface hydrophobicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism of H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobial activity of CP via lipid A modification strategies and resulting biofilm formation. PMID:26646009

  11. Extragastrointestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: facts or myth? A critical review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huck-Joo; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be associated with many extragastrointestinal manifestations, such as hematological diseases [idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA)], cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases), neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), obesity and skin disorders. Among these, the best evidence so far is in ITP and unexplained IDA, with high-quality studies showing the improvement of IDA and ITP after H. pylori eradication. The evidence of its association with coronary artery disease is weak and many of the results may be erroneous. The role of H. pylori infection in affecting serum leptin and ghrelin levels has attracted a lot of attention recently and available data to date have been conflicting. There have also been many uncontrolled, small sample studies suggesting an association between H. pylori infection and neurological disorders or chronic urticaria. However, more studies are required to clarify such proposed causal links. PMID:22713083

  12. Unusual Helicobacter pylori in gastric resection specimens: an old friend with a new look.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Snyder, Patricia; Owens, Scott R

    2011-06-01

    Immunohistochemical staining is useful in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis. The authors encountered gastric resection specimens with an unusual pattern of reactivity on H pylori immunostains where the typical morphology of the organism was not recognizable, but the characteristic chronic gastritis associated with infection was present. The authors sought to explore this phenomenon by retrospectively reviewing and immunostaining 28 gastric resection specimens for H pylori. Six cases with large clumps of immunohistochemically positive but morphologically unrecognizable material were identified on light microscopy, corresponding on electron microscopy to clusters of predominantly coccoid H pylori, some located intracellularly. Such organisms were not identifiable without immunohistochemistry, and the phenomenon was not encountered in gastric biopsies. The authors conclude that this staining pattern reflects true H pylori infection that is not diagnosable without immunohistochemistry. Based on its occurrence only in resections, it may be the result of hypoxic or other stress induced when the mucosa is not promptly fixed.

  13. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a "gastritis-like" appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection.

  14. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a “gastritis-like” appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  15. Key questions resulting from the JUPITER trial assessing cardiovascular disease intervention with rosuvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Shirya

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the recently published Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention (JUPITER: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin) trial, which tested the statin rosuvastatin in apparently healthy individuals with no prior cardiovascular (CVD) disease and with normal plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations but with raised plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. The rate of the combined primary CVD endpoint was significantly reduced in the treatment arm after a median of under 2 years. The JUPITER trial is distinct from previous studies examining statin use in primary prevention groups because the target group for drug therapy was apparently healthy men and women at low or intermediate risk for developing CVD. On the basis of JUPITER’s findings, there are key questions that should be assessed on the therapeutic intervention of CVD regarding: the primary prevention groups that should be targeted for statin therapy, the utility of targets in addition to plasma LDL cholesterol levels, and the need to consider the metabolic state of individuals targeted for therapy (including the presence of obesity and inflammation). The conclusion from the current analysis is that the JUPITER results warrant further LDL cholesterol lowering than is currently targeted in primary prevention groups that have a pre-existing condition or lifestyle that elevates CVD risk but still do not have a high global CVD risk (as assessed with current algorithms). This group is not captured in current widely used CVD risk calculations, however, with the identification of useful biomarkers, such as hsCRP, this group can be better identified and targeted for intervention. PMID:21160575

  16. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro by Bulgarian propolis: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Derejian, Sirigan; Koumanova, Radka; Katsarov, Nikolai; Gergova, Galina; Mitov, Ivan; Nikolov, Rossen; Krastev, Zacharii

    2003-05-01

    Bee glue (propolis) possesses antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anaesthetic and immunostimulating activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Bulgarian propolis on Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro. Activity of 30% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) against 38 clinical isolates of H. pylori was evaluated by using the agar-well diffusion method. Ethanol was used as a control. In addition, the effect of propolis on the growth of 26 H. pylori and 18 Campylobacter strains was tested by the disc diffusion method. Mean diameters of H. pylori growth inhibition by the agar-well diffusion method, using 30, 60 or 90 microl EEP or 30 microl ethanol per well, were 17.8, 21.2, 28.2 and 8.5 mm, respectively. EEP was significantly more active than ethanol against H. pylori (P < 0.001). The results obtained by the disc diffusion method were similar. The use of moist propolis discs resulted in mean diameters of growth inhibition of 21.4 mm for H. pylori and 13.6 mm for Campylobacter spp. Dried propolis discs exhibited antibacterial effect against 73.1% of H. pylori isolates, with a considerable zone of growth inhibition (> or = 15 mm) in 36.4% of isolates. Using dried propolis discs resulted in mean diameters of growth inhibition of 12.4 mm for H. pylori and 11.6 mm for Campylobacter spp. In conclusion, Bulgarian propolis possesses considerable antibacterial activity against H. pylori, and can also inhibit the growth of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The potential of propolis in the prevention or treatment of H. pylori infection is worth further extensive evaluation.

  17. Adolescent suicidal and self-destructive behavior. Results of an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Deykin, E Y; Hsieh, C C; Joshi, N; McNamarra, J J

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates an intervention program designed to reduce suicidal, self-destructive behavior among high-risk adolescents aged 13- to 17 years. The intervention combined a program of community education and direct service to youth who had required emergency care for self-inflicted injuries. The intervention program was effective in increasing subjects' compliance with medical regimen. To a lesser degree, the intervention also facilitated early help seeking among adolescents with suicidal thoughts and appeared to diminish slightly the overall occurrence of emergency room admissions for suicidal behaviors. However, the intervention program had no demonstrable effect on the occurrence of repeat suicidal episodes.

  18. High Seroprevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Inmates: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in inmates has not been previously studied. Therefore, we determine the seroepidemiology of H. pylori infection in inmates. Methods Through a case-control study, inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango, Mexico and subjects without incarceration of the same city were examined for the presence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, incarceration, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the inmates was also investigated. Results Antibodies to H. pylori were found in 140 (83.3%) of 168 inmates and in 101 (60.1%) of 168 controls. Seroprevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was significantly higher in inmates than in controls (OR = 3.32; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.71; P = 0.000002). The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was not influenced by gender, age, or socioeconomic status of inmates. Seropositivity to H. pylori was found in 3 of 3 inmates with peptic ulcer and in 1 of 2 inmates with gastritis. The seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure was high regardless the jail section, duration (years) in incarceration and number of incarcerations. Multivariate analysis revealed that H. pylori exposure was positively associated with having tattoos (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.14 - 9.70; P = 0.02), and negatively associated with drug abuse (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.70; P = 0.007). Conclusions Seroprevalence of H. pylori exposure in inmates is higher than those found in non-incarcerated people and other populations in the region. Results indicate that inmates may represent a new risk group for H. pylori exposure. Results warrant for further research on the potential role of incarceration and behavioral features of inmates for H. pylori infection.

  19. Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61). PMID:24814751

  20. Helicobacter pylori: management in 2013.

    PubMed

    Alahdab, Yesim Ozen; Kalayci, Cem

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a prevalent, worldwide, chronic infection. Choice of treatment can be modified according to antibiotic-resistance rates of H. pylori. The ideal therapeutic regimen for H. pylori infection should achieve an eradication rate of ≥ 80%. In some countries, triple therapy with a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and amoxicillin or metronidazole is still the best option. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy consisting of bismuth salts, tetracycline, metronidazole and PPI, may be the preferred option in countries with clarithromycin resistance > 20%. Sequential therapy including a PPI and amoxicillin given for the first 5 d, followed by triple therapy including a PPI, clarithromycin, and nitroimidazole antimicrobial (all twice daily) for the remaining 5 d, can be another option for the first-line treatment of H. pylori. Recent data suggest that treatment with PPI, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin for 10 d is a good choice for second-line therapy. Concomitant therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole is another option for second-line treatment. If second-line treatment also fails, it is recommended to culture H. pylori from biopsy specimens and perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Rescue treatment should be based on antimicrobial susceptibility.

  1. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, G; Acuña, R; Troncoso, M; Portell, D P; Toledo, M S; Valenzuela, J

    1997-11-01

    This article summarizes studies designed to evaluate the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Chile, described in 21 reports from nine centers in various Chilean regions published between 1985 and 1995. According to their data, H. pylori infection is quite frequent among patients with a variety of gastric conditions, including adults (43%-92%) and children (6%-100%). Levels of specific IgG antibodies to H. pylori are also elevated among patients with duodenal ulcers (100%) and gastritis (86%) as well as asymptomatic adults (75%). Combination therapy with three (but not two) drugs has been proved effective, with clinical improvement, ulcer cure, and H. pylori eradication occurring in well-controlled studies. Available evidence suggests that antibiotic resistance is not a major problem in treatment. The H. pylori reinfection rate is low (4.2% per year), suggesting that combination therapy with three drugs constitutes a cost-effective alternative for treating colonized symptomatic patients. Concurrent preliminary studies revealed that antibodies to VacA but not CagA proteins correlate with disease severity in Chilean patients. It can be concluded that local research assists local administrators of health resources to implement adequate policies to prevent, control, and treat H. pylori-related pathologies.

  3. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Since its discovery and identification in gastric tissue by Marshall and Warren in 1983, our knowledge about the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection has grown considerably. Its role in the multifactorial pathology of peptic ulcer disease (gastrodudodenal ulcer disease), gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma is now widely accepted while its involvement in extraintestinal disease is still controversial.The correlation between the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori and gastric lymphoma has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Between 65 and 80% of distal gastric adenocarcinomas are attributed to H. pylori infection. However, gastric carcinogenesis cannot be explained by H. pylori infection alone. Among those individuals infected by this bacteria, only a small percentage (2-5%) ever develops gastric cancer, the majority exhibit benign lesions. There is a wide individual variation in the outcome of this infection in patients. This individual and population specific variation is due to the intricate relationship between genetics, the environment, bacterial virulence, diet, and socio-economic status and it explains the multiple outcomes of this infection. In this article, we conduct a review of the widely accepted theories regarding gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, the correlations and enigmas between them, the reported geographical variations, and the various proposed hypotheses on the carcinogenic mechanism of Helicobacter pylori.

  4. Probiotics and Helicobacter pylori infection in children.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, E; Francavilla, R; Castellazzi, A M; Arrigo, T; Labò, E; Leonardi, S; Ciprandi, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, V; Salpietro, C; La Rosa, M

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50 percent of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), with the highest prevalence rates in developing countries. The current guidelines suggest the use of triple therapy as first choice treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, although the eradication failure rate is more than 30 percent. Current interest in probiotics as therapeutic agents against Helicobacter pylori is stimulated by the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, thus the interest for alternative therapies is a real actual topic. Available data in children indicate that probiotics seem to be efficacious for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects, and might be of help for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori complications by decreasing Helicobacter pylori density and gastritis, and for the prevention of Helicobacter pylori colonization or re-infection by inhibiting adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. There is no clear evidence that probiotics may increase the Helicobacter pylori eradication rate.

  5. Outcome Results from "Yo Veo": A Visual Intervention for Teachers Working with Immigrant Latino/Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study reports results from the outcome evaluation of "Yo Veo," a visual intervention with schoolteachers, which structures conversations about challenges that teachers face teaching Latino/Latina immigrant students. Method: The intervention was delivered to teachers at two middle schools in the southeastern United States,…

  6. Novel detection of Helicobacter pylori in fish: A possible public health concern.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Saeed, Hossam; Samir, Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human pathogens worldwide with serious clinical outcomes. Although, H. pylori is a major water-borne pathogen, its occurrence in fish is still unknown. This leads us to conduct the current study in order to clarify this point and to investigate the potential role of fish in the epidemiology of H. pylori. For this purpose, fecal samples were obtained from 315 fish from different species and were caught from various aquatic environments at different localities in Egypt. The obtained fecal samples were examined for the occurrence of H. pylori using monoclonal antibody based lateral flow immunoassay for antigen detection and after then the positive samples were confirmed by PCR. In addition, fecal samples from 18 fish handlers were also examined for the presence of H. pylori by lateral flow technique. The overall prevalence rates of H. pylori in the examined fish were 6.7% and 1.9% for LF and PCR, respectively, whereas 61.1% of fish handlers were positive. Only tilapia fish showed positive results by both techniques in rates 10.9% and 3.1%, respectively. Interestingly, H. pylori was detected in cultured and wild tilapia in various aquatic environments at different localities, whereas all other fish species were negative even those that were collected from the same water source where positive tilapia were caught. These results concluded that tilapia fish may be considered as a potential zoonotic reservoir for H. pylori and thus, H. pylori may become a new fish-borne pathogen. Further studies are needed to investigate the occurrence of H. pylori in other fish species.

  7. Helicobacter pylori, nutrition and smoking interactions: their impact in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    González, Carlos A; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the result of a long multi-step and multifactorial process involving possible interactions between Helicobacter pylori infection, environmental exposures and host genetic susceptibility. Interactions between H. pylori infection, tobacco smoking and dietary antioxidants are biologically plausible. Positive interactions between risk factors imply that, in certain subgroups of the population, the risk of GC associated with simultaneous exposure to these factors is higher than that in the rest of the population, and these subgroups have to be the target for preventive measures. Using PubMed, we reviewed all studies published in English up to December 2008 carried out in humans on interactions between H. pylori infection and smoking exposure and between H. pylori infection and dietary factors in gastric carcinogenesis. Although relatively few epidemiological studies have evaluated the effect of the interaction between smoking and H. pylori infection on GC risk, there is a suggestion of a positive interaction between the two factors. In contrast, evidence suggests a negative interaction between dietary antioxidants and H. pylori infections on GC risk. The potential protective effect of dietary antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and beta-carotene seems to be stronger in those infected by H. pylori, even though results are inconsistent. In Asian populations, subjects infected by H. pylori and with high dietary salt intake may have a higher risk of GC than subjects without H. pylori infection and with a low salt intake. The risk of GC associated with red meat, processed meat or endogenous formation of nitrosamines appears to only be observed in subjects infected by H. pylori. More and larger epidemiological studies, mainly prospective studies, are necessary to reach a more definitive conclusion on these interactions. PMID:20030576

  8. Mucoadhesive Microspheres Containing Amoxicillin for Clearance of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Naoki; Akiyama, Yohko; Nakao, Masafumi; Tada, Mayumi; Kitano, Megumi; Ogawa, Yasuyuki

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to augment the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of amoxicillin, mucoadhesive microspheres, which have the ability to reside in the gastrointestinal tract for an extended period, were prepared. The microspheres contained the antimicrobial agent and an adhesive polymer (carboxyvinyl polymer) powder dispersed in waxy hydrogenated castor oil. The percentage of amoxicillin remaining in the stomach both 2 and 4 h after oral administration of the mucoadhesive microspheres to Mongolian gerbils under fed conditions was about three times higher than that after administration in the form of a 0.5% methylcellulose suspension. The in vivo clearance of H. pylori following oral administration of the mucoadhesive microspheres and the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension to infected Mongolian gerbils was examined under fed conditions. The mucoadhesive microspheres and the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension both showed anti-H. pylori effects in this experimental model of infection, but the required dose of amoxicillin was effectively reduced by a factor of 10 when the mucoadhesive microspheres were used. In conclusion, the mucoadhesive microspheres more effectively cleared H. pylori from the gastrointestinal tract than the 0.5% methylcellulose suspension due to the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time resulting from mucoadhesion. A dosage form consisting of mucoadhesive microspheres containing an appropriate antimicrobial agent should be useful for the eradication of H. pylori. PMID:9756746

  9. Contemporary Diagnostic Strategies for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elfant, Adam B.; Howden, Colin W.; Stollman, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent, affecting approximately half of the world’s population. While the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is associated with certain diseases, including peptic ulcers (either duodenal or gastric), gastritis, and 2 malignancies—gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Many of the epidemiologic associations between these diseases and H. pylori infection have been further validated by treatment studies, which show that effective eradication therapy correlates with a decreased risk of disease. A variety of testing strategies are used to detect H. pylori infection. Serologic techniques are widely available and inexpensive, but they are no longer preferred as they have low sensitivities and specificities, and they may show a positive result for a long period following effective therapy. The remaining testing methods are divided into 2 categories: invasive tests (which require endoscopy) and noninvasive tests. Noninvasive test methods such as the urea breath test and stool antigen test have gained popularity due to their high sensitivities and specificities. Further, both of these methods may be used to confirm the absence of infection following eradication therapy. Due to the increasing incidence of treatment failure (caused in part by antibiotic resistance), post-treatment testing is recommended to confirm H. pylori eradication. PMID:24847180

  10. Five month persistence of Helicobacter pylori infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Sjunnesson, Hakan; Sturegard, Erik; Hynes, Sean; Willen, Roger; Feinstein, Ricardo; Wadstrom, Torkel

    2003-06-01

    Seven Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were infected with the Sydney strain of H. pylori (SS1). Gastric histopathology was evaluated and serum antibody response to H. pylori cell-surface proteins was analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and immunoblot. Tissue and faecal samples from five control animals were analysed for the presence of naturally occurring Helicobacter spp. infection by culture and Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. The H. pylori infection persisted for 5 months, in most animals accompanied by a histologically severe antral gastritis, exhibiting focal degeneration and necrosis of gastric crypt epithelium. Increased numbers of mitotic figures were observed in the gastric epithelium, indicating a regenerative process. Infected animals displayed specific antibodies towards H. pylori cell-surface proteins in immunoblot, whereas EIA was of dubious value creating false-positive results. Serum complement C3 and cholesterol levels appeared to be elevated in infected animals. Helicobacter spp. infection was not detected in the control animals. The persistent infection, accompanied by severe gastritis and a prominent serum antibody response, and the apparent absence of a natural Helicobacter spp. infection makes the guinea pig model useful in H. pylori research.

  11. [Education programs on atopic eczema. Design and first results of the German Randomized Intervention Multicenter Study].

    PubMed

    Diepgen, T L; Fartasch, M; Ring, J; Scheewe, S; Staab, D; Szcepanski, R; Werfel, T; Wahn, U; Gieler, U

    2003-10-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common, chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease with an early onset during infancy associated with a high loss of quality of life and socioeconomic burden. In the past few years, an Atopic Eczema Prevention Program was established to improve disease management and the quality of life of patients with atopic eczema. In Germany, the Task Force on Education Programs for Atopic Eczema (AGNES = Arbeitsgemeinschaft Neurodermitis Schulung) for children, youths, and parents was founded as well as the Task Force on Dermatological Prevention (ADP) for adults. These groups ensure structure and process quality of the prevention programs and organize train-the-trainer workshops. In a randomized prospective controlled trial (the German Randomized Intervention Multicenter Study = GRIMS), we are currently comparing the effectiveness of an atopic eczema group intervention program in (1) parents of atopic eczema children aged 0-7 years, (2) parents and children 7-12 years old, and (3) youths with AE aged between 13 and 18 years. The groups were randomized and compared with a waiting control group. The design and first results will be reported. PMID:14513241

  12. Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Activities of Shoya Powder and Essential Oils of Thymus Vulgaris and Eucalyptus Globulus

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, D; Mobarez, A Mohabati; Tohidpour, A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, an infective agent of more than 50% of the world population is prominent to be the main causative factor in the etiologies of chronic, active or type B gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tumors. A high prevalence of this bacterium in dental plaque is always reported. Pharmacological treatment of H. pylori infections includes administration of 3-fold therapeutic regimens which are typically used to suppress H. pylori activity. However, antibiotic resistance frequently develops as a consequence of such treatment. Thus, searching for alternative therapies for H. pylori infections is of special interest. Materials and Methods: In this study, anti H. pylori activities of a traditional antimicrobial drug so-called Shoya and also essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus were investigated using antimicrobial analysis and serological screening methods. Results: The agar dilution method results revealed the Shoya with the highest inhibitory effect against H. pylori. Also serological screening on tested mice showed a significant effect of this drug in lowering the sera amount of anti H. pylori specific IgA and IgG titers. Both of the essential oils showed different degrees of antibacterial effect against H. pylori. Conclusion: The obtained results showed the antibacterial effect of Shoya powder and Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus and purposes new therapeutical alternatives to control the H. pylori infection. Additional studies and clinical trials are necessary to approve the use of these data in health care and pharmacopeia systems. PMID:22927892

  13. [HIGH-RISK CHRONICALLY ILL PATIENTS: DIAGNOSTICS, RESULTS AND NURSING INTERVENTIONS UPON DISCHARGE].

    PubMed

    Martinez López, Constancio; Martinez de Pinillos, Rafael López; Pereira Torres, Ana Isabel; San Pedro, Ana Isabel Castro; Heras Agudo, Dolores; Robledo González, Ascensión; Olmo Alonso, Carmen; Trujillo Orcha, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    It is after the implementation of the new nursing evaluation/ planning care registers (PCE) in the medical record and the updating of the document/circuit of the All-clear Ensuing Care Report (ICCA) with NANDA, NOC, NIC (NNN) in the first months of the year 2013, that we are contemplating the fulfillment of a descriptive/cross-section study so as to know diagnostics, results and nursing interventions upon discharge of high-risk chronically ill patients and qualitatively in medical hospitalization units and in palliative care. The results obtained at a quantitative level, with an implementation degree of 83 and 94 per cent, respectively, are extremely encouraging. Regarding the quality of care planning, we have identified for the first time in our hospital both the NANDA, the NOC and NIC with the prevalence degree in the units studied.

  14. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  15. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections worldwide. Although infection rates are falling in the developed and developing countries, H. pylori is still widespread in the world. This article has reviewed the important publications on H. pylori in childhood with a focus on its evolving transmission route and the source of infection and preventive strategies in childhood, PubMed was searched up to identify eligible studies. Relevant publications were searched using the following. PMID:25132751

  16. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection is not associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, Myong Ki; Yoon, Seung Kew; Ko, Sun-Hye; Noh, Yong-Sun; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection confers a higher risk of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Healthy people who underwent health screening were analyzed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 20 years, history of H. pylori infection, and recorded insulin level. Participants were classified as H. pylori positive or negative according to 13C urea breath tests. NAFLD was defined using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS). Those with an HSI > 36 or NAFLD-LFS > -0.640 were considered to have NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for NAFLD. RESULTS: Three thousand six hundred and sixty-three people were analyzed and 1636 (44.7%) were H. pylori positive. H. pylori infection was associated with older age, male gender, hypertension, higher body mass index, and a dyslipidemic profile. HSI differed significantly between H. pylori positive and negative subjects (median 33.2, interquartile range (IQR) 30.0-36.2 for H. pylori-positive vs median 32.6, IQR 29.8-36.0 for negative participants, P = 0.005), but NAFLD-LSF did not [median -1.7, IQR -2.4 - -0.7 vs median -1.8, IQR -2.4-(-0.7), respectively, P = 0.122]. The percentage of people with NAFLD did not differ between infected and uninfected groups: HIS, 26.9% vs 27.1%, P = 0.173; NAFLD-LFS, 23.5% vs 23.1%, P = 0.778. H. pylori infection was not a risk factor, but C-reactive protein concentration and smoking were significant risk factors for NAFLD. CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection is not a risk factor for NAFLD as indicated by HSI or NAFLD-LFS. Prospective, large-scale studies involving liver biopsies should be considered. PMID:26937147

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in inflamed dental pulp specimens from Japanese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Yuko; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity has been implicated as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood. Various PCR methods have been used to detect H. pylori DNA in oral specimens with various detection rates reported. Such disparity in detection rates complicates the estimation of the true infection rate of H. pylori in the oral cavity. In the present study, we constructed a novel PCR system for H. pylori detection and used it to analyse oral specimens. Firstly, the nucleotide alignments of genes commonly used for H. pylori detection were compared using the complete genome information for 48 strains registered in the GenBank database. Candidate primer sets with an estimated amplification size of approximately 300-400 bp were selected, and the specificity and sensitivity of the detection system using each primer set were evaluated. Five sets of primers targeting ureA were considered appropriate, of which a single primer set was chosen for inclusion in the PCR system. The sensitivity of the system was considered appropriate and its detection limit established as one to ten cells per reaction. The novel PCR system was used to examine H. pylori distribution in oral specimens (40 inflamed pulp tissues, 40 saliva samples) collected from Japanese children, adolescents and young adults. PCR analysis revealed that the detection rate of H. pylori in inflamed pulp was 15 %, whereas no positive reaction was found in any of the saliva specimens. Taken together, our novel PCR system was found to be reliable for detecting H. pylori. The results obtained showed that H. pylori was detected in inflamed pulp but not saliva specimens, indicating that an infected root canal may be a reservoir for H. pylori. PMID:25332373

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in biofilms by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Linke, S; Lenz, J; Gemein, S; Exner, M; Gebel, J

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a cause of peptic ulcer disease and a causative agent of gastric cancer. Currently, a possible waterborne route of transmission or a possible survival in drinking water biofilms is discussed. H. pylori, like many other bacterial strains, has the ability to enter the viable but nonculturable state (vbnc) in case of unfavorable conditions. Therefore it is necessary to develop new analysis tools for vbnc bacteria. We established a fast and reliable method to detect H. pylori in drinking water biofilms by quantitative real-time PCR which makes it redundant to use difficult cultivation methods for nonculturable bacteria. With this method it was possible to identify water biofilms as a niche for H. pylori. The real-time PCR analysis targets the ureA subunit of the Helicobacter pylori urea gene which showed high specificity and sensitivity. The quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect H. pylori in biofilms of different age, unspiked and spiked with predetermined levels of cells. The drinking water biofilms were generated in a silicone-tube model. The DNA-sequences for probe and primers showed no cross-homologies to other related bacteria and it was possible to detect less than 10 genomic units of H. pylori. This novel method is a useful tool for a fast screening of drinking water biofilms for H. pylori. The results suggest that drinking water biofilms may act as a reservoir for H. pylori which raises new concerns about the role of biofilms as vectors for pathogens like Helicobacter pylori.

  20. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hui; Liu, Yu; Li, Ning; Yu, Jing; Cheng, Hong; Li, Jiang; Zhang, Xue-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the bactericidal effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (CAL) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory activity of CAL was tested using an agar dilution method; H. pylori strain NCTC11637 was incubated on Columbia blood agar plates containing serial concentrations of CAL. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the absence of H. pylori colonies on the agar plate. Time-kill curves were used to evaluate bactericidal activity; the average number of colonies was calculated at 0, 2, 8 and 24 h after liquid incubation with concentrations of CAL at 0.5, 1, and 2 × MIC. For in vivo experiments, H. pylori-infected mice were randomly divided into CAL, triple therapy (lansoprazole, metronidazole, and clarithromycin), blank control, or H. pylori control groups. The eradication ratios were determined by positive findings from rapid urease tests (RUTs) and by histopathology. RESULTS: In vitro, the MIC of CAL against H. pylori was 16 mg/L. The time-kill curves showed a stable and persistent decreasing tendency with increasing CAL concentration, and the intensity of the bactericidal effect was proportional to dose; the 1 and 2 × MIC completely inhibited the growth of H. pylori at 24 h. In vivo, the eradication ratios in the CAL group were 60% (6/10) by RUT and 50% (5/10) by histopathology. Ratios in the triple therapy group were both 70% (7/10), and there was no difference between the CAL and triple therapy groups. Histopathologic evaluation revealed massive bacterial colonization on the surface of gastric mucosa and slight infiltration of mononuclear cells after inoculation with H. pylori, but no obvious inflammation or other pathologic changes in gastric mucosa of mice from CAL and triple therapy groups. CONCLUSION: CAL demonstrates effective bactericidal activity against H. pylori both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25892867

  1. Brain-gut axis in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Kłopocka, Maria

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main pathogenic factor for upper digestive tract organic diseases. In addition to direct cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects, H. pylori infection may also induce abnormalities indirectly by affecting the brain-gut axis, similar to other microorganisms present in the alimentary tract. The brain-gut axis integrates the central, peripheral, enteric and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the endocrine and immunological systems, with gastrointestinal functions and environmental stimuli, including gastric and intestinal microbiota. The bidirectional relationship between H. pylori infection and the brain-gut axis influences both the contagion process and the host's neuroendocrine-immunological reaction to it, resulting in alterations in cognitive functions, food intake and appetite, immunological response, and modification of symptom sensitivity thresholds. Furthermore, disturbances in the upper and lower digestive tract permeability, motility and secretion can occur, mainly as a form of irritable bowel syndrome. Many of these abnormalities disappear following H. pylori eradication. H. pylori may have direct neurotoxic effects that lead to alteration of the brain-gut axis through the activation of neurogenic inflammatory processes, or by microelement deficiency secondary to functional and morphological changes in the digestive tract. In digestive tissue, H. pylori can alter signaling in the brain-gut axis by mast cells, the main brain-gut axis effector, as H. pylori infection is associated with decreased mast cell infiltration in the digestive tract. Nevertheless, unequivocal data concerning the direct and immediate effect of H. pylori infection on the brain-gut axis are still lacking. Therefore, further studies evaluating the clinical importance of these host-bacteria interactions will improve our understanding of H. pylori infection pathophysiology and suggest new therapeutic approaches. PMID:24833851

  2. ( sup 14 C)urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, J.E.; Talley, N.J.; Carpenter, H.A.; Shorter, R.G.; Conley, C.R.; Wilson, W.R.; DiMagno, E.P.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Phillips, S.F. )

    1990-07-01

    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the (14C)- and (13C)urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted (14C)urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min (14C)urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that (14C)urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the (14C)urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model.

  3. Evaluating the Benefits of Aphasia Intervention Delivered in Virtual Reality: Results of a Quasi-Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Jane; Booth, Tracey; Devane, Niamh; Galliers, Julia; Greenwood, Helen; Hilari, Katerina; Talbot, Richard; Wilson, Stephanie; Woolf, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated an intervention for people with aphasia delivered in a novel virtual reality platform called EVA Park. EVA Park contains a number of functional and fantastic locations and allows for interactive communication between multiple users. Twenty people with aphasia had 5 weeks’ intervention, during which they received daily language stimulation sessions in EVA Park from a support worker. The study employed a quasi randomised design, which compared a group that received immediate intervention with a waitlist control group. Outcome measures explored the effects of intervention on communication and language skills, communicative confidence and feelings of social isolation. Compliance with the intervention was also explored through attrition and usage data. Results There was excellent compliance with the intervention, with no participants lost to follow up and most (18/20) receiving at least 88% of the intended treatment dose. Intervention brought about significant gains on a measure of functional communication. Gains were achieved by both groups of participants, once intervention was received, and were well maintained. Changes on the measures of communicative confidence and feelings of social isolation were not achieved. Results are discussed with reference to previous aphasia therapy findings. PMID:27518188

  4. Healthy Dietary Interventions and Lipoprotein (a) Plasma Levels: Results from the Omni Heart Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haring, Bernhard; Wyler von Ballmoos, Moritz C.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a) are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a) concentration. Methods Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites) individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a) concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet. Results Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a) by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196) in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p<0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008); Unsat Fat increased Lp(a) less than Carb with a difference of −0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, −2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441) in whites and −1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, −0.2, −2.8; p = 0.021) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354). Prot increased Lp(a) more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, −1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597) in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001) in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082). Conclusion Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a) levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a). Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350 PMID:25506933

  5. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools. PMID:25722969

  6. Personal review: Helicobacter pylori, NSAIDs and cognitive dissonance.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C J

    1999-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) each cause peptic ulcers but by different mechanisms. As a result, the effect of both of these risk factors together is not a synergistic enhancement of injury, ulceration or rates of complications. Indeed, there are circumstances under which patients infected with H. pylori are less prone to NSAID-induced ulcers than those who are not infected or who have undergone eradication treatment. This may be because of opposite effects on gastric mucosal prostaglandin synthesis or for other reasons. Reluctance to accept that there may be specific circumstances where H. pylori is beneficial may arise because of the psychological process of cognitive dissonance.

  7. Helicobacter pylori Activates HMGB1 Expression and Recruits RAGE into Lipid Rafts to Promote Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Chen, Chih-Jung; Huang, Mei-Zi; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastrointestinal disorders in the human population worldwide. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. The interaction between HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) triggers nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression, which in turn stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, and enhances the inflammatory response. However, how H. pylori activates HMGB1 expression and mobilizes RAGE into cholesterol-rich microdomains in gastric epithelial cells to promote inflammation has not been explored. In this study, we found that HMGB1 and RAGE expression increased significantly in H. pylori-infected cells compared with -uninfected cells. Blocking HMGB1 by neutralizing antibody abrogated H. pylori-elicited RAGE, suggesting that RAGE expression follows HMGB1 production, and silenced RAGE-attenuated H. pylori-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, significantly more RAGE was present in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected cells than in those from -uninfected cells, indicating that H. pylori exploited cholesterol to induce the HMGB1 signaling pathway. These results indicate that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric epithelial cells, which may be valuable in developing treatments for H. pylori-associated diseases. PMID:27667993

  8. Helicobacter pylori Activates HMGB1 Expression and Recruits RAGE into Lipid Rafts to Promote Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Chen, Chih-Jung; Huang, Mei-Zi; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastrointestinal disorders in the human population worldwide. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. The interaction between HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) triggers nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression, which in turn stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, and enhances the inflammatory response. However, how H. pylori activates HMGB1 expression and mobilizes RAGE into cholesterol-rich microdomains in gastric epithelial cells to promote inflammation has not been explored. In this study, we found that HMGB1 and RAGE expression increased significantly in H. pylori-infected cells compared with -uninfected cells. Blocking HMGB1 by neutralizing antibody abrogated H. pylori-elicited RAGE, suggesting that RAGE expression follows HMGB1 production, and silenced RAGE-attenuated H. pylori-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, significantly more RAGE was present in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected cells than in those from -uninfected cells, indicating that H. pylori exploited cholesterol to induce the HMGB1 signaling pathway. These results indicate that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric epithelial cells, which may be valuable in developing treatments for H. pylori-associated diseases. PMID:27667993

  9. Helicobacter pylori Activates HMGB1 Expression and Recruits RAGE into Lipid Rafts to Promote Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Chen, Wei-Wei; Lee, Che-Hsin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Chen, Chih-Jung; Huang, Mei-Zi; Kao, Min-Chuan; Chen, Yu-An; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Lai, Chih-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with several gastrointestinal disorders in the human population worldwide. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. The interaction between HMGB1 and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) triggers nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression, which in turn stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-8, and enhances the inflammatory response. However, how H. pylori activates HMGB1 expression and mobilizes RAGE into cholesterol-rich microdomains in gastric epithelial cells to promote inflammation has not been explored. In this study, we found that HMGB1 and RAGE expression increased significantly in H. pylori-infected cells compared with -uninfected cells. Blocking HMGB1 by neutralizing antibody abrogated H. pylori-elicited RAGE, suggesting that RAGE expression follows HMGB1 production, and silenced RAGE-attenuated H. pylori-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 production. Furthermore, significantly more RAGE was present in detergent-resistant membranes extracted from H. pylori-infected cells than in those from -uninfected cells, indicating that H. pylori exploited cholesterol to induce the HMGB1 signaling pathway. These results indicate that HMGB1 plays a crucial role in H. pylori-induced inflammation in gastric epithelial cells, which may be valuable in developing treatments for H. pylori-associated diseases.

  10. Suppression of cell division-associated genes by Helicobacter pylori attenuates proliferation of RAW264.7 monocytic macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Looi, Chung Yeng; Fernandez, Keith Conrad; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Won Fen

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori at multiplicity of infection (MOI ≥ 50) have been shown to cause apoptosis in RAW264.7 monocytic macrophage cells. Because chronic gastric infection by H. pylori results in the persistence of macrophages in the host’s gut, it is likely that H. pylori is present at low to moderate, rather than high numbers in the infected host. At present, the effect of low-MOI H. pylori infection on macrophage has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptional regulation of H. pylori-infected RAW264.7 cells at MOI 1, 5 and 10 in the absence of cellular apoptosis. Microarray data revealed up- and down-regulation of 1341 and 1591 genes, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for DNA replication and cell cycle-associated molecules, including Aurora-B kinase (AurkB) were down-regulated. Immunoblot analysis verified the decreased expression of AurkB and downstream phosphorylation of Cdk1 caused by H. pylori infection. Consistently, we observed that H. pylori infection inhibited cell proliferation and progression through the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints. In summary, we suggest that H. pylori disrupts expression of cell cycle-associated genes, thereby impeding proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, and such disruption may be an immunoevasive strategy utilized by H. pylori. PMID:26078204

  11. An art therapy intervention for cancer patients in the ambulant aftercare - results from a non-randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Geue, K; Richter, R; Buttstädt, M; Brähler, E; Singer, S

    2013-05-01

    Art therapy in psycho-oncology is gaining increasing importance, but systematic evaluations of its effects are rare. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an art therapy intervention for cancer patients in ambulant aftercare on psychological distress and coping. The intervention consisted of 22 sessions. At three points of measurement (t1: before intervention, t2: following intervention, t3: 6 months after t2), participants responded to questionnaires (Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). A group of haemato-oncological patients served as the comparison group (CG). Pre-post comparisons and analyses of variance were applied for statistical analysis. Relevant confounders were controlled. Fifty-four patients (intervention group, IG) with various cancer diagnoses completed the intervention. One hundred and twenty-nine data sets were available for the CG. Analyses of variance included group membership (IG vs. CG) and the following factors: gender, other psychosocial help and major life events. None of these variables was a predictor for changes in depression, anxiety and coping. Therefore, we could not prove intervention effects over time. Our results contradict those of preliminary studies and raise important questions. Further work on evaluating art therapy is necessary to explore which intervention concepts in which setting at which treatment stage show significant effects. Therefore, controlling for relevant confounders is needed.

  12. Communication Intervention in an Organization: Measuring the Results through a Triangulation Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamanou, Sonia; Glaser, Susan R.

    A study examined organizational culture change to determine the effectiveness of a communication based intervention program to increase productivity and motivation. The cultural change was measured through a triangulation approach combining questionnaires, interview data and direct observation. Pre- and post-intervention data were obtained in the…

  13. Negative results in phase III trials of complex interventions: cause for concern or just good science?

    PubMed

    Crawford, Mike J; Barnicot, Kirsten; Patterson, Sue; Gold, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Not all interventions that show promise in exploratory trials will be supported in phase III studies. But the high failure rate in recent trials of complex mental health interventions is a concern. Proper consideration of trial processes and greater use of adaptive trial designs could ensure better use of available resources. PMID:27369475

  14. Research on Language Intervention for Disadvantaged Children: Rationale, Results, and Recommendations. Interpretive Study I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vernon C.; Mery, Michael

    This paper on intervention research critically reviews evaluations of experimental procedures designed to effect changes in the language development of disadvantaged children. It includes a summary of intervention projects and survey of present knowledge and theory about language which constitute the rationale for such projects. Specific…

  15. Schizophrenia interventions in Vietnam: primary results from a cost-effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Quynh; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Ha, Nguyen Thu; Phanthunane, Pudtan; Huong, Nguyen Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling mental health disorder that imposes a considerable economic burden on a health care system. This paper aimed to examine the cost and effectiveness of alternative pharmaceutical interventions and the effects of family intervention (FI) for schizophrenia from the government perspective in order to introduce the most cost-effective intervention applicable to Vietnam. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and health outcome over patients' lifetimes when using typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs, alone or in combination with family intervention. Health outcome was measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years averted. Monte Carlo simulation was used for uncertainty analysis. According to our findings, interventions using typical or atypical drugs combined with FI were found to be the most effective and least costly compared to a 'do-nothing' scenario. Interventions using atypical drugs alone were estimated to be much less favourable due to a considerably higher cost. This is a very first attempt on cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions for schizophrenia in Vietnam, and recommendations are made for future research to determine the most cost-effective intervention.

  16. A Family-School Intervention for Children with ADHD: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas J.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Soffer, Stephen L.; Clarke, Angela T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Blum, Nathan J.; Glanzman, Marianne; Elia, Josephine; Jawad, Abbas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of using psychosocial approaches to intervention for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that target the family and school, as well as the intersection of family and school. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a family-school intervention, Family-School…

  17. Peer Acceptance and the Development of Emotional and Behavioural Problems: Results from a Preventive Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…

  18. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Kun Young; Lee, Don Haeng; Yoo, Joon-Hwan; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    To prove whether dietary intervention can prevent Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, we developed cancer preventive kimchi (cpKimchi) through special recipe and administered to chronic H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted, gastric tumorigenesis mice model. H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were administered with cpKimchi mixed in drinking water up to 36 weeks. Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively and explored underlying molecular changes to explain efficacies. Cancer preventive actions of anti-inflammation and anti-mutagenesis were compared between standard recipe kimchi (sKimchi) and special recipe cpKimchi in in vitro H. pylori-infected cell model. The erythematous and nodular changes, mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions in the stomach were noted at 24th weeks, but cpKimchi administration significantly ameliorated. After 36th weeks, scattered nodular masses, some ulcers, and thin nodular gastric mucosa were noted in H. pylori-infected mice, whereas these gross lesions were significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. On molecular analysis, significant expressions of COX-2 and IL-6, activated NF-κB and STAT3, increased apoptosis, and marked oxidative stresses were noted in H. pylori-infected group relevant to tumorigenesis, but these were all significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. cpKimchi extracts imparted significant selective induction of apoptosis only in cancer cells, led to inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation, while no cytotoxicity through significant HO-1 induction in non-transformed gastric cells. In conclusion, daily dietary intake of cpKimchi can be an effective way either to rejuvenate H. pylori-atrophic gastritis or to prevent tumorigenesis supported with the concerted actions of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic mechanisms. PMID:26317548

  19. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Park, Kun Young; Lee, Don Haeng; Yoo, Joon-Hwan; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-10-01

    To prove whether dietary intervention can prevent Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, we developed cancer preventive kimchi (cpKimchi) through special recipe and administered to chronic H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted, gastric tumorigenesis mice model. H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were administered with cpKimchi mixed in drinking water up to 36 weeks. Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively and explored underlying molecular changes to explain efficacies. Cancer preventive actions of anti-inflammation and anti-mutagenesis were compared between standard recipe kimchi (sKimchi) and special recipe cpKimchi in in vitro H. pylori-infected cell model. The erythematous and nodular changes, mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions in the stomach were noted at 24th weeks, but cpKimchi administration significantly ameliorated. After 36th weeks, scattered nodular masses, some ulcers, and thin nodular gastric mucosa were noted in H. pylori-infected mice, whereas these gross lesions were significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. On molecular analysis, significant expressions of COX-2 and IL-6, activated NF-κB and STAT3, increased apoptosis, and marked oxidative stresses were noted in H. pylori-infected group relevant to tumorigenesis, but these were all significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. cpKimchi extracts imparted significant selective induction of apoptosis only in cancer cells, led to inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation, while no cytotoxicity through significant HO-1 induction in non-transformed gastric cells. In conclusion, daily dietary intake of cpKimchi can be an effective way either to rejuvenate H. pylori-atrophic gastritis or to prevent tumorigenesis supported with the concerted actions of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic mechanisms.

  20. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future. PMID:24833852

  1. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication.

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future.

  2. Is There a Role for Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori Therapy?

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria P; Goni, Elisabetta; Di Mario, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The role of probiotics in Helicobacter pylori therapy remains unclear. Lactobacilli can be shown to inhibit H pylori in vitro. Some strains of Lactobacilli may exert specific antimicrobial effects. There is no strong evidence of a benefit on eradication rate when probiotics are added to a regimen. Despite promising results obtained using compounds of L reuteri and S boulardii, high-quality trials are needed to define the role of probiotics as adjuvant therapy. Variables that remain to be studied with L reuteri, currently the most promising strain, include dosage, frequency of administration, administration in relation to meals, and duration of therapy.

  3. Helicobacter pylori Eradication to Eliminate Gastric Cancer: The Japanese Strategy.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Matsushima, Rumiko; Tsuda, Momoko

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for chronic gastritis achieved world-first coverage by the Japanese national health insurance scheme in 2013, making a dramatic decrease of gastric cancer-related deaths more realistic. Combining H pylori eradication therapy with endoscopic surveillance can prevent the development of gastric cancer. Even if it develops, most patients are likely to be diagnosed at an early stage, possibly resulting in fewer gastric cancer deaths. Success with the elimination of gastric cancer in Japan could lead other countries with a high incidence to consider a similar strategy, suggesting the potential for elimination of gastric cancer around the world.

  4. Gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori in gnotobiotic piglets.

    PubMed

    Krakowka, S; Eaton, K A; Rings, D M; Morgan, D R

    1991-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has recently been recognized as a gastric pathogen in humans. Experimental oral inoculation of gnotobiotic piglets with this organism results in gastritis that exhibits many features of the corresponding disease in humans. In piglets the organism is restricted to the gastric microenvironment and persists in that location despite prompt humoral and cellular responses to antigens of H. pylori. The gnotobiotic piglet model is useful for delineation of the role of suspected bacterial virulence factors (i.e., motility and urease production) in gastric colonization and for preclinical determination of the efficacy of various antimicrobial substances.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwari, A; Krishnaveni, D; Venugopal, S; Shashikumar, P; Vidyasagar, A; Jyothy, A

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in developing countries. The incidence of gastric cancer varies from country to country, probably as a result of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. H. pylori infection is considered as a major risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. However, the scenario varies in Asian countries, exhibiting a higher rate of H. pylori infection and low incidence of gastric cancer, which could be attributed to strain-specific virulence factors and host genetic makeup. In this review, we discuss the various virulence factors expressed by this bacterium and their interaction with the host factors, to influence pathogenesis. PMID:21248438

  6. Interventions to Mitigate Emergency Department and Hospital Crowding During an Infectious Respiratory Disease Outbreak: Results from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Morton, Melinda; Beard, Raphaelle; Pines, Jesse M.; Bayram, Jamil D.; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Kelen, Gabor; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Jeng, Kevin; Cole, Gai; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify and prioritize potential Emergency Department (ED) and hospital-based interventions which could mitigate the impact of crowding during patient surge from a widespread infectious respiratory disease outbreak and determine potential data sources that may be useful for triggering decisions to implement these high priority interventions. Design: Expert panel utilizing Nominal Group Technique to identify and prioritize interventions, and in addition, determine appropriate “triggers” for implementation of the high priority interventions in the context of four different infectious respiratory disease scenarios that vary by patient volumes (high versus low) and illness severity (high versus low). Setting: One day in-person conference held November, 2011. Participants: Regional and national experts representing the fields of public health, disease surveillance, clinical medicine, ED operations, and hospital operations. Main Outcome Measure: Prioritized list of potential interventions to reduce ED and hospital crowding, respectively. In addition, we created a prioritized list of potential data sources which could be useful to trigger interventions. Results: High priority interventions to mitigate ED surge included standardizing admission and discharge criteria and instituting infection control measures. To mitigate hospital crowding, panelists prioritized mandatory vaccination and an algorithm for antiviral use. Data sources identified for triggering implementation of these interventions were most commonly ED and hospital utilization metrics. Conclusions: We developed a prioritized list of potentially useful interventions to mitigate ED and hospital crowding in various outbreak scenarios. The data sources identified to “trigger” the implementation of these high priority interventions consist mainly of sources available at the local, institutional level. PMID:23856917

  7. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. PMID:27531531

  8. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection.

  9. Esophageal Helicobacter pylori colonization aggravates esophageal injury caused by reflux

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yun-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Hong; Dai, Yun; Teng, Gui-Gen; Wang, Shu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate esophageal Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization on esophageal injury caused by reflux and the related mechanisms. METHODS: An esophagitis model, with acid and bile reflux, was surgically produced in male rats. The rats were randomly divided into either: (1) an esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) group; (2) an EGDA with H. pylori infection group; (3) a pseudo-operation with H. pylori infection group; or (4) a pseudo-operation group. All rats were kept for 36 wk. Based on the location of H. pylori colonization, the EGDA rats with H. pylori infection were subdivided into those with concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization or those with only gastric H. pylori colonization. The esophageal injuries were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The expressions of CDX2 and MUC2 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 antigen expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of cyclin D1, c-Myc, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method. RESULTS: Esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) developed in rats that underwent EGDA. When comparing rats with EGDA and concomitant esophageal H. pylori colonization to EGDA-only rats, the severity of injury (87.9 ± 5.2 vs 77.2 ± 8.6, macroscopically, 92.5 ± 8.0 vs 83.8 ± 5.5, microscopically, both P < 0.05) and the incidences of BE (80.0% vs 33.3%, P = 0.055) and EAC (60.0% vs 11.1%, P < 0.05) were increased. These increases were associated with upregulation of CDX2 and MUC2 mRNA (10.1 ± 5.4 vs 3.0 ± 2.9, 8.4 ± 4.6 vs 2.0 ± 3.2, respectively, Ps < 0.01) and protein (8.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.1, 7.3 ± 4.0 vs 1.8 ± 2.7, respectively, all P < 0.05). The expression of Ki-67 (8.9 ± 0.7 vs 6.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) and the presence of apoptotic cells (8.3 ± 1.1 vs 5.3 ± 1.7, P < 0.01) were also increased

  10. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

  11. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L

    2015-03-28

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( < 10 years). Here, intake of dietary fibre increased (β = 2·1 g/d, 95 % CI 0·5, 3·6, P= 0·01). Intake of protein tended to increase (β = 0·6 E%, 95 % CI -0·01, 1·2, P= 0·05), while intake of fat (β = -1·7 E%, 95 % CI -3·8, 0·3, P= 0·09) and SFA (β = -0·9, 95 % CI -2·0, 0·2, P= 0·10) tended to decrease. Also, a significant intervention effect was observed on the intake of SFA among children of mothers with a long education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging. PMID:25744160

  12. The Association of Age and Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zizhong; Han, Feng; Meng, Fei; Tu, Miaoying; Yang, Ningmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is steadily increasing worldwide, resulting in the low efficiency of the current therapeutic approaches for eradication. In this study, we investigated the relationship between antibiotic resistances, the year of sample collection, and the ages of the infected individuals. A total of 29,034 gastric mucosa biopsy samples were randomly collected from January 1, 2009 to December 9, 2014 in Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, China. An antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined using an agar-dilution method. The statistical significance was tested using the chi-squared (χ2) test. A total of 9687 strains were isolated. The resistance rate to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole were 17.76%, 19.66%, and 95.5%, respectively. Resistance was rare against amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone. The metronidazole resistance rate stayed at a consistently high level. In contrast, the resistance rates of clarithromycin and levofloxacin increased rapidly from 2009 to 2011, gradually decreased from 2012 to 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Although patients ages 31 to 50 and 71 to 80 years had lower infection rates of H pylori, they also had higher resistance rates to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. The highest antibiotic resistance rate was observed in patients’ ages 71 to 80 years old. Younger patients (below 30 years old) had a lower resistance to levofloxacin. Patients’ ages 51 to 60 years old may thus represent an important category for the future study of H pylori infection. Age plays a key element in H pylori resistance to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. It is therefore necessary to consider individualized therapy for the optimized treatment of H pylori-infected patients. PMID:26937912

  13. Results of the Chronic Heart Failure Intervention to Improve MEdication Adherence (CHIME) Study: A Randomized Intervention in High-Risk Patients

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Bradi B.; Ekman, Inger; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Sawyer, Tenita; Bowers, Margaret; DeWald, Tracy; Zhao, Yanfang; Levy, Janet; Bosworth, Hayden B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to evidence-based medications in heart failure (HF) is a major cause of avoidable hospitalizations, disability, and death. To test the feasibility of improving medication adherence, we performed a randomized proof-of-concept study of a self-management intervention in high-risk patients with HF. Methods Patients with HF who screened positively for poor adherence (<6 Morisky Medication Adherence Scale 8-item) were randomized to either the intervention or attention control group. In the intervention group (n=44), a nurse conducted self-management training prior to discharge that focused on identification of medication goals, facilitation of medication-symptom associations, and use of a symptom-response plan. The attention control group (n=42) received usual care; both groups received follow-up calls at 1 week. However, the content of follow-up calls for the attention control group was unrelated to HF medications or symptoms. General linear mixed models were used to evaluate the magnitude of change in adherence and symptom-related events at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up clinic visits. Efficacy was measured as improved medication adherence using nurse-assessed pill counts at each time point. Results Pooled over all time points, patients in the intervention group were more likely to be adherent to medications compared with patients in the attention control group (odds ratio [OR] 3.92, t=3.51, p=0.0007). Conclusions A nurse-delivered, self-care intervention improved medication adherence in patients with advanced HF. Further work is needed to examine whether this intervention can be sustained to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25819861

  14. Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA promotes tumorigenesis of gastric cancer via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yong, Xin; Tang, Bo; Li, Bo-Sheng; Xie, Rui; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Luo, Gang; Qin, Yong; Dong, Hui; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is strongly associated with the development of gastric diseases but also with several extragastric diseases. The clinical outcomes caused by H. pylori infection are considered to be associated with a complex combination of host susceptibility, environmental factors and bacterial isolates. Infections involving H. pylori strains that possess the virulence factor CagA have a worse clinical outcome than those involving CagA-negative strains. It is remarkable that CagA-positive H. pylori increase the risk for gastric cancer over the risk associated with H. pylori infection alone. CagA behaves as a bacterial oncoprotein playing a key role in H. pylori-induced gastric cancer. Activation of oncogenic signaling pathways and inactivation of tumor suppressor pathways are two crucial events in the development of gastric cancer. CagA shows the ability to affect the expression or function of vital protein in oncogenic or tumor suppressor signaling pathways via several molecular mechanisms, such as direct binding or interaction, phosphorylation of vital signaling proteins and methylation of tumor suppressor genes. As a result, CagA continuously dysregulates of these signaling pathways and promotes tumorigenesis. Recent research has enriched our understanding of how CagA effects on these signaling pathways. This review summarizes the results of the most relevant studies, discusses the complex molecular mechanism involved and attempts to delineate the entire signaling pathway.

  15. Floating in situ gelling system of acetohydroxamic acid for clearance of H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Rajinikanth, Paruvathanahalli Siddalingam; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a novel floating in situ gel system for sustained drug delivery of acetohydroxamic acid (FIGA) for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The FIGA was prepared by dissolving the different concentration of gellan in deionized water at 80 degrees C. Different concentration of drug and calcium carbonate as floating agents were dispersed with stirring. In vitro results revealed that in situ gelling formulation forms rigid gels instantaneously and floated for longed period time of time in SGF pH 1.2. The formulation parameters, such as concentration of polymer, concentration of calcium carbonate, and concentration of drug, affected the in vitro drug release characteristic significantly. Absence of drug-polymer interaction was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The in vivo H. pylori clearance efficacy of prepared FIGA in reference to acetohydroxamic acid suspension following repeated oral administration to H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils was examined by microbial culture method. FIGA showed a significant anti-H. pylori effect in the in vivo gerbil model. It was noted that the required amount of acetohydroxamic acid for eradication of H. pylori was very less in FIGA than in the corresponding acetohydroxamic acid suspension. From the above results, it was concluded that the floating in situ gelling system has feasibility for forming rigid gels in the stomach and eradicated H. pylori from the gastrointestinal tract more effectively than acetohydroxamic acid suspension because of the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time of the formulation. PMID:18568907

  16. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque: a comparison of different PCR primer sets.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Haller, B; Schmid, R M; Adler, G; Bode, G

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to compare different primer sets for PCR analysis of H. pylori in the same series of 40 dental plaque samples. Three pairs of primers, HPU1/HPU2, HP1/HP2, and EHC-U/EHC-L, directed to the urease A gene, 16S rRNA gene, or 860-bp DNA of H. pylori, respectively, were used. Our results demonstrate that EHC-L/EHC-U were more specific and sensitive for H. pylori added to saliva or dental plaque than HPU1/HPU2 and HP1/HP2. The detection rates for H. pylori DNA in dental plaque samples from randomly selected adult patients from the Dental Clinic of the University of Ulm were 26.5% (9/34) for HPU1/HPU2, 78.9% (30/38) for HP1/HP2, and 100% (40/40) for EHC-U/EHC-L (P < 0.001). Nested PCR using primers directed to the 860-bp DNA of H. pylori further confirmed the presence of H. pylori DNA (40/40) in all these samples. Our results indicate that primers EHC-U/EHC-L are to be recommended for PCR detection of H. pylori in the oral cavity.

  17. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and immunostimulatory effect of extracts from Byrsonima crassa Nied. (Malpighiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bonacorsi, Cibele; Raddi, Maria Stella G; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Sannomiya, Miriam; Vilegas, Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Background Several in vitro studies have looked at the effect of medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Regardless of the popular use of Byrsonima crassa (B. crassa) as antiemetic, diuretic, febrifuge, to treat diarrhea, gastritis and ulcers, there is no data on its effects against H. pylori. In this study, we evaluated the anti-H. pylori of B. crassa leaves extracts and its effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates induction by murine peritoneal macrophages. Methods The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by broth microdilution method and the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Results The methanolic (MeOH) and chloroformic (CHCl3) extracts inhibit, in vitro, the growth of H. pylori with MIC value of 1024 μg/ml. The MeOH extract induced the production H2O2 and NO, but CHCl3 extract only NO. Conclusion Based in our results, B. crassa can be considered a source of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity, but its use should be done with caution in treatment of the gastritis and peptic ulcers, since the reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediates are involved in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal injury induced by ulcerogenic agents and H. pylori infections. PMID:19149866

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Zara, Tuba; Engin, Burhan; Serdaroğlu, Server; Tüzün, Yalçin; Yilmaz, Erkan; Eren, Bülent

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that has been linked to peptic ulcer disease, gastric lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. Apart from its well-demonstrated role in gastroduodenal diseases, some authors have suggested a potential role of Helicobacter pylori infection in several extra-intestinal pathologies including haematological, cardiovascular, neurological, metabolic, autoimmune, and dermatological diseases. Some studies suggest an association between Helicobacter pylori infection and skin diseases such as chronic idiopathic urticaria and rosacea. There have also been few case reports documenting association between Helicobacter pylori and psoriasis vulgaris, Behçet's disease, alopecia areata, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and Sweet's syndrome. However, more systematic studies are required to clarify the proposed association between Helicobacter pylori and skin diseases; most of the studies do not show relevant relationships of these diseases with Helicobacter pylori infections. This review discusses skin diseases that are believed to be associated with Helicobacter pylori.

  19. Helicobacter pylori: the mouth, stomach, and gut axis.

    PubMed

    Oshowo, A; Gillam, D; Botha, A; Tunio, M; Holton, J; Boulos, P; Hobsley, M

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the natural reservoir and route of transmission of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two hundred eight (208) dyspeptic patients (114 males, 94 females; peak age of cohort, 50-59.9) were recruited. Specimens were collected from saliva, supra- and subgingival dental plaque, tongue scrapings, and oropharyngeal swabs. At subsequent endoscopy, gastric antral biopsy was performed for the rapid urease test (RUT), microbiological culture, and, in some patients, histology. Gastric juice samples were aspirated, and in 50 patients duodenal aspirate was collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers targeted to the 16S rRNA sequence of H. pylori was also employed for each of the specimens. In those patients where H. pylori was detected from multiple sites (dental plaque, gastric juice, gastric biopsy, and duodenal aspirate), restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III was performed to determine if they were epidemiologically linked. The results indicated that 15/208 patients (7%) tested positively for H. pylori by PCR in dental plaque; only 2 samples were positive by culture. In none of the other oral sites sampled was H. pylori detected by any test used in the study. Gastric juice and gastric biopsy specimens from 36/ 208 patients (17%) and 114/208 patients (55%), respectively, were positive by PCR. Duodenal aspirate from 6/50 patients (12%) also tested positively by PCR. All specimens tested by restriction endonuclease digestion with Hae III (15/15 patients) were positive in both antral biopsy and gastric juice specimens, as well as 5 specimens from the duodenal aspirate. Four of the dental plaque strains had restriction patterns similar to those of the stomach and duodenal sites, providing evidence that these sites were infected with the same strain of H. pylori. In conclusion, the results suggest that H. pylori selects the gastric mucosa as its preferred site. The detection in dental plaque could indicate that the oral cavity

  20. Interventions designed to prevent adverse programming outcomes resulting from exposure to maternal obesity during development

    PubMed Central

    Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928

  1. Family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: the results of a controlled comparison of two family interventions.

    PubMed

    Eisler, I; Dare, C; Hodes, M; Russell, G; Dodge, E; Le Grange, D

    2000-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomised treatment trial of two forms of outpatient family intervention for anorexia nervosa. Forty adolescent patients with anorexia nervosa were randomly assigned to "conjoint family therapy" (CFT) or to "separated family therapy" (SFT) using a stratified design controlling for levels of critical comments using the Expressed Emotion index. The design required therapists to undertake both forms of treatment and the distinctiveness of the two therapies was ensured by separate supervisors conducting live supervision of the treatments. Measures were undertaken on admission to the study, at 3 months, at 6 months and at the end of treatment. Considerable improvement in nutritional and psychological state occurred across both treatment groups. On global measure of outcome, the two forms of therapy were associated with equivalent end of treatment results. However, for those patients with high levels of maternal criticism towards the patient, the SFT was shown to be superior to the CFT. When individual status measures were explored, there were further differences between the treatments. Symptomatic change was more marked in the SFT whereas there was considerably more psychological change in the CFT group. There were significant changes in family measures of Expressed Emotion. Critical comments between parents and patient were significantly reduced and that between parents was also diminished. Warmth between parents increased.

  2. Single-session interventions for problem gambling may be as effective as longer treatments: Results of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Toneatto, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Empirically supported treatments for problem gambling tend to be multimodal combining cognitive, behavior and motivational interventions. Since problem gamblers often prefer briefer treatments it is important that interventions adopt strategies that are optimally effective. In this study, 99 community-recruited problem gamblers (74% male, mean age: 47.5 years) were randomized to one of four treatments: six sessions of cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and motivational therapy or a single-session intervention. The sample was followed up for 12 months post-treatment. In both the Intent-to-Treat and Completer statistical analyses, no significant group differences on key gambling variables (i.e., frequency, expenditures, severity) were found. All four treatments showed significant improvement as a result of treatment that endured throughout the follow-up period. These results, although preliminary, suggest that very brief, single-session interventions may be as effective as longer treatments.

  3. A community-level HIV prevention intervention for inner-city women: results of the women and infants demonstration projects.

    PubMed Central

    Lauby, J L; Smith, P J; Stark, M; Person, B; Adams, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of a multisite community-level HIV prevention intervention on women's condom-use behaviors. METHODS: The theory-based behavioral intervention was implemented with low-income, primarily African American women in 4 urban communities. It was evaluated with data from pre- and postintervention cross-sectional surveys in matched intervention and comparison communities. RESULTS: At baseline, 68% of the women had no intention of using condoms with their main partners and 70% were not using condoms consistently with other partners. After 2 years of intervention activities, increases in rates of talking with main partners about condoms were significantly larger in intervention communities than in comparison communities (P = .03). Intervention communities also had significant increases in the proportion of women who had tried to get their main partners to use condoms (P = .01). The trends for condom use with other partners were similar but nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Many women at risk for HIV infection are still not using condoms. Community-level interventions may be an effective way to reach large numbers of women and change their condom-use behaviors, particularly their behaviors with regard to communication with main sex partners. PMID:10667182

  4. Mediators of behavior change resulting from a sexual risk reduction intervention for STI patients, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Garcia, Randi L; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Simbayi, Leickness C

    2015-04-01

    Theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions are often demonstrated effective, but few studies have examined the mechanisms that mediate their behavior changes. In addition, critical contextual factors, such as alcohol use, are often not accounted for by social cognitive theories and may add to the explanatory value of intervention effects. The purpose of this study is to examine the underlying mechanisms driving condom use following a brief sexual risk reduction intervention grounded in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of behavior change. We examined IMB theoretical constructs and alcohol-related contextual factors as potential mediators in separate models. Patients (n = 617) from an STI clinic in Cape Town, South Africa were randomly assigned to either a brief risk reduction intervention or an education-only control condition. We assessed IMB, and alcohol-related variables at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and modeled IMB constructs and alcohol-related factors as mediators of behavior change. Results of growth-curve mediational modeling showed that 1 year after counseling, the intervention indirectly affected sexual risk behavior through alcohol-related constructs, but not IMB constructs. Alcohol use and related factors play critical roles in explaining HIV and STI risk reduction intervention effects. Interventions that directly address alcohol use as a factor in sexual risk behavior and behavior change should be the focus of future research.

  5. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Taner; Bajin, Münir Demir; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Ozer, Serdar; Sözen, Tevfik

    2014-07-21

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs when gastric contents pass the upper esophageal sphincter, causing symptoms such as hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, excess throat mucus, and globus. The pattern of reflux is different in LPR and gastroesophageal reflux. LPR usually occurs during the daytime in the upright position whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease more often occurs in the supine position at night-time or during sleep. Ambulatory 24-h double pH-probe monitoring is the gold standard diagnostic tool for LPR. Acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor on a long-term basis is the mainstay of treatment. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is found in many sites including laryngeal mucosa and interarytenoid region. In this paper, we aim to present the relationship between LPR and H. pylori and review the current literature. PMID:25083069

  6. How to Interpret Thyroid Biopsy Results: A Three-Year Retrospective Interventional Radiology Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheimer, Jason D. Kasuganti, Deepa; Nayar, Ritu; Chrisman, Howard B.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Nemcek, Albert A.; Ryu, Robert K.

    2010-08-15

    Results of thyroid biopsy determine whether thyroid nodule resection is appropriate and the extent of thyroid surgery. At our institution we use 20/22-gauge core biopsy (CBx) in conjunction with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) to decrease the number of passes and improve adequacy. Occasionally, both ultrasound (US)-guided FNA and CBx yield unsatisfactory specimens. To justify clinical recommendations for these unsatisfactory thyroid biopsies, we compare rates of malignancy at surgical resection for unsatisfactory biopsy results against definitive biopsy results. We retrospectively reviewed a database of 1979 patients who had a total of 2677 FNA and 663 CBx performed by experienced interventional radiologists under US guidance from 2003 to 2006 at a tertiary-care academic center. In 451 patients who had surgery following biopsy, Fisher's exact test was used to compare surgical malignancy rates between unsatisfactory and malignant biopsy cohorts as well as between unsatisfactory and benign biopsy cohorts. We defined statistical significance at P = 0.05. We reported an overall unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy rate of 3.7% (100/2677). A statistically significant higher rate of surgically proven malignancies was found in malignant biopsy patients compared to unsatisfactory biopsy patients (P = 0.0001). The incidence of surgically proven malignancy in unsatisfactory biopsy patients was not significantly different from that in benign biopsy patients (P = 0.8625). In conclusion, an extremely low incidence of malignancy was associated with both benign and unsatisfactory thyroid biopsy results. The difference in incidence between these two groups was not statistically significant. Therefore, patients with unsatisfactory biopsy specimens can be reassured and counseled accordingly.

  7. Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice and serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Selim A; Tekin, Isak Ozel; Numanoglu, Gamze; Borazan, Ali; Ustundag, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of gastroduodenal diseases, such as chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. It has been shown that eosinophils increase in the stomach in H. pylori infection. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils. However, there are no sufficient data about the role of ECP in H. pylori infection and its effect on ulcer development. In this study we investigated the gastric eosinophilic infiltration, gastric juice and serum ECP levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four H. pylori-positive and 20 H. pylori-negative patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy after admitting with dyspeptic complaints were enrolled in the study. Twenty-one of the H. pylori-positive patients had gastric ulcer while 23 patients had none. During endoscopy, multiple gastric biopsies and juices were taken. In gastric biopsies, H. pylori and eosinophilic infiltration were assessed. Additionally, gastric juice and serum ECP levels were measured. RESULTS: Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios in the H. pylori-positive group were greater than in the H. pylori-negative group (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference regarding serum ECP levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). When H. pylori-positive patients were compared with regard to gastric ulcer presence, however, there was no significant difference in gastric eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, serum ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that eosinophils and eosinophil-released ECP may contribute to inflammatory changes seen in chronic gastritis, whereas there is no proof that they play a role in ulcer development. PMID:15770055

  8. A Comparison in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Subjects with Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Shah Aboei, Mohammad; Naghsh, Narges; Hajisadeghi, Samira; Ajami, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the microorganisms isolated from the oral environment brings up the question of whether oral cavity acts as a reservoir for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) as an infectious disease and healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and methods. Periodontal examination was performed for all participants. Two sterilized paper points were inserted to the maximum depth of the periodontal pockets of selected teeth. The presence of H. pylori was determined by PCR. In the CP group, the severity of disease was defined as moderate or severe. Further, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in GCF of each category, and the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in GCF and periodontitis were determined. Results. There was no statistically significant association between CP and the presence of H. pylori in the GCF (P = 0.62), there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and gender of the subjects (P = 0.28 in CP group and P = 0.25 in control group), and there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and severity of periodontitis (P = 0.20). Conclusion. Oral cavity acts as a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results do not show that H. pylori is involved in periodontal disease. PMID:24578823

  9. High Dose Ilaprazole/Amoxicillin as First-Line Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) following standard triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. This study has determined whether high dose dual therapy (PPI and amoxicillin) is adequate for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Methods. This was an open-labeled study of H. pylori infected treatment-naive patients. Subjects received dual therapy for 14 days: ilaprazole 40 mg tablets given twice a day and amoxicillin 750 mg tablets given 4 times a day. At the end of the therapy, the subjects visited the clinic to confirm compliance and monitor for any side effects. Subjects visited again after 4–6 weeks to confirm H. pylori status through a urea breath test. Results. The cure rate of H. pylori was 79.3% (23 of 29) (95% confidence interval: 61.6–90.2) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 82.1% (23 of 28) in the per-protocol analysis. Compliance rates were high (96.6%) and side effects were minimal and tolerable. Conclusion. A high dose of ilaprazole + amoxicillin was ineffective as the first-line therapy for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Future studies should focus on intragastric pH measurements and assess amoxicillin resistance. PMID:27413365

  10. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization. PMID:27688750

  11. Helicobacter pylori in First Nations and recent immigrant populations in Canada.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicola; Chiba, Naoki; Fallone, Carlo; Thompson, Alan; Hunt, Richard; Jacobson, Kevan; Goodman, Karen

    2012-02-01

    The diminishing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among most segments of the Canadian population has led to changes in the etiologies and patterns of associated upper gastrointestinal diseases, including fewer peptic ulcers and their complications. Canadian Aboriginals and recent immigrants are among populations in which the prevalence of H pylori infection remains high and, therefore, the health risks imposed by H pylori remain a significant concern. Population-based strategies for H pylori eradication in groups with a low prevalence of infection are unlikely to be cost effective, but such measures are attractive in groups in which the prevalence rates of infection remain substantial. In addition to a lower prevalence of peptic ulcers and dyspepsia, the public health value of eradication may be particularly important if this leads to a reduction in the prevalence of gastric cancer in high prevalence groups. Therefore The Canadian Helicobacter Study Group held a conference that brought together experts in the field to address these issues, the results of which are reviewed in the present article. Canadians with the highest prevalence of H pylori infection are an appropriate focus for considering the health advantages of eradicating persistent infection. In Canadian communities with a high prevalence of both H pylori and gastric cancer, there remains an opportunity to test the hypothesis that H pylori infection is a treatable risk factor for malignancy.

  12. Genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lee, Che-Hsin; He, Zih Sian; Tseng, Guan-Chin

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors, such as the fucose receptor, and produces the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces inflammatory responses and modulates the cell-cell junction integrity of the gastric epithelium. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agents was needed to complete the eradication of H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In the present study, we combined fucose-conjugated chitosan and genipin-cross-linking technologies in preparing multifunctional genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles to encapsulate amoxicillin of targeting and directly make contact with the region of microorganism on the gastric epithelium. The results show that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release at gastric acids and then released amoxicillin in an H. pylori survival situation to inhibit H. pylori growth and reduce disruption of the cell-cell junction protein in areas of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, with amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles, a more complete H. pylori clearance effect was observed, and H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in an infected animal model was effectively reduced. PMID:23499480

  13. Global analysis of the human gastric epithelial transcriptome altered by Helicobacter pylori eradication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, M B; Sabo, E; Meitner, P A; Kim, S S; Cho, Y; Kim, H K; Tavares, R; Moss, S F

    2006-01-01

    Objective The transcriptional profile of gastric epithelial cell lines cocultured with Helicobacter pylori and the global gene expression of whole gastric mucosa has been described previously. We aimed to overcome limitations of previous studies by determining the effects of H pylori eradication on the transcriptome of purified human gastric epithelium using each patient as their own control. Design Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to extract mRNA from paraffin‐embedded antral epithelium from 10 patients with peptic ulcer disease, before and after H pylori eradication. mRNA was reverse transcribed and applied on to Affymetrix cDNA microarray chips customised for formalin‐fixed tissue. Differentially expressed genes were identified and a subset validated by real‐time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 13 817 transcripts decreased and 9680 increased after H pylori eradication. Applying cut‐off criteria (p<0.02, fold‐change threshold 2.5) reduced the sample to 98 differentially expressed genes. Genes detected included those previously implicated in H pylori pathophysiology such as interleukin 8, chemokine ligand 3, β defensin and somatostatin, as well as novel genes such as GDDR (TFIZ1), chemokine receptors 7 and 8, and gastrokine. Conclusions LCM of archival specimens has enabled the identification of gastric epithelial genes whose expression is considerably altered after H pylori eradication. This study has confirmed the presence of genes previously implicated in the pathogenesis of H pylori, as well as highlighted novel candidates for further investigation. PMID:16641130

  14. Molecular detection and corelation of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and gastric biopsies of dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T Sreenivasa; Reddy, M Sesha; Dhanapal, Raghu; Raj Kumar, N Govind; Neeladri Raju, PV; Saraswathi, TR

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic organism, which colonizes in the gastric mucosa. Its role in etiology and development of acute and chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer diseases is scientifically proved. Oral cavity especially supragingival, subgingival plaque and so forth simulate the same microaerophilic environment favorable for the growth of this bacterium. Aim: Detection of H. pylori simultaneously in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa of patients suffering from gastric pathologies. Objectives: To detect H. pylori in the oral cavity and gastric mucosa using endoscopy, urease test and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (urease A gene). Determining its association and corelation with patient demographics, oral hygiene maintenance and periodontal disease status. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic examination, oral findings oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and community periodontal index and treatment needs (CPITN) indices were recorded. Antral biopsies and supragingival plaque samples were taken from 56 dyspeptic adult patients. The collected samples were subjected to histological examination, urease broth test and urease A gene amplification using real-time PCR. Result: H. pylori was detected in the supragingival plaque of individuals with H. pylori-induced gastric diseases using rapid urease test and real-time PCR analysis. Occurrence of same strain of H. pylori simultaneously in plaque and gastric mucosa was observed. Positive correlation was obtained between the collected indices and quantity of H. pylori colonization. PMID:24959032

  15. Natural products and food components with anti-Helicobacter pylori activities

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Trang, Vu Thu; Morimoto, Norihito; Nishida, Yoshie; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes in over half of the world’s population. H. pylori that establishes life-long infection in the stomach is definitely associated with gastro-duodenal diseases and a wide variety of non-gastrointestinal tract conditions such as immune thrombocytopenia. Triple therapy which consists of a proton pump inhibitor and combinations of two antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarithromycin or amoxicillin, metronidazol) is commonly used for H. pylori eradication. Recently, the occurrence of drug-resistant H. pylori and the adverse effect of antibiotics have severely weakened eradication therapy. Generally antibiotics induce the disturbance of human gastrointestinal microflora. Furthermore, there are inappropriate cases of triple therapy such as allergy to antibiotics, severe complications (liver and/or kidney dysfunction), the aged and people who reject the triple therapy. These prompt us to seek alterative agents instead of antibiotics and to develop more effective and safe therapy with these agents. The combination of these agents actually may result in lower a dose of antibiotics. There are many reports world-wide that non-antibiotic substances from natural products potentially have an anti-H. pylori agent. We briefly review the constituents derived from nature that fight against H. pylori in the literature with our studies. PMID:25083070

  16. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kathryn P; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization. PMID:27688750

  17. Effect of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Apoptosis in AGS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Yi; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Huang, Meng-Chuan; Hu, Huang-Ming; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Lu, Chien-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Kuo, Fu-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products are wildly used in human life. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is an essential additive in plastic manufacturing and is used as plasticizer for many products including plastic food packaging. DEHP is a teratogenic compound and can cause potent reproductive toxicity. DEHP can also cause liver damage, peroxisome proliferation, and carcinogenesis. DEHP is also strongly associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer; however, the underlying effect and mechanism of DEHP on the gastrointestinal tract are not entirely clear. The oral infection route of H. pylori parallels the major ingestion route of DEHP into the human body. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of DEHP and H. pylori exposure on the human gastric epithelial cell line, AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma). The viability of the AGS cell line was significantly lower in 80 μM-DEHP and H. pylori (MOI = 100 : 1) coexposure than DEHP or H. pylori alone. DEHP and H. pylori coexposure also induced caspase-3 activation, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and DNA fragmentation in AGS cells. These results indicate that DEHP can enhance H. pylori cytotoxicity and induce gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. Therefore, it is possible that DEHP and H. pylori coexposure might enhance the disruption of the gastric mucosa integrity and potentially promote the pathogenesis of gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:24454344

  18. Gastritis associated with infection by Helicobacter pylori: comparative pathology in humans and swine.

    PubMed

    Bertram, T A; Krakowka, S; Morgan, D R

    1991-01-01

    Infection of humans with Helicobacter pylori elicits a multifocal, active, chronic inflammatory response and moderate to severe atrophy of the gastric mucosa. Currently, piglets are the only reported animal model of H. pylori infection. Our objective was to compare the inflammatory response induced in humans with that induced in piglets by H. pylori infection. Samples of gastric mucosa were obtained from H. pylori-infected and uninfected piglets and humans. The composition of the inflammatory cell infiltrate and mucosal atrophy were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis of the biopsied gastric tissue. Infection with H. pylori resulted in a three-fold increase in the volume of inflammatory cells in the gastric mucosa of both humans and piglets. In H. pylori-infected humans, neutrophils composed the bulk of the cellular infiltrate; in piglets, the primary inflammatory cell was the lymphocyte. Both humans and piglets had severe epithelial cell vacuolation and significant reduction of the gastric mucosal surface area. We concluded that pathologic processes induced by infection with H. pylori, which include relatively severe mucosal inflammation, mucosal atrophy, and epithelial vacuolation, are similar in piglets and humans but that the primary inflammatory cell types are distinctly different in the two species.

  19. Genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lee, Che-Hsin; He, Zih Sian; Tseng, Guan-Chin

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that recognizes specific carbohydrate receptors, such as the fucose receptor, and produces the vacuolating cytotoxin, which induces inflammatory responses and modulates the cell-cell junction integrity of the gastric epithelium. The clinical applicability of topical antimicrobial agents was needed to complete the eradication of H. pylori in the infected fundal area. In the present study, we combined fucose-conjugated chitosan and genipin-cross-linking technologies in preparing multifunctional genipin-cross-linked fucose-chitosan/heparin nanoparticles to encapsulate amoxicillin of targeting and directly make contact with the region of microorganism on the gastric epithelium. The results show that the nanoparticles effectively reduced drug release at gastric acids and then released amoxicillin in an H. pylori survival situation to inhibit H. pylori growth and reduce disruption of the cell-cell junction protein in areas of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, with amoxicillin-loaded nanoparticles, a more complete H. pylori clearance effect was observed, and H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in an infected animal model was effectively reduced.

  20. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kathryn P; Gaddy, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

  1. Nutrition and Helicobacter pylori: Host Diet and Nutritional Immunity Influence Bacterial Virulence and Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of greater than 50% of the world's human population making it arguably one of the most successful bacterial pathogens. Chronic H. pylori colonization results in gastritis in nearly all patients; however in a subset of people, persistent infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk for more severe disease outcomes including B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Research aimed at elucidating determinants that mediate disease progression has revealed genetic differences in both humans and H. pylori which increase the risk for developing gastric cancer. Furthermore, host diet and nutrition status have been shown to influence H. pylori-associated disease outcomes. In this review we will discuss how H. pylori is able to create a replicative niche within the hostile host environment by subverting and modifying the host-generated immune response as well as successfully competing for limited nutrients such as transition metals by deploying an arsenal of metal acquisition proteins and virulence factors. Lastly, we will discuss how micronutrient availability or alterations in the gastric microbiome may exacerbate negative disease outcomes associated with H. pylori colonization.

  2. In vivo treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection with liposomal linolenic acid reduces colonization and ameliorates inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Obonyo, Marygorret; Zhang, Liangfang

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a vast prevalence and strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Because of the rapid emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics, current treatment regimens show a rapid decline of their eradication rates. Clearly, novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori are urgently needed. Here, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The LipoLLA formulation with a size of ∼100 nm was prone to fusion with bacterial membrane, thereby directly releasing a high dose of linolenic acids into the bacterial membrane. LipoLLA penetrated the mucus layer of mouse stomach, and a significant portion of the administered LipoLLA was retained in the stomach lining up to 24 h after the oral administration. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated because of the H. pylori infection. Finally, a toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this study indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:25422427

  3. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M) systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations. PMID:19737407

  4. Attempts to isolate Helicobacter from cattle and survival of Helicobacter pylori in beef products.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, T H; Bauer, N; Lucia, L M; Acuff, G R

    2000-02-01

    This study focused on important factors related to the potential of cattle and beef products to transmit Helicobacter pylori to humans. Mucosal samples were collected from the rumen and abomasum of 105 cattle and were plated on a selective medium to isolate Helicobacter spp.; none of the samples examined contained these bacteria. Studies were also conducted to determine how long H. pylori survives in refrigerated or frozen ground beef; results indicated that the microorganism dies rapidly in ground beef, whether refrigerated or frozen. Packaging in vacuum or air had little effect on survival of the organism. The number of H. pylori decreased in refrigerated samples from 3.3 log10 CFU/g on day 0 to 1.4 log10 CFU/g on day 6. H. pylori died even more rapidly when frozen, decreasing from 3.3 log10 CFU/g on day 0 to 0.5 log10 CFU/g on day 6. Retail beef cuts (n = 20) were also examined for the presence of H. pylori by direct plating on a selective medium and by incubation in an enriched broth followed by plating on a selective medium. None of the retail samples contained H. pylori. This research suggests that transmission of H. pylori from beef and beef products is not a primary factor in the high prevalence of this bacterium in humans. PMID:10678420

  5. Milk of livestock as a possible transmission route of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Ramin; Souod, Negar; Momtaz, Hassan; Dabiri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current investigation aimed to evaluate ruminant raw milk as a reservoir source of Helicobacter pylori and analyze the diversity of cagA and vacA genotypes as H. pylori virulence factors to find any relationship between these genotypes in human and animal H. pylori strains. Background: The way of transmission of Helicobacter pylori as one of the most controversial bacteria in the world, which colonizes the human gastric tissue and is responsible for several gastric diseases is still unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori is feasible, but is not proven in ruminant reservoirs. Methods: Overall 210 cows, sheep, goats, camels and buffalos’ raw milk samples and 100 human gastric biopsies were collected in this survey. We applied PCR assays to identify H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results: Totally 12(16%) cow, 8(13.79%) sheep, 2 (4.76%) goat, 2(13.33%), buffalo 4(20%) and 82 (82%) of human specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive. Among which s1a/m2 genotype was more frequent in isolated H. pylori strains and statistically significant between strains. Based on statistical analyses the s1b allele of sheep had a significant association with human strains. Conclusion: The current survey was prompted by our previous report. According to both results we can conclude that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and transmit this bacterium to human via its milk. Extended assessments in other geographical regions and other animals are recommended. PMID:26171135

  6. Is Helicobacter pylori resident or transient in the human oral cavity?

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmad, A; Kürschner, A; Weckesser, S; Wittmer, A; Rauberger, H; Jakob, T; Hellwig, E; Kist, M; Waidner, B

    2012-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of at least half of the world's human population. The role of the oral cavity in this colonization is not clear and there are, to date, no comprehensive data that clearly demonstrate the isolation of this bacterium from the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori in the oral cavity of 15 patients who tested positive for H. pylori. A comprehensive dental examination of all patients was conducted. Samples were taken from supragingival and subgingival plaque, saliva, periapical exudates and tongue swabs. All samples were taken before the application of antibiotics. A total of 163 oral samples were investigated by PCR using two different H. pylori-specific primer pairs. A PCR inhibition control using a modified plasmid was always included for the most specific primer pair. In addition, a culture technique was used to confirm PCR results. Despite a PCR detection limit of 10(2) bacteria ml(-1), out of 14 patients, H. pylori could not be detected in any of the samples taken. In one patient, H. pylori-positive PCR signals were obtained in two samples using only one primer pair. H. pylori could not be cultivated from these two PCR-positive samples; therefore, no correlation to oral colonization status could be established. This study challenges the misleading preconception that H. pylori resides in the human oral cavity and suggests that this bacterium should be considered transient and independent of the oral status. To date, positive PCR results for H. pylori in the oral cavity have been overestimated and not critically interpreted in literature.

  7. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  8. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  9. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric acidity during treatment with ranitidine in patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Labenz, J; Tillenburg, B; Peitz, U; Verdú, E; Stolte, M; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with duodenal ulcer cure of Helicobacter pylori infection resulted in a pronounced decrease in intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole. AIM: To test the hypothesis that treatment of H pylori adversely affects the pH response to ranitidine. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with duodenal ulcer who were infected with H pylori were studied. METHODS: Twenty four hour pH recordings were performed during treatment with ranitidine (300 mg) at night before and four to six weeks after cure of H pylori infection. Presence of H pylori was assessed by a rapid urease test, culture, histology, and a 13C urea breath test. Also, the fasting gastrin concentrations were measured before and after treatment for H pylori infection. RESULTS: Cure of H pylori infection resulted in a considerable improvement in both antral and corpus gastritis and a decrease in fasting gastrin concentrations. As a result of the cure the night time intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine decreased (median pH 6.8 v 5.4; p = 0.007), whereas the acidity during the daytime was not affected. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with duodenal ulcer the intragastric pH during treatment with ranitidine depends on H pylori. However, the loss of effectiveness in altering pH seems to be less pronounced than previously found with omeprazole. PMID:9274468

  10. Systematic review of time trends in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in China and the USA.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Johansson, Saga; Molloy-Bland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has stabilized in the USA and is decreasing in China. We conducted a systematic literature analysis to test this hypothesis. PubMed and Embase searches were conducted up to 19 January 2015. Trends in the prevalence of H. pylori infection over time were assessed by regression analysis using Microsoft Excel. Overall, 25 Chinese studies (contributing 28 datasets) and 11 US studies (contributing 11 datasets) were included. There was a significant decrease over time in the H. pylori infection prevalence for the Chinese studies overall (p = 0.00018) and when studies were limited to those that used serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) assays to detect H. pylori infection (p = 0.014; 20 datasets). The weighted mean prevalence of H. pylori infection was 66 % for rural Chinese populations and 47 % for urban Chinese populations. There was a significant trend towards a decreasing prevalence of H. pylori infection for studies that included only urban populations (p = 0.04; 9 datasets). This trend was no longer statistically significant when these studies were further restricted to those that used serum IgG assays to detect H. pylori infection, although this may have been because of low statistical power due to the small number of datasets available for this analysis (p = 0.28; 6 datasets). There were no significant trends in terms of changes in the prevalence of H. pylori infection over time for studies conducted in the USA. In conclusion, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is most likely decreasing in China, due to a combination of increasing urbanization, which we found to be associated with lower H. pylori infection rates, and possibly also decreasing rates of H. pylori infection within urban populations. This will probably result in a gradual decrease in peptic ulcer and gastric cancer rates in China over time.

  11. [Helicobacter pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of infection].

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Karolina; Graczykowski, Maciej; Tenderenda, Michał; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2014-03-04

    More than 50% of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) - a Gram negative bacterium, which persists in the human stomach and duodenum, causing gastric or duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The majority of H. pylori cells demonstrate rod-shape morphology occurring in two subtypes: spiral and S-shaped. Both are isolated from mucus layer biopsy specimens of the stomach or from short-term cultures. However, results obtained from electron microscopy revealed that H. pylori long-term cultures not only consist of classic, spiral shaped bacteria, but also contain alternative forms of coccoid cells. Further investigations showed that coccoid forms of H. pylori may be divided into two types: viable but non-culturable coccus (VBnC) and a degenerative form, coccoid stage which is probably the effect of bacterial cell death. Transformation from spiral to coccoid form is induced under stress conditions, such as the presence of antibiotics. But still there is no evidence for reversion from the coccoid state to the viable and infectious spiral form. Besides the planktonic form, H. pylori also forms homo-, and heterogenic biofilms, which may constitute a potential environmental reservoir of this bacterium. The antigenic repertoire and the immunomodulatory and infectious properties of different H. pylori forms differ greatly. The variation in those properties suggests that morphological forms of H. pylori are potentially involved in the transmission of the infection. This review presents recent findings on the variability, antigenicity and infectious properties of H. pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of the infection.

  12. Changing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and peptic ulcer among dyspeptic Sardinian patients.

    PubMed

    Dore, Maria Pina; Marras, Giuseppina; Rocchi, Chiara; Soro, Sara; Loria, Maria Francesca; Bassotti, Gabrio; Graham, David Y; Malaty, Hoda M; Pes, Giovanni M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection has fallen as standards of living improved. The changes in the prevalence of infection and its manifestations (peptic ulcer disease and gastric mucosal lesions) were investigated in a large cohort of Sardinians undergoing upper endoscopy for dyspepsia. A retrospective observational study was conducted involving patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia from 1995 to 2013. H. pylori status was assessed by histology plus the rapid urease test or 13C-UBT. Gastric mucosal lesions were evaluated histologically. Data including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use and the presence of peptic ulcers were collected. The prevalence of H. pylori was calculated for each quartile and for each birth cohort from 1910 to 2000. 11,202 records were retrieved for the analysis (62.9% women). The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 43.8% (M: 46.6% vs. F: 42.0%; P = 0.0001). A dramatic decrease in the prevalence of infection occurred over the 19-year observation period. The birth cohort effect was evident in each category (quartile) reflecting the continuous decline in H. pylori acquisition. Over time, the prevalence of peptic ulcers also declined, resulting in an increase in the proportion of H. pylori negative/NSAID positive and H. pylori negative/NSAID negative peptic ulcers. The prevalence of gastric mucosal changes also declined despite aging. The decline in H. pylori prevalence over time likely reflects the improvement in socioeconomic conditions in Sardinia such that H. pylori infection and its clinical outcomes including peptic ulcer are becoming less frequent even among dyspeptic patients.

  13. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. METHODS In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. RESULTS We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier.

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection as a cause of iron deficiency anaemia of unknown origin

    PubMed Central

    Monzón, Helena; Forné, Montserrat; Esteve, Maria; Rosinach, Mercé; Loras, Carme; Espinós, Jorge C; Viver, Josep M; Salas, Antonio; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the aetiological role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in adult patients with iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic iron-deficient anaemia (IDA) with H. pylori infection and a negative standard work-up were prospectively evaluated. All of them had either iron refractoriness or iron dependency. Response to H. pylori eradication was assessed at 6 and 12 mo from follow-up. H. pylori infection was considered to be the cause of the anaemia when a complete anaemia resolution without iron supplements was observed after eradication. RESULTS: H. pylori was eradicated in 88 of the 89 patients. In the non-eradicated patient the four eradicating regimens failed. There were violations of protocol in 4 patients, for whom it was not possible to ascertain the cause of the anaemia. Thus, 84 H. pylori eradicated patients (10 men; 74 women) were available to assess the effect of eradication on IDA. H. pylori infection was considered to be the aetiology of IDA in 32 patients (38.1%; 95%CI: 28.4%-48.8%). This was more frequent in men/postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (75% vs 23.3%; P < 0.0001) with an OR of 9.8 (95%CI: 3.3-29.6). In these patients, anaemia resolution occurred in the first follow-up visit at 6 mo, and no anaemia or iron deficiency relapse was observed after a mean follow-up of 21 ± 2 mo. CONCLUSION: Gastric H. pylori infection is a frequent cause of iron-refractory or iron-dependent anaemia of previously unknown origin in adult patients. PMID:23864779

  15. Linked color imaging improves endoscopic diagnosis of active Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Osamu; Yagi, Nobuaki; Onozawa, Yuriko; Kimura-Tsuchiya, Reiko; Majima, Atsushi; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Horii, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kentaro; Tomie, Akira; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Katada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Linked color imaging (LCI) is a new image-enhanced endoscopy technique using a laser light source to enhance slight differences in mucosal color. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of LCI and conventional white light imaging (WLI) endoscopy for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed images from 60 patients examined with WLI and LCI endoscopy between October 2013 and May 2014. Thirty patients had H. pylori infections, and other thirty patients tested negative for H. pylori after eradication therapy. Four endoscopists evaluated the 2 types of images to determine which was better at facilitating a diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Results: H. pylori infection was identified with LCI by enhancing the red appearance of the fundic gland mucosa. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for diagnosing H. pylori infection using WLI were 74.2 %, 81.7 %, and 66.7 %, respectively, while those for LCI were 85.8 %, 93.3 %, and 78.3 %, respectively. Thus, the accuracy and sensitivity for LCI were significantly higher than those for WLI (P = 0.002 and P = 0.011, respectively). The kappa values for the inter- and intraobserver variability among the 4 endoscopists were higher for LCI than for WLI. Conclusions: H. pylori infection can be identified by enhancing endoscopic images of the diffuse redness of the fundic gland using LCI. LCI is a novel image-enhanced endoscopy and is more useful for diagnosing H. pylori infection than is WLI. PMID:27556101

  16. High efficacy of gemifloxacin-containing therapy in Helicobacter Pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625

  17. INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN THE ROUX-EN-Y BYPASS GASTRIC POUCH

    PubMed Central

    CHAVES, Luiz Claudio Lopes; BORGES, Isabela Klautau Leite Chaves; de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; SILVA, Ian Passos; SILVA, Lyz Bezerra; MAGALHÃES, Marcelo Alexandre Prado; FONSECA, Allan Herbert Feliz; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in obese candidates for bariatric surgery and its role in the emergence of inflammatory lesions after surgery has not been well established. Aim: To identify the incidence of inflammatory lesions in the stomach after bariatric surgery and to correlate it with H. pylori infection. Methods: This is a prospective study with 216 patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These patients underwent histopathological endoscopy to detect H. pylori prior to surgery. Positive cases were treated with antibiotics and a proton inhibitor pump followed by endoscopic follow-up in the 6th and 12th month after surgery. Results: Most patients were female (68.1%), with grade III obesity (92.4%). Preoperative endoscopy revealed gastritis in 96.8%, with H. pylori infection in 40.7% (88/216). A biopsy was carried out in 151 patients, revealing H. pylori in 60/151, related to signs of inflammation in 90% (54/60). In the 6th and 12th month after surgery, the endoscopy and the histopathological exam showed a normal gastric pouch in 84% of patients and the incidence of H. pylori was 11% and 16%, respectively. The presence of inflammation was related to H. pylori infection (p<0,001). Conclusion: H. pylori has a similar prevalence in both obese patients scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery and the general population. There is a low incidence of it in the 6th and 12th months after surgery, probably owing to its eradication when detected prior to surgery. When inflammatory disease is present in the new gastric reservoir it is directly related to H. pylori infection. PMID:27683772

  18. Heme Oxygenase-1 Dysregulates Macrophage Polarization and the Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Verriere, Thomas; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; de Sablet, Thibaut; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori incites a futile inflammatory response, which is the key feature of its immunopathogenesis. This leads to the ability of this bacterial pathogen to survive in the stomach and cause peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Myeloid cells recruited to the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection have been directly implicated in the modulation of host defense against the bacterium and gastric inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exhibits anti-inflammatory functions. Our aim was to analyze the induction and role of HO-1 in macrophages during H. pylori infection. We now show that phosphorylation of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) in macrophages results in expression of hmox-1, the gene encoding HO-1, through p38/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling. Blocking phagocytosis prevented CagA phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. The expression of HO-1 was also increased in gastric mononuclear cells of human patients and macrophages of mice infected with cagA+ H. pylori strains. Genetic ablation of hmox-1 in H. pylori-infected mice increased histologic gastritis, which was associated with enhanced M1/Th1/Th17 responses, decreased Mreg response, and reduced H. pylori colonization. Gastric macrophages of H. pylori-infected mice and macrophages infected in vitro with this bacterium showed an M1/Mreg mixed polarization type; deletion of hmox-1 or inhibition of HO-1 in macrophages caused an increased M1 and a decreased of Mreg phenotype. These data highlight a mechanism by which H. pylori impairs the immune response and favors its own survival via activation of macrophage HO-1. PMID:25108023

  19. Community-driven research on environmental sources of H. pylori infection in arctic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Emily V; Yasui, Yutaka; Hanington, Patrick; Goodman, Karen J; Working Group, The CANHelp

    2014-01-01

    The role of environmental reservoirs in H. pylori transmission remains uncertain due to technical difficulties in detecting living organisms in sources outside the stomach. Residents of some Canadian Arctic communities worry that contamination of the natural environment is responsible for the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the region. This analysis aims to estimate associations between exposure to potential environmental sources of biological contamination and prevalence of H. pylori infection in Arctic Canada. Using data from 3 community-driven H. pylori projects in the Northwest and Yukon Territories, we estimated effects of environmental exposures on H. pylori prevalence, using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for household and community effects. Investigated exposures include: untreated drinking water; livestock; dogs; cats; mice or mouse droppings in the home; cleaning fish or game. Our analysis did not identify environmental exposures associated clearly with increased H. pylori prevalence, except any exposure to mice or mouse droppings (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.2–18), reported by 11% of participants. Our multilevel models showed H. pylori clustering within households, but environmental exposures accounted for little of this clustering; instead, much of it was accounted for by household composition (especially: having infected household members; number of children). Like the scientific literature on this topic, our results do not clearly implicate or rule out environmental reservoirs of H. pylori; thus, the topic remains a priority for future research. Meanwhile, H. pylori prevention research should seek strategies for reducing direct transmission from person to person. PMID:25483330

  20. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. METHODS In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. RESULTS We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:27672275

  1. Clinical effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in Type 1 diabetes: results from the BITES (Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetes, Education for Self-efficacy) trial

    PubMed Central

    George, J T; Valdovinos, A P; Russell, I; Dromgoole, P; Lomax, S; Torgerson, D J; Wells, T; Thow, J C

    2008-01-01

    Aims Intensive 5-day educational interventions for people with Type 1 diabetes have shown improved outcomes in a number of European studies. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a brief (2.5 days) psycho-educational intervention. Methods Our randomized trial in a secondary-care setting had 54 and 60 participants allocated to intervention and control groups, respectively. Primary outcomes were HbA1c and severe hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes were blood pressure, weight, height, lipids and psychometric profile. Results HbA1c showed no statistically significant change at 3 months [difference = 0.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.23, 0.26, P = 0.92], 6 months (difference = –0.06, 95% CI –0.32, 0.20, P = 0.67) and 12 months (difference = 0.01, 95% CI –0.30, 0.32, P = 0.94). Incidence of severe hypoglycaemia (per patient per year) in the intervention group (0.41) and control group (0.48) was not statistically different. Treatment satisfaction improved at 3 months (difference = 9.4, 95% CI 5.2, 13.6, P = 0.0005), 6 months (difference = 10.4, 95% CI 6.0, 14.8, P = 0.0005) and 12 months (difference = 7.1, 95% CI 2.1, 12.1, P = 0.006). The ‘Managing psychological aspects’ and ‘Setting and achieving goals’ dimensions of the Diabetes Empowerment Scale also showed significant improvement at 3, 6 and 12 months. Diabetes Knowledge Test, Illness Perception Questionnaire, Hypoglycaemia Fear Scale and Short Form 36 showed no significant change. Conclusions This brief intervention had no significant impact on HbA1c or severe hypoglycaemia, but improved diabetes treatment satisfaction and patient empowerment. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN75807800. PMID:19046244

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum B7 inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth and attenuates gastric inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sunanliganon, Chompoonut; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Tumwasorn, Somying; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the anti-Helicobacter property of Lactobacillus plantarum B7 (L. plantarum) B7 supernatants in vitro and the protective effects of L. plantarum B7 on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) level, apoptosis, and histopathology in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastric inflammation in rats. METHODS: In vitro, the inhibition of H. pylori growth was examined using L. plantarum B7 supernatants at pH 4 and pH 7 and at the concentration of 1×, 5× and 10× on plates inoculated with H. pylori. The inhibitory effect of H. pylori was interpreted by the size of the inhibition zone. In vitro, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups including group 1 (control group), group 2 (H. pylori infected group), group 3 (H. pylori infected with L. plantarum B7 106 CFUs/mL treated group) and group 4 (H. pylori infected with L. plantarum B7 1010 CFUs/mL treated group). One week after H. pylori inoculation, L. plantarum B7 106 CFUs/mL or 1010 CFUs/mL were fed once daily to group 3 and group 4, respectively, for one week. Blood and gastric samples were collected at the end of the study. RESULTS: In vitro, at intact pH 4, mean inhibitory zone diameters of 8.5 mm and 13 mm were noted at concentrations of 5× and 10× of L. plantarum B7 supernatant disks, respectively. At adjusted pH 7, L. plantarum B7 supernatants at concentrations of 5× and 10× yielded mean inhibitory zone diameters of 6.5 mm and 11 mm, respectively. In the in vitro study, in group 2, stomach histopathology revealed mild to moderate H. pylori colonization and inflammation. The level of gastric MDA and epithelial cell apoptosis were significantly increased compared with group 1. The serum TNF-α level was significant decreased in group 3 compared with group 2 (P < 0.05). In addition, L. plantarum B7 treatments resulted in a significant improvement in stomach pathology, and decreased gastric MDA level and apoptotic epithelial cells

  3. Piperine treatment suppresses Helicobacter pylori toxin entry in to gastric epithelium and minimizes β-catenin mediated oncogenesis and IL-8 secretion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tharmalingam, Nagendran; Park, Min; Lee, Min Ho; Woo, Hyun Jun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yang, Ji Yeong; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Jong-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer initiation has been studied widely. The objective of our present study was to evaluate the effect of a single compound piperine on H. pylori infection and its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects in vitro. Cytotoxicity was tested by Ez-cytox cell viability assay kit. Effects of piperine on H. pylori toxin gene expression and IL-8 expression in mammalian cells during infection were assessed by RT-PCR. Effects of piperine on toxin entry into host cells, E-cadherin cleavage by H. pylori, and the changes in H. pylori mediated β-catenin expression and IL-8 secretion were determined by immunoblotting. Piperine treatment restrained the entry of CagA and VacA into AGS cells. Piperine administration in H. pylori infection reduced E-cadherin cleavage in stomach epithelium. In addition, H. pylori induced β-catenin up-regulation was reduced. Piperine administration impaired IL-8 secretion in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. As we reported previously piperine restrained H. pylori motility. The possible reason behind the H. pylori inhibition mechanism of piperine could be the dwindled motility, which weakened H. pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. The reduced adhesion decreased the toxin entry thereby secreting less amount of IL-8. In addition, piperine treatment suppressed H. pylori protease led to reduction of E-cadherin cleavage and β-catenin expression resulting in diminished β-catenin translocation into the nucleus thus decreasing the risk of oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the preliminary report of piperine mediated H. pylori infection control on gastric epithelial cells in-vitro. PMID:27158376

  4. African American caregiving grandmothers: results of an intervention to improve health indicators and health promotion behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Susan J; Whitley, Deborah M; Campos, Peter E

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an intervention to improve the health of grandmothers raising grandchildren. A pre- and post-test design was employed with 504 African American grandmother participants. The intervention included monthly home-based visitation by registered nurses (RNs) and social workers, participation in support groups and parenting classes, referrals for legal services, and early intervention services for children with special needs. The Health Risk Appraisal was used to assess health indicators and health promotion behaviors. A comparison of pre- and post-test scores indicated significant (p < .002) changes in the desired direction for a number of health indicators and health promotion behaviors, including blood pressure, annual routine cancer screenings, frequency of weekly exercise, and improved dietary intake, as well as participants' perception of their health and life satisfaction. No improvements were observed in the proportion of participants who were obese or overweight. PMID:23007422

  5. Hypertension Improvement Project (HIP) Latino: results of a pilot study of lifestyle intervention for lowering blood pressure in Latino adults

    PubMed Central

    del Pilar Rocha-Goldberg, María; Corsino, Leonor; Batch, Bryan; Voils, Corrine I.; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a culturally tailored behavioral intervention for improving hypertension-related health behaviors in Hispanic/Latino adults. Design Feasibility pilot study in a community health center and a Latino organization in Durham, North Carolina (NC). Intervention The culturally adapted behavioral intervention consisted of 6 weekly group sessions incorporating motivational interviewing techniques. Goals included weight loss if overweight, adoption of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, and increased physical activity. Participants were also encouraged to monitor their daily intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy and fat, and to record physical activity. Cultural adaptations included conducting the study in familiar places, using Spanish-speaking interventionist, culturally-appropriate food choices, and physical activity. Main outcomes Systolic blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), exercise, and dietary pattern were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Qualitative evaluations of the recruitment process and the intervention were also conducted. Results There were 64 potential participants identified via health care provider referrals (33%), printed media (23%), and direct contact (44%). Seventeen participants completed the intervention and had main outcome data available. Participants “strongly agreed/ agreed” that the group sessions provided them with the tools they needed to achieve weight loss, blood pressure control, and the possibility of sustaining the lifestyle changes after completing the intervention. At the end of the intervention, all physiological, diet, and exercise outcomes were more favorable, with the exception of fat. After 6 weeks, systolic blood pressure decreased an average of −10.4 ± 10.6 mmHg, weight decreased 1.5 ± 3.2 lbs, BMI decreased 0.3 ± 0.5, and physical activity increased 40 minutes per week. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lifestyle

  6. Brief Intervention Decreases Drinking Frequency in HIV-Infected, Heavy Drinking Women: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi E.; Lau, Bryan; Xu, Xiaoqiang; McCaul, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hazardous alcohol use by HIV-infected women is associated with poor HIV outcomes and HIV transmission risk behaviors. We examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol intervention (BI) among hazardous drinking women receiving care in an urban, HIV clinic. Methods Women were randomized to a 2-session BI or usual care. Outcomes assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months included 90-day frequency of any alcohol use and heavy/binge drinking (≥4 drinks per occasion), and average drinks per drinking episode. Secondary outcomes included HIV medication and appointment adherence, HIV1-RNA suppression, and days of unprotected vaginal sex. We examined intervention effectiveness using generalized mixed effect models and quantile regression. Results Of 148 eligible women, 74 were randomized to each arm. In mixed effects models, 90-day drinking frequency decreased among intervention group compared to control, with women in the intervention condition less likely to have a drinking day (OR: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.23–0.75). Heavy/binge drinking days and drinks per drinking day did not differ significantly between groups. Quantile regression demonstrated a decrease in drinking frequency in the middle to upper ranges of the distribution of drinking days and heavy/binge drinking days that differed significantly between intervention and control conditions. At follow-up, the intervention group had significantly fewer episodes of unprotected vaginal sex. No intervention effects were observed for other outcomes. Conclusions Brief alcohol intervention reduces frequency of alcohol use and unprotected vaginal sex among HIV-infected women. More intensive services may be needed to lower drinks per drinking day and enhance care for more severely affected drinkers. PMID:25967270

  7. Enhancing Fire Department Home Visiting Programs: Results of a Community Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gielen, Andrea C.; Shields, Wendy; Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen; Jones, Vanya; Bishai, David; O’Brocki, Raymond; Perry, Elise C.; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Tracey, Pat; Parsons, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the impact of an enhanced fire department home visiting program on community participation and installation of smoke alarms and describes the rate of fire and burn hazards observed in homes. Methods Communities were randomly assigned to receive either a standard or enhanced home visiting program. Prior to implementing the program, 603 household surveys were completed to determine comparability between the communities. During a one year intervention period, 171 home visit events took place with 8,080 homes. Results At baseline, 60% of homes did not have working smoke alarms on every level; 44% had unsafe water temperatures; and 72% did not have CO alarms. Residents in the enhanced community relative to those in the standard community were significantly more likely to let the fire fighters into their homes (75% vs 62%). Among entered homes, those in the enhanced community were significantly more likely to agree to have smoke alarms installed (95% vs 92%), to be left with a working smoke alarm on every level of the home (84% vs 78%) and to have more smoke alarms installed per home visited (1.89 vs 1.74). Conclusions The high baseline rates of home hazards suggest that fire department home visiting programs should take an “all hazards” approach. CHWs and other community partnerships can be effective in promoting fire departments’ fire and life safety goals. Public health academic centers should partner with the fire service to help generate evidence on program effectiveness that can inform decision making about resource allocation for prevention. PMID:23237821

  8. Intervention with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents and their Families: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Brigham, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of three theoretically distinct interventions among substance-abusing runaway adolescents and to explore individual differences in trajectories of change. Methods Adolescents (N=179) between the ages of 12–17 were recruited from a runaway shelter in a Midwestern city. The sample included 94 females (52.5%) and 85 males (47.5%), the majority of the adolescents were African American (n= 118, 65.9%). Adolescents were randomly assigned to the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA, n = 57), Motivational Interviewing (MI, n = 61), or Ecologically-Based Family Therapy (EBFT, n = 61). Substance use was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months via Form 90 and urine screens. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed statistically significant improvement in frequency of substance use among runaways in all three treatment groups with a slight increase at post-treatment. Latent trajectory profile analysis explored individual differences in change trajectories and yielded a 3 class model. The majority of adolescents (n = 136, 76%) showed reductions in substance use over time with a slight increase at follow-up (Class 1: Decreasing). Twenty-four (13.4%) adolescents had shown high levels of substance use over time with patterns of increase and decrease (Class 2: Fluctuating high users), and 19 (10.6%) decreased but returned to baseline levels by two years post-baseline (Class 3: U shaped). Few differences among treatment conditions were noted; within the “decreasing” group, adolescents in MI treatment showed a quicker decline in their substance use but a faster relapse compared to those receiving EBFT. Conclusions These findings suggest that CRA, EBFT and MI are viable treatments for runaway substance-abusing adolescents. PMID:23895088

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p = 0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p = 0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p < 0.0001). Rosacea skin lesions decreased markedly in 6/7 (85.7%) after eradication of SIBO whereas of the two patients who did not eradicate SIBO, one (50%) showed an improvement in rosacea (p = 0.284). Conclusions Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than control group, whereas SIBO prevalence was comparable between the two groups. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement of skin symptoms in rosacea patients. PMID:25653855

  10. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Causes Perturbation of the Human Gut Microbiome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Gan, Han-Ming; Lee, Yin-Peng; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Francois, Fritz; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Loke, Mun-Fai; Goh, Khean-Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori protects against some metabolic and immunological diseases in which the development of these diseases coincide with temporal or permanent dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of H. pylori eradication on the human gut microbiome. Methods As part of the currently on-going ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths) study, we collected stool samples from 17 H. pylori-positive young adult (18–30 years-old) volunteers. The same cohort was followed up 6, 12 and 18 months-post H. pylori eradication. The impact of H. pylori on the human gut microbiome pre- and post-eradication was investigated using high throughput 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina Miseq followed by data analysis using Qiime pipeline. Results We compared the composition and diversity of bacterial communities in the fecal microbiome of the H. pylori-positive volunteers, before and after H. pylori eradication therapy. The 16S rRNA gene was sequenced at an average of 150,000–170,000 reads/sample. The microbial diversity were similar pre- and post-H. pylori eradication with no significant differences in richness and evenness of bacterial species. Despite that the general profile of the gut microbiome was similar pre- and post-eradication, some changes in the bacterial communities at the phylum and genus levels were notable, particularly the decrease in relative abundance of Bacterioidetes and corresponding increase in Firmicutes after H. pylori eradication. The significant increase of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA)-producing bacteria genera could also be associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders. Conclusions Our preliminary stool metagenomics study shows that eradication of H. pylori caused perturbation of the gut microbiome and may indirectly affect the health of human. Clinicians should be aware of the effect of broad spectrum antibiotics used in H. pylori eradication regimen

  11. Helicobacter pylori uptake and efflux: basis for intrinsic susceptibility to antibiotics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bina, J E; Alm, R A; Uria-Nickelsen, M; Thomas, S R; Trust, T J; Hancock, R E

    2000-02-01

    antibiotics. These results, in contrast to what is observed in E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and other clinically important gram-negative bacteria, suggest that active efflux does not play a role in the intrinsic resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics. PMID:10639345

  12. Effects of Telephone Counseling Intervention by Pharmacists (TelCIP) on Medication Adherence; Results of a Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Marcel J.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; van Dijk, Liset; van Geffen, Erica C. G.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a pharmacist telephone counseling intervention on patients' medication adherence. Design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: 53 Community pharmacies in The Netherlands. Participants: Patients ≥18 years initiating treatment with antidepressants, bisphosphonates, Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)-inhibitors, or statins (lipid lowering drugs). Pharmacies in arm A provided the intervention for antidepressants and bisphosphonates and usual care for RAS-inhibitors and statins. Pharmacies in arm B provided the intervention for RAS-inhibitors and statins and usual care for antidepressants and bisphosphonates. Intervention: Intervention consisted of a telephone counseling intervention 7–21 days after the start of therapy. Counseling included assessment of practical and perceptual barriers and provision of information and motivation. Main outcome measure: Primary outcome was refill adherence measured over 1 year expressed as continuous outcome and dichotomous (refill rate≥80%). Secondary outcome was discontinuation within 1 year. Results: In the control arms 3627 patients were eligible and in the intervention arms 3094 patients. Of the latter, 1054 patients (34%) received the intervention. Intention to treat analysis showed no difference in adherence rates between the intervention and the usual care arm (74.7%, SD 37.5 respectively 74.5%, 37.9). More patients starting with RAS-inhibitors had a refill ratio ≥80% in the intervention arm compared to usual care (81.4 vs. 74.9% with odds ratio (OR) 1.43, 95%CI 1.11–1.99). Comparing patients with counseling to patients with usual care (per protocol analysis), adherence was statistically significant higher for patients starting with RAS-inhibitors, statins and bisphosphonates. Patients initiating antidepressants did not benefit from the intervention. Conclusions: Telephone counseling at start of therapy improved adherence in patients initiating RAS-inhibitors. The per

  13. Effects of Telephone Counseling Intervention by Pharmacists (TelCIP) on Medication Adherence; Results of a Cluster Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Marcel J.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; van Dijk, Liset; van Geffen, Erica C. G.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of a pharmacist telephone counseling intervention on patients' medication adherence. Design: Pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting: 53 Community pharmacies in The Netherlands. Participants: Patients ≥18 years initiating treatment with antidepressants, bisphosphonates, Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)-inhibitors, or statins (lipid lowering drugs). Pharmacies in arm A provided the intervention for antidepressants and bisphosphonates and usual care for RAS-inhibitors and statins. Pharmacies in arm B provided the intervention for RAS-inhibitors and statins and usual care for antidepressants and bisphosphonates. Intervention: Intervention consisted of a telephone counseling intervention 7–21 days after the start of therapy. Counseling included assessment of practical and perceptual barriers and provision of information and motivation. Main outcome measure: Primary outcome was refill adherence measured over 1 year expressed as continuous outcome and dichotomous (refill rate≥80%). Secondary outcome was discontinuation within 1 year. Results: In the control arms 3627 patients were eligible and in the intervention arms 3094 patients. Of the latter, 1054 patients (34%) received the intervention. Intention to treat analysis showed no difference in adherence rates between the intervention and the usual care arm (74.7%, SD 37.5 respectively 74.5%, 37.9). More patients starting with RAS-inhibitors had a refill ratio ≥80% in the intervention arm compared to usual care (81.4 vs. 74.9% with odds ratio (OR) 1.43, 95%CI 1.11–1.99). Comparing patients with counseling to patients with usual care (per protocol analysis), adherence was statistically significant higher for patients starting with RAS-inhibitors, statins and bisphosphonates. Patients initiating antidepressants did not benefit from the intervention. Conclusions: Telephone counseling at start of therapy improved adherence in patients initiating RAS-inhibitors. The per

  14. Amoxycillin tolerance in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dore, M P; Osato, M S; Realdi, G; Mura, I; Graham, D Y; Sepulveda, A R

    1999-01-01

    Resistance to amoxycillin in Helicobacter pylori has only recently been reported. To demonstrate the existence of resistance, and to test for the presence of tolerance, 17 amoxycillin-resistant strains of H. pylori, first isolated in Sardinia (Italy) and the USA, were studied. Four amoxycillin-sensitive strains were used as controls. Primary isolates of all test strains exhibited amoxycillin resistance; beta-lactamase activity was not detected. Amoxycillin resistance was lost after storage of strains at -80 degrees C but could be rescued by plating these strains on to amoxycillin gradient plates. MICs and MBCs from rescued isolates ranged from 0.5 to 32 mg/L and from 32 to > 1024 mg/L, respectively. MBC/MIC ratios > or = 32 are characteristic of antibiotic tolerance. The ratios of MBC/MIC of amoxycillin ranged from 32 to > 1024 for the test strains, indicating that these strains were tolerant to the antibiotic. Amoxycillin resistance does occur in H. pylori. Amoxycillin susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates in patients who fail therapy should include determination of the MBC to detect tolerance. PMID:10381100

  15. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  16. Kentucky Teen Institute: Results of a 1-Year, Health Advocacy Training Intervention for Youth.

    PubMed

    King, Kristi M; Rice, Jason A; Steinbock, Stacie; Reno-Weber, Ben; Okpokho, Ime; Pile, Amanda; Carrico, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    The Kentucky Teen Institute trains youth throughout the state to advocate for policies that promote health in their communities. By evaluating two program summits held at universities, regularly scheduled community meetings, ongoing technical support, and an advocacy day at the state Capitol, the aims of this study were to assess the impact of the intervention on correlates of youths' advocacy intentions and behaviors and to assess youth participants' and other key stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. An ecological model approach and the theory of planned behavior served as theoretical frameworks from which pre-post, one-group survey and qualitative data were collected (June 2013-June 2014). An equal number of low-income and non-low-income youth representing five counties participated in the Summer Summit pretest (n = 24) and Children's Advocacy Day at the Capitol posttest (n = 14). Survey data revealed that youths' attitude toward advocacy, intentions to advocate, and advocacy behaviors all improved over the intervention. Observations, interviews, a focus group, and other written evaluations identified that the youths', as well as their mentors' and advocacy coaches', confidence, communities' capacity, and mutually beneficial mentorship strengthened. Stronger public speaking skills, communication among the teams, and other recommendations for future advocacy interventions are described.

  17. Intervention Type Matters in Primary Prevention of Abusive Head Injury: Event History Analysis Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.; Trudeau, Jeremiah; Britner, Preston A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current study sought to compare interventional materials intended to raise public awareness of the caregiving practices connected to Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS). Two hundred and sixty four adults (mean age 32 years) were recruited for participation through convenience sampling at a large Northeastern university. Participants fell into…

  18. Communication between Older People and Their Health Care Agents: Results of an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutheil, Irene A.; Heyman, Janna C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined an intervention to help high-functioning community-dwelling older people communicate their wishes for care at the end of life with someone they would trust to make health care decisions for them if necessary. Groups consisted of dyads of older people and their potential or designated health care agents randomly assigned to the…

  19. The cost of HIV medication adherence support interventions: results of a cross-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schackman, B R; Finkelstein, R; Neukermans, C P; Lewis, L; Eldred, L

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the direct cost of HIV adherence support programmes participating in a cross-site evaluation in the US. Data on the frequency, type, and setting of adherence encounters; providers' professions; and adherence tools provided were collected for 1,122 patients enrolled in 13 interventions at 9 sites. The site staff estimated the average duration of each type of encounter and national wage rates were used for labour costs. The median (range) adherence encounters/year among interventions was 16.5 (4.3-104.6) per patient; encounters lasted 24.6 (8.9-40.9) minutes. Intervention direct cost was correlated with the average frequency of encounters (r = 0.57), but not with encounter duration or providers' professions. The median direct cost/month was 35 dollars(5 dollars-58 dollars) per patient, and included direct provider costs (66%); incentives (17%); reminders and other tools (8%); and direct administrative time, provider transportation, training, and home delivery (9%). The median direct cost/month from a societal perspective, which includes patient time and travel costs, was 47 dollars(24 dollars-114 dollars) per patient. Adherence interventions with moderate efficacy costing < or =100 dollars/month have been estimated to meet a cost-effectiveness threshold that is generally accepted in the US. Payers should consider enhanced reimbursement for adherence support services. PMID:16265786

  20. Effects of a Voluntary Summer Reading Intervention on Reading Achievement: Results from a Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, James S.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a voluntary summer reading intervention were assessed in a randomized field trial involving 552 students in 10 schools. In this study, fourth-grade children received eight books to read during their summer vacation and were encouraged by their teachers to practice oral reading at home with a family member and to use comprehension…

  1. A spit tobacco cessation intervention for college athletes: three-month results.

    PubMed

    Masouredis, C M; Hilton, J F; Grady, D; Gee, L; Chesney, M; Hengl, L; Ernster, V; Walsh, M M

    1997-09-01

    Sixteen colleges were matched on the baseline prevalence of spit tobacco (ST) use, and college pairs were randomized, one to the intervention and the other to the control group. Baseball and football athletes at each intervention college received: an oral examination by a dental professional who pointed out ST-related problems in the athlete's mouth and advised him to quit ST use; counseling by a dental hygienist on strategies to cope with cravings and triggers for use; and two follow-up telephone calls. At the three-month follow-up, quit rates were 24% and 16% for the intervention (n = 171) and control (n = 189) groups, respectively (p < 0.05). As the reported amount of ST used weekly increased, the percent of individuals who quit at 3 mos decreased (p < 0.05). Dental professionals appear to be effective in promoting spit tobacco cessation at 3 mos post-intervention in male college athletes, especially among those using lesser amounts of ST.

  2. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY nutrition intervention to modify the total school food environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process evaluation of HEALTHY, a large multi-center trial to decrease type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle school children, monitored the implementation of the intervention to ascertain the extent that components were delivered and received as intended. The purpose of this article is to report the...

  3. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  4. [Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions of the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week this year (2015) related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, developing countries continue to have substantial infection rates. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly higher in most countries and continues to rise. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely prevent its development; the presence of precancerous lesions--intestinal atrophy and metaplasia--is associated with a higher risk of developing this neoplasm, despite H. pylori eradication. The use of molecular diagnostic methods (polymerase chain reaction) in faecal samples could allow non-invasive evaluation of the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decrease. The effectiveness of sequential therapy in recent studies is lower than initially described and consequently this treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. In penicillin-allergic patients, quadruple therapy with bismuth is the treatment of choice in our environment. After the failure of standard triple therapy, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and, moreover, is simpler and better tolerated than quadruple therapy with bismuth. Quadruple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, levofloxacin and amoxicillin is an effective (≥ 90% eradication), simple and safe second-line therapy if triple or quadruple therapy without bismuth (sequential or concomitant) fails to eradicate the infection. The new-generation quinolones, such as moxifloxacin or sitafloxacin, could be useful in second- or third-line rescue eradication therapy. Even after the failure of 3 eradication treatments, a

  5. Personal view: to treat or not to treat? Helicobacter pylori and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease - an alternative hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Axon, A T R

    2004-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes acute on chronic gastritis and is responsible for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. However, recent papers have suggested that it may protect against gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal cancer. Furthermore, the rapid increase in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus in the developed world has been attributed by some to the falling prevalence of H. pylori. These considerations have led to the suggestion that H. pylori infection should not necessarily be treated, especially in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Conversely, data from prospective randomized studies have shown that H. pylori eradication does not cause gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in patients with duodenal ulcer or in the normal population, nor does it worsen the outcome of pre-existing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Therefore, although H. pylori is negatively associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, its eradication does not induce the disease. A hypothesis is presented suggesting that the increased prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a result of rising acid secretion in the general population, which, in turn, is a consequence of the increased linear height (a predictor of acid secretion). The greater acid secretion could also explain the decline in the prevalence of H. pylori and perhaps account for the inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. These considerations are explored in discussing whether H. pylori infection should be treated in infected patients presenting with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

  6. Serum IL-10, MMP-7, MMP-9 Levels in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Correlation with Degree of Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Gontar; Halim, Sahat; Sitepu, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori causes gastric mucosal inflammation and immune reaction. However, the increase of IL-10, MMP-7, and MMP-7 levels in the serum is still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-10, MMP-7 & MMP-9 in gastritis patients with H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done on seventy gastritis patients that consecutive admitted to endoscopy units. The diagnosis of gastritis was made based on histopathology and diagnosis of H. pylori infection was based on rapid urease test. Serum samples were obtained to determine to circulate IL-10, MMP-7, and MMP-9 level. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done by SPSS version 22. RESULTS: Forthy percentages of the patients were infected with H. pylori. The IL-10 level was significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to non-infected patients. However, there were no differences between serum levels of MMP-7 and MMP-9 in infected and non-infected H. pylori patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected by the increased levels of serum IL-10. However, there were no significant differences in MMP-7 and MMP-9 serum levels between positive and negative infected H. pylori patients. PMID:27703556

  7. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori and Its Associate Urease by Labdane Diterpenoids Isolated from Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rafik U; Dawane, Ashwini A; Pawar, Rajendra P; Gond, Dhananjay S; Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-Helicobacter pylori and its associated urease activity of labdane diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata. A molecular docking analysis was performed by using ArgusLab 4.0.1 software. The results obtained indicate that compound A possesses strong inhibition to H. pylori, 28 ± 2.98 (minimum inhibitory concentration, 9 µg/mL), and its urease, 85.54 ± 2.62% (IC50 , 20.2 µg/mL). Compounds B, C, and D also showed moderate inhibition to H. pylori and its urease. The obtained results were in agreement with the molecular docking analysis of compounds. The phytochemicals under investigation were found to be promising antibacterial agents. Moreover, the isolated compounds can be considered as a resource for searching novel anti-H. pylori agents possessing urease inhibition.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Physiology Predicted from Genomic Comparison of Two Strains

    PubMed Central

    Doig, Peter; de Jonge, Boudewijn L.; Alm, Richard A.; Brown, Eric D.; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Noonan, Brian; Mills, Scott D.; Tummino, Peter; Carmel, Gilles; Guild, Braydon C.; Moir, Donald T.; Vovis, Gerald F.; Trust, Trevor J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacteria which colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and is implicated in a wide range of gastroduodenal diseases. This paper reviews the physiology of this bacterium as predicted from the sequenced genomes of two unrelated strains and reconciles these predictions with the literature. In general, the predicted capabilities are in good agreement with reported experimental observations. H. pylori is limited in carbohydrate utilization and will use amino acids, for which it has transporter systems, as sources of carbon. Energy can be generated by fermentation, and the bacterium possesses components necessary for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Sulfur metabolism is limited, whereas nitrogen metabolism is extensive. There is active uptake of DNA via transformation and ample restriction-modification activities. The cell contains numerous outer membrane proteins, some of which are porins or involved in iron uptake. Some of these outer membrane proteins and the lipopolysaccharide may be regulated by a slipped-strand repair mechanism which probably results in phase variation and plays a role in colonization. In contrast to a commonly held belief that H. pylori is a very diverse species, few differences were predicted in the physiology of these two unrelated strains, indicating that host and environmental factors probably play a significant role in the outocme of H. pylori-related disease. PMID:10477312

  9. Pilot Study Results for a Novel Behavior Plus Nutrition Intervention for Caregivers of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Susana R.; Odar, Cathleen; Midyett, L. Kurt; Clements, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This pilot study presents results for a parent-based educational intervention targeting mealtime behaviors plus nutrition among families of young children (M age: 5.0±1.2 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods We recruited nine caregivers who participated in the six-session intervention and completed baseline and post-treatment assessments. Results Children’s mean daily glycemic levels decreased from 185±46 mg/dl to 159±40 mg/dl (p<0.001). There were also decreases in problematic parent and child mealtime behaviors. There was no change in children’s dietary intake indicators. Conclusions and Implications It appears promising that our targeted behavior plus nutrition intervention can improve glycemic control and behavior for young children with T1DM. Our next step will be to modify the intervention to improve our nutrition education modules. Ultimately, we plan to test the intervention in a large randomized clinical trial to examine if it can yield improvements to children’s diet and glycated hemoglobin levels. PMID:24438850

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of oral immunization with attenuated Salmonella typhimurium expressing Helicobacter pylori CagA, VacA and UreB fusion proteins in mice model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Yun; Shi, Yun; Luo, Ping; Yu, Shu; Chen, Li; Zhao, Zhuo; Mao, Xu-Hu; Guo, Gang; Wu, Chao; Zou, Quan-Ming

    2011-09-01

    Therapeutic vaccination is a desirable alternative for controlling Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. In the present study, attenuated Salmonella vector vaccines were constructed that expressed fusion proteins complexed with H. pylori CagA, VacA and UreB in different arrangements, and their therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in H. pylori-infected mice. Oral therapeutic immunization with attenuated Salmonella, which expressed the fused protein CVU, significantly decreased H. pylori colonization in the stomach; protection was related to specific CD4(+) T cell Th1 type responses and serum IgG and mucosal sIgA antibody responses. These findings suggested that therapeutic efficacy was related to the arrangement of the fusion protein. It is possible that arrangement decides the expression of recombinant antigen in mice, and the latter results in different therapeutic efficacy. The attenuated Salmonella vector vaccine, which expressed the fused protein arrangement CVU, is superior to others, and could be a candidate vaccine against H. pylori.

  11. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitory peptide attenuates Helicobacter pylori-mediated hyper-proliferation in AGS enteric epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Himaya, S.W.A.; Dewapriya, Pradeep; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-06-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most critical causes of stomach cancer. The current study was conducted to explore the protective effects of an isolated active peptide H-P-6 (Pro-Gln-Pro-Lys-Val-Leu-Asp-Ser) from microbial hydrolysates of Chlamydomonas sp. against H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. The peptide H-P-6 has effectively suppressed H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of gastric epithelial cells (AGS). However, the peptide did not inhibit the viability of the bacteria or invasion into AGS cells. Therefore, the effect of the peptide on regulating H. pylori-induced molecular signaling was investigated. The results indicated that H. pylori activates the EGFR tyrosine kinase signaling and nuclear translocation of the β-catenin. The EGFR activation has led to the up-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Moreover, the nuclear translocation levels of β-catenin were significantly increased as a result of Akt mediated down-regulation of GSK3/β protein levels in the cytoplasm. Both of these consequences have resulted in increased expression of cell survival and migration related genes such as c-Myc, cyclin-D, MMP-2 and matrilysin. Interestingly, the isolated peptide potently inhibited H. pylori-mediated EGFR activation and thereby down-regulated the subsequent P13K/Akt signaling leading to β-catenin nuclear translocation. The effect of the peptide was confirmed with the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1487 and molecular docking studies. Collectively this study identifies a potent peptide which regulates the H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of AGS cells at molecular level. - Highlights: • Chlamydomonas sp. derived peptide H-P-6 inhibits H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. • H-P-6 suppresses H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation and migration of AGS cells. • The peptide inhibits H. pylori-induced EGFR activation.

  12. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  13. Syphilitic Coronary Artery Ostial Stenosis Resulting in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nakazone, Marcelo A.; Machado, Maurício N.; Barbosa, Raphael B.; Santos, Márcio A.; Maia, Lilia N.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are well-known manifestations of tertiary syphilis infections which although not frequent, are still causes of morbidity and mortality. A less common manifestation of syphilitic aortitis is coronary artery ostial narrowing related to aortic wall thickening. We report a case of a 46-year-old male admitted due to acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction submitted to primary percutaneous coronary intervention successfully. Coronary angiography showed a suboccluded ostial lesion of left main coronary artery. VDRL was titrated to 1/512. The patient was discharged with treatment including benzathine penicillin. Previous case reports of acute myocardial infarction in association with syphilitic coronary artery ostial stenosis have been reported, but the fact that the patient was treated by percutaneous coronary intervention is unique in this case. PMID:21052501

  14. Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and drugs malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Lahner, Edith; Virili, Camilla; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Annibale, Bruno; Centanni, Marco

    2014-08-14

    Drug absorption represents an important factor affecting the efficacy of oral drug treatment. Gastric secretion and motility seem to be critical for drug absorption. A causal relationship between impaired absorption of orally administered drugs and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been proposed. Associations have been reported between poor bioavailability of l-thyroxine and l-dopa and H. pylori infection. According to the Maastricht Florence Consensus Report on the management of H. pylori infection, H. pylori treatment improves the bioavailability of both these drugs, whereas the direct clinical benefits to patients still await to be established. Less strong seems the association between H. pylori infection and other drugs malabsorption, such as delavirdine and ketoconazole. The exact mechanisms forming the basis of the relationship between H. pylori infection and impaired drugs absorption and/or bioavailability are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection may trigger a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, and impaired gastric acid secretion often follows. The reduction of acid secretion closely relates with the wideness and the severity of the damage and may affect drug absorption. This minireview focuses on the evidence of H. pylori infection associated with impaired drug absorption.

  16. Helicobacter pylori and allergy: Update of research

    PubMed Central

    Daugule, Ilva; Zavoronkova, Jelizaveta; Santare, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association. Although data from cohort studies point to a possible association of H. pylori with some of the allergic diseases, no definite proof for causal relationship has been clearly demonstrated yet. A biological mechanism proposed to explain the preventive action of H. pylori to allergy is reduced exposure to a major stimulus for the generation of Treg cells in individuals without H. pylori infection. In addition, H. pylori could be an indicator for changes in gut microbiome, reflecting the complex interaction between microbes and immune system. PMID:26713280

  17. The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Frank; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Turaev, Dmitrij; Herbig, Alexander; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hallows, Janice L; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Vigl, Eduard Egarter; Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Sullivan, Niall; Cipollini, Giovanna; Coia, Valentina; Samadelli, Marco; Engstrand, Lars; Linz, Bodo; Moritz, Robert L; Grimm, Rudolf; Krause, Johannes; Nebel, Almut; Moodley, Yoshan; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years. PMID:26744403

  18. The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman.

    PubMed

    Maixner, Frank; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Turaev, Dmitrij; Herbig, Alexander; Hoopmann, Michael R; Hallows, Janice L; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Vigl, Eduard Egarter; Malfertheiner, Peter; Megraud, Francis; O'Sullivan, Niall; Cipollini, Giovanna; Coia, Valentina; Samadelli, Marco; Engstrand, Lars; Linz, Bodo; Moritz, Robert L; Grimm, Rudolf; Krause, Johannes; Nebel, Almut; Moodley, Yoshan; Rattei, Thomas; Zink, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent human pathogens. It has dispersed globally with its human host, resulting in a distinct phylogeographic pattern that can be used to reconstruct both recent and ancient human migrations. The extant European population of H. pylori is known to be a hybrid between Asian and African bacteria, but there exist different hypotheses about when and where the hybridization took place, reflecting the complex demographic history of Europeans. Here, we present a 5300-year-old H. pylori genome from a European Copper Age glacier mummy. The "Iceman" H. pylori is a nearly pure representative of the bacterial population of Asian origin that existed in Europe before hybridization, suggesting that the African population arrived in Europe within the past few thousand years.

  19. Molecular cross-talk between Helicobacter pylori and human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Vittorio; Romano, Marco; Boquet, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has co-evolved with humans to be transmitted from person to person and to colonize the stomach persistently. A well-choreographed equilibrium between the bacterial effectors and host responses permits microbial persistence and health of the host, but confers a risk for serious diseases including gastric cancer. During its long coexistence with humans, H. pylori has developed complex strategies to limit the degree and extent of gastric mucosal damage and inflammation, as well as immune effector activity. The present editorial thus aims to introduce and comment on major advances in the rapidly developing area of H. pylori/human gastric mucosa interaction (and its pathological sequelae), which is the result of millennia of co-evolution of, and thus of reciprocal knowledge between, the pathogen and its human host. PMID:21472096

  20. A case management intervention targeted to reduce healthcare consumption for frequent Emergency Department visitors: results from an adaptive randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jacqueline; Dolk, Anders; Torgerson, Jarl; Nyberg, Svante; Skau, Tommy; Forsberg, Birger C.; Werr, Joachim; Öhlen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background A small group of frequent visitors to Emergency Departments accounts for a disproportionally large fraction of healthcare consumption including unplanned hospitalizations and overall healthcare costs. In response, several case and disease management programs aimed at reducing healthcare consumption in this group have been tested; however, results vary widely. Objectives To investigate whether a telephone-based, nurse-led case management intervention can reduce healthcare consumption for frequent Emergency Department visitors in a large-scale setup. Methods A total of 12 181 frequent Emergency Department users in three counties in Sweden were randomized using Zelen’s design or a traditional randomized design to receive either a nurse-led case management intervention or no intervention, and were followed for healthcare consumption for up to 2 years. Results The traditional design showed an overall 12% (95% confidence interval 4–19%) decreased rate of hospitalization, which was mostly driven by effects in the last year. Similar results were achieved in the Zelen studies, with a significant reduction in hospitalization in the last year, but mixed results in the early development of the project. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that a carefully designed telephone-based intervention with accurate and systematic patient selection and appropriate staff training in a centralized setup can lead to significant decreases in healthcare consumption and costs. Further, our results also show that the effects are sensitive to the delivery model chosen. PMID:25969342

  1. The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and inflammatory bowel disease based on meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gisbert, JP; Niv, Y; O’Morain, C

    2015-01-01

    Background In humans there are epidemiological data suggesting a protective effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection against the development of autoimmune diseases and in addition, there are laboratory data illustrating H. pylori’s ability to induce immune tolerance and limit inflammatory responses. Thus, numerous observational studies have examined the association between H. pylori infection and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with various results. Objective We performed a meta-analysis of available studies to better define the association of H. pylori infection and IBD. Methods Medical literature searches for human studies were performed through September 2014, using suitable keywords. In each study the risk ratio (RR) of H. pylori infection in IBD patients vs controls was calculated and pooled estimates were obtained using fixed- or random-effects models as appropriate. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated using Cochran Q test and I2 statistics, whereas the likelihood of publication bias was assessed by constructing funnel plots. Results Thirty-three studies were eligible for meta-analysis, including 4400 IBD patients and 4763 controls. Overall 26.5% of IBD patients were positive for H. pylori infection, compared to 44.7% of individuals in the control group. There was significant heterogeneity in the included studies (Q = 137.2, df (Q) =32, I2 = 77%, p < 0.001) and therefore the random-effects model of meta-analysis was used. The obtained pool RR estimation was 0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55–0.71, test for overall effect Z = –7.04, p < 0.001). There was no evidence of publication bias. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis showed a significant negative association between H. pylori infection and IBD that supports a possible protective benefit of H. pylori infection against the development of IBD. PMID:26668747

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in iron deficiency anaemia of pregnancy – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ria; Guleria, Kiran; Kaur, Iqbal; Sikka, Meera; Radhakrishnan, Gita

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Despite routine iron supplementation and promotion of diet modification, iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) remains widely prevalent in our antenatal population. Recent studies in pediatric population have highlighted the role of Helicobacter pylori infection in IDA. This study was undertaken to study the effect of eradication therapy in H. pylori infected pregnant women with IDA. Methods: Randomized placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial was done on 40 antenatal women between 14-30 wk gestation, with mild to moderate IDA and having H. pylori infection, as detected by stool antigen test. These women were randomly divided into group I (n=20): H. pylori treatment group (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, omeprazole for 2 wk) and group II (n=20): placebo group. Both groups received therapeutic doses of iron and folic acid. Outcome measures were improvement in haematological parameters and serum iron profile after 6 wk of oral iron therapy. Results: The prevalence of iron deficiency in pregnant women with mild to moderate anaemia was 39.8 per cent (95% CI 35.7, 44.3); and 62.5 per cent (95% CI 52, 73) of these pregnant women with IDA were infected with H. pylori. After 6 wk of therapeutic oral iron and folic acid supplementation, the rise in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, serum iron and percentage transferrin saturation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the group given H. pylori eradication therapy as compared to the placebo group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed a high occurrence of H. pylori infection in pregnant women with IDA. Eradication therapy resulted in significantly better response to oral iron supplementation among H. pylori infected pregnant women with IDA. PMID:21911976

  3. The Immunohistochemistry and Toluidine Blue Roles for Helicobacter pylori Detection in Patients with Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Tajalli, Raziye; Nobakht, Maliheh; Mohammadi-Barzelighi, Hajar; Agah, Shahram; Rastegar-Lari, Abdolaziz; Sadeghipour, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, which is associated with many upper gastrointestinal diseases, is found in half of the population of the world. Several special stains and immunohistochemistry stain for H. pylori are available. The need for and usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) technique has been debated for years. Toluidine blue is a simple stain for microbiological studies and is easily available in laboratories. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Giemsa and toluidine blue staining with immunehistochemistry for detection of H. pylori in patients with gastritis and also to correlate the results of these staining methods with pathological grading. Methods: We reviewed 54 consecutive gastric biopsy specimens stained by H&E and Giemsa as well as by toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry stains for H. pylori. Results: H. pylori was positively identified by IHC in 43 (79.63%) patients, while positive samples were found in 18 (33.33%), 24 (44.44%) and 33 (61.11%) patients using H&E, Giemsa and toluidine blue staining methods. Our results showed that classical histological staining methods are not sensitive enough to identify low numbers or coccoid forms of organism, while toluidine blue and immunohistochemistry play an important role in detection of H. pylori infection. Conclusion: Toluidine blue has been proved to be much more reliable than H&E and Giemsa in detection of H. pylori. In addition, in post treatment biopsies and in biopsies with unexplained chronic active gastritis without histological evidence of H. pylori should have immunohistochemistry done to detect possible low density or coccoid form of organisms. PMID:23279833

  4. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  5. [Helicobacter pylori antibiotic sensitivity by microdilution].

    PubMed

    Rivas, F; Rivera, P; Hernández, F; Hevia, F; Guillén, F; Tamayo, G

    2000-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as the major aetiologic agent of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and also a risk factor for gastric cancer; eradication of H pylori prevents peptic ulcer recurrence and may also decrease the prevalence of gastric cancer in high risk populations around the world. Currently the only accepted indication for treatment is ulcer disease and maltosa, infected with Helicobacter pilory. However treatment is difficult and easily develops resistance. The elaboration of an antibiotic profile is recommended after a treatment failure. There is a lack of information in developing countries so the aim of this work was to determine the antibiotic profile of 51 strains isolated from patients gastric biopsies attended at Hospital San Juan de Dios in Costa Rica, using egg yolk broth and finding a resistance of 63.0% to metronidazole with a breakpoint of 8.0 microg/ml and 20.0% resistance to tetracycline (MIC1.0 microg/ml), 6.0% to clarithromicyn with a MIC of 0.125 microg/ml. There was no resistance to amoxicilin (MIC 0.015 microg/ml). The microdilution technique is very laborious, but highly reproducible with results accordingly to previous work, and we recommended it for the designing of therapeutical scheme.

  6. Preventing Substance Abuse among Black and Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Results from a Computer-Delivered, Mother-Daughter Intervention Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C. A.

    2010-01-01

    This 2008 study involved 546 Black- and Hispanic-American adolescent girls and their mothers from New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Participants provided self-report data. Analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental intervention reduced risk factors, improved protective factors, and lowered girls' alcohol use and their future intentions to use substances. The study supports the value of computer-based and gender-specific interventions that involve girls and mothers. Future work needs to replicate and strengthen study results. Research support came from the National Institute on Drug Abuse within the National Institutes of Health of the United States Public Health Service. PMID:21190404

  7. Association of H. pylori infection with gastric carcinoma: A meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fu-Bo; Xu, Yong-Yong; Wan, Yi; Pan, Bo-Rong; Ren, Jun; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To follow the principles of evidence based medicine to reach the integrated results of these studies. METHODS: Twenty-one papers of case-control studies were selected, including 11 on gastric cancer, 7 on precancerous lesion of stomach and 3 on lymphoma of stomach. Meta analysis was used to sum up the odds ratios (OR) of these studies. RESULTS: H. pylori vsgastric cancer (intestinal and diffuse type): the odds ratio from the fixed effect model is 3.0016 (95% CI: 2.4197-3.7234, P < 0.001). H. pylori vs precancerous lesion of stomach: a random effect model was used to calculate the summary odds ratio and its value is 2.5635 (95% CI: 1.8477-3.5566, P < 0.01). H. pylori vs lymphoma of stomach: though the quantity of literature is too small to make Meta analysis, the data of these 3 studies show that lymphoma of stomach is highly associated with H. pylori infections. CONCLUSION: Since it had been revealed that H. pylori infection pre-exists in gastric carcinoma and precancerous lesions, the results of Meta analysis present a strong evidence to support the conclusion that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for gastric carcinoma. PMID:11854905

  8. Helicobacter pylori transiently in the mouth may participate in the transmission of infection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Denise G; Tinoco, Eduardo M B; Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Guerra, Juliana B; Saraiva, Ivan E B; Queiroz, Dulciene M M

    2010-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The oral cavity may be a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results of studies on this subject are controversial. We employed single-step and nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) to detect the presence of the vacA, ureA and 16S rDNA genes of H. pylori in the stomach, saliva and dental plaque of 30 subjects. The results were confirmed by sequencing. Nested 16S rDNA and ureA amplification was achieved in 80% of gastric, 30% of saliva and 20% of dental plaque specimens. Sequencing of 10, seven and four 16S rDNA products from stomach, saliva and dental plaque, respectively, showed > 99% identity with H. pylori. Sequencing of the other four oral cavity PCR products showed similarity with Campylobacter and Wolinella species. Additionally, the vacA genotype identified in the samples of different sites was the same within a given subject.H. pylori may be found in the oral cavity of patients with gastric infection, thus it could be a source of transmission. However, results obtained with detection methods based only on PCR should be interpreted with caution because other microorganisms that are phylogenetically very close to H. pylori are also present in the mouth.

  9. What do model results tell us regarding Climate Intervention (Geoengineering) strategies to counter high latitude climate change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    A number of modeling studies at various levels of complexity have taken place to explore consequences of climate intervention in countering climate change. I will review results from some of those studies, cover some new analysis, and identify areas where more study is needed, with a focus on high latitude climate.

  10. Imagine HEALTH: results from a randomized pilot lifestyle intervention for obese Latino adolescents using Interactive Guided ImagerySM

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for innovative and developmentally appropriate lifestyle interventions to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to prevent the early onset of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in obese Latino adolescents. Guided imagery offers promise to reduce stress and promote lifestyle behavior change to reduce disease risk in obese adolescents. Our objectives were: 1) To pilot test a new 12-wk lifestyle intervention using a randomized trial design in obese Latino adolescents, in order to determine the effects of the mind-body modality of Interactive Guided ImagerySM (IGI), over and above those of a didactic lifestyle education, on insulin resistance, eating and physical activity behaviors, stress and stress biomarkers; and 2) To explore the role of intervention-related changes in stress and stress biomarkers on changes in metabolic outcomes, particularly insulin resistance. Methods Obese (BMI > 95th percentile), Latino adolescents (n = 35, age 14-17) were randomized to receive either 12 weekly sessions of a lifestyle education plus guided imagery program (GI), or lifestyle education plus a digital storytelling computer program (DS). Between-group differences in behavioral, biological, and psychological outcomes were assessed using unpaired T-tests and ANCOVA in the 29 subjects who completed the intervention. Results The GI group demonstrated significant reductions in leisure sedentary behavior (p < .05) and increases in moderate physical activity (p < .05) compared to DS group, and a trend toward reduced caloric intake in GI vs DS (p = .09). Salivary cortisol was acutely reduced by stress-reduction guided imagery (p < .01). There were no group differences in adiposity, insulin resistance, perceived stress, or stress biomarkers across the 12-week intervention, though decrease in serum cortisol over the course of the intervention was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (p = .03) independent

  11. Histological identification of Helicobacter pylori: comparison of staining methods

    PubMed Central

    Rotimi, O; Cairns, A; Gray, S; Moayyedi, P; Dixon, M

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether two recently described staining methods (the modified McMullen's and the Helicobacter pylori silver stain HpSS methods) used for the histological identification of H pylori organisms are superior to two established techniques (the modified Giemsa and anti-H pylori antibody immunostain) in terms of availability, reproducibility, rapidity, sensitivity, and cost. Methods—Histological sections from 63 paired gastric biopsies from adult patients previously investigated for dyspepsia were stained with the four methods and these were assessed blindly and independently by two observers. Of the 63 patients, 30 were originally negative in all tests for H pylori infection, 30 were positive, and the remaining three cases had discordant results using a combination of five tests (rapid biopsy urease test, urea breath test, culture, serology, and histology). Results—Interobserver agreement was best with the antibody method (98%), followed by the McMullen's (90%), Giemsa (87%), and HpSS (85%). Of the 60 "gold standard" positive and negative cases, 30 were positive by the modified Giemsa stain, 29 by the McMullen's method, 29 by HpSS, and 30 by the antibody stain. However, there were two false positives with the HpSS method. The modified Giemsa is the cheapest and easiest to perform technically. Conclusions—When H pylori are present, careful examination will almost always reveal them, whichever of these stains is used. However, the modified Giemsa stain is the method of choice because it is sensitive, cheap, easy to perform, and reproducible. Key Words: Helicobacter organisms • histological identification • staining methods PMID:11064668

  12. Helicobacter pylori: epidemiology and routes of transmission.

    PubMed

    Brown, L M

    2000-01-01

    H. pylori is a common bacterium, and approximately 50 percent of the world's population has been estimated to be infected (198). Humans are the principal reservoir. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely by geographic area, age, race, ethnicity, and SES. Rates appear to be higher in developing than in developed countries, with most of the infections occurring during childhood, and they seem to be decreasing with improvements in hygiene practices. H. pylori causes chronic gastritis and has been associated with several serious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. Since its "discovery" in 1982 by Warren and Marshall (1), H. pylori has been the topic of extensive research. A number of studies have used questionnaire components to investigate factors possibly related to the etiology of H. pylori infection. The majority of recent studies have not found tobacco use or alcohol consumption to be risk factors for H. pylori infection. Adequate nutritional status, especially frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables and of vitamin C, appears to protect against infection with H. pylori. In contrast, food prepared under less than ideal conditions or exposed to contaminated water or soil may increase the risk. Overall, inadequate sanitation practices, low social class, and crowded or high-density living conditions seem to be related to a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection. This finding suggests that poor hygiene and crowded conditions may facilitate transmission of infection among family members and is consistent with data on intrafamilial and institutional clustering of H. pylori infection. Understanding the route of H. pylori transmission is important if public health measures to prevent its spread are to be implemented. Iatrogenic transmission of H. pylori following endoscopy is the only proven mode. For the general population, the most likely mode of transmission is from person to person, by either the

  13. Gastric biopsies: The gap between evidence-based medicine and daily practice in the management of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    El-Zimaity, Hala; Serra, Stefano; Szentgyorgyi, Eva; Vajpeyi, Rajkumar; Samani, Amir

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many consider histology to be the gold standard for Helicobacter pylori detection. Because the number and distribution of H pylori organisms vary, particularly in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the American Gastroenterological Association recommends discontinuing PPIs two weeks before endoscopy, and taking biopsies from both the body and antrum. OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of clinical practice on the histopathological detection of H pylori infection. METHODS: Electronic patient records were evaluated for the sites of gastric sampling and PPI use at endoscopy. One hundred fifty cases with biopsies taken from both antrum and body were randomly selected for pathological re-review with special stains. The gastric regions sampled, H pylori distribution and influence of clinical factors on pathological interpretation were assessed. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2010, 10,268 biopsies were taken to detect H pylori. Only one region was sampled in 60% of patients (antrum 47%, body 13%). Re-review of biopsies taken from both antrum and body indicated that the correct regions were sampled in only 85 (57%) patients. Of these, 54 were H pylori positive and 96 were H pylori negative. H pylori was present in the antrum in only 15% of the patients and body only in 21%. Of 96 H pylori-negative patients, two were reinterpreted as positive. Forty-seven per cent of patients were taking PPIs at endoscopy, contributing to both false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Despite national and international guidelines for managing H pylori infection, the American Gastroenterological Association guidelines are infrequently adhered to, with PPIs frequently contributing to false diagnosis; sampling one region only increases the likelihood of missing active infection by at least 15%. PMID:24106732

  14. Results of a volunteer program to conduct dietary intervention research for women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, D J; Kuniyuki, A; Shattuck, A; Nixon, D W; Sponzo, R W

    2000-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) initiated the Breast Cancer Dietary Intervention Project (BCDIP) to involve community volunteers in cancer-related intervention research activities focused on dietary fat reduction in women with breast cancer. This article presents data on the volunteer aspects of the project, with two aims: (a) to describe the volunteer recruitment and intervention designed for the BCDIP, conducted jointly by the American Cancer Society and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and (b) to present baseline characteristics and predictors of retention of the BCDIP volunteers. There were five types of volunteers, called volunteer adjunct researchers or VARs, in the BCDIP. VARs were recruited using a variety of approaches, including electronic media alerts, flyers in oncology clinics, and notices in the newsletters of state nursing and nutritional professional organizations. Over half of all VARs came from two main sources: the media (television, radio, newspapers) and from work-related sources. Over half (58%) of the VARs had professional licenses in nursing or dietetics, and 46% were employed full-time. Several types of motivations for participating in the BCDIP, including altruistic reasons (want to help others, help people with cancer), health concerns (family/friend with breast cancer, have had cancer), and work-related reasons (gain professional skills) were important. Sixty-eight percent of VARs remained with the project for its entirety. Predictors of retention in the VAR program included previous ACS volunteer experience with initial motivations to volunteer and the interaction of employment status and professional nursing training. In future research and community-based projects, better recruitment and volunteer coordination procedures should be used to reduce dropout rates and maintain volunteer commitment and participation.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and inflammatory bowel disease: Is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos J

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most widely spread infectious diseases in humans. It can cause chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies and has been associated with extra-gastric disorders. H. pylori elicit a chronic systemic inflammatory response which, under certain conditions, may trigger autoimmune reactions and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Although the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, it is thought to result from complex interactions between environmental factors and microbiota in the gut of individuals who are genetically susceptible. Several bacterial and viral agents have been implicated in the aetiology of IBD. In theory, H. pylori infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD by inducing alterations in gastric and/or intestinal permeability or by causing immunological derangements resulting in absorption of antigenic material and autoimmunity via various immunological pathways. Similar mechanisms may also be responsible for the co-existence of IBD with other autoimmune diseases and/or extra-intestinal manifestations. However, the epidemiological data fail to support this association. In fact, various studies indicate that the prevalence of H. pylori infection is low in patients with IBD, suggesting a protective role for this infection in the development of IBD. In this report, we aim to shed light on proposed mechanisms and confounding factors underlying the potential link between H. pylori infection and IBD. PMID:24914359

  16. Helicobacter pylori chronic infection and mucosal inflammation switches the human gastric glycosylation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Nairn, Alison V.; Rosa, Mitche dela; Ferreira, Rui M.; Junqueira-Neto, Susana; Freitas, Daniela; Gomes, Joana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Santos, Marta R.; Marcos, Nuno T.; Xiaogang, Wen; Figueiredo, Céu; Oliveira, Carla; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Moremen, Kelley W.; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori exploits host glycoconjugates to colonize the gastric niche. Infection can persist for decades promoting chronic inflammation, and in a subset of individuals lesions can silently progress to cancer. This study shows that H. pylori chronic infection and gastric tissue inflammation result in a remodeling of the gastric glycophenotype with increased expression of sialyl-Lewis a/x antigens due to transcriptional up-regulation of the B3GNT5, B3GALT5, and FUT3 genes. We observed that H. pylori infected individuals present a marked gastric local proinflammatory signature with significantly higher TNF-α levels and demonstrated that TNF-induced activation of the NF-kappaB pathway results in B3GNT5 transcriptional up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that this gastric glycosylation shift, characterized by increased sialylation patterns, favors SabA-mediated H. pylori attachment to human inflamed gastric mucosa. This study provides novel clinically relevant insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying H. pylori modulation of host glycosylation machinery, and phenotypic alterations crucial for life-long infection. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways here identified as responsible for gastric mucosa increased sialylation, in response to H. pylori infection, can be exploited as drug targets for hindering bacteria adhesion and counteract the infection chronicity. PMID:26144047

  17. Identification of a d-glycero-d-manno-Heptosyltransferase Gene from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Koji; Logan, Susan M.; Conlan, J. Wayne; Chandan, Vandana; Aubry, Annie; Smirnova, Natalia; Ulrichsen, Heather; Chan, Kenneth H. N.; Griffith, Douglas W.; Harrison, Blair A.; Li, Jianjun; Altman, Eleonora

    2005-01-01

    We have identified a Helicobacter pylori d-glycero-d-manno-heptosyltransferase gene, HP0479, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the outer core region of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Insertional inactivation of HP0479 resulted in formation of a truncated LPS molecule lacking an α-1,6-glucan-, dd-heptose-containing outer core region and O-chain polysaccharide. Detailed structural analysis of purified LPS from HP0479 mutants of strains SS1, 26695, O:3, and PJ1 by a combination of chemical and mass spectrometric methods showed that HP0479 likely encodes α-1,2-d-glycero-d-manno-heptosyltransferase, which adds a d-glycero-d-manno-heptose residue (DDHepII) to a distal dd-heptose of the core oligosaccharide backbone of H. pylori LPS. When the wild-type HP0479 gene was reintegrated into the chromosome of strain 26695 by using an “antibiotic cassette swapping” method, the complete LPS structure was restored. Introduction of the HP0479 mutation into the H. pylori mouse-colonizing Sydney (SS1) strain and the clinical isolate PJ1, which expresses dd-heptoglycan, resulted in the loss of colonization in a mouse model. This indicates that H. pylori expressing a deeply truncated LPS is unable to successfully colonize the murine stomach and provides evidence for a critical role of the outer core region of H. pylori LPS in colonization. PMID:16030209

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori glmM gene in bovine milk using Nested polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Eyman Y.; El-Eragi, A. M. S.; Musa, Abuobeida M.; El-Magboul, Salma B.; A/Rahman, Magdi B.; Abdo, Abdelmounem E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to detect the glmM gene of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in cow’s milk from different dairy farms in Khartoum State using Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 50 milk samples were collected from different dairy farms in Khartoum State (13 from Khartoum, 24 Khartoum North, and 13 from Omdurman Provinces). Results: The generated results showed that 11/50 (22%) were harboring the investigated H. pylori glmM gene in Khartoum State (1/13 [7.7%] Khartoum, 9/24 [37.5%] Khartoum North, and 1/13 [7.7%] Omdurman provinces, respectively). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the detection of H. pylori glmM gene in cattle milk in Khartoum State. Nonetheless, the high percentages of H. pylori DNA detection in milk opened new avenues toward exploring the risk of human infection with H. pylori through the consumption of raw milk. PMID:27047175

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection with a duodenal ulcer in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hajikano, Miharu; Katsube, Yasuhiro; Takita, Yuko; Okada, Takuya; Asai, Makiko; Fujimatsu, Mariko; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Kamisago, Mitsuhiro; Fujita, Takehisa; Shioya, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Akira

    2006-10-01

    A 6-year-old boy was hospitalized because of dark feces and facial pallor of 1 weeks duration. Other gastrointestinal symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, were absent, but he felt dizziness when standing and fatigue on effort. Hematologic studies revealed iron-deficiency anemia, and endoscopy showed gastric erosions and a duodenal ulcer. All test results for Helicobacter pylori infection, including H. pylori antigen in stool, anti-H. pylori IgG immunoassay in serum, and the (13)C-urea breath test, were positive. Because an H. pylori-associated gastric ulcer had been diagnosed with endoscopy in the patients father 3 years earlier, father-son transmission was suspected. The patient was treated with triple-agent eradication therapy (proton pump inhibitor [lansoprazol], amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) for 2 weeks. One month after therapy was completed, eradication of H. pylori was confirmed by negative results on the stool antigen test. Peptic ulcer disease can occur in young children, as in this case. The stool antigen test kit is a useful and reliable method that can be used even in preschool children to diagnose H. pylori infection. PMID:17106182

  20. Influence of various proton pump inhibitors on intestinal metaplasia in noneradicated Helicobacter pylori patients

    PubMed Central

    Marusic, Marinko; Babic, Zarko; Nesanovic, Mirjana; Lucijanic-Mlinac, Mira; Stajcar, Vesna

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is more often found in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, while eradication of H pylori results in significant reduction in the severity and activity of chronic gastritis. We aimed to determine in patients with unsuccessful eradication of H pylori the role of various proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) having different mechanisms in the resolution of IM. METHODS: We confirmed endoscopically and pathohistol-ogically (Sydney classification) the IM in 335 patients with gastritis before and after medication for eradication of H pylori (Maastricht Protocol 2002). H pylori infection was determined by using histology, urease test and culture. Control endoscopy and histology were done after 30 d and thereafter (within 1 year). Unsuccessful eradication was considered if only one of the three tests (histology, urease and culture) was negative after therapy protocol. We used omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole in therapy protocols (in combination with two antibiotics). RESULTS: We found no significant difference in resolution of IM by using different PPI between the groups of eradicated and noneradicated patients (P<0.4821 and P<0.4388, respectively). CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference in resolu-tion of intestinal metaplasia by different proton pump inhibitors. PMID:15818748

  1. Building youths' resilience within a psychiatric outpatient setting: results from a pilot clinical intervention project.

    PubMed

    Waaktaar, Trine; Christie, Helen J; Borge, Anne Inger Helmen; Torgersen, Svenn

    2004-02-01

    The relevance of resilience research for clinical practice has not yet been established. In this intervention pilot study, the aim was to explore how group work based on enhancing the participants' creativity, self-efficacy, active coping, and sense of continuity could be utilized within a clinical context for adolescents with stressful background experiences. 31 participants and 24 parents completed pre-, post-, and 1-yr. follow-up assessments of the youths' behavior difficulties, as well as depression, positive life attitude, coping, and prosocial behavior. Apart from a drop in self-rated prosocial behavior, no significant treatment effects were found. Implications for clinical practice and research are indicated.

  2. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  3. Assessment of Risk Factors of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Peptic Ulcer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mhaskar, Rahul S; Ricardo, Izurieta; Azliyati, Azizan; Laxminarayan, Rajaram; Amol, Bapaye; Santosh, Walujkar; Boo, Kwa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer. There have been no studies addressing environmental and dietary risk factors in western India. We conducted a case control study enrolling peptic ulcer patients in Pune, India. Materials and Methods: Risk factors for peptic ulcer and H. pylori infection were assessed in a participant interview. H. pylori status was assessed from stool by monoclonal antigen detection. Results: We enrolled 190 peptic ulcer, 35 stomach cancer patients, and 125 controls. Fifty-one percent (180/350) of the participants were infected with H. pylori. Lower socioeconomic status (SES) [odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.39], meat consumption (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.23), smoking (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.24–4.02), eating restaurant food (OR: 3.77, 95% CI: 1.39–10.23), and drinking nonfiltered or nonboiled water (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.23) were risk factors for H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.03–2.89), meat (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75), fish (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.89) consumption, and a family history of ulcer (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08–1.60) were risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10–0.37) and parasite infestation (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80) were protective against H. pylori infection. Conclusion: H. pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcer. Lower SES, consumption of restaurant food, meat, nonfiltered water, and smoking are risk factors for H. pylori. Consumption of meat, fish, and a family history of peptic ulcer are risk factors for peptic ulcer. Consumption of chili peppers and concurrent parasite infestation appear to be protective against H. pylori. PMID:23853433

  4. A Physical Activity Intervention to Treat the Frailty Syndrome in Older Persons—Results From the LIFE-P Study

    PubMed Central

    Vellas, Bruno; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Newman, Anne B.; Doss, Hani; King, Abby C.; Manini, Todd M.; Church, Timothy; Gill, Thomas M.; Miller, Michael E.; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background. The frailty syndrome is as a well-established condition of risk for disability. Aim of the study is to explore whether a physical activity (PA) intervention can reduce prevalence and severity of frailty in a community-dwelling elders at risk of disability. Methods. Exploratory analyses from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot, a randomized controlled trial enrolling 424 community-dwelling persons (mean age=76.8 years) with sedentary lifestyle and at risk of mobility disability. Participants were randomized to a 12-month PA intervention versus a successful aging education group. The frailty phenotype (ie, ≥3 of the following defining criteria: involuntary weight loss, exhaustion, sedentary behavior, slow gait speed, poor handgrip strength) was measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Repeated measures generalized linear models were conducted. Results. A significant (p = .01) difference in frailty prevalence was observed at 12 months in the PA intervention group (10.0%; 95% confidence interval = 6.5%, 15.1%), relative to the successful aging group (19.1%; 95% confidence interval = 13.9%,15.6%). Over follow-up, in comparison to successful aging participants, the mean number of frailty criteria in the PA group was notably reduced for younger subjects, blacks, participants with frailty, and those with multimorbidity. Among the frailty criteria, the sedentary behavior was the one most affected by the intervention. Conclusions. Regular PA may reduce frailty, especially in individuals at higher risk of disability. Future studies should be aimed at testing the possible benefits produced by multidomain interventions on frailty. PMID:25387728

  5. Clinical proteomics identifies potential biomarkers in Helicobacter pylori for gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2014-02-14

    The development of gastrointestinal diseases has been found to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and various biochemical stresses in stomach and intestine. These stresses, such as oxidative, osmotic and acid stresses, may bring about bi-directional effects on both hosts and H. pylori, leading to changes of protein expression in their proteomes. Therefore, proteins differentially expressed in H. pylori under various stresses not only reflect gastrointestinal environment but also provide useful biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In this regard, proteomic technology is an ideal tool to identify potential biomarkers as it can systematically monitor proteins and protein variation on a large scale of cell's translational landscape, permitting in-depth analyses of host and pathogen interactions. By performing two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by liquid chromatography-nanoESI-mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), we have successfully pinpointed alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), neutrophil-activating protein and non-heme iron-binding ferritin as three prospective biomarkers showing up-regulation in H. pylori under oxidative, osmotic and acid stresses, respectively. Further biochemical characterization reveals that various environmental stresses can induce protein structure change and functional conversion in the identified biomarkers. Especially salient is the antioxidant enzyme AhpC, an abundant antioxidant protein present in H. pylori. It switches from a peroxide reductase of low-molecular-weight (LMW) oligomers to a molecular chaperone of high-molecular-weight (HMW) complexes under oxidative stress. Different seropositivy responses against LMW or HMW AhpC in H. pylori-infected patients faithfully match the disease progression from disease-free healthy persons to patients with gastric ulcer and cancer. These results has established AhpC of H. pylori as a promising diagnostic marker for

  6. HIV-Helicobacter pylori Co-Infection: Antibiotic Resistance, Prevalence, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Nkuize, Marcel; De Wit, Stéphane; Muls, Vinciane; Delforge, Marc; Miendje Deyi, Véronique Y.; Cadière, Guy B.; Buset, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer due to the availability of more potent treatments. However, prescription of antibiotics to treat or prevent infections in these patients may increase the likelihood of co-infection with antibiotic-resistant species. Aim To compare antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and assess risk-factors for resistance. Methods We prospectively collected data from consecutive HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients with H. pylori-positive gastric biopsies who had never received H. pylori treatment were included. Results Of the 353 patients included, 93 were HIV-positive and 260 HIV-negative. Among the HIV-positive patients, 56 (60%) had been infected for <10 years, the median CD4+ count was 493 cells/μl and median viral load was 61 copies/mL; 66 (71%) were receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV-positive patients were more often male (p = 0.009), had a lower body mass index (p<0.0001), and had less frequently received antibiotics during the 12-months prior to the endoscopy (p<0.0001) than HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients were more likely to have H. pylori resistant to levofloxacin (p = 0.0004), metronidazole (p = 0.01), or multiple antibiotics (p = 0.006). HIV-positive Black Africans were more likely to have resistant strains than were HIV-negative Black Africans (p = 0.04). Ethnicity and HIV status were independent risk factors for H. pylori resistance in all patients and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sex were risk factors in HIV-positive patients. Conclusions There was a higher prevalence of primary H. pylori-resistant strains in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative patients. AIDS and sex were predictors of H. pylori resistance in HIV-positive patients. PMID:26691198

  7. Interaction between inflammatory mediators and miRNAs in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Biselli-Périco, Joice Matos; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Severino, Fábio Eduardo; Reis, Patricia P; Cordeiro, José Antonio; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2016-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori cause chronic inflammation favouring gastric carcinogenesis, and its eradication may prevent malignant transformation. We evaluated whether H. pylori infection and its eradication modify the expression of inflammatory mediators in patients with chronic gastritis. Furthermore, we assessed whether microRNAs modulate inflammatory pathways induced by H. pylori and identified miRNA-gene interaction networks. mRNA and protein expression of TNFA, IL6, IL1B, IL12A, IL2 and TGFBRII and miRNAs miR-103a-3p, miR-181c-5p, miR-370-3p, miR-375 and miR-223-3p were evaluated in tissue samples from 20 patients with chronic gastritis H. pylori negative (Hp-) and 31 H. pylori positive (Hp+), before and three months after bacterium eradication therapy, in comparison with a pool of Hp- normal gastric mucosa. Our results showed that H. pylori infection leads to up-regulation of TNFA, IL6, IL12A and IL2 and down-regulation of miRNAs. Bacterium eradication reduces the expression of TNFA and IL6 and up-regulates TGFBRII and all investigated miRNAs, except miR-223-3p. Moreover, transcriptional profiles of inflammatory mediators and miRNAs after eradication are different from the non-infected group. Deregulated miRNA-mRNA interaction networks were observed in the Hp+ group before and after eradication. Therefore, miRNAs modulated cytokine expression in the presence of H. pylori and after its eradication, suggesting that miRNAs participate in the pathological process triggered by H. pylori in the gastric mucosa.

  8. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in a Mexican Pre-Columbian Mummy

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cerbón, Marco A; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies showed that Helicobacter pylori existed in the New World prior to the arrival of Columbus. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in pre-Columbian mummies from Northern Mexico. Methods Six samples were studied (four samples of gastric remains, tongue-soft palate, and brain remained as negative controls) from two of the six naturally mummified corpses studied (adult male and infant male). Samples were taken from tissues suitable for DNA amplification by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted and H. pylori detection was carried out by PCR and hybridized with the pHp probe from 16S rRNA gene. The purified PCR products were cloned and sequenced in both directions. DNA sequences were analyzed with ALIGN and BLAST software. A second amplification was performed using ureB gene by real-time PCR. Results From four samples of gastric remnant, only two were H. pylori-positive for amplification of a 109 bp DNA fragment; the remaining two were negative, as were the tongue-soft palate and the brain biopsies as well. These PCR products were hybridized with a pHp probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed homology with H. pylori in 98 of 99% when compared with the gene bank nucleotide sequence. Only one sample of gastric remnant H. pylori-positive with 16S rRNA gene was also positive for ureB gene from H. pylori. Conclusion This data supported infection with H. pylori in Mexican pre-Columbian mummies dating from approximately 1,350 AC. PMID:18627597

  9. Oxidative DNA damage as a potential early biomarker of Helicobacter pylori associated carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Raza, Yasir; Khan, Adnan; Farooqui, Amber; Mubarak, Muhammad; Facista, Alex; Akhtar, Syed Shakeel; Khan, Saeed; Kazi, Javed Iqbal; Bernstein, Carol; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2014-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is an established risk factor for gastritis, gastric ulcer, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. CagA +ve H. pylori has been associated with oxidative DNA damage of gastric mucosa but their combined role in the development of gastric cancer is still unknown. Here we compare the combined expression of cagA and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in normal, gastritis and gastric cancer tissues. Two hundred gastric biopsies from patients with dyspeptic symptoms, 70 gastric cancer tissue samples and 30 gastric biopsies from non-dyspeptic individuals (controls) were included in this study and 8-OHdG was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Histological features and the presence of H. pylori infection were demonstrated by Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE), Giemsa and alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff ± diastase (AB-PAS ± D) staining. DNA was extracted from tissues and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed to determine the presence of ureaseA and cagA genes of H. pylori. The results showed the presence of H. pylori in 106 (53 %) gastric biopsies out of 200 dyspeptic patients, including 70 (66 %) cases of cagA + ve H. pylori. The presence of cagA gene and high expression of 8-OHdG was highly correlated with severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer particularly, in cases with infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells (36.8 % cagA + ve, 18 %), neutrophilic activity (47.2 %, 25.5 %), intestinal metaplasia (77.7 %, 35.7 %) and intestinal type gastric cancer (95 %, 95.4 %) (p ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, H. Pylori cagA gene expression and the detection of 8-OHdG adducts in gastric epithelium can serve as potential early biomarkers of H. Pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. The Influence of Mucus Microstructure and Rheology in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bansil, Rama; Celli, Jonathan P.; Hardcastle, Joseph M.; Turner, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), has evolved to survive in the highly acidic environment of the stomach and colonize on the epithelial surface of the gastric mucosa. Its pathogenic effects are well known to cause gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. In order to infect the stomach and establish colonies on the mucus epithelial surface, the bacterium has to move across the gel-like gastric mucus lining of the stomach under acidic conditions. In this review we address the question of how the bacterium gets past the protective mucus barrier from a biophysical perspective. We begin by reviewing the molecular structure of gastric mucin and discuss the current state of understanding concerning mucin polymerization and low pH induced gelation. We then focus on the viscoelasticity of mucin in view of its relevance to the transport of particles and bacteria across mucus, the key first step in H. pylori infection. The second part of the review focuses on the motility of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels, and how infection with H. pylori in turn impacts the viscoelastic properties of mucin. We present recent microscopic results tracking the motion of H. pylori in mucin solutions and gels. We then discuss how the biochemical strategy of urea hydrolysis required for survival in the acid is also relevant to the mechanism that enables flagella-driven swimming across the mucus gel layer. Other aspects of the influence of H. pylori infection such as, altering gastric mucin expression, its rate of production and its composition, and the influence of mucin on factors controlling H. pylori virulence and proliferation are briefly discussed with references to relevant literature. PMID:24133493

  11. Resveratrol Protects against Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastritis by Combating Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Jiang, Anmin; Qi, Banghua; Ma, Zhongyou; Xiong, Youyi; Dou, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-11-20

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced oxidative stress has been shown to play a very important role in the inflammation of the gastric mucosa and increases the risk of developing gastric cancer. Resveratrol has many biological functions and activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The purpose of this study was to probe whether resveratrol inhibits H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of any effect in mice. A mouse model of H. pylori infection was established via oral inoculation with H. pylori. After one week, mice were administered resveratrol (100 mg/kg body weight/day) orally for six weeks. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and IL-8 were assessed using RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. The expression levels of IκBα and phosphorylated IκBα (which embodies the level and activation of NF-κB), Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1; a potent antioxidant enzyme) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined using Western blot, and lipid peroxide (LPO) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were examined using an MPO colorimetric activity assay, thiobarbituric acid reaction, and histological-grade using HE staining of the gastric mucosa. The results showed that resveratrol improved the histological infiltration score and decreased LPO level and MPO activity in the gastric mucosa. Resveratrol down-regulated the H. pylori-induced mRNA transcription and protein expression levels of IL-8 and iNOS, suppressed H. pylori-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, and increased the levels of HO-1 and Nrf2. In conclusion, resveratrol treatment exerted significant effects against oxidative stress and inflammation in H. pylori-infected mucosa through the suppression of IL-8, iNOS, and NF-κB, and moreover through the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  12. Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity of Liposomal Linolenic Acid against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Woo; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Zhang, Liangfang; Obonyo, Marygorret

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects approximately half of the world population and is a major cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Moreover, this bacterium has quickly developed resistance to all major antibiotics. Recently, we developed a novel liposomal linolenic acid (LipoLLA) formulation, which showed potent bactericidal activity against several clinical isolated antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori including both the spiral and coccoid form. In addition, LipoLLA had superior in vivo efficacy compared to the standard triple therapy. Our data showed that LipoLLA associated with H. pylori cell membrane. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possible antibacterial mechanism of LipoLLA against H. pylori. The antibacterial activity of LipoLLA (C18:3) was compared to that of liposomal stearic acid (LipoSA, C18:0) and oleic acid (LipoOA, C18:1). LipoLLA showed the most potent bactericidal effect and completely killed H. pylori within 5 min. The permeability of the outer membrane of H. pylori increased when treated with LipoOA and LipoLLA. Moreover, by detecting released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from bacteria, we found that bacterial plasma membrane of H. pylori treated with LipoLLA exhibited significantly higher permeability than those treated with LipoOA, resulting in bacteria cell death. Furthermore, LipoLLA caused structural changes in the bacterial membrane within 5 min affecting membrane integrity and leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents, observed by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Our findings showing rapid bactericidal effect of LipoLLA suggest it is a very promising new, effective anti-H. pylori agent. PMID:25793403

  13. Results of a large-scale randomized behavior change intervention on road safety in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Habyarimana, James; Jack, William

    2015-01-01

    Road accidents kill 1.3 million people each year, most in the developing world. We test the efficacy of evocative messages, delivered on stickers placed inside Kenyan matatus, or minibuses, in reducing road accidents. We randomize the intervention, which nudges passengers to complain to their drivers directly, across 12,000 vehicles and find that on average it reduces insurance claims rates of matatus by between one-quarter and one-third and is associated with 140 fewer road accidents per year than predicted. Messages promoting collective action are especially effective, and evocative images are an important motivator. Average maximum speeds and average moving speeds are 1–2 km/h lower in vehicles assigned to treatment. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no placebo effect. We were unable to discern any impact of a complementary radio campaign on insurance claims. Finally, the sticker intervention is inexpensive: we estimate the cost-effectiveness of the most impactful stickers to be between $10 and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved. PMID:26261326

  14. Results of a large-scale randomized behavior change intervention on road safety in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Habyarimana, James; Jack, William

    2015-08-25

    Road accidents kill 1.3 million people each year, most in the developing world. We test the efficacy of evocative messages, delivered on stickers placed inside Kenyan matatus, or minibuses, in reducing road accidents. We randomize the intervention, which nudges passengers to complain to their drivers directly, across 12,000 vehicles and find that on average it reduces insurance claims rates of matatus by between one-quarter and one-third and is associated with 140 fewer road accidents per year than predicted. Messages promoting collective action are especially effective, and evocative images are an important motivator. Average maximum speeds and average moving speeds are 1-2 km/h lower in vehicles assigned to treatment. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no placebo effect. We were unable to discern any impact of a complementary radio campaign on insurance claims. Finally, the sticker intervention is inexpensive: we estimate the cost-effectiveness of the most impactful stickers to be between $10 and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved.

  15. The effect of a brief social intervention on the examination results of UK medical students: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I Chris; Gill, Deborah; Dacre, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority (EM) medical students and doctors underperform academically, but little evidence exists on how to ameliorate the problem. Psychologists Cohen et al. recently demonstrated that a written self-affirmation intervention substantially improved EM adolescents' school grades several months later. Cohen et al.'s methods were replicated in the different setting of UK undergraduate medical education. Methods All 348 Year 3 white (W) and EM students at one UK medical school were randomly allocated to an intervention condition (writing about one's own values) or a control condition (writing about another's values), via their tutor group. Students and assessors were blind to the existence of the study. Group comparisons on post-intervention written and OSCE (clinical) assessment scores adjusted for baseline written assessment scores were made using two-way analysis of covariance. All assessment scores were transformed to z-scores (mean = 0 standard deviation = 1) for ease of comparison. Comparisons between types of words used in essays were calculated using t-tests. The study was covered by University Ethics Committee guidelines. Results Groups were statistically identical at baseline on demographic and psychological factors, and analysis was by intention to treat [intervention group EM n = 95, W n = 79; control group EM n = 77; W n = 84]. As predicted, there was a significant ethnicity by intervention interaction [F(4,334) = 5.74; p = 0.017] on the written assessment. Unexpectedly, this was due to decreased scores in the W intervention group [mean difference = 0.283; (95% CI = 0.093 to 0.474] not improved EM intervention group scores [mean difference = -0.060 (95% CI = -0.268 to 0.148)]. On the OSCE, both W and EM intervention groups outperformed controls [mean difference = 0.261; (95%CI = -0.047 to -0.476; p = 0.013)]. The intervention group used more optimistic words (p < 0.001) and more "I" and "self" pronouns in their essays (p < 0.001), whereas

  16. Electromagnetic tracking system for minimal invasive interventions using a C-arm system with CT option: first clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Markus; Hoheisel, Martin; Bill, Ulrich; Klingenbeck-Regn, Klaus; Kalender, Willi A.; Petzold, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    To ensure precise needle placement in soft tissue of a patient for e.g. biopsies, the intervention is normally carried out image-guided. Whereas there are several imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, ultrasound, or C-arm X-ray systems with CT-option, navigation systems for such minimally invasive interventions are still quite rare. However, prototypes and also first commercial products of optical and electromagnetic tracking systems demonstrated excellent clinical results. Such systems provide a reduction of control scans, a reduction of intervention time, and an improved needle positioning accuracy specially for deep and double oblique access. Our novel navigation system CAPPA IRAD EMT with electromagnetic tracking for minimally invasive needle applications is connected to a C-arm imaging system with CT-option. The navigation system was investigated in clinical interventions by different physicians and with different clinical applications. First clinical results demonstrated a high accuracy during needle placement and a reduction of control scans.

  17. Involvement of the heparan sulphate-binding proteins of Helicobacter pylori in its adherence to HeLa S3 and Kato III cell lines.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Murillo, M A; Ruiz-Bustos, E; Ho, B; Ascencio, F

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether Helicobacter pylori heparan sulphate-binding proteins (HSBPs) are involved in the adherence of H. pylori to HeLa and Kato III cells, monolayers were pre-incubated with various preparations and concentrations of H. pylori HSBPs at 37 degrees C, washed and then challenged with bacteria. HSBPs did not prevent but enhanced H. pylori adherence. However, challenging cultured cells with H. pylori previously incubated with rabbit anti-HSBP IgG resulted in significant inhibition of bacterial adherence. These data demonstrate that the extracellular HSBP plays an important role in promoting H. pylori attachment to Kato III and HeLa S3 cells, that adhesion of H. pylori to Kato III and HeLa S3 cells is promoted by the presence of the 71.5-kDa extracellular HSBP and that rabbit polyclonal antibodies against this HSBP can inhibit adhesion of H. pylori to the cultured cell lines and detach cell-bound H. pylori. PMID:11289517

  18. Defined Media for H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been widely studied since its discovery in 1982 by Marshall and Warren (1), but many aspects of its structure, metabolism, and physiology, including its specific growth requirements, are still largely unknown, The organism is generally grown in complex media containing tissue extracts (e.g., of brain or heart) or proteolytic enzyme digests of meat or casein supplemented with blood or serum, which has made the metabolic pathways utilized by the bacterium difficult to determine. For example, although early studies based on acid formation from sugars and detection of preformed enzymes found no evidence of saccharide fermentative pathways (2,3), more recent evidence indicates that H. pylori does indeed catabolize sugars. In a series of studies, Mendz, Hazell, and colleagues found clear evidence for the pentose phosphate pathway (4), glucokinase activity (5), and the fermentation of glucose to lactate (6). PMID:21351021

  19. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p < 0.0001), reddish (p = 0.0001), and smaller (p = 0.0095) lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm) and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p = 0.077, 0.0867, resp.). Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. PMID:27212944

  20. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Tahara, Tomomitsu; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p < 0.0001), reddish (p = 0.0001), and smaller (p = 0.0095) lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm) and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p = 0.077, 0.0867, resp.). Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. PMID:27212944

  1. Chromatographic immunoassays for Helicobacter pylori detection – are they reliable in Mali, West Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Austarheim, Ingvild; Inngjerdingen, Kari Tvete; Paulsen, Berit Smestad; Togola, Adiaratou; Diakité, Chiaka; Diallo, Drissa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal diseases are major reasons for morbidity in Mali. As Helicobacter pylori is known to play a major role in gastritis and gastric ulcer we wanted to find a simple method for detection. Methods Twenty-nine volunteers with confirmed gastric ulcer by gastroscopy and 59 randomly selected volunteers were diagnosed by using the rapid serological test Clearview® H. Pylori. The ImmunoCard STAT!® HpSA®test was applied on stool from 65 volunteers seeking help for gastrointestinal related ailments. Results A Helicobacter pylori prevalence of 21% was found among the individuals with confirmed gastric ulcer, 44% among the randomly selected volunteers and 14% in individuals with gastrointestinal related ailments. Conclusion According to what is already known about the aetiology of gastric ailments and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in neighboring countries, the infection rates in our study appear strikingly low. This might indicate that Clearview® H. Pylori and ImmunoCard STAT!® HpSA® have low sensitivities in the populations studied. Strain variability of H. Pylori may be an explanation. The tests need to be properly evaluated in Mali before they can be relied upon as diagnostic tools. PMID:23646208

  2. [A multicenter study of a new Helicobacter pylori selective medium. Columbia horse blood agar HP].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Miyuki; Amano, Ayako; Muraoka, Hiroe; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Kimoto, Mami; Kato, Mototsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Nasu, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    We conducted a study for the growth of and selectivity for the desired microorganisms using a newly developed selective culture medium for Helicobacter pylori, Columbia horse blood agar HP (CHBHP), at three different Japanese clinical laboratories, Hokkaido, Kanto and Kyusyu. When standard strains and clinical isolates of H. pylori were examined, the recovery of the organism on the CHBHP media was comparable to that of conventional selective and nonselective media. However, colonies were obviously larger on the CHBHP media. These media yielded the highest H. pylori positive rate for clinical specimens at all the three laboratories. The detection rate of the CHBHP media in H. pylori-positive specimens was higher than that of media commonly used at the three laboratories (98.1% to 100% vs. 88.0% to 96.2%). The CHBHP media also achieved a higher detection rate for specimens from H. pylori-infected animals. CHBHP media have an excellent growth supporting ability and selectivity originating from Columbia agar base and do not require the combined use of non-selective media for the growth and isolation of the organism, resulting in lower cost. Thus, they are useful media for the selective culture and isolation of H. pylori from clinical and animal specimens.

  3. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-Chun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Li, Ju-Pi; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hua-Shan; Sun, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Ling; Lee, Ju-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. PMID:27738429

  4. Latest insights into the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kazunari; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    There appears to be the strong association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and gastric cancer. We reviewed the latest evidences about the effects of H pylori infection on gastric carcinogenesis, classified into epidemiology, dynamics of gastric mucosal changes, DNA damages, virulence factors, host factors, and source of gastric malignancy. Through the considerable progress made in research into virulence factors resulting from differences between H pylori strains, such as cagA positivity, as well as into host factors, such as gene polymorphisms, a diverse spectrum of H pylori-associated diseases, including gastric cancer, is beginning to lend itself to elucidation. The impact of the novel hypothesis advanced by Houghton et al proposing bone-marrow derived stem cells (BMDC) as a potential source of gastric malignancy on evolving research remains to be seen with interest. Further progress in research into H pylori eradication as a viable prophylaxis of gastric cancer, as well as into the mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, is to be eagerly awaited for the current year and beyond. PMID:16718758

  5. Evolutionary History of the Helicobacter pylori Genome: Implications for Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Piazuelo, M. Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori has evolved over the millennia since its migration out of Africa along with its human host approximately 60,000 years ago. Human migrations, after thousands of years of permanent settlement in those lands, resulted in seven prototypes of genetic populations of H. pylori with distinct geographical distributions. In all continents, present day isolates of H. pylori have molecular markers that reflect population migrations. The colonization of the Americas as well as the slave trade introduced European and African strains to the New World. The relationship between H. pylori genome and gastric cancer rates is linked to the presence of the cagA gene, but the knowledge on this subject is incomplete because other genes may be involved in certain populations. A new situation for Homo sapiens is the absence of H. pylori colonization in certain, mostly affluent, populations, apparently brought about by improved home sanitation and widespread use of antibiotics during the last decades. The disappearance of H. pylori from the human microbiota may be linked to emerging epidemics of esophageal adenocarcinoma, some allergic diseases such as asthma and some autoimmune disorders. PMID:22375167

  6. Variability in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Strains Resistant to Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin in Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karczewska, Elżbieta; Klesiewicz, Karolina; Skiba, Iwona; Wojtas-Bonior, Izabela; Sito, Edward; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Zwolińska-Wcisło, Małgorzata; Budak, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Background. An increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to antimicrobial agents is the serious therapeutic problem. The aim of this study was to compare the primary and secondary resistance of H. pylori strains isolated between 2006–2008 (data published) and 2009–2011 to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Material and Methods. 220 dyspeptic patients (153 before treatment, 67 after), were enrolled in the study. 51 H. pylori strains were isolated. MIC values of clarithromycin and levofloxacin were determined by the E-test method. The statistical analysis was conducted with the χ2 test with Yates correction at the 0.05 significance level (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Between 2006 and 2008, 34% (39/115) of H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin (primary 21% (19/90), secondary 80% (20/25)). 5% (6/115) of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (primary 2% (2/90), secondary 16% ((4/25); data published) Between 2009–2011, 22% (11/51) of H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin (primary 19% (8/43), secondary 38% (3/8)). 16% (8/51) of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (primary 12% (5/43), secondary 38% (3/8)). Conclusion. The present study has shown the increasing amount of resistant H. pylori strains isolated from patients in Southern Poland to levofloxacin and decreasing number of resistant strains to clarithromycin. PMID:22693490

  7. Variability in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Strains Resistant to Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin in Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Elżbieta; Klesiewicz, Karolina; Skiba, Iwona; Wojtas-Bonior, Izabela; Sito, Edward; Czajecki, Krzysztof; Zwolińska-Wcisło, Małgorzata; Budak, Alicja

    2012-01-01

    Background. An increasing resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to antimicrobial agents is the serious therapeutic problem. The aim of this study was to compare the primary and secondary resistance of H. pylori strains isolated between 2006-2008 (data published) and 2009-2011 to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Material and Methods. 220 dyspeptic patients (153 before treatment, 67 after), were enrolled in the study. 51 H. pylori strains were isolated. MIC values of clarithromycin and levofloxacin were determined by the E-test method. The statistical analysis was conducted with the χ(2) test with Yates correction at the 0.05 significance level (P ≤ 0.05). Results. Between 2006 and 2008, 34% (39/115) of H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin (primary 21% (19/90), secondary 80% (20/25)). 5% (6/115) of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (primary 2% (2/90), secondary 16% ((4/25); data published) Between 2009-2011, 22% (11/51) of H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin (primary 19% (8/43), secondary 38% (3/8)). 16% (8/51) of strains were resistant to levofloxacin (primary 12% (5/43), secondary 38% (3/8)). Conclusion. The present study has shown the increasing amount of resistant H. pylori strains isolated from patients in Southern Poland to levofloxacin and decreasing number of resistant strains to clarithromycin.

  8. Online Registry for Nationwide Database of Current Trend of Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Interim Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Song, Hyun Joo; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Byung-Wook; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jeon, Seong Woo; Jung, Yun Jin; Yang, Chang-Hun; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Sun Moon; Han, Sok Won; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Sue K; Park, Byung-Joo; Lee, Joongyub; Kim, Jae G

    2016-08-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P < 0.001). The overall eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:27478335

  9. Evaluation of Clinicopathological and Risk Factors for Nonmalignant H. Pylori Associated Gastroduodenal Disorders in Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    AL-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the risk factors associated with H. pylori infection and possible correlation with clinicopathological parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gastroduodenal biopsies were examined by rapid urease test and Gram staining. Cag A cytotoxin was detected by in situ hybridization. RESULTS: Risk of H. pylori acquisition reported as following: Males have 1.38 fold, rural residents have 0.63 fold, Nonsmokers have 0.39 fold, mild smokers have 18 fold, and moderate smokers have 1.4 fold while heavy smokers have 1 fold. A person who’s in contact with animals has 1.52 fold risks. Illiterates and patients with primary education have 5.36 & 3 fold risk respectively. Patients under proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy have 1.02 fold. Patients under NSAID therapy have 3.48 fold while nonalcoholic Patients have 0.75 fold. Patients using tap water have 0.45 fold risk. H. pylori infection positively correlated with age, weight loss, and heartburn. H. pylori inversely correlated with endoscopic diagnosis, Cag A positivity, and education level. Cag A positivity correlated with animal contact and NSAID usage. CONCLUSIONS: Several life style factors, education, animal contact, using of PPI, and NSAIDs increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Weight loss and heartburn cardinal signs for H. pylori infection. Endoscopic diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters not strictly associated with Cag A positivity. PMID:27275302

  10. Specific entry of Helicobacter pylori into cultured gastric epithelial cells via a zipper-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Terry; Backert, Steffen; Schwarz, Heinz; Berger, Jürgen; Meyer, Thomas F

    2002-04-01

    Although Helicobacter pylori has generally been considered an extracellular pathogen, a number of in vitro infection experiments and biopsy examinations have shown that it is capable of occasionally entering mammalian host cells. Here, we characterized this entry process by using AGS cells as a host cell model. In gentamicin protection-invasion assays, the number of H. pylori colonies recovered was lower than that for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium X22, Escherichia coli expressing InvA, and Yersinia enterocolitica YO:9 grown at 25 degrees C but higher than that for Neisseria gonorrhoeae VP1 and Y. enterocolitica YO:9 grown at 37 degrees C. At the ultrastructural level, the entry process was observed to occur via a zipper-like mechanism. Internalized H. pylori was bound in tight LAMP-1-containing vacuoles in close association with condensed filamentous actin and tyrosine phosphorylation signals. Wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, both inhibited the entry of H. pylori in a sensitive and dose-dependent manner; however, the level of entry was enhanced by sodium vanadate, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases and ATPases. Furthermore, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonized the entry of H. pylori into AGS cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the entry of H. pylori into AGS cells occurs via a zipper-like mechanism which involves various host signal transduction events. PMID:11895977

  11. Identification and characterization of Helicobacter pylori genes essential for gastric colonization.

    PubMed

    Kavermann, Holger; Burns, Brendan P; Angermuller, Katrin; Odenbreit, Stefan; Fischer, Wolfgang; Melchers, Klaus; Haas, Rainer

    2003-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most common, chronic bacterial infections and is a primary cause of severe gastric disorders. To unravel the bacterial factors necessary for the process of gastric colonization and pathogenesis, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM) was adapted to H. pylori. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) was used as model system to screen a set of 960 STM mutants. This resulted in 47 H. pylori genes, assigned to 9 different functional categories, representing a set of biological functions absolutely essential for gastric colonization, as verified and quantified for many mutants by competition experiments. Identification of previously known colonization factors, such as the urease and motility functions validated this method, but also novel and several hypothetical genes were found. Interestingly, a secreted collagenase, encoded by hp0169, could be identified and functionally verified as a new essential virulence factor for H. pylori stomach colonization. Furthermore, comB4, encoding a putative ATPase being part of a DNA transformation-associated type IV transport system of H. pylori was found to be absolutely essential for colonization, but natural transformation competence was apparently not the essential function. Thus, this first systematic STM application identified a set of previously unknown H. pylori colonization factors and may help to potentiate the development of novel therapies against gastric Helicobacter infections. PMID:12668646

  12. Comparison of PCR and common clinical tests for the diagnosis of H. pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, N; Mago, V; Gómez, I; Gueneau, P; Guelrud, M; Reyes, N; Pericchi, L R; Domínguez-Bello, M G

    2001-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as a major gastric pathogen. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of common clinical tests to detect H. pylori infection, by comparison with PCR. Serum and gastric biopsy specimens from 106 dyspeptic patients were examined. Serology was performed with Pyloriset Dry test, and biopsies were examined histologically, for rapid urease activity and PCR amplification of an ureA gene segment of H. pylori. PCR primers were specific for H. pylori and required at least 1.47 pg of H. pylori DNA, corresponding to about 800 bacterial cells. According to serology, histology, rapid urease, and PCR, positive results were respectively found in 56%, 86%, 64%, and 85% of dyspeptic patients, primarily with gastritis. Relative to PCR, the sensitivity (and specificity) was 55% (38%) for serology, 86% (13%) for histology, 70% (69%) for urease. When combining histology and urease, Bayesian analysis of data indicated no advantage of using combined methods over rapid urease test alone. Histology should not any longer be considered a gold standard test for Helicobacter pylori. Urea breath test still seems the first option for non invasive diagnostic. If an invasive diagnostic is justified, highly specific and sensitive molecular methods should be used to examine specimens. PMID:11404061

  13. Online Registry for Nationwide Database of Current Trend of Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Interim Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P < 0.001). The overall eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:27478335

  14. Comparative Immune Response in Children and Adults with H. pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Alireza; Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Shirzad, Mahsa; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedaytollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is generally acquired during early childhood; therefore, the immune response which usually takes place at this age may influence or even determine susceptibility to the infection contributing to the clinical outcomes in adulthood. Several cytokines including IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 as well as Foxp3+ cell numbers have been shown to be higher; however, some other cytokines consisting of IL-1β, IL-17A, and IL-23 are lower in infected children than in infected adults. Immune response to H. pylori infection in children is predominant Treg instead of Th17 cell response. These results indicate that immune system responses probably play a role in persistent H. pylori infection. Childhood H. pylori infection is also associated with significantly lower levels of inflammation and ulceration compared with adults. This review, therefore, aimed to provide critical findings of the available literature about comparative immune system in children and adults with H. pylori infection. PMID:26495322

  15. vacA Genotype Status of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Foods with Animal Origin.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Elnaz; Sheikhshahrokh, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    According to controversial theories and results of studies, foods with animal origins play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to human. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of vacA genotypes of H. pylori, isolated from milk and meat samples of cow, sheep, goat, camel, and buffalo. Eight hundred and twenty raw milk and meat samples were collected from various parts of Iran. Samples were cultured and those found positive for H. pylori were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes of vacA gene. Out of 420 milk and 400 meat samples, 92 (21.90%) and 105 (26.25%) were positive for H. pylori, respectively. The most commonly detected genotypes in the vacA gene were s1a (86.80%), m1a (79.18%), s1b (69.54%), and m1b (63.45%) and detected combined genotypes were mostly m1as1a (68.52%), m1as1b (60.40%), m1bs1b (55.83%), and m1bs1a (53.29%). High presence of bacteria in the milk and meat samples of sheep represents that sheep may be the natural host of H. pylori. High presence of H. pylori strains in milk and meat samples similar to vacA genotypes in human being suggests that milk and meat samples could be the sources of bacteria for human. PMID:27088092

  16. [Generalization of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and its future in Japan].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shin'ichi; Tokunaga, Kengo; Tanaka, Akifumi

    2006-05-01

    After official acceptance of eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infected peptic ulcer disease in 2000, this treatment has been generalized as ulcer therapy in Japan. In 2003 the consensus statement of the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research (JSHR) for Helicobacter pylori infection was presented. According to this statement MALT lymphoma was recommended to treat H. pylori infection because of the efficacy of its out come. Atrophic gastritis was also advised to treat H. pylori infection for the purpose of preventing gastric cancer development. The extra alimentary disease such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was still under evaluation. In diagnostic method the importance of drug susceptibility test is rising because of the increase of drug resistant H. pylori strain in Japan. The false positive case of urea breath test, the accuracy of new Japanese original serology tests and the stool antigen test are also under investigation. The standard regimen of H. pylori eradication therapy in Japan is proton pomp inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicilin (AMPC) + clarithromycin (CAM). The problem of this regimen is the decrease of eradication rate. The reason of this trend might be increase of CAM resistant strain. JSHR recommended a rescue regimen as PPI + AMPC + metronidazole for the patient whose first eradication therapy was unsuccessful result. The eradication of this second line regimen was reported as about 90%.

  17. Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Other tests.

    PubMed

    Bravos, E D; Gilman, R H

    2000-12-01

    The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with respect to Helicobacter pylori is useful for molecular epidemiologic aspects and detection purposes. The authors address the current detection methods by PCR aimed at detecting H. pylori in clinical samples collected by less invasive methods, such as gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and feces. Enzyme immunoassay also is discussed.

  18. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in Croatia: first results.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Z; Krpan, T; Faj, D; Kubelka, D; Ramac, J Popić; Posedel, D; Steiner, R; Vidjak, V; Brnić, V; Visković, K; Baraban, V

    2010-02-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/Euroatom strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm(2), 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm(2), 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD <1 Gy were measured in 72 % and PSD >2 Gy in 8 % of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia. PMID:19880413

  19. Patient radiation doses in the most common interventional cardiology procedures in Croatia: first results.

    PubMed

    Brnić, Z; Krpan, T; Faj, D; Kubelka, D; Ramac, J Popić; Posedel, D; Steiner, R; Vidjak, V; Brnić, V; Visković, K; Baraban, V

    2010-02-01

    Apart from its benefits, the interventional cardiology (IC) is known to generate high radiation doses to patients and medical staff involved. The European Union Medical Exposures Directive 97/43/Euroatom strongly recommend patient dosimetry in interventional radiology, including IC. IC patient radiation doses in four representative IC rooms in Croatia were investigated. Setting reference levels for these procedures have difficulties due to the large difference in procedure complexity. Nevertheless, it is important that some guideline values are available as a benchmark to guide the operators during these potentially high-dose procedures. Local and national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed as a guidance. A total of 138 diagnostic (coronary angiography, CA) and 151 therapeutic (PTCA, stenting) procedures were included. Patient irradiation was measured in terms of kerma-area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine-frames (F). KAP was recorded using calibrated KAP-meters. DRLs of KAP, FT and F were calculated as third quartile values rounded up to the integer. Skin doses were assessed on a selected sample of high skin dose procedures, using radiochromic films, and peak skin doses (PSD) were presented. A relative large range of doses in IC was detected. National DRLs were proposed as follows: 32 Gy cm(2), 6.6 min and 610 frames for CA and 72 Gy cm(2), 19 min and 1270 frames for PTCA. PSD <1 Gy were measured in 72 % and PSD >2 Gy in 8 % of selected patients. Measuring the patient doses in radiological procedures is required by law, but rarely implemented in Croatia. The doses recorded in the study are acceptable when compared with the literature, but optimisation is possible. The preliminary DRL values proposed may be used as a guideline for local departments, and should be a basis for radiation reduction measures and quality assurance programmes in IC in Croatia.

  20. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Neddermann, Matthias; Maubach, Gunter; Naumann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is estimated to infect more than half of the worlds human population and represents a major risk factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection and clinical consequences are controlled by highly complex interactions between the host, colonizing bacteria, and environmental parameters. Important bacterial determinants linked with gastric disease development include the cag pathogenicity island encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), the translocated effector protein CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, adhesin BabA, urease, serine protease HtrA, secreted outer membrane vesicles, and many others. The high quantity of these factors and allelic changes in the corresponding genes reveals a sophisticated picture and problems in evaluating the impact of each distinct component. Extensive work has been performed to pinpoint molecular processes related to H. pylori-triggered pathogenesis using Mongolian gerbils, mice, primary tissues, as well as novel in vitro model systems such as gastroids. The manipulation of host signaling cascades by the bacterium appears to be crucial for inducing pathogenic downstream activities and gastric disease progression. Here, we review the most recent advances in this important research area. PMID:27531534

  1. Molecular diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Westblom, T U

    1997-01-01

    H. pylori infection can be diagnosed with many different tests. If the patient is undergoing endoscopy with gastric biopsies, culture and histology remain the diagnostic methods of choice. Indirect tests include rapid urease tests, urea breath tests, and serology. Molecular methods such as PCR offer marginal improvements when done on biopsy material, but has the advantage of being able to accurately identify H. pylori in areas outside the stomach where cultures usually fail. PCR can detect low numbers of organisms in gastric juice, bile, stool and oral secretions. Because of its high sensitivity it can also be used for epidemiologic investigations of environmental sources. However, the largest role for PCR may be in molecular fingerprinting. Arbitrary Primer PCR (RAPD) on the whole bacterial genome can reliably and accurately distinguish between isolates. PCR-based RFLP analysis can separate isolates based on restriction fragment sizes in a smaller amplified genome segment. REP-PCR can group isolates into clusters that appear to have different clinical expressions. These methods promise to shed new light on the transmission and pathogenicity of H. pylori. PMID:9037621

  2. Identifying interventions to help rural Kenyan mothers cope with food insecurity: results of a focused ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Gretel H; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret

    2015-12-01

    An ethnographic study was conducted in two areas in southern and western Kenya to identify potential interventions to improve the quality, availability and affordability of foods consumed by infants and young children. A cultural-ecological model of determinants of nutrition identified the sectors of information for data collection related to infant and young child (IYC) diet and feeding-related behaviours, and the focused ethnographic study manual was used to guide the research. The results provide qualitative evidence about facilitators and constraints to IYC nutrition in the two geographical areas and document their inter-connections. We conclude with suggestions to consider 13 potential nutrition-sensitive interventions. The studies provide empirical ethnographic support for arguments concerning the importance of combining nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a multi-sectoral, integrated approach to improve the nutrition of infants and young children in low-income, resource-constrained populations. They also document the value of ethnography as a component of landscape analysis in nutrition programme and policy planning. Key messages In addition to constraints on infant and young child diet that originate in environmental and technological conditions in both agro-ecological zones, other factors that affect feeding practices include features of social organisation, household access to social support, caregivers income-earning activities and their own health. The results of the ethnographies, which highlight the importance of obtaining the knowledge and perspectives of caregivers of infants and young children, reveal the interactions of the multiple factors that affect child nutrition and the need for simultaneous nutrition-sensitive interventions to complement nutrition-specific intervention actions. Most caregivers in both areas not only understood the importance of diet and food quality for child survival, they also regarded it as

  3. Results of the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STD Prevention Trial of a Community Popular Opinion Leader Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether community populations in Community Popular Opinion Leader (C-POL) intervention venues showed greater reductions in sexual risk practices and lower HIV/STD incidence than those in comparison venues. Methods A 5-country group-randomized trial, conducted from 2002 to 2007, enrolled cohorts from 20 to 40 venues in each country. Venues, matched within country on sexual risk and other factors, were randomly assigned within matched pairs to the C-POL community intervention or an AIDS education comparison. All participants had access to condoms and were assessed with repeated in-depth sexual behavior interviews, STD/HIV testing and treatment, and HIV/STD risk reduction counseling. Sexual behavior change and HIV/STD incidence were measured over two years. Results Both intervention and comparison conditions showed declines of approximately 33% in risk behavior prevalence and had comparable disease incidence within and across countries, target populations, and types of venues. Conclusions The community-level intervention did not produce greater behavioral risk and disease incidence reduction than the comparison condition, perhaps due to the intensive prevention services received by all participants during the assessment. Repeated, detailed self-review of risk behavior practices coupled with HIV/STD testing, treatment, HIV risk reduction counseling, and condom access can themselves substantially change behavior and disease acquisition. PMID:20354444

  4. Designing Messaging to Engage Patients in an Online Suicide Prevention Intervention: Survey Results From Patients With Current Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette

    2014-01-01

    Background Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to enage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. Objective The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. Methods In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, “Your Feedback Counts” to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three (“more than half the days” or “nearly every day” respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Results Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and

  5. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  6. [Isolation of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa, dental plaque and saliva in a population from the Venezuelan Andes].

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Lilibeth; Vásquez, Libia; Velasco, Judith; Parlapiano, Donatella

    2006-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in people. However, the existence of extra gastric reservoirs and transmission routes remain controversial in the field. Because the oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for H. pylori, a study was carried out to determine the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque and saliva. The results were asociated with those obtained in the gastric biopsy. Ninety-seven dyspeptic and fifty asymptomatic patients were studied and samples taken for biopsy, dental plaque and saliva. The gastric biopsies were evaluated using microbiology and histology methods. Cultures and urease tests were carried out on the oral cavity samples and included pretreatment methods using urea and HCl. The frequency of H. pylori for all the patients evaluated was 75.5%. H. pylori was not isolated in saliva or dental plaque in any of the two groups studied with or without sample pretreatment. The urease test in dental plaque was positive in 99.3% of the patients and 89.8% in saliva. There was no statistically significant difference between the infection prevalence by H. pylori in dyspeptic or not dyspeptic patients. The obtained results suggest that the methodology used for the detection of H. pylori is not sufficiently sensitive for the determination of the microorganism in the oral cavity.

  7. Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant interferes with epidermal growth factor-activated signal transduction in human gastric KATO III cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pai, R.; Wyle, F. A.; Cover, T. L.; Itani, R. M.; Domek, M. J.; Tarnawski, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection leads to gastroduodenal ulceration remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) inhibits proliferation of gastric epithelial cells, which suggests that H pylori may interfere with gastric mucosal repair mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori broth culture supernatants on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated signal transduction pathways in a gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO III). Exposure of these cells to EGF resulted in increased expression and phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGF-R), increased ERK2 activity and phosphorylation, and increased c-fos protein levels. Preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from VacA (+) H. pylori strain 60190 inhibited the capacity of EGF to induce each of these effects. In contrast, preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from an isogenic VacA-mutant strain (H. pylori 60190-v1) failed to inhibit the effects of EGF. These results suggest that the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin interferes with EGF-activated signal transduction pathways, which are known to be essential for cell proliferation and ulcer healing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9626065

  8. Helicobacter pylori culture supernatant interferes with epidermal growth factor-activated signal transduction in human gastric KATO III cells.

    PubMed

    Pai, R; Wyle, F A; Cover, T L; Itani, R M; Domek, M J; Tarnawski, A S

    1998-06-01

    The mechanisms by which Helicobacter pylori infection leads to gastroduodenal ulceration remain poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) inhibits proliferation of gastric epithelial cells, which suggests that H pylori may interfere with gastric mucosal repair mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of H. pylori broth culture supernatants on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated signal transduction pathways in a gastric carcinoma cell line (KATO III). Exposure of these cells to EGF resulted in increased expression and phosphorylation of the EGF receptor (EGF-R), increased ERK2 activity and phosphorylation, and increased c-fos protein levels. Preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from VacA (+) H. pylori strain 60190 inhibited the capacity of EGF to induce each of these effects. In contrast, preincubation of cells with broth culture supernatant from an isogenic VacA-mutant strain (H. pylori 60190-v1) failed to inhibit the effects of EGF. These results suggest that the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin interferes with EGF-activated signal transduction pathways, which are known to be essential for cell proliferation and ulcer healing. PMID:9626065

  9. Remuneration for non-interventional studies--results of a survey in the pharmaceutical industry in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Thorsten; Hahn, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa) published recommendations to improve the quality and transparency of non-interventional studies. These recommendations include quality assurance measures, in particular with respect to transparency as well as for the verification of the data collected in these studies. This publication presents the results of a survey on fees in non-interventional studies which was conducted within the member companies of the vfa in June 2011. These results demonstrate a consistent adherence to the statutory requirements and the implementation of the recommendations concerning the remuneration of the study centers. Depending on the indication, the number of routine doctor/patient contacts is different and associated with that number the documentation efforts vary. Accordingly, the fee varies based on the fee schedule for physicians (German: Gebührenordnung für Ärzte) by taking into account the actual efforts at the study center.

  10. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a

  11. Enhancing fire department home visiting programs: results of a community intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Andrea C; Shields, Wendy; Frattaroli, Shannon; McDonald, Eileen; Jones, Vanya; Bishai, David; O'Brocki, Raymond; Perry, Elise C; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Tracey, Pat; Parsons, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of an enhanced fire department home visiting program on community participation and installation of smoke alarms, and describes the rate of fire and burn hazards observed in homes. Communities were randomly assigned to receive either a standard or enhanced home visiting program. Before implementing the program, 603 household surveys were completed to determine comparability between the communities. During a 1-year intervention period, 171 home visits took place with 8080 homes. At baseline, 60% of homes did not have working smoke alarms on every level, 44% had unsafe water temperatures, and 72% did not have carbon monoxide alarms. Residents in the enhanced community relative to those in the standard community were significantly more likely to let the fire fighters into their homes (75 vs 62%). Among entered homes, those in the enhanced community were significantly more likely to agree to have smoke alarms installed (95 vs 92%), to be left with a working smoke alarm on every level of the home (84 vs 78%), and to have more smoke alarms installed per home visited (1.89 vs 1.74). The high baseline rates of home hazards suggest that fire department home visiting programs should take an "all hazards" approach. Community health workers and community partnerships can be effective in promoting fire departments' fire and life safety goals. Public health academic centers should partner with the fire service to help generate evidence on program effectiveness that can inform decision making about resource allocation for prevention. PMID:23237821

  12. Kyphoplasty interventions using a navigation system and C-arm CT data: first clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoheisel, Martin; Skalej, Martin; Beuing, Oliver; Bill, Ulrich; Klingenbeck-Regn, Klaus; Petzold, Ralf; Nagel, Markus H.

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluates new applications using a novel navigation system with electromagnetic (EM) track