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  1. Novel CagA ELISA exhibits enhanced sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori CagA antibody

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Akada, Junko; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Dung, Ho D Q; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo P Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop a novel Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for detecting serum anti-CagA antibodies with high sensitivity. METHODS Recombinant East Asian-type CagA protein was purified and immobilized for ELISA. Serum samples from 217 Vietnamese individuals (110 H. pylori-infected and 107 uninfected individuals) were applied. Conventional ELISA from Western-type CagA and our East Asian-type CagA ELISA were evaluated by comparing 38 subjects with the Western-type genotype and 72 subjects with the East Asian-type cagA genotype. Histological scores of the gastric mucosa were determined using the updated Sydney System to examine the relationship with anti-CagA antibody titers. RESULTS Recombinant 70-100 kDa fragments were immobilized on the ELISA plate. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve of our East Asian-type CagA ELISA was comparable to that of conventional CagA ELISA. The sensitivity of the two ELISAs differed depending on the cagA genotype. The sensitivity of East Asian-type CagA ELISA was higher for subjects infected with East Asian-type cagA H. pylori (P < 0.001), and the sensitivity of the conventional CagA ELISA tended to be higher for subjects infected with Western cagA H. pylori (P = 0.056). The titer of anti-CagA antibody tended to correlate with monocyte infiltration scores (r = 0.25, P = 0.058) and was inversely correlated with H. pylori density (r = -0.26, P = 0.043). CONCLUSION The novel ELISA is useful to detect anti-CagA antibodies in East Asian countries, and the titer may be a marker for predicting chronic gastritis. PMID:28104980

  2. Novel CagA ELISA exhibits enhanced sensitivity of Helicobacter pylori CagA antibody.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Akada, Junko; Shiota, Seiji; Binh, Tran Thanh; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Dung, Ho D Q; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo P Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-07

    To develop a novel Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for detecting serum anti-CagA antibodies with high sensitivity. Recombinant East Asian-type CagA protein was purified and immobilized for ELISA. Serum samples from 217 Vietnamese individuals (110 H. pylori-infected and 107 uninfected individuals) were applied. Conventional ELISA from Western-type CagA and our East Asian-type CagA ELISA were evaluated by comparing 38 subjects with the Western-type genotype and 72 subjects with the East Asian-type cagA genotype. Histological scores of the gastric mucosa were determined using the updated Sydney System to examine the relationship with anti-CagA antibody titers. Recombinant 70-100 kDa fragments were immobilized on the ELISA plate. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve of our East Asian-type CagA ELISA was comparable to that of conventional CagA ELISA. The sensitivity of the two ELISAs differed depending on the cagA genotype. The sensitivity of East Asian-type CagA ELISA was higher for subjects infected with East Asian-type cagA H. pylori (P < 0.001), and the sensitivity of the conventional CagA ELISA tended to be higher for subjects infected with Western cagA H. pylori (P = 0.056). The titer of anti-CagA antibody tended to correlate with monocyte infiltration scores (r = 0.25, P = 0.058) and was inversely correlated with H. pylori density (r = -0.26, P = 0.043). The novel ELISA is useful to detect anti-CagA antibodies in East Asian countries, and the titer may be a marker for predicting chronic gastritis.

  3. Helicobacter pylori CagA and gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ri-Nan; Li, Shu-Rong; Masahiro, Asaka

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the tyrosine phosphorylation motif (TPM) and 3' region structure of the Helicobacter pylori CagA gene as well as its SHP-2 binding activity in AGS cells and relation to gastric carcinogenesis. Sixteen clinical isolate H. pylori strains from eight duodenal ulcer and eight gastric adenocarcinoma patients were studied for CagA repeat sequence EPIYA motifs, C-terminal structure, and western blot analysis of CagA protein expression, translocation, and SHP-2 binding in AGS cells. Except for strain 547, all strains from the gastric adenocarcinoma patients were positive for CagA by PCR and had three EPIYA copy motifs. Western blotting showed that all strains were positive for CagA protein expression (100%), CagA protein translocation (100%), and SHP-2 binding (100%). CagA protein expression was significantly higher in the gastric adenocarcinoma patients than in the duodenal ulcer patients (P=0.0023). CagA protein translocation and SHP-2 binding in the gastric adenocarcinoma patients were higher than those in the duodenal ulcer patients, but no significant differences were found between the two groups (P=0.59, P=0.21, respectively). The TPMs and 3' region structures of the H. pylori CagA gene in the duodenal ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma patients have no significant differences.

  4. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-02-15

    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Elements Required for Salt-Induced Upregulation of CagA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Loh, John T.; Friedman, David B.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and consumption of a high-salt diet are each associated with an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer. To investigate potential synergism between these factors, we used a global proteomic approach to analyze H. pylori strains cultured in media containing varying salt concentrations. Among the differentially expressed proteins identified, CagA exhibited the greatest increase in expression in response to high salt concentrations. Analysis of 36 H. pylori strains isolated from patients in two regions of Colombia with differing incidences of gastric cancer revealed marked differences among strains in salt-responsive CagA expression. Sequence analysis of the cagA promoter region in these strains revealed a DNA motif (TAATGA) that was present in either one or two copies. Salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression was detected more commonly in strains containing two copies of the TAATGA motif than in strains containing one copy. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that two copies of the TAATGA motif are required for salt-induced upregulation of CagA expression. In summary, there is considerable heterogeneity among H. pylori strains in salt-regulated CagA expression, and these differences are attributable to variation in a specific DNA motif upstream of the cagA transcriptional start site. PMID:22710874

  6. Risk for gastric cancer in people with CagA positive or CagA negative Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed Central

    Parsonnet, J; Friedman, G D; Orentreich, N; Vogelman, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is not known why some people with Helicobacter pylori infection develop gastric cancer whereas others do not. Whether the CagA phenotype of H pylori infection affected risk for cancer independently of other posited risk factors was evaluated. SUBJECTS: 242 persons who participated in a previous nested case-control study of gastric cancer. 179 (90 cases and 89 controls) were infected with H pylori as determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in serum and 63 (13 cases and 50 controls) were uninfected. METHODS: Serum samples from cases and controls, obtained a mean of 14.2 years before diagnosis of cancer in the cases, were tested by ELISA for IgG antibodies against the CagA gene product of H pylori. They had previously been tested for pepsinogen I. Using logistic regression analysis, risk for cancer was compared among infected persons with CagA antibodies, infected persons without CagA antibodies, and uninfected persons. RESULTS: Subjects infected with H pylori who had CagA antibodies were 5.8-fold more likely than uninfected subjects to develop gastric cancer (95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 2.6-13.0). This was true for both intestinal (odds ratio (OR) 5.1, 95% CI = 2.1-12.2) and diffuse type (OR 10.1, 95% CI = 2.2-47.4) cancers. By contrast, H pylori infected subjects without CagA antibodies were only slightly, and not significantly, at increased risk for cancer (OR 2.2, 95% CI = 0.9-5.4) and any possible association was restricted to diffuse type carcinoma (OR 9.0, 95% CI = 1.2-65.8). Pepsinogen 1 < 50 ng/ml significantly increased risk for both cancer types in H pylori infected persons and lessened the magnitude of association between CagA and cancer. Educational attainment, cigarette smoking, and ABO blood group were not associated with malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with uninfected subjects, persons infected with CagA positive H pylori are at considerably increased risk of gastric cancer. CagA negative H pylori

  7. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  8. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chi; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis.

  9. Dynamic Expansion and Contraction of cagA Copy Number in Helicobacter pylori Impact Development of Gastric Disease

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hanfu; Blum, Faith C.; Bae, Sarang; Choi, Yun Hui; Kim, Aeryun; Hong, Youngmin A.; Kim, Jinmoon; Kim, Ji-Hye; Gunawardhana, Niluka; Jeon, Yeong-Eui; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Merrell, D. Scott

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for development of gastric disease, including gastric cancer. Patients infected with H. pylori strains that express CagA are at even greater risk of gastric carcinoma. Given the importance of CagA, this report describes a new molecular mechanism by which the cagA copy number dynamically expands and contracts in H. pylori. Analysis of strain PMSS1 revealed a heterogeneous population in terms of numbers of cagA copies; strains carried from zero to four copies of cagA that were arranged as direct repeats within the chromosome. Each of the multiple copies of cagA was expressed and encoded functional CagA; strains with more cagA repeats exhibited higher levels of CagA expression and increased levels of delivery and phosphorylation of CagA within host cells. This concomitantly resulted in more virulent phenotypes as measured by cell elongation and interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. Sequence analysis of the repeat region revealed three cagA homologous areas (CHAs) within the cagA repeats. Of these, CHA-ud flanked each of the cagA copies and is likely important for the dynamic variation of cagA copy numbers. Analysis of a large panel of clinical isolates showed that 7.5% of H. pylori strains isolated in the United States harbored multiple cagA repeats, while none of the tested Korean isolates carried more than one copy of cagA. Finally, H. pylori strains carrying multiple cagA copies were differentially associated with gastric disease. Thus, the dynamic expansion and contraction of cagA copy numbers may serve as a novel mechanism by which H. pylori modulates gastric disease development. PMID:28223454

  10. Regulation of Helicobacter pylori cagA expression in response to salt.

    PubMed

    Loh, John T; Torres, Victor J; Cover, Timothy L

    2007-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection and a high dietary salt intake are risk factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that high salt concentrations might alter gene expression in H. pylori. Transcriptional profiling experiments indicated that the expression of multiple H. pylori genes, including cagA, was regulated in response to the concentrations of sodium chloride present in the bacterial culture medium. Increased expression of cagA in response to high salt conditions was confirmed by the use of transcriptional reporter strains and by immunoblotting. H. pylori CagA is translocated into gastric epithelial cells via a type IV secretion pathway, and on entry into target cells, CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation and causes multiple cellular alterations. Coculture of gastric epithelial cells with H. pylori grown under high salt conditions resulted in increased tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA and increased secretion of interleukin-8 by the epithelial cells compared with coculture of the cells with H. pylori grown under low salt conditions. Up-regulation of H. pylori cagA expression in response to high salt concentrations may be a factor that contributes to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.

  11. Exosomes as nanocarriers for systemic delivery of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Asako; Ueda, Koji; Nishiumi, Shin; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Mukai, Sada-atsu; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Azuma, Takeshi; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    CagA, encoded by cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA), is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen involved in the development of upper gastrointestinal diseases. Infection with cagA-positive H. pylori may also be associated with diseases outside the stomach, although the mechanisms through which H. pylori infection promotes extragastric diseases remain unknown. Here, we report that CagA is present in serum-derived extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, in patients infected with cagA-positive H. pylori (n = 4). We also found that gastric epithelial cells inducibly expressing CagA secrete exosomes containing CagA. Addition of purified CagA-containing exosomes to gastric epithelial cells induced an elongated cell shape, indicating that the exosomes deliver functional CagA into cells. These findings indicated that exosomes secreted from CagA-expressing gastric epithelial cells may enter into circulation, delivering CagA to distant organs and tissues. Thus, CagA-containing exosomes may be involved in the development of extragastric disorders associated with cagA-positive H. pylori infection. PMID:26739388

  12. Helicobacter pylori vacA genotype is a predominant determinant of immune response to Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    PubMed

    Link, Alexander; Langner, Cosima; Schirrmeister, Wiebke; Habendorf, Wiebke; Weigt, Jochen; Venerito, Marino; Tammer, Ina; Schlüter, Dirk; Schlaermann, Philipp; Meyer, Thomas F; Wex, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-07-14

    To evaluate the frequency of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) CagA antibodies in H. pylori infected subjects and to identify potential histopathological and bacterial factors related to H. pylori CagA-immune response. Systematic data to H. pylori isolates, blood samples, gastric biopsies for histological and molecular analyses were available from 99 prospectively recruited subjects. Serological profile (anti-H. pylori, anti-CagA) was correlated with H. pylori isolates (cagA, EPIYA, vacA s/m genotype), histology (Sydney classification) and mucosal interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA and protein expression. Selected H. pylori strains were assessed for H. pylori CagA protein expression and IL-8 induction in co-cultivation model with AGS cells. Thirty point three percent of microbiologically confirmed H. pylori infected patients were seropositive for CagA. Majority of H. pylori isolates were cagA gene positive (93.9%) with following vacA polymorphisms: 42.4% vacA s1m1, 23.2% s1m2 and 34.3% s2m2. Anti-CagA-IgG seropositivity was strongly associated with atrophic gastritis, increased mucosal inflammation according to the Sydney score, IL-8 and cagA mRNA expression. VacA s and m polymorphisms were the major determinants for positive (vacA s1m1) or negative (vacA s2m2) anti-CagA serological immune response, which also correlated with the in vitro inflammatory potential in AGS cells. In vitro co-cultivation of representative H. pylori strains with AGS cells confirmed functional CagA translocation, which showed only partial correlation with CagA seropositivity in patients, supporting vacA as major co-determinant of the immune response. Serological immune response to H. pylori cagA+ strain in H. pylori infected patients is strongly associated with vacA polymorphism, suggesting the crucial role of bacterial factors in immune and clinical phenotype of the infection.

  13. Phosphorylation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by c-Abl leads to cell motility.

    PubMed

    Poppe, M; Feller, S M; Römer, G; Wessler, S

    2007-05-24

    Helicobacter pylori induces a strong motogenic response in infected gastric epithelial host cells, which is enhanced by translocation of the pathogenic factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into host cells via a specialized type IV secretion system. Once injected into the cytosol CagA is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by Src family kinases followed by Src inactivation. Hence, it remained unknown why CagA is constantly phosphorylated in sustained H. pylori infections to induce cell migration, whereas other substrates of Src kinases are dephosphorylated. Here, we identify the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as a crucial mediator of H. pylori-induced migration and novel CagA kinase in epithelial cells. Upon H. pylori infection c-Abl directly interacts with CagA and localizes in focal adhesion complexes and membrane ruffles, which are highly dynamic cytoskeletal structures necessary for cell motility. Selective inhibition of c-Abl kinase activity by STI571 or shRNA abrogates sustained CagA phosphorylation and epithelial cell migration, indicating a pivotal role of c-Abl in H. pylori infection and pathogenicity. These results implicate c-Abl as a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in H. pylori-related gastric diseases.

  14. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1-MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nesic, D.; Miller, M; Quinkert, Z; Stein, M; Chait, B; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  15. Helicobacter pylori CagA inhibits PAR1-MARK family kinases by mimicking host substrates.

    PubMed

    Nesić, Dragana; Miller, Marshall C; Quinkert, Zachary T; Stein, Markus; Chait, Brian T; Stebbins, C Erec

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the cocrystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2.

  16. Helicobacter pylori CagA Inhibits PAR1/MARK Family Kinases by Mimicking Host Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Neišić, Dragana; Miller, Marshall C.; Quinkert, Zachary T.; Stein, Markus; Chait, Brian T.; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2010-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori interacts with numerous cellular factors, and is associated with increased virulence and risk of gastric carcinoma. We present here the co-crystal structure of a subdomain of CagA with the human kinase PAR1b/MARK2, revealing that a CagA peptide mimics substrates of this kinase family, resembling eukaryotic protein kinase inhibitors. Mutagenesis of conserved residues central to this interaction renders CagA inactive as an inhibitor of MARK2. PMID:19966800

  17. Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into Gastric Epithelial Cells by Type IV Secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbreit, Stefan; Püls, Jürgen; Sedlmaier, Bettina; Gerland, Elke; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2000-02-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in humans. Strains producing the CagA antigen (cagA+) induce strong gastric inflammation and are strongly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. We show here that such strains translocate the bacterial protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system, encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. CagA is tyrosine-phosphorylated and induces changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation state of distinct cellular proteins. Modulation of host cells by bacterial protein translocation adds a new dimension to the chronic Helicobacter infection with yet unknown consequences.

  18. Functional association between the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors VacA and CagA.

    PubMed

    Argent, Richard H; Thomas, Rachael J; Letley, Darren P; Rittig, Michael G; Hardie, Kim R; Atherton, John C

    2008-02-01

    The Helicobacter pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA are implicated in the development of gastroduodenal diseases. Most strains possessing CagA also possess the more virulent vacuolating form of VacA. This study assessed the significance of possession of both virulence factors in terms of their effect on gastric epithelial cells, using a set of minimally passaged, isogenic VacA, CagA and CagE mutants in H. pylori strains 60190 and 84-183. The cagA and cagE mutants were found to significantly increase VacA-induced vacuolation of epithelial cells, and the vacA mutants significantly increased CagA-induced cellular elongations, compared with wild-type strains, indicating that CagA reduces vacuolation and VacA reduces hummingbird formation. Although epithelial cells incubated with the wild-type H. pylori strains may display both vacuolation and hummingbird formation, it was found that (i) hummingbird length was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells compared with those without vacuolation; (ii) the number of vacuoles was significantly reduced in vacuolated cells with hummingbird formation compared with those without hummingbirds; and (iii) cells displaying extensive vacuolation did not subsequently form hummingbirds and vice versa. VacA did not affect the phosphorylation of CagA. These data show that VacA and CagA downregulate each other's effects on epithelial cells, potentially allowing H. pylori interaction with cells whilst avoiding excessive cellular damage.

  19. Influence of Dietary Factors on Helicobacter pylori and CagA Seroprevalence in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Ilieva, Juliana; Andreev, Nikolay; Mitov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between some dietary factors and prevalence of H. pylori infection or strain virulence in 294 adult asymptomatic blood donors. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated using ELISA. Logistic regression was used. Results. Anti-H. pylori IgG prevalence was 72.4%, and CagA IgG seroprevalence was 49.3%. In the multivariate analyses, the frequent (>5 days per week) honey consumption was associated with both reduced H. pylori seroprevalence OR, 0.68 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.473–0.967 and reduced CagA IgG seroprevalence OR, 0.65 with 95% CI, 0.486–0859. Frequent (>5 days per week) yoghurt consumption also was associated with lower H. pylori virulence of the strains (CagA IgG OR, 0.56 with 95% CI, 0.341–0.921). Smoking and consumption of the other dietary factors resulted in no significant differences in the prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG within the subject groups. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing reverse associations between honey or yoghurt consumption and CagA IgG prevalence as well as between frequent honey consumption and lower prevalence of the H. pylori infection. Regular honey and yoghurt consumption can be of value as a supplement in the control of H. pylori therapy. PMID:28659975

  20. Helicobacter pylori CagA induced interleukin-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Zeinab; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Rezaei Tavirani, Mostafa; Azimirad, Masoumeh; Yadegar, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Since, contradictory data have been reported about the effect of diverse variants of H. pylori virulence factors on IL-8 induction, we aimed to analyze the effect of this diversity on levels of IL-8 secretion in AGS cell line. Background: Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces the activation of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, in the gastric mucosa. This induction promotes neutrophil and monocyte recruitment that causes gastric tissue damage. Methods: To determine whether different strains of H. pylori and their CagA variants have possible roles on IL-8 induction, polarized AGS cell line was infected with CagA+ H. pylori strains carrying different EPIYA motifs (ABCCC and ABC) and CagA- strain for 24 hours. Difference in stimulation of IL-8 was measured by ELISA. Results: IL-8 secretion was elevated in the treated cells with CagA encoding strains compared with the negative one. Furthermore, a noticeably increased level of IL-8 induction was measured by the CagA-EPIYA type ABCCC encoding strain in compare to that carried EPIYA type ABC Conclusion: Results of this study provide new evidence about different effects of H. pylori strains and possible roles of their CagA variants on IL-8 induction. It seems that not only carriage of cagA and its expression, but also diversity in EPIYA motif be involved in IL-8 induction in the gastric epithelial cells. PMID:28224027

  1. Attenuation of Helicobacter pylori CagA x SHP-2 signaling by interaction between CagA and C-terminal Src kinase.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Ryouhei; Higashi, Hideaki; Higuchi, Megumi; Okada, Masato; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2003-02-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a causative agent of gastric diseases ranging from gastritis to cancer. The CagA protein is the product of the cagA gene carried among virulent H. pylori strains and is associated with severe disease outcomes, most notably gastric carcinoma. CagA is injected from the attached H. pylori into gastric epithelial cells and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation. The phosphorylated CagA binds and activates SHP-2 phosphatase and thereby induces a growth factor-like morphological change termed the "hummingbird phenotype." In this work, we demonstrate that CagA is also capable of interacting with C-terminal Src kinase (Csk). As is the case with SHP-2, Csk selectively binds tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA via its SH2 domain. Upon complex formation, CagA stimulates Csk, which in turn inactivates the Src family of protein-tyrosine kinases. Because Src family kinases are responsible for CagA phosphorylation, an essential prerequisite of CagA.SHP-2 complex formation and subsequent induction of the hummingbird phenotype, our results indicate that CagA-Csk interaction down-regulates CagA.SHP-2 signaling by both competitively inhibiting CagA.SHP-2 complex formation and reducing levels of CagA phosphorylation. We further demonstrate that CagA.SHP-2 signaling eventually induces apoptosis in AGS cells. Our results thus indicate that CagA-Csk interaction prevents excess cell damage caused by deregulated activation of SHP-2. Attenuation of CagA activity by Csk may enable cagA-positive H. pylori to persistently infect the human stomach for decades while avoiding excess CagA toxicity to the host.

  2. Potentiation of Helicobacter pylori CagA Protein Virulence through Homodimerization*

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Lisa; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with atrophic gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric carcinoma. The cagA gene product, CagA, is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via type IV secretion, where it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs. Tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA binds and aberrantly activates the oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates induction of elongated cell morphology (hummingbird phenotype) that reflects CagA virulence. CagA also binds and inhibits the polarity-regulating kinase partitioning-defective 1 (PAR1)/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase (MARK) via the CagA multimerization (CM) sequence independently of tyrosine phosphorylation. Because PAR1 exists as a homodimer, two CagA proteins appear to be passively dimerized through complex formation with a PAR1 dimer in cells. Interestingly, a CagA mutant that lacks the CM sequence displays a reduced SHP2 binding activity and exhibits an attenuated ability to induce the hummingbird phenotype, indicating that the CagA-PAR1 interaction also influences the morphological transformation. Here we investigated the role of CagA dimerization in induction of the hummingbird phenotype with the use of a chemical dimerizer, coumermycin. We found that CagA dimerization markedly stabilizes the CagA-SHP2 complex and thereby potentiates SHP2 deregulation, causing an increase in the number of hummingbird cells. Protrusions of hummingbird cells induced by chemical dimerization of CagA are further elongated by simultaneous inhibition of PAR1. This study revealed a role of the CM sequence in amplifying the magnitude of SHP2 deregulation by CagA, which, in conjunction with the CM sequence-mediated inhibition of PAR1, evokes morphological transformation that reflects in vivo CagA virulence. PMID:21813645

  3. Prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs in Helicobacter pylori among dyspeptic patients in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chomvarin, Chariya; Phusri, Karnchanawadee; Sawadpanich, Kookwan; Mairiang, Pisaln; Namwat, Wises; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of cagA type in Helicobacter pylori isolated from dyspeptic patients in northeastern Thailand and to determine whether the pattern of cagA EPIYA motifs were associated with clinical outcomes. One hundred and forty-seven H. pylori-infected dyspeptic patients were enrolled, of whom 68 had non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), 57 peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 18 gastric cancer (GCA), and 4 other gastroduodenal diseases. PCR and DNA sequence analysis were used to determine the cagA genotype and the pattern of EPIYA motifs. cagA-positive H. pylori were identified in 138 (94%) of H. pylori-infected dyspeptic patients of whom 75 (54%) were of the Western-type, 44 (32%) the East Asian type and 19 (14%) of the other types. The Western type is significantly found in PUD patients (p = 0.0175). The majority of cagA EPIYA was EPIYA-ABC (43%) and EPIYA-ABD (28%). There is no significant correlation between the increase in number of EPIYA-C motifs and clinical outcomes. Thus, the most frequent cagA type found among northeastern Thai dyspeptic patients was the Western cagA type, which is significantly associated with PUD indicating a possible predictive parameter for clinical outcome.

  4. Association between infection of virulence cagA gene Helicobacter pylori and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Burduk, Paweł Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of cagA gene Helicobacter pylori in etiopathogenesis of initiation and development of larynx squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its predictable role as a prognostic factor. Material/Methods The prospective, controlled study involved a series of 75 patients (65 male, 10 female, mean age 59.1 years, range 43 to 79 years) with larynx cancer. Samples of larynx cancerous tissue, each of 10–15 mg, were obtained from fresh tissues and were used for nucleic acid purification. DNA was extracted from 225 samples (larynx tumor – I (75), margin of tumor and normal tissue – II (75) and normal larynx tissue from opposite side to the tumor – III). All samples were subjected to H. pylori ureA detection by the PCR H. pylori diagnostic test. Samples that were positive for ureA H. pylori gene were evaluated for cagA H. pylori gene. Results Presence of H. pylori cagA gene was identified in 46,7% to 49,3% of 75 H. pylori ureA gene-positive larynx cancer depending of tissue location. There was a correlation of high incidence of positive cagA gene in larynx cancer tissue in supraglottic versus subglottic and glottic location. We observed a predominance of cagA gene in LSCC in patients with positive cervical lymph nodes and clinical stage T3 and T4. Conclusions H. pylori is present in larynx tissue and may be a possible carcinogen or co-carcinogen in LSCC development, but that must be addressed by future investigations. The presence of cagA gene in larynx cancer tissues significantly decreases survival rate and increases the disease recurrence possibilities. PMID:23860397

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA: analysis of sequence diversity in relation to phosphorylation motifs and implications for the role of CagA as a virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Evans, D J; Evans, D G

    2001-09-01

    CagA is transported into host target cells and subsequently phosphorylated. Clearly this is a mechanism by which Helicobacter pylori could take control of one or more host cell signal transduction pathways. Presumably the end result of this interaction favors survival of H. pylori, irrespective of eventual damage to the host cell. CagA is noted for its amino acid (AA) sequence diversity, both within and outside the variable region of the molecule. The primary purpose of this review is to examine how variation in the type and number of CagA phosphorylation sites might determine the outcome of infection by different strains of H. pylori. The answer to this question could help to explain the widely disparate results obtained when H. pylori CagA status has been compared to type and severity of disease outcome in different populations, that is in different countries. Analysis of all available CagA sequences revealed that CagA contains both tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) and cyclic-AMP-dependent phosphorylation motifs (CPMs). There are two potential CPMs near the N-terminus of CagA and at least two in the repeat region; these are not all equally well conserved. We also defined a 48-residue AA sequence, which includes the N-terminal TPM at tyrosine (Y)-122, which distinguishes between Eastern (Hong Kong-Taiwan-Japan-Thailand) H. pylori isolates and those from the West (Europe-Africa-the Americas-Australia). All 28 of the Eastern type CagA proteins have a functional N-terminal TPM whereas 11 of 47 (23.4%) of the Western type contain an inactive motif, with threonine (T) replacing the critical aspartic acid (D) residue. Only 13 of 24 (54%) known CagA sequences have an active TPM in the repeat region and only one has two TPMs in this region. The potential TPM near the C-terminus of CagA is not likely to be important since only 3 of 24 (12.5%) sequences were found to be intact. Protein database searches revealed that the AA sequence immediately following the TPM at Y

  6. Structural insights into Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA interaction with β1 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan-Türköz, Burcu; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F.; Dian, Cyril; Ertl, Claudia; Remaut, Han; Louche, Arthur; Tosi, Tommaso; Haas, Rainer; Terradot, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Pathogenic strains of H. pylori carry a type IV secretion system (T4SS) responsible for the injection of the oncoprotein CagA into host cells. H. pylori and its cag-T4SS exploit α5β1 integrin as a receptor for CagA translocation. Injected CagA localizes to the inner leaflet of the host cell membrane, where it hijacks host cell signaling and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. Here we describe the crystal structure of the N-terminal ∼100-kDa subdomain of CagA at 3.6 Å that unveils a unique combination of folds. The core domain of the protein consists of an extended single-layer β-sheet stabilized by two independent helical subdomains. The core is followed by a long helix that forms a four-helix helical bundle with the C-terminal domain. Mapping of conserved regions in a set of CagA sequences identified four conserved surface-exposed patches (CSP1–4), which represent putative hot-spots for protein–protein interactions. The proximal part of the single-layer β-sheet, covering CSP4, is involved in specific binding of CagA to the β1 integrin, as determined by yeast two-hybrid and in vivo competition assays in H. pylori cell-culture infection studies. These data provide a structural basis for the first step of CagA internalization into host cells and suggest that CagA uses a previously undescribed mechanism to bind β1 integrin to mediate its own translocation. PMID:22908298

  7. The CagA toxin of Helicobacter pylori: abundant production but relatively low amount translocated

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F.; Haas, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    CagA is one of the most studied pathogenicity factors of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. It is injected into host cells via the H. pylori cag-Type IV secretion system. Due to its association with gastric cancer, CagA is classified as oncogenic protein. At the same time CagA represents the 4th most abundant protein produced by H. pylori, suggesting that high amounts of toxin are required to cause the physiological changes or damage observed in cells. We were able to quantify the injection of CagA into gastric AGS epithelial cells in vitro by the adaptation of a novel protease-based approach to remove the tightly adherent extracellular bacteria. After one hour of infection only 1.5% of the total CagA available was injected by the adherent bacteria, whereas after 3 hours 7.5% was found within the host cell. Thus, our data show that only a surprisingly small amount of the CagA available in the infection is finally injected under in vitro infection conditions. PMID:26983895

  8. Helicobacter pylori CagA causes mitotic impairment and induces chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Mayumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Saito, Yasuhiro; Ohba, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masayuki; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2009-08-14

    Infection with cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. The cagA gene product CagA, which is delivered into gastric epithelial cells, specifically binds to and aberrantly activates SHP-2 oncoprotein. CagA also interacts with and inhibits partitioning-defective 1 (PAR1)/MARK kinase, which phosphorylates microtubule-associated proteins to destabilize microtubules and thereby causes epithelial polarity defects. In light of the notion that microtubules are not only required for polarity regulation but also essential for the formation of mitotic spindles, we hypothesized that CagA-mediated PAR1 inhibition also influences mitosis. Here, we investigated the effect of CagA on the progression of mitosis. In the presence of CagA, cells displayed a delay in the transition from prophase to metaphase. Furthermore, a fraction of the CagA-expressing cells showed spindle misorientation at the onset of anaphase, followed by chromosomal segregation with abnormal division axis. The effect of CagA on mitosis was abolished by elevated PAR1 expression. Conversely, inhibition of PAR1 kinase elicited mitotic delay similar to that induced by CagA. Thus, CagA-mediated inhibition of PAR1, which perturbs microtubule stability and thereby causes microtubule-based spindle dysfunction, is involved in the prophase/metaphase delay and subsequent spindle misorientation. Consequently, chronic exposure of cells to CagA induces chromosomal instability. Our findings reveal a bifunctional role of CagA as an oncoprotein: CagA elicits uncontrolled cell proliferation by aberrantly activating SHP-2 and at the same time induces chromosomal instability by perturbing the microtubule-based mitotic spindle. The dual function of CagA may cooperatively contribute to the progression of multistep gastric carcinogenesis.

  9. Diversity of the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori strains from patients with gastroduodenal diseases in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Maria Celeste C; Yamakawa, Akiyo; Casingal, Cristine R; Fajardo, Lindsay Sydney N; Juan, Ma Luisa G; De Guzman, Blanquita B; Bondoc, Edgardo M; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamazaki, Yukinao; Yoshida, Masaru; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Natividad, Filipinas F; Azuma, Takeshi

    2010-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori CagA protein is considered a major virulence factor associated with gastric cancer. There are two major types of CagA proteins: the Western and East Asian CagA. The East Asian CagA-positive H. pylori infection is more closely associated with gastric cancer. The prevalence of gastric cancer is quite low in the Philippines, although Philippine populations are considered to originate from an East Asia source. This study investigates the characteristics of the cagA gene and CagA protein in Philippine H. pylori strains and compares them with previously characterized reference strains worldwide. The full-length cagA gene was sequenced from 19 Philippine isolates and phylogenetic relationships between the Philippine and 40 reference strains were analyzed. All Philippine strains examined were cagA positive, and 73.7% (14/19) strains were Western CagA-positive. The phylogenetic tree based on the deduced amino acid sequence of CagA indicated that the Philippine strains were classified into the two major groups of CagA protein: the Western and the East Asian group. These findings suggest that the modern Western influence may have resulted in more Western type H. pylori strains in the Philippines. Therefore, H. pylori-infected Filipinos can be considered to be at a low risk of developing gastric cancer.

  10. What exists beyond cagA and vacA? Helicobacter pylori genes in gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Débora Menezes; Pereira, Eliane dos Santos; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is present in more than half the world’s population and has been associated with several gastric disorders, such as gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The clinical outcome of this infection depends on host and bacterial factors where H. pylori virulence genes seem to play a relevant role. Studies of cagA and vacA genes established that they were determining factors in gastric pathogenesis. However, there are gastric cancer cases that are cagA-negative. Several other virulence genes have been searched for, but these genes remain less well known that cagA and vacA. Thus, this review aimed to establish which genes have been suggested as potentially relevant virulence factors for H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases. We focused on the cag-pathogenicity island, genes with adherence and motility functions, and iceA based on the relevance shown in several studies in the literature. PMID:26457016

  11. Clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui M; Machado, José C; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major etiological factor of gastric carcinoma. This disease is the result of a long, multistep, and multifactorial process, which occurs only in a small proportion of patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric carcinoma development is influenced by host genetic susceptibility factors, environmental factors, and H. pylori virulence. H. pylori is genetically highly variable, and variability that affects H. pylori virulence factors may be useful to identify strains with different degrees of pathogenicity. This review will focus on VacA and CagA that have polymorphic regions that impact their functional properties. The characterization of H. pylori vacA and cagA-associated could be useful for identifying patients at highest risk of disease, who could be offered H. pylori eradication therapy and who could be included in programs of more intensive surveillance in an attempt to reduce gastric carcinoma incidence.

  12. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of CagA from Chinese Helicobacter pylori Isolates in AGS Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youli; Argent, Richard H.; Letley, Darren P.; Thomas, Rachael J.; Atherton, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains possessing the cag pathogenicity island (PaI) are associated with the development of gastroduodenal diseases, including gastric cancer. cag PaI products induce the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from epithelial cells and facilitate the translocation of CagA into the cell cytosol. In East Asia, where the incidence of gastric cancer is high, most strains possess the cag PaI. To date, however, no cag PaI phenotypic data have been provided for strains isolated in mainland China. Here we used 31 Chinese strains to determine the genotypic and phenotypic status of the cag PaI. All strains possessed cagA and cagE, and we observed a variation in the length of cagA variable regions. Nucleotide sequencing of the cagA variable region revealed that CagA was of two types, a short “Western” form with two tyrosine phosphorylation sites and a longer “East Asian” form with three tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Coculture of strains with AGS epithelial cells showed that strains could induce IL-8 secretion from the cells and that CagA with three phosphorylation sites became more phosphorylated than that with two and could induce significantly (P < 0.001) more cells to elongate. We hypothesize that the preponderance of the more active East Asian form of cagA may underlie the high rate of gastric cancer in China. PMID:15695680

  13. Polymorphism in the Helicobacter pylori CagA and VacA toxins and disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Half of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori and approximately 20% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease such as ulcers and stomach cancer. Paradoxically, despite its classification as a class I carcinogen, H. pylori has been shown to be protective against development of asthma, allergy, and esophageal disease. Given these conflicting roles for H. pylori, researchers are attempting to define the environmental, host, and pathogen interactions that ultimately result in severe disease in some individuals. From the bacterial perspective, the toxins, CagA and VacA, have each been shown to be polymorphic and to contribute to disease in an allele-dependent manner. Based on the notable advances that have recently been made in the CagA field, herein we review recent studies that have begun to shed light on the role of CagA polymorphism in H. pylori disease. Moreover, we discuss the potential interaction of CagA and VacA as a mediator of gastric disease. PMID:23380646

  14. The Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin CagA is essential for suppressing host heat shock protein expression.

    PubMed

    J Lang, Ben; J Gorrell, Rebecca; Tafreshi, Mona; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Kwok, Terry; T Price, John

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections typically elicit a strong Heat Shock Response (HSR) in host cells. However, the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to repress this response, the mechanism of which has yet to be elucidated. This study sought to characterize the underlying mechanisms by which H. pylori down-modulates host HSP expression upon infection. Examination of isogenic mutant strains of H. pylori defective in components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS), identified the secretion substrate, CagA, to be essential for down-modulation of the HSPs HSPH1 (HSP105), HSPA1A (HSP72), and HSPD1 (HSP60) upon infection of the AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cell line. Ectopic expression of CagA by transient transfection was insufficient to repress HSP expression in AGS or HEK293T cells, suggesting that additional H. pylori factors are required for HSP repression. RT-qPCR analysis of HSP gene expression in AGS cells infected with wild-type H. pylori or isogenic cagA-deletion mutant found no significant change to account for reduced HSP levels. In summary, this study identified CagA to be an essential bacterial factor for H. pylori-mediated suppression of host HSP expression. The novel finding that HSPH1 is down-modulated by H. pylori further highlights the unique ability of H. pylori to repress the HSR within host cells. Elucidation of the mechanism by which H. pylori achieves HSP repression may prove to be beneficial in the identification of novel mechanisms to inhibit the HSR pathway and provide further insight into the interactions between H. pylori and the host gastric epithelium.

  15. Geographic differences and the role of cagA gene in gastroduodenal diseases associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Valmaseda Pérez, T; Gisbert, J P; Pajares García, J M

    2001-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major causal agent of gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Several bacterium genes seem to be involved in the pathogenicity mechanism. One of them, the cagA gene, has been extensively studied and characterized. In this article we have carried out a study of characteristics and genetic variability of cagA gene in different geographic areas of the world. At the same time, we have summarized several studies that evaluate possible relation of cagA with gastroduodenal diseases associated by H. pylori infection. In our study we found that the presence of the cagA gene has been confirmed in more than 60% H. pylori strains distributed throughout the world. The prevalence of cagA genotype is of 65.4% in gastritis patients, 84.2% in patients with peptic ulcer and 86.5% in those with gastric cancer. It shows a high genetic variability of cagA associated with gastroduodenal diseases that could serve as a virulence marker in H. pylori infected subjects. However, the high prevalence of H. pylori cagA positive strains in some geographic areas does not confirm the strong association between cagA and virulence of strains as described in other countries. Nowadays, cagA gene is considered as a marker for the presence of cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) in H. pylori genoma. This region contains several genes that has been involved with the production of cytokines that results in an increased inflammation of host gastric mucosa, but its function is unknown. Probably, others bacterium factors, such as susceptibility host and environmental cofactors could influence in the risk of developing different gastroduodenal diseases associated with H. pylori infection.

  16. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients.

    PubMed

    Archampong, Timothy N; Asmah, Richard H; Aidoo, Ebenezer K; Wiredu, Edwin K; Gyasi, Richard K; Adjei, David N; Beleza, Sandra; Bayliss, Christopher D; Krogfelt, Karen

    2017-06-27

    Helicobacter pylori infection is prevalent in Ghana. The development of gastro-duodenal disease is dependent on virulence of the infecting strain, host susceptibility and environmental factors. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA strains induce more inflammation, ulceration and oncogenesis. Here, for the first time we present data on H. pylori cagA and vacA genes and their association with gastro-duodenal disease in Ghana. A total of 159 patients with dyspepsia at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, were investigated for H. pylori with urease-CLO, of which 113 (71.1%) were positive. Genomic DNA was extracted from antral biopsies using QIAGEN DNeasy kit. Detection of H. pylori vacA and cagA genes were determined by PCR as previously described. In total, 110 (69.2%) vacAs1, 71 (44.7%) vacAm1, 35 (22.0%) vacAm2, 77 (48.4%) cagA-(hydrophilic region) and 109 (68.6%) cagA-(internal duplication region) were detected. In multivariate analysis, duodenal ulcer was more likely than other diagnoses to have detectable cagA-(hydrophilic region) (OR 3.1 CI 1.2-7.9) or vacAs1m1 (OR 6.5 CI 1.2-34.0). Majority of biopsies were colonized with H. pylori harboring both cagA and vacA. H. pylori cagA-(internal duplication region) was more prevalent than cagA-(hydrophilic region). Duodenal ulcer was more likely than other diagnoses to have detectable cagA-(hydrophilic region) or vacAs1m1.

  17. Interaction between the Helicobacter pylori CagA and alpha-Pix in gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Yeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) translocates the CagA protein into epithelial cells by a type IV secretion process. Upon translocation into the host cell cytosol, CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of CagA occurs within the C terminus of the protein and is mediated by members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of as yet unidentified cellular proteins, rearrangements of the host cell actin cytoskeleton, and cell scattering. This article aims to determine the cellular protein that interacts with CagA. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were stimulated with CagA-positive H. pylori (NCTC11637, at a bacteria/cell ratio of 500:1) and cultured in antibiotic-free medium. Proteins were isolated from the cells with or without H. pylori infection. CagA-interactive protein was determined by immunoprecipitation using anti-CagA antibody and proteomic analysis. We found that alpha-Pix interacts with CagA and alpha-Pix was constitutively expressed in AGS cells. Upon H. pylori stimulation, CagA was translocated into the cells and the expression of alpha-Pix (PAK-interactive exchange factor) was increased in AGS cells time dependently. The interaction of alpha-Pix with CagA was increased by H. pylori infection in AGS cells. Phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of alpha-Pix in AGS cells. alpha-Pix is a family of PAK-binding proteins that strongly activates PAK (p21-activated tyrosine kinase). PAK regulates changes in gene expression and mediates actin cytoskeletal and cell morphological changes. The novel finding of this study is that phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of alpha-Pix, which may modulate cytoskeletal changes of gastric epithelial cells through PAK.

  18. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA Genotypes among Alaskans and Their Correlation with Clinical Disease▿

    PubMed Central

    Miernyk, Karen; Morris, Julie; Bruden, Dana; McMahon, Brian; Hurlburt, Debby; Sacco, Frank; Parkinson, Alan; Hennessy, Thomas; Bruce, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Alaska. The development of severe H. pylori disease is partially determined by the virulence of the infecting strain. Here we present vacA and cagA genotype data for H. pylori strains isolated from Alaskans and their correlation with clinical disease. We enrolled patients scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy and positive for H. pylori infection. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and fundus were cultured. We performed PCR analysis of the H. pylori vacA gene and for the presence of the cagA gene and cagA empty site. We genotyped 515 H. pylori samples from 220 Native and 66 non-Native Alaskans. We detected the cagA gene in 242/286 (85%) persons; of 222 strains that could be subtyped, 95% (212) were non-Asian cagA and 3% (6) were East Asian cagA. After removing mixed infections (n = 17), 83% of H. pylori strains had either the vacA s1m1 (120/269) or s2m2 (103/269) genotype. Sixty-six percent (68/103) of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. Infection with an H. pylori strain having the cagA gene or vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with a decreased risk of esophagitis (P = 0.003 and 0.0003, respectively). Infection with an H. pylori strain having the vacA s1m1 genotype (compared with s1m2 and s2m2) was associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (P = 0.003). The majority of H. pylori strains in this study carried the non-Asian cagA gene and either the vacA s1m1 or s2m2 genotype. A majority of H. pylori strains with the vacA s2m2 genotype also contained the cagA gene. There was an association of H. pylori genotype with esophagitis and PUD. PMID:21752979

  19. Mutual reinforcement of inflammation and carcinogenesis by the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobumi; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Yanagiya, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Kanda, Hiroaki; Bingo, Atsuhiro; Fujii, Yumiko; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strain delivers the CagA oncoprotein into gastric epithelial cells and at the same time elicits stomach inflammation. To experimentally investigate the pathophysiological interplay between CagA and inflammation, transgenic mice systemically expressing the bacterial cagA gene were treated with a colitis inducer, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Compared with control mice, DSS-induced colitis was markedly deteriorated in cagA-transgenic mice. In the colonic epithelia of cagA-transgenic mice, there was a substantial decrease in the level of IκB, which binds and sequesters NF-κB in the cytoplasm. This IκB reduction was due to CagA-mediated inhibition of PAR1, which may stimulate IκB degradation by perturbing microtubule stability. Whereas the CagA-mediated IκB reduction did not automatically activate NF-κB, it lowered the threshold of NF-κB activation by inflammogenic insults, thereby contributing to colitis exacerbation in cagA-transgenic mice. CagA also activates inflammasomes independently of NF-κB signaling, which further potentiates inflammation. The incidence of colonic dysplasia was elevated in DSS-treated cagA-transgenic mice due to a robust increase in the number of pre-cancerous flat-type dysplasias. Thus, CagA deteriorated inflammation, whereas inflammation strengthened the oncogenic potential of CagA. This work revealed that H. pylori CagA and inflammation reinforce each other in creating a downward spiral that instigates neoplastic transformation. PMID:25944120

  20. Clinical significance of Helicobacter pylori cagA and iceA genotype status.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Nasser; Osman, Hussain Ali; Razak, Najibah Abdul; Kassian, Junaini; Din, Jeffri; bin Abdullah, Nasuruddin

    2010-09-21

    To study the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence factors and clinical outcome in H. pylori infected patients. A prospective analysis of ninety nine H. pylori-positive patients who underwent endoscopy in our Endoscopy suite were included in this study. DNA was isolated from antral biopsy samples and the presence of cagA, iceA, and iceA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and a reverse hybridization technique. Screening for H. pylori infection was performed in all patients using the rapid urease test (CLO-Test). From a total of 326 patients who underwent endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal symptoms, 99 patients were determined to be H. pylori-positive. Peptic ulceration was seen in 33 patients (33%). The main virulence strain observed in this cohort was the cagA gene isolated in 43 patients. cagA was associated with peptic ulcer pathology in 39.5% (17/43) and in 28% (16/56) of non-ulcer patients. IceA1 was present in 29 patients (29%) and iceA2 in 15 patients (15%). Ulcer pathology was seen in 39% (11/29) of patients with iceA1, while 31% (22/70) had normal findings. The corresponding values for iceA2 were 33% (5/15) and 33% (28/84), respectively. Virulence factors were not common in our cohort. The incidence of factors cagA, iceA1 and iceA2 were very low although variations were noted in different ethnic groups.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Thailand: A Nationwide Study of the CagA Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Tomohisa; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Pittayanon, Rapat; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Kishida, Tetsuko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2015-01-01

    The risk to develop gastric cancer in Thailand is relatively low among Asian countries. In addition, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of gastric cancer in Thailand varies with geographical distribution; the ASR in the North region is 3.5 times higher than that in the South region. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection and diversity of CagA phenotype contributes to the variety of gastric cancer risk in various regions of Thailand. We conducted a nationwide survey within Thailand. We determined H. pylori infection prevalence by detecting H. pylori, using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The anti-CagA antibody and anti-East-Asian type CagA antibody (α-EAS Ab), which showed high accuracy in several East Asian countries, were used to determine CagA phenotype. Among 1,546 patients from four regions, including 17 provinces, the overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 45.9% (710/1,546). Mirroring the prevalence of H. pylori infection, histological scores were the lowest in the South region. Of the 710 H. pylori-positive patients, 93.2% (662) were immunoreactive with the anti-CagA antibody. CagA-negative strain prevalence in the South region was significantly higher than that in other regions (17.9%; 5/28; p < 0.05). Overall, only 77 patients (11.6%) were immunoreactive with the α-EAS Ab. There were no differences in the α-EAS Ab immunoreactive rate across geographical regions. This is the first study using immunohistochemistry to confirm H. pylori infections across different regions in Thailand. The prevalence of East-Asian type CagA H. pylori in Thailand was low. The low incidence of gastric cancer in Thailand may be attributed to the low prevalence of precancerous lesions. The low incidence of gastric cancer in the South region might be associated with the lower prevalence of H. pylori infection, precancerous lesions, and CagA-positive H. pylori strains, compared with that in the other regions.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Thailand: A Nationwide Study of the CagA Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Tomohisa; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Pittayanon, Rapat; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Kishida, Tetsuko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk to develop gastric cancer in Thailand is relatively low among Asian countries. In addition, the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of gastric cancer in Thailand varies with geographical distribution; the ASR in the North region is 3.5 times higher than that in the South region. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection and diversity of CagA phenotype contributes to the variety of gastric cancer risk in various regions of Thailand. Methods We conducted a nationwide survey within Thailand. We determined H. pylori infection prevalence by detecting H. pylori, using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The anti-CagA antibody and anti-East-Asian type CagA antibody (α-EAS Ab), which showed high accuracy in several East Asian countries, were used to determine CagA phenotype. Results Among 1,546 patients from four regions, including 17 provinces, the overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 45.9% (710/1,546). Mirroring the prevalence of H. pylori infection, histological scores were the lowest in the South region. Of the 710 H. pylori-positive patients, 93.2% (662) were immunoreactive with the anti-CagA antibody. CagA-negative strain prevalence in the South region was significantly higher than that in other regions (17.9%; 5/28; p < 0.05). Overall, only 77 patients (11.6%) were immunoreactive with the α-EAS Ab. There were no differences in the α-EAS Ab immunoreactive rate across geographical regions. Conclusions This is the first study using immunohistochemistry to confirm H. pylori infections across different regions in Thailand. The prevalence of East-Asian type CagA H. pylori in Thailand was low. The low incidence of gastric cancer in Thailand may be attributed to the low prevalence of precancerous lesions. The low incidence of gastric cancer in the South region might be associated with the lower prevalence of H. pylori infection, precancerous lesions, and CagA-positive H. pylori strains, compared with that in the

  3. Association of Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene with Gastric Cancer and Peptic Ulcer in Saudi Patients.

    PubMed

    Saber, Taisir; Ghonaim, Mabrouk M; Yousef, Amany R; Khalifa, Amany; Al Qurashi, Hesham; Shaqhan, Mohammad; Samaha, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between occurrence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer, and the presence of H. pylori cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG, and to estimate the value of these antibodies in detecting infection by cagA gene-positive H. pylori strains in Saudi patients. The study included 180 patients who were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Taif province and Western region of Saudi Arabia (60 gastric cancer, 60 peptic ulcer, and 60 with non-ulcer dyspepsia). Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained and tested for H. pylori infection by rapid urease test and culture. PCR was performed on the isolated strains and biopsy specimens for detection of the cagA gene. Blood samples were collected and tested for CagA IgG by ELISA. H. pylori infection was detected among 72.8% of patients. The cagA gene and anti-CagA IgG were found in 63.4% and 61.8% of H. pylori-infected patients, respectively. They were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer compared with those with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Detection of the CagA IgG was 91.6% sensitive, 89.6% specific, and 90.8% accurate compared with detection of the cagA gene. Its positive and negative predictive values were 93.8% and 86%, respectively. The study showed a significant association between the presence of the cagA gene and gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease, and between anti-CagA IgG and the cagA gene in Saudi patients. However, a further larger study is required to confirm this finding.

  4. Early Molecular Events in Murine Gastric Epithelial Cells Mediated by Helicobacter pylori CagA.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aditi; Basu, Malini; Blanchard, Thomas G; Chintalacharuvu, Subba R; Guang, Wei; Lillehoj, Erik P; Czinn, Steven J

    2016-10-01

    Murine models of Helicobacter pylori infection are used to study host-pathogen interactions, but lack of severe gastritis in this model has limited its usefulness in studying pathogenesis. We compared the murine gastric epithelial cell line GSM06 to the human gastric epithelial AGS cell line to determine whether similar events occur when cultured with H. pylori. The lysates of cells infected with H. pylori isolates or an isogenic cagA-deficient mutant were assessed for translocation and phosphorylation of CagA and for activation of stress pathway kinases by immunoblot. Phosphorylated CagA was detected in both cell lines within 60 minutes. Phospho-ERK 1/2 was present within several minutes and distinctly present in GSM06 cells at 60 minutes. Similar results were obtained for phospho-JNK, although the 54 kDa phosphoprotein signal was dominant in AGS, whereas the lower molecular weight band was dominant in GSM06 cells. These results demonstrate that early events in H. pylori pathogenesis occur within mouse epithelial cells similar to human cells and therefore support the use of the mouse model for the study of acute CagA-associated host cell responses. These results also indicate that reduced disease in H. pylori-infected mice may be due to lack of the Cag PAI, or by differences in the mouse response downstream of the initial activation events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of CagA antigen of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Cebrail

    2015-01-01

    About half of the world populations are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. The CagA antigen secreting strains provoke severe mucosal damages and act as a risk factor for the development of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip was developed based on sandwich format for rapid detection of CagA antigen of H. pylori using gold conjugated monoclonal antibody. This LFIA strip will provide a good aid in the diagnosis of CagA-secreting H. pylori within 10 min instead of time consuming, expensive and laborious invasive approaches.

  6. Variant of Helicobacter pylori CagA proteins induce different magnitude of morphological changes in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Ramelah, Mohamed

    2012-06-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is associated with gastroduodenal diseases. The CagA protein is injected into gastric epithelial cells and supposedly induces morphological changes termed the 'hummingbird phenotype', which is associated with scattering and increased cell motility. The molecular mechanisms leading to the CagA-dependent morphological changes are only partially known. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of CagA variants on the magnitude of gastric epithelial cell morphological changes. Recombinant 3' terminal domains of cagA were cloned and expressed in a gastric epithelial cell line and the hummingbird phenotype was quantified by microscopy. The 3' region of the cagA gene of Malaysian H. pylori isolates showed six sub-genotypes that differed in the structural organization of the EPIYA repeat sequences. The percentage of hummingbird cells induced by CagA increased with duration of transfection. The hummingbird phenotype was observed to be more pronounced when CagA with 4 EPIYA motifs rather than 3 or 2 EPIYA motifs was produced. The activity of different CagA variants in the induction of the hummingbird phenotype in gastric epithelial cells depends at least in part on EPIYA motif variability. The difference in CagA genotypes might influence the potential of individual CagAs to cause morphological changes in host cells. Depending on the relative exposure of cells to CagA genotypes, this may contribute to the various disease outcomes caused by H. pylori infection in different individuals.

  7. Consensus and Variable Region PCR Analysis of Helicobacter pylori 3′ Region of cagA Gene in Isolates from Individuals with or without Peptic Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Cláudia Augustin; Pereira-Lima, Júlio C.; Blaya, Carolina; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2001-01-01

    The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with the cagA bacterial genotype. To investigate the cagA status of H. pylori-infected patients and the relationship between cagA and peptic ulcer disease, gastric biopsy specimens from 103 Caucasian patients in Brazil were analyzed by PCR. Since allelic variation in cagA exists and distinct H. pylori subgenotypes may circulate in different regions, PCR using primers for a variable 3′ region of the cagA gene according to a Japanese methodology and for a consensus cagA 3′ region used in Western methods was used for cagA detection. cagA was present in 53 (71%) of 75 H. pylori-positive cases when analyzed by the consensus region method and was associated with duodenal ulcer disease (P = 0.02), but not with gastric ulcer (P = 0.26), when compared to patients with duodenitis or gastritis. The variable region PCR method was able to detect 43 (57%) cagA-positive cases within the same group of H. pylori-positive patients and showed three subtypes of cagA (A, B/D, and C) that were not associated with clinical outcome. However, in 8 (18%) of the cases, more than one subtype was present, and an association between patients with multiple subtypes and disease outcome was observed when compared to patients with isolated subtypes (P = 0.048). cagA was a marker of H. pylori strains for duodenal ulcer disease in our population, and in spite of the differences in the 3′ region of the cagA gene, the Japanese methodology was able to detect the cagA status in most cases. The presence of multiple subgenotypes of cagA was associated with gastric ulcer. PMID:11158115

  8. NF-κB activation and potentiation of proinflammatory responses by the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Sabine; Kwok, Terry; Hartig, Roland; König, Wolfgang; Backert, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori immunodominant protein, CagA, is associated with severe gastritis and carcinoma. Injection of CagA into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion leads to actin-cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell scattering. CagA has been reported to have no role in the induction of transcription factor NF-κB and IL-8, which are crucial determinants for chronic inflammation. Here, we provide several lines of evidence showing that CagA is able to induce IL-8 in a time- and strain-dependent manner. We also show that by exchanging specific cagA genes, high IL-8-inducing H. pylori strains could be converted into low inducing strains and vice versa. Our results suggest that IL-8 release induced by CagA occurs via a Ras→Raf→Mek→Erk→NF-κB signaling pathway in a Shp-2- and c-Met-independent manner. Thus, CagA is a multifunctional protein capable of effecting both actin remodeling and potentiation of chemokine release. PMID:15972330

  9. Fucosyltransferase-4 and Oligosaccharide Lewis Y Antigen as potentially Correlative Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori CagA Associated Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Gao, Wei; Yan, Qiu

    2017-01-01

    H. pylori cytotoxin associated antigen A (CagA) plays a significant role in the progression of gastric cancer but their effect on fucosylation to develop gastric cancer is unknown. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is the key enzyme for synthesis of LewisY (LeY) carried by glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell membrane. Herein, we compare the expression of CagA, p-EGFR, FUT4 and LeY in gastritis (n = 128, 176), gastric ulcer (n = 174, 213), and gastric cancer (n = 323, 261) tissue and serum samples, respectively by IHC and ELISA. Moreover, we investigated the potential correlation of CagA with FUT4 and LeY overexpression through EGFR activation. IHC and ELISA results showed higher positive cases of H. pylori CagA (83, 86 %), p-EGFR (81, 72 %), FUT4 (91, 97 %) and LeY (93, 92 %) in gastric cancer, compared to gastritis and gastric ulcer, H. pylori CagA (58, 67 & 59, 73 %), p-EGFR (52, 63 & 35, 47 %), FUT4 (68, 78 & 67, 82 %) and LeY (62,76 & 65, 85 %), respectively. We found a significant high expression (H-Value) of CagA (1.79, 1.66), p-EGFR (1.53, 1.58), FUT4 (2.14, 1.66) and LeY (1.69, 1.61) in gastric cancer tissues and serum, respectively as compared to chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers, CagA (0.64,1.14), p-EGFR (0.856, 0.678), FUT4 (0.949,1.197) and LeY (0.68,1.008) (P < 0.0001), respectively. Furthermore, H. pylori CagA showed significant correlation with p-EGFR (R-0.62, -0.74), FUT4 (R-0.81, -0.76) and LeY (R-0.82, -0.70) in gastric tissues and serum (P < 0.0001). H. pylori CagA plays key role in the development of gastric cancer with overexpression of FUT4/LeY, serve as potentially correlative biomarkers of H. pylori CagA associated gastric cancer.

  10. Molecular mimicry by Helicobacter pylori CagA protein may be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Shinohara, Kenji; Inoue, Yusuke; Sato, Yutaka; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Okubo, Masashi; Zaitsu, Yuzuru; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Nakamura, Yukinori; Nawata, Ryouhei; Oka, Yoshitomo; Shirai, Mutsunori; Tanizawa, Yukio

    2004-01-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori often leads to platelet recovery in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP). Although this clinical observation suggests the involvement of H. pylori, little is known about the pathogenesis of cITP. We initially examined the effect of H. pylori eradication on platelet counts in 20 adult Japanese cITP patients. Then, using platelet eluates as the probe in immunoblot analyses, we examined the role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of cITP. Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 75% (15 of 20) of cITP patients. Eradication was achieved in 13 (87%) of the H. pylori-positive patients, seven (54%) of which showed increased platelet counts within the 4 months following treatment. Completely responsive patients also showed significant declines in platelet-associated immunoglobulin G (PAIgG) levels. Platelet eluates from 12 (nine H. pylori-positive and three H. pylori-negative) patients recognized H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein, and in three completely responsive patients, levels of anti-CagA antibody in platelet eluates declined after eradication therapy. Cross-reactivity between PAIgG and H. pylori CagA protein suggests that molecular mimicry by CagA plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a subset of cITP patients.

  11. Type IV Secretion and Signal Transduction of Helicobacter pylori CagA through Interactions with Host Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Tegtmeyer, Nicole

    2017-03-24

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful human bacterium, which is exceptionally equipped to persistently inhabit the human stomach. Colonization by this pathogen is associated with gastric disorders ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to cancer. Highly virulent H. pylori strains express the well-established adhesins BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA, and HopQ, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The adhesins ascertain intimate bacterial contact to gastric epithelial cells, while the T4SS represents an extracellular pilus-like structure for the translocation of the effector protein CagA. Numerous T4SS components including CagI, CagL, CagY, and CagA have been shown to target the integrin-β₁ receptor followed by translocation of CagA across the host cell membrane. The interaction of CagA with membrane-anchored phosphatidylserine and CagA-containing outer membrane vesicles may also play a role in the delivery process. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation in C-terminal EPIYA-repeat motifs by oncogenic Src and Abl kinases. CagA then interacts with an array of host signaling proteins followed by their activation or inactivation in phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashions. We now count about 25 host cell binding partners of intracellular CagA, which represent the highest quantity of all currently known virulence-associated effector proteins in the microbial world. Here we review the research progress in characterizing interactions of CagA with multiple host cell receptors in the gastric epithelium, including integrin-β₁, EGFR, c-Met, CD44, E-cadherin, and gp130. The contribution of these interactions to H. pylori colonization, signal transduction, and gastric pathogenesis is discussed.

  12. Structure of the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein bound to the human tumor suppressor ASPP2

    PubMed Central

    Nešić, Dragana; Buti, Ludovico; Lu, Xin; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2014-01-01

    The Cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) protein of Helicobacter pylori is associated with increased virulence and risk of cancer. Recent proteomic studies have demonstrated an association of CagA with the human tumor suppressor Apoptosis-stimulating Protein of p53-2 (ASPP2). We present here a genetic, biochemical, and structural analysis of CagA with ASPP2. Domain delineation of the 120-kDa CagA protein revealed a stable N-terminal subdomain that was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the proline-rich domain of ASPP2 as a host cellular target. Biochemical experiments confirm this interaction. The cocrystal structure to 2.0-Å resolution of this N-terminal subdomain of CagA with a 7-kDa proline-rich sequence of ASPP2 reveals that this domain of CagA forms a highly specialized three-helix bundle, with large insertions in the loops connecting the helices. These insertions come together to form a deep binding cleft for a highly conserved 20-aa peptide of ASPP2. ASPP2 forms an extended helix in this groove of CagA, burying more than 1,000 Å2 of surface area. This interaction is disrupted in vitro and in vivo by structure-based, loss-of-contact point mutations of key residues in either CagA or ASPP2. Disruption of CagA and ASPP2 binding alters the function of ASPP2 and leads to the decreased survival of H. pylori-infected cells. PMID:24474782

  13. Structure of the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein bound to the human tumor suppressor ASPP2.

    PubMed

    Nešić, Dragana; Buti, Ludovico; Lu, Xin; Stebbins, C Erec

    2014-01-28

    The Cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) protein of Helicobacter pylori is associated with increased virulence and risk of cancer. Recent proteomic studies have demonstrated an association of CagA with the human tumor suppressor Apoptosis-stimulating Protein of p53-2 (ASPP2). We present here a genetic, biochemical, and structural analysis of CagA with ASPP2. Domain delineation of the 120-kDa CagA protein revealed a stable N-terminal subdomain that was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the proline-rich domain of ASPP2 as a host cellular target. Biochemical experiments confirm this interaction. The cocrystal structure to 2.0-Å resolution of this N-terminal subdomain of CagA with a 7-kDa proline-rich sequence of ASPP2 reveals that this domain of CagA forms a highly specialized three-helix bundle, with large insertions in the loops connecting the helices. These insertions come together to form a deep binding cleft for a highly conserved 20-aa peptide of ASPP2. ASPP2 forms an extended helix in this groove of CagA, burying more than 1,000 Å(2) of surface area. This interaction is disrupted in vitro and in vivo by structure-based, loss-of-contact point mutations of key residues in either CagA or ASPP2. Disruption of CagA and ASPP2 binding alters the function of ASPP2 and leads to the decreased survival of H. pylori-infected cells.

  14. Novel effects of Helicobacter pylori CagA on key genes of gastric cancer signal transduction: a comparative transfection study.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Farzam; Peerayeh, Shahin N; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Maghsoudi, Nader; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Siadat, Seyed D; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is now recognized as a worldwide problem. Helicobacter pylori CagA is the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified in relation to human cancer. Helicobacter pylori CagA is noted for structural diversity in its C-terminal region (contains EPIYA motifs), with which CagA interacts with numerous host cell proteins. Deregulation of host signaling by translocated bacterial proteins provides a new aspect of microbial-host cell interaction. The aim of this study is to compare the cellular effects of two different CagA EPIYA motifs on identified signaling pathways involve in gastric carcinogenesis. To investigate the effects of CagA protein carboxyl region variations on the transcription of genes involved in gastric epithelial carcinogenesis pathways, the eukaryotic vector carrying the cagA gene (ABC and ABCCC types) was transfected into gastric cancer cell line. The 42 identified key genes of signal transduction involved in gastric cancer were analyzed at the transcription level by real-time PCR. The results of real-time PCR provide us important clue that the ABCCC oncoprotein variant can change the fate of the cell completely different from ABC type. In fact, these result proposed that the ABCCC type can induce the intestinal metaplasia, IL-8, perturbation of Crk adaptor proteins, anti-apoptotic effect and carcinogenic effect more significantly than ABC type. These data support our hypothesis of a complex interaction of host cell and these two different H. pylori effector variants that determines host cellular fate. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Helicobacter pylori induced interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells is associated with CagA positive phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, J E; Covacci, A; Farmery, S M; Xiang, Z; Tompkins, D S; Perry, S; Lindley, I J; Rappuoli, R

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To use a range of natural phenotypically variant strains of Helicobacter pylori with disparate CagA and VacA (vacuolating cytotoxin) expression to determine which bacterial factors are more closely associated with epithelial interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. METHODS--Gastric epithelial cells (AGS and KATO-3) were co-cultured with five H pylori strains which were variously shown to express the cagA gene/CagA protein, VacA and/or to exhibit biological cytotoxicity. Secreted IL-8 was assayed by enzyme leaked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) was assayed using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based technique (RT-PCR). RESULTS--Strains expressing CagA, including a variant strain (D931) which is non-cytotoxic and does not express the VacA protein, were found to upregulate epithelial IL-8 secretion and gene expression. In contrast, strains with no CagA expression, even in the presence of VacA and/or biological cytotoxicity, (G104, BA142), failed to induce IL-8 protein or mRNA above control values. CONCLUSIONS--These results strongly support a role for H pylori CagA or coexpressed factors other than the cytotoxin in upregulation of gastric epithelial IL-8. Increased epithelial IL-8 secretion and concomitant neutrophil chemotaxis and activation in addition to direct cytotoxicity may be an important factor in tissue damage and ulceration. Images PMID:7706517

  16. Structure and function of Helicobacter pylori CagA, the first-identified bacterial protein involved in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    HATAKEYAMA, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori cagA-positive strains is the strongest risk factor of gastric cancer. The cagA gene-encoded CagA protein is delivered into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion, where it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motifs. Delivered CagA then acts as a non-physiological scaffold/hub protein by interacting with multiple host signaling molecules, most notably the pro-oncogenic phosphatase SHP2 and the polarity-regulating kinase PAR1/MARK, in both tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent and -independent manners. CagA-mediated manipulation of intracellular signaling promotes neoplastic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Transgenic expression of CagA in experimental animals has confirmed the oncogenic potential of the bacterial protein. Structural polymorphism of CagA influences its scaffold function, which may underlie the geographic difference in the incidence of gastric cancer. Since CagA is no longer required for the maintenance of established gastric cancer cells, studying the role of CagA during neoplastic transformation will provide an excellent opportunity to understand molecular processes underlying “Hit-and-Run” carcinogenesis. PMID:28413197

  17. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and its CagA gene in tonsil and adenoid tissues by PCR.

    PubMed

    Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Ozdek, Ali; Yilmaz, Dicle; Bayiz, Unal; Samim, Erdal; Turet, Sevgi

    2003-11-01

    To determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori and, if detected, the prevalence of the CagA gene in adenotonsillectomy specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A prospective clinical trial. Tertiary referral center. The study population comprised 23 patients who had undergone adenoidectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenotonsillectomy under local or general anesthesia. Helicobacter pylori DNA was extracted from 3-mm-diameter tissue samples obtained from each tonsil and adenoid tissue specimens. The amplifications were performed for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and CagA genes of H pylori in the samples of which H pylori DNA was detected. In examining all the samples, 7 (30%) of 23 patients were shown to be positive for H pylori DNA, 5 (71%) of whom also possessed the CagA gene. Tonsil and adenoid tissues may be an ecological niche of the mouth without regard to transient or permanent colonization. Oral-oral transmission may be a possible mode of spread of H pylori.

  18. Effect of treatment failure on the CagA EPIYA motif in Helicobacter pylori strains from Colombian subjects.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andres; Matta, Andres Jenuer; Pazos, Alvaro Jairo; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2017-03-21

    To evaluate effect of treatment failure on cagA and vacA genotypes in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates from Colombia. One hundred and seventy-six participants infected with H. pylori from Colombia were treated during 14 d with the triple-standard therapy. Six weeks later, eradication was evaluated by (13)C-Urea breath test. Patients with treatment failure were subjected to endoscopy control; biopsies obtained were used for histopathology and culture. DNA from H. pylori isolates was amplified using primers specific for cagA and vacA genes. The phylogenetic relationships among isolates obtained before and after treatment were established by conglomerate analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Treatment effectiveness was at 74.6%. Of the participants with treatment failure, 25 accepted subjected to a second endoscopy. Prevalence of post-treatment infection was 64% (16/25) and 40% (10/25) by histology and culture, respectively. Upon comparing the cagA and vacA genotypes found before and after therapy, multiple cagA genotypes (cagA-positive and cagA-negative) were found before treatment; in contrast, cagA-negative genotypes decreased after treatment. vacA s1m1 genotype was highly prevalent in patients before and after therapy. The 3'cagA region was successfully amplified in 95.5% (21/22) of the isolates obtained before and in 81.8% (18/22) of the isolates obtained after treatment. In the isolates obtained from patients with treatment failure, it was found that 72.7% (16/22) presented alterations in the number of EPIYA motifs, compared to isolates found before treatment. Unsuccessful treatment limits colonization by low-virulence strains resulting in partial and selective eradication in mixed infections, and acts on the cagA-positive strains inducing genetic rearrangements in cagA variable region that produces a loss or gain of EPIYA repetitions.

  19. cagA and vacA in strains of Helicobacter pylori from ulcer and non-ulcerative dyspepsia patients

    PubMed Central

    Faundez, Gustavo; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2002-01-01

    Background The cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA), and the vacuolating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) of Helicobacter pylori have been associated to phenotypic characteristics of virulence. The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of cagA and to characterize the allelic variants of vacA in 63 strains of H. pylori isolated from colonized individuals with different clinical outcomes. Methods 38 strains were isolated from patients with non-ulcerative dyspepsia (NUD) and 25 were isolated from colonized individuals with peptic ulcers. The genotypic characterization was carried out utilizing PCR methodology. The presence of the cagA gene was detected using two set of primers from the middle conservative region of the cagA, and primers for the signal and middle region were used for the genotyping of vacA Results The presence of cagA showed similar rates in strains from peptic ulcers (60%) and NUD patients (55%). Also similar was the prevalence of the allelic form s1 of vacA between the strains obtained from ulcers or NUD patients. However, the combination cagA+/vacA s1m1 was found more frequently among the H. pylori strains from peptic ulcer patients (52%) than among strains isolated from NUD patients (26%), this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.035). Conclusions The presence of either cagA or the allelic variant s1 vacA alone do not have a predictive value as as a risk markers of severe gastric pathologies in the Chilean population. However, being infected by a H. pylori strain with the genotype cagA+/vacA s1m1 may be associated to an increased risk of acquiring a peptic ulcer disease. PMID:12223115

  20. Five-year monitoring of considerable changes in tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Mohammad; Ghorbani-Dalini, Sadegh; Doosti, Abbas; Najafi, Akram

    2014-08-01

    CagA is a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori involved in host cell modulation. The C-terminal part of CagA containing the EPIYA motifs is highly variable and is important for the biological activity of the protein. The aim of this study was consideration of the changes in cagA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) of H. pylori. A set of 302 H. pylori DNA samples from the Iranian population from 2006 to 2011 was selected for the proposed study. The cagA gene and its TPMs were assessed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and specific primers. The prevalence of the cagA gene in our study ranged from 91.43% to 97.06% (with an average of 95.03%). Out of the cagA-positive samples, the prevalence of TPMs A and B increased from 12.5% and 23.44% to 71.2% and 63.63%, respectively. Also, the prevalence of samples infected with Western and East Asian types of H. pylori ranged from 64.06% to 5.73% for the Western type and 17.19% to 51.59% for the East Asian type. Overall, our results showed a high prevalence of the cagA gene. Also, it seems that cagA TPMs of H. pylori is undergoing a change from the Western type to the East Asian type in Iran.

  1. Sequence Polymorphism and Intrinsic Structural Disorder as Related to Pathobiological Performance of the Helicobacter pylori CagA Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2017-04-13

    CagA, an oncogenic virulence factor produced by Helicobacter pylori, is causally associated with the development of gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Upon delivery into gastric epithelial cells via bacterial type IV secretion, CagA interacts with a number of host proteins through the intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail, which contains two repeatable protein-binding motifs, the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) motif and the CagA multimerization (CM) motif. The EPIYA motif, upon phosphorylation by host kinases, binds and deregulates Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), a bona fide oncoprotein, inducing pro-oncogenic mitogenic signaling and abnormal cell morphology. Through the CM motif, CagA inhibits the kinase activity of polarity regulator partitioning-defective 1b (PAR1b), causing junctional and polarity defects while inducing actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. The magnitude of the pathobiological action of individual CagA has been linked to the tandem repeat polymorphisms of these two binding motifs, yet the molecular mechanisms by which they affect disease outcome remain unclear. Recent studies using quantitative techniques have provided new insights into how the sequence polymorphisms in the structurally disordered C-terminal region determine the degree of pro-oncogenic action of CagA in the gastric epithelium.

  2. High Diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori Genotypes in Patients with and without Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Barreto-Zúñiga, Rafael; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008), and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003). A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036). A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003). Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. Conclusion/Significance High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work. PMID:19050763

  3. High diversity of vacA and cagA Helicobacter pylori genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Vidal, Yolanda; Ponce-de-León, Sergio; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Barreto-Zúñiga, Rafael; Torre-Delgadillo, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the topographical distribution of H. pylori in the stomach as well as the vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with and without gastric cancer. Three gastric biopsies, from predetermined regions, were evaluated in 16 patients with gastric cancer and 14 patients with dyspeptic symptoms. From cancer patients, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor centers and margins; among these samples, the presence of H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes was evaluated. Positive H. pylori was 38% and 26% in biopsies obtained from the gastric cancer and non-cancer groups, respectively (p = 0.008), and 36% in tumor sites. In cancer patients, we found a preferential distribution of H. pylori in the fundus and corpus, whereas, in the non-cancer group, the distribution was uniform (p = 0.003). A majority of the biopsies were simultaneously cagA gene-positive and -negative. The fundus and corpus demonstrated a higher positivity rate for the cagA gene in the non-cancer group (p = 0.036). A mixture of cagA gene sizes was also significantly more frequent in this group (p = 0.003). Ninety-two percent of all the subjects showed more than one vacA gene genotype; s1b and m1 vacA genotypes were predominantly found in the gastric cancer group. The highest vacA-genotype signal-sequence diversity was found in the corpus and 5 cm from tumor margins. High H. pylori colonization diversity, along with the cagA gene, was found predominantly in the fundus and corpus of patients with gastric cancer. The genotype diversity observed across systematic whole-organ and tumor sampling was remarkable. We find that there is insufficient evidence to support the association of one isolate with a specific disease, due to the multistrain nature of H. pylori infection shown in this work.

  4. Quantitative detection and genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from stool using droplet digital PCR reveals variation in bacterial loads that correlates with cagA virulence gene carriage

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Sarah; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Cortes, Bernal; Larson, Ann; Fang, Ferric C.; Salama, Nina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenic stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori have been limited by the lack of non-invasive detection and genotyping methods. We developed a new stool-based method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which allows for increased sensitivity and absolute quantification by PCR partitioning. Materials and Methods Stool-based ddPCR assays for H. pylori 16S gene detection and cagA virulence gene typing were tested using a collection of 50 matched stool and serum samples from Costa Rican volunteers and 29 H. pylori stool antigen-tested stool samples collected at a U.S. hospital. Results The stool-based H. pylori 16S ddPCR assay had a sensitivity of 84% and 100% and a specificity of 100% and 71% compared to serology and stool antigen tests, respectively. The stool-based cagA genotyping assay detected cagA in 22 (88%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-positive individuals and 4 (16%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-negative individuals from Costa Rica. All 26 of these samples had a Western-type cagA allele. Presence of serum CagA antibodies was correlated with a significantly higher load of H. pylori in the stool. Conclusions The stool-based ddPCR assays are a sensitive, non-invasive method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori. The quantitative nature of ddPCR-based H. pylori detection revealed significant variation in bacterial load among individuals that correlates with presence of the cagA virulence gene. These stool-based ddPCR assays will facilitate future population-based epidemiologic studies of this important human pathogen. PMID:26667241

  5. Quantitative Detection and Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori from Stool using Droplet Digital PCR Reveals Variation in Bacterial Loads that Correlates with cagA Virulence Gene Carriage.

    PubMed

    Talarico, Sarah; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Cortes, Bernal; Larson, Ann; Fang, Ferric C; Salama, Nina R

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the carcinogenic stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori have been limited by the lack of noninvasive detection and genotyping methods. We developed a new stool-based method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which allows for increased sensitivity and absolute quantification by PCR partitioning. Stool-based ddPCR assays for H. pylori 16S gene detection and cagA virulence gene typing were tested using a collection of 50 matched stool and serum samples from Costa Rican volunteers and 29 H. pylori stool antigen-tested stool samples collected at a US hospital. The stool-based H. pylori 16S ddPCR assay had a sensitivity of 84% and 100% and a specificity of 100% and 71% compared to serology and stool antigen tests, respectively. The stool-based cagA genotyping assay detected cagA in 22 (88%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-positive individuals and four (16%) of 25 stools from CagA antibody-negative individuals from Costa Rica. All 26 of these samples had a Western-type cagA allele. Presence of serum CagA antibodies was correlated with a significantly higher load of H. pylori in the stool. The stool-based ddPCR assays are a sensitive, noninvasive method for detection, quantification, and partial genotyping of H. pylori. The quantitative nature of ddPCR-based H. pylori detection revealed significant variation in bacterial load among individuals that correlates with presence of the cagA virulence gene. These stool-based ddPCR assays will facilitate future population-based epidemiologic studies of this important human pathogen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of vacA, cagA and babA2 genes in Cuban Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Lino E; Melián, Karelia; Moreno, Arlenis; Alonso, Jordis; Sabatier, Carlos A; Hernández, Mayrín; Bermúdez, Ludisleydis; Rodríguez, Boris L

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) and blood adhesion binding antigen (babA2) genotypes of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) isolates from Cuban dyspeptic patients. METHODS: DNA was extracted from H pylori-positive cultures taken from 130 dyspeptic patients. Genotyping was performed by PCR, using specific primers for vacA (s1, s2, m1, m2), cagA and babA2 genes. Endoscopic observations and histological examinations were used to determine patient pathologies. RESULTS: vacA alleles s1, s2, m1 and m2 were detected in 96 (73.8%), 34 (26.2%), 75 (57.7%) and 52 isolates (40%), respectively, while the cagA gene was detected in 95 isolates (73.2%). One hundred and seven isolates (82.3%) were babA2-positive. A significant correlation was observed between vacAs1m1 and cagA and between vacAs1m1 and babA2 genotypes (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and between babA2 genotype and cagA status (P < 0.05); but, no correlation was observed between vacAs1 and babA2 genotypes. Eighty five (65.4%) and 73 (56.2%) strains were type 1 (vacAs1-cagA-positive) and “triple-positive” (vacAs1-cagA-babA2-positive), respectively, and their presence was significantly associated with duodenal ulcer (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: The distribution of the main virulence factors in the Cuban strains in this study resembled that of the Western-type strains, and the more virulent H pylori isolates were significantly associated with duodenal ulcer, ulcer disease being the worst pathology observed in the group studied. PMID:19132771

  7. Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Shiota, Seiji; Matsunari, Osamu; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Binh, Tran Thanh; Kinjo, Nagisa; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Helicobacter pylori cagA can be classified into mainly two types (East-Asian-type and Western-type cagA) according to the repeat regions located in the 3′ region. Recent studies showed that the Western-type cagA in strains from Okinawa, Japan formed a different cluster (J-Western-type cagA subtype). We also reported that J-Western-type cagA possess a 12-bp insertion located in the 5′ region of cagA sequence. Methods The prevalence of 12-bp insertion in cagA in Okinawa and the United States (U.S.) was examined by DNA sequencing. We then designed the primer pair which can detect the 12-bp insertion only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prevalence of strains with 12-bp insertion was examined in 336 strains isolated from Okinawa by PCR. Results In case of Western-type cagA/vacA s1m2 strains, the prevalence of 12-bp insertion was significantly higher in strains isolated from Okinawa than that from the U.S. (P = 0.002). Phylogenetic tree showed that strains with 12-bp insertion formed two individual clusters within J-Western-type cagA subtype; one is from Okinawa and another is from the U.S. Our designed primer set showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (90.8%) in Okinawa. The 12-bp insertion was found in 23.7%, 14.3%, 4.2%, and 4.0% of strains with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastritis, gastric cancer (GC), and gastric ulcer (GU), respectively (P < 0.001 for DU vs. GU) in Okinawa. Conclusions Although the mechanisms are unknown, the presence of 12-bp insertion was associated with the presence of DU and might have a suppressive action on GU and GC. PMID:23190390

  8. CagA, a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, promotes the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Man; Li, Fu-gang; Xie, Xi-sheng; Wang, Shao-qing; Fan, Jun-ming

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1 in DAKIKI cells. • CagA decreased the expression of C1GALT1 and its chaperone Cosmc in DAKIKI cells. • Helicobacter pylori infection may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN via CagA. - Abstract: While Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is closely associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was to investigate the effect of cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA), a major virulence factor of Hp, on the production and underglycosylation of IgA1 in the B cell line DAKIKI cells. Cells were cultured and treated with recombinant CagA protein. We found that CagA stimulated cell proliferation and the production of IgA1 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Moreover, CagA promoted the underglycosylation of IgA1, which at least partly attributed to the downregulation of β1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1GALT1) and its chaperone Cosmc. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Hp infection, at least via CagA, may participate in the pathogenesis of IgAN by influencing the production and glycosylation of IgA1 in B cells.

  9. Helicobacter pylori VacA, acting through receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase α, is crucial for CagA phosphorylation in human duodenum carcinoma cell line AZ-521

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Yamasaki, Eiki; Kurazono, Hisao; Akada, Junko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Niidome, Takuro; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Taro; Moss, Joel; Isomoto, Hajime; Hirayama, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori, a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which seem to be involved in virulence. VacA exhibits pleiotropic actions in gastroduodenal disorders via its specific receptors. Recently, we found that VacA induced the phosphorylation of cellular Src kinase (Src) at Tyr418 in AZ-521 cells. Silencing of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)α, a VacA receptor, reduced VacA-induced Src phosphorylation. Src is responsible for tyrosine phosphorylation of CagA at its Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) variant C (EPIYA-C) motif in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, resulting in binding of CagA to SHP-2 phosphatase. Challenging AZ-521 cells with wild-type H. pylori induced phosphorylation of CagA, but this did not occur when challenged with a vacA gene-disrupted mutant strain. CagA phosphorylation was observed in cells infected with a vacA gene-disrupted mutant strain after addition of purified VacA, suggesting that VacA is required for H. pylori-induced CagA phosphorylation. Following siRNA-mediated RPTPα knockdown in AZ-521 cells, infection with wild-type H. pylori and treatment with VacA did not induce CagA phosphorylation. Taken together, these results support our conclusion that VacA mediates CagA phosphorylation through RPTPα in AZ-521 cells. These data indicate the possibility that Src phosphorylation induced by VacA is mediated through RPTPα, resulting in activation of Src, leading to CagA phosphorylation at Tyr972 in AZ-521 cells. PMID:27935824

  10. Hydrogen Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role in Gastric Carcinogenesis through Facilitating CagA Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Peek, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed. The quinone reductase inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) was used to specifically inhibit the H2-utilizing respiratory chain of outer membrane-permeabilized bacterial cells; that level of inhibitor also greatly attenuated CagA translocation into AGS cells, indicating the H2-generated transmembrane potential is a contributor to toxin translocation. The Δhyd strain showed a decreased frequency of DNA transformation, suggesting that H. pylori hydrogenase is also involved in energizing the DNA uptake apparatus. In a gerbil model of infection, the ability of the Δhyd strain to induce inflammation was significantly attenuated (at 12 weeks postinoculation), while all of the gerbils infected with the parent strain (7.13) exhibited a high level of inflammation. Gastric cancer developed in 50% of gerbils infected with the wild-type strain 7.13 but in none of the animals infected with the Δhyd strain. By examining the hydrogenase activities from well-defined clinical H. pylori isolates, we observed that strains isolated from cancer patients (n = 6) have a significantly higher hydrogenase (H2/O2) activity than the strains isolated from gastritis patients (n = 6), further supporting an association between H. pylori hydrogenase activity and gastric carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:27531909

  11. cagA and vacA genotype of Helicobacter pylori associated with gastric diseases in Xi’an area

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Wen; Hu, Jia-Lu; Xiao, Bing; Wu, Kai-Chun; Peng, Dao-Rong; Atherton, John C; Xue, Hui

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To establish stock of clinical Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates, to perform cagA and vacA typing of these isolates, to evaluate the relationship between genotypes of cagA and vacA and upper gastrointestinal diseases and to assess the association of vacA genotypes with presence of the pathogenicity marker-cagA. METHODS: Clinical H.pylori strains were isolated from the antrum of 259 patients in Clumbia agar. The isolated H. pylori strains were identified by histology, and16SrRNA PCR. CagA genotypes were detected by colony hybridization, the probe was derived from the cloned plasmid PcagA, and digested by EcoRI-HindIII and the isolated PcagA DNA fragment was radioactively labelled by the random priming method. vacA genes types (s,m)and subtypes (s1a, s1b, s2) were typed by PCR. Vacuolating toxin was detected with neutral red absorb test. The results were treated statistically by χ2 test, t test, and rank sum test. RESULTS: A total of 192 clinical H.pylori strains were isolated and the stock of Helicobacter pylori was established. The total positive rate of cagA was 87% in all gastric diseases, and 95% in gastric cancer group. There was a difference between gastric cancer group and the other groups (P < 0.05) except duodenal ulcer group. The expression of type s1 of vacA was more than type s2 (P < 0.05), and, the expression of type m1 was equal to type m2. In gastric cancer group, there was a difference between s1a and s1b (P < 0.05), and s1a was more than s1b. Vacuolating toxins were more in Xi’an area isolates. CONCLUSION: The cagA+ vacA type s1 clinical isolates are more in Xi’an area, but this can not serve as an index to predict gastric cancer. PMID:12918116

  12. Helicobacter pylori CagA and IL-1β Promote the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered the most important risk factor, mainly by the activity of its virulence factor CagA. H. pylori/CagA-induced chronic inflammation triggers a series of gastric lesions of increased severity, starting with gastritis and ending with cancer. IL-1β has been associated with tumor development and invasiveness in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Currently, it is not clear if there is an association between CagA and IL-1β at a cellular level. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1β and CagA on MCF-10A nontransformed cells. We found evidence that both CagA and IL-1β trigger the initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characterized by β-catenin nuclear translocation, increased expression of Snail1 and ZEB1, downregulation of CDH1, and morphological changes during MCF-10A acini formation. However, only CagA induced MMP9 activity and cell invasion. Our data support that IL-1β and CagA target the β-catenin pathway, with CagA leading to acquisition of a stage related to aggressive tumors. PMID:27525003

  13. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion.

  14. Helicobacter pylori CagA Suppresses Apoptosis through Activation of AKT in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model of Glandular Acini Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela; Torres, Javier; Sandoval-Montes, Claudia; Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Torres-Morales, Julián; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María Victoria; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2015-01-01

    H. pylori infection is the most important environmental risk to develop gastric cancer, mainly through its virulence factor CagA. In vitro models of CagA function have demonstrated a phosphoprotein activity targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways, while cagA transgenic mice develop carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract, supporting oncogenic functions. However, it is still not completely clear how CagA alters cellular processes associated with carcinogenic events. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of H. pylori CagA positive and negative strains to alter nontransformed MCF-10A glandular acini formation. We found that CagA positive strains inhibited lumen formation arguing for an evasion of apoptosis activity of central acini cells. In agreement, CagA positive strains induced a cell survival activity that correlated with phosphorylation of AKT and of proapoptotic proteins BIM and BAD. Anoikis is a specific type of apoptosis characterized by AKT and BIM activation and it is the mechanism responsible for lumen formation of MCF-10A acini in vitro and mammary glands in vivo. Anoikis resistance is also a common mechanism of invading tumor cells. Our data support that CagA positive strains signaling function targets the AKT and BIM signaling pathway and this could contribute to its oncogenic activity through anoikis evasion. PMID:26557697

  15. Proteomic Characterization of Helicobacter pylori CagA Antigen Recognized by Child Serum Antibodies and Its Epitope Mapping by Peptide Array

    PubMed Central

    Akada, Junko; Okuda, Masumi; Hiramoto, Narumi; Kitagawa, Takao; Zhang, Xiulian; Kamei, Shuichi; Ito, Akane; Nakamura, Mikiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Hiwatani, Tomoko; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Teruko; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Serum antibodies against pathogenic bacteria play immunologically protective roles, and can be utilized as diagnostic markers of infection. This study focused on Japanese child serum antibodies against Helicobacter pylori, a chronically-infected gastric bacterium which causes gastric cancer in adults. Serological diagnosis for H. pylori infection is well established for adults, but it needs to be improved for children. Serum samples from 24 children, 22 H. pylori (Hp)-positive and 2 Hp-negative children, were used to catalogue antigenic proteins of a Japanese strain CPY2052 by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, 24 proteins were identified as candidate antigen proteins. Among these, the major virulence factor, cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (CagA) was the most reactive antigen recognized by all the Hp-positive sera even from children under the age of 3 years. The major antigenic part of CagA was identified in the middle region, and two peptides containing CagA epitopes were identified using a newly developed peptide/protein-combined array chip method, modified from our previous protein chip method. Each of the epitopes was found to contain amino acid residue(s) unique to East Asian CagA. Epitope analysis of CagA indicated importance of the regional CagA antigens for serodiagnosis of H. pylori infection in children. PMID:25141238

  16. H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts tight junctions and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Chen, Hui-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Deng, Xi-Yun; Xi, Yin-Xue; He, Qing; Peng, Tie-Li; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wei; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Chen, Min-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori encoded CagA is presently the only known virulence factor that is injected into gastric epithelial cells where it destroys apical junctional complexes and induces dedifferentiation of gastric epithelial cells, leading to H. pylori-related gastric carcinogensis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which CagA mediates these changes. Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor highly expressed in multistage tissues of dysplasia and cancer. One specific target of Cdx2, Claudin-2, is involved in the regulation of tight junction (TJ) permeability. In this study, our findings showed that the activity of Cdx2 binding to Cdx binding sites of CdxA (GTTTATG) and CdxB (TTTTAGG) of probes corresponding to claudin-2 flanking region increased in AGS cells, infected with CagA positive wild-type strain of H. pylori, compared to CagA negative isogenic mutant-type strain. Moreover, Cdx2 upregulated claudin-2 expression at transcriptional level and translational level. In the meantime, we found that TJs of AGS cells, infected with CagA positive wild-type strain of H. pylori, compared to CagA negative isogenic mutant-type strain, were more severely destroyed, leading to wider cell gap, interference of contact, scattering and highly elevated migration of cells. Herein, this study is firstly demonstrated that H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts TJs and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2. This provides a new mechanism whereby CagA induced dedifferentiation of AGS cells, leading to malignant behavior of biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CagA and VacA Polymorphisms Do Not Correlate with Severity of Histopathological Lesions in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Greek Children▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G.; Papadakos, Konstantinos; Martinez-Gonzalez, Beatriz; Roumbani, Aikaterini; Panayiotou, Joanna; vanVliet-Constantinidou, Cathy; Mentis, Andreas F.; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2009-01-01

    The presence of various numbers of EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs in the CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to contribute to pathogenesis in adults. In this prospective study, we characterized H. pylori isolates from symptomatic children, with reference to the diversity of functional EPIYA motifs in the CagA protein and vacA isotypes, and assessed the potential correlation with the histopathological manifestations of the infection. We analyzed 105 H. pylori isolates from 98 children and determined the diversity of EPIYA motifs in CagA by amplification and sequencing of the 3′ variable region of the cagA gene as well as vacA isotypes for the signal, middle, and intermediate regions. CagA phosphorylation and levels of secreted IL-8 were determined following in vitro infection of AGS gastric epithelial cells. Histopathological evaluation of H. pylori colonization, activity, and severity of the associated gastritis was performed according to the updated Sydney criteria. EPIYA A (GLKN[ST]EPIYAKVNKKK), EPIYA B (Q[V/A]ASPEPIY[A/T]QVAKKVNAKI), and EPIYA C (RS[V/A]SPEPIYATIDDLG) motifs were detected in the ABC (46.6%) and ABCC (17.1%) combinations. No isolates harboring more than two EPIYA C motifs in CagA were found. The presence of isogenic strains with variable numbers of CagA EPIYA C motifs within the same patient was detected in seven cases. Occurrence of increasing numbers of EPIYA C motifs correlated strongly with presence of a high-vacuolation (s1 or s2/i1/m1) phenotype and age. A weak positive correlation was observed between vacuolating vacA genotypes and presence of nodular gastritis. However, CagA- and VacA-dependent pathogenicities were not found to contribute to severity of histopathology manifestations in H. pylori-infected children. PMID:19535517

  18. CEACAM6 is upregulated by Helicobacter pylori CagA and is a biomarker for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Supriya; Samanta, Animesh; Sharma, Neel; Tan, Kar Tong; Yang, Henry; Voon, Dominic C.; Pang, Brendan; Teh, Ming; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Chang, Young-Tae; Yong, Wei Peng; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ho, Khek Yu; Tan, Patrick; Soong, Richie; Koeffler, Phillip H.; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Jeyasekharan, Anand D.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of gastric cancers saves lives, but remains a diagnostic challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify cell-surface biomarkers of early gastric cancer. We hypothesized that a subset of plasma membrane proteins induced by the Helicobacter pylori oncoprotein CagA will be retained in early gastric cancers through non-oncogene addiction. An inducible system for expression of CagA was used to identify differentially upregulated membrane protein transcripts in vitro. The top hits were then analyzed in gene expression datasets comparing transcriptome of gastric cancer with normal tissue, to focus on markers retained in cancer. Among the transcripts enriched upon CagA induction in vitro, a significant elevation of CEACAM6 was noted in gene expression datasets of gastric cancer. We used quantitative digital immunohistochemistry to measure CEACAM6 protein levels in tissue microarrays of gastric cancer. We demonstrate an increase in CEACAM6 in early gastric cancers, when compared to matched normal tissue, with an AUC of 0.83 for diagnostic validity. Finally, we show that a fluorescently conjugated CEACAM6 antibody binds avidly to freshly resected gastric cancer xenograft samples and can be detected by endoscopy in real time. Together, these results suggest that CEACAM6 upregulation is a cell surface response to H. pylori CagA, and is retained in early gastric cancers. They highlight a novel link between CEACAM6 expression and CagA in gastric cancer, and suggest CEACAM6 to be a promising biomarker to aid with the fluorescent endoscopic diagnosis of early neoplastic lesions in the stomach. PMID:27421133

  19. Differences in Helicobacter pylori CagA tyrosine phosphorylation motif patterns between western and East Asian strains, and influences on interleukin-8 secretion.

    PubMed

    Argent, Richard H; Hale, James L; El-Omar, Emad M; Atherton, John C

    2008-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from East Asia have an 'East Asian' type of CagA that is more active and predominantly comprises a single type. Strains from other countries have a 'western' type of CagA, which is less active and comprises many different types generated by intragenomic recombination. Co-culture of AGS gastric epithelial cells with isolates of western strains that displayed microevolution in CagA showed that isolates with additional copies of the C motif induced significantly more interleukin (IL)-8 secretion. Co-culture of AGS cells with western and East Asian strains, each expressing CagA with a single copy of the C or D motif, showed that East Asian strains induced significantly more IL-8 secretion. Analysis of the different CagA types from data deposited in GenBank and from the literature showed that western CagA is significantly more likely to undergo duplication of tyrosine phosphorylation motif C than East Asian CagA is of the corresponding D motif. Taken together, the data suggest that the already highly active East Asian CagA with one D motif has no requirement to increase its virulence, whereas the less active western CagA displays flexibility in its capacity to increase its number of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs to become more virulent.

  20. [Comparison of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and gastric mucosa according to virulence genotype (cagA and vacA m 1)].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Ester; Moreno, Jessica; Spencer, María L; Quilodrán, Sandra; Brethauer, Ursula; Briceño, Carlos; García, Apolinaria

    2012-06-01

    To compare the virulence genotype (cagA and vacA ml genes) of Helicobacter pylori obtained simultaneously from gastric mucosa and oral cavity. Gastric samples of 18 patients were obtained by endoscopic biopsies. Oral samples of these patients were obtained from dental plaque and saliva swabs from the floor of the mouth and the base of the tongue. All samples were studied by conventional PCR and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Virulence genes cagA and vacA ml were studied by RT- PCR. According to presence and/or absence of cagA and vacAm1 genes, seven different combinations were observed. These results suggest that there is a variety of genetic profiles of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach and oral cavity, with a predominance of less virulent genotypes in the patients included in this study (cagA-, vacA m1-).

  1. Assessment of the mosaic structure in the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene 3'-region using an improved polymerase chain reaction-based assay.

    PubMed

    Monstein, Hans-Jürg; Ryberg, Anna; Karlsson, Anneli

    2012-07-01

    The mosaic structure of the cagA gene has been suggested to affect Helicobacter pylori CagA-associated pathogenesis. An improved polymerase chain reaction assay allowed for a rapid and detailed molecular analysis of the cagA gene 3'-region in a single amplification step, followed by amplicon sequencing using universal M13 and T7 sequencing primers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of treatment failure on the CagA EPIYA motif in Helicobacter pylori strains from Colombian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andres; Matta, Andres Jenuer; Pazos, Alvaro Jairo; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate effect of treatment failure on cagA and vacA genotypes in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates from Colombia. METHODS One hundred and seventy-six participants infected with H. pylori from Colombia were treated during 14 d with the triple-standard therapy. Six weeks later, eradication was evaluated by 13C-Urea breath test. Patients with treatment failure were subjected to endoscopy control; biopsies obtained were used for histopathology and culture. DNA from H. pylori isolates was amplified using primers specific for cagA and vacA genes. The phylogenetic relationships among isolates obtained before and after treatment were established by conglomerate analysis based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. RESULTS Treatment effectiveness was at 74.6%. Of the participants with treatment failure, 25 accepted subjected to a second endoscopy. Prevalence of post-treatment infection was 64% (16/25) and 40% (10/25) by histology and culture, respectively. Upon comparing the cagA and vacA genotypes found before and after therapy, multiple cagA genotypes (cagA-positive and cagA-negative) were found before treatment; in contrast, cagA-negative genotypes decreased after treatment. vacA s1m1 genotype was highly prevalent in patients before and after therapy. The 3’cagA region was successfully amplified in 95.5% (21/22) of the isolates obtained before and in 81.8% (18/22) of the isolates obtained after treatment. In the isolates obtained from patients with treatment failure, it was found that 72.7% (16/22) presented alterations in the number of EPIYA motifs, compared to isolates found before treatment. CONCLUSION Unsuccessful treatment limits colonization by low-virulence strains resulting in partial and selective eradication in mixed infections, and acts on the cagA-positive strains inducing genetic rearrangements in cagA variable region that produces a loss or gain of EPIYA repetitions. PMID:28373764

  3. The infection by Helicobacter pylori strains expressing CagA is highly prevalent in women with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Figura, N; Di Cairano, G; Lorè, F; Guarino, E; Gragnoli, A; Cataldo, D; Giannace, R; Vaira, D; Bianciardi, L; Kristodhullu, S; Lenzi, C; Torricelli, V; Orlandini, G; Gennari, C

    1999-12-01

    H. pylori infection is putatively associated with extra-digestive disorders and may also play a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). It was recently found that monoclonal antibodies to an H. pylori strain with cagA-positivity reacted with follicular cells of the thyroid gland, and that an H. pylori organism possessing the cag pathogenicity island carried a gene encoding for an endogenous peroxidase. The aims of this study was (1); To ascertain whether the infection by strains endowed with an increased inflammatory potential (those expressing CagA) could further enhance the risk of developing ATD (2); To verify the possible existence of an immune cross-reactivity between autoantibodies to peroxidase and thyroglobulin and H. pylori antigens (3). To establish whether thyroid colloid antigens could cross-react with an anti-H. pylori serum. The study was partly designed retrospectively. We examined 41 consecutive women with ATD, and, as a control, 33 consecutive age- and socio-economic class-matched women without autoimmune thyroid disorders, living in the same area as patients, occurred at the same institution in the same period (six months). Both patients and controls were examined serologically for H. pylori infection and CagA status by Western blotting. Some serum samples were absorbed with H. pylori to determine whether the antibody levels decreased. Colloid proteins were resolved electrophoretically and matched with a hyperimmune serum raised in rabbits against a CagA-positive H. pylori. Thirty-two patients (78.0%) tested seropositive for H. pylori infection, vs. 16 controls (48.4%) (P = 0.008, OR = 3.78, RR = 1.61). The prevalence of anti-CagA antibodies was 71.8% in infected patients, and 50% in infected controls (P = 0.161, n.s.). The overall prevalence of infection by CagA-positive H. pylori was significantly higher in patients with ATD (23/41, or 56.0%) than that in controls (8/33, or 24.2%) (P = 0.006, OR = 3.99, RR = 2.31). The

  4. A specific A/T polymorphism in Western tyrosine phosphorylation B-motifs regulates Helicobacter pylori CagA epithelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Traube, Leah; Jindal, Shawn; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Sticht, Heinrich; Backert, Steffen; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, with mixed roles in human health. The CagA protein, a key host-interaction factor, is translocated by a type IV secretion system into host epithelial cells, where its EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) are recognized by host cell kinases, leading to multiple host cell signaling cascades. The CagA TPMs have been described as type A, B, C or D, each with a specific conserved amino acid sequence surrounding EPIYA. Database searching revealed strong non-random distribution of the B-motifs (including EPIYA and EPIYT) in Western H. pylori isolates. In silico analysis of Western H. pylori CagA sequences provided evidence that the EPIYT B-TPMs are significantly less associated with gastric cancer than the EPIYA B-TPMs. By generating and using a phosphorylated CagA B-TPM-specific antibody, we demonstrated the phosphorylated state of the CagA B-TPM EPIYT during H. pylori co-culture with host cells. We also showed that within host cells, CagA interaction with phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) was B-TPM tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent, and the recombinant CagA with EPIYT B-TPM had higher affinity to PI3-kinase and enhanced induction of AKT than the isogenic CagA with EPIYA B-TPM. Structural modeling of the CagA B-TPM motif bound to PI3-kinase indicated that the threonine residue at the pY+1 position forms a side-chain hydrogen bond to N-417 of PI3-kinase, which cannot be formed by alanine. During co-culture with AGS cells, an H. pylori strain with a CagA EPIYT B-TPM had significantly attenuated induction of interleukin-8 and hummingbird phenotype, compared to the isogenic strain with B-TPM EPIYA. These results suggest that the A/T polymorphisms could regulate CagA activity through interfering with host signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis, thus influencing cancer risk.

  5. A Specific A/T Polymorphism in Western Tyrosine Phosphorylation B-Motifs Regulates Helicobacter pylori CagA Epithelial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Traube, Leah; Jindal, Shawn; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Sticht, Heinrich; Backert, Steffen; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, with mixed roles in human health. The CagA protein, a key host-interaction factor, is translocated by a type IV secretion system into host epithelial cells, where its EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) are recognized by host cell kinases, leading to multiple host cell signaling cascades. The CagA TPMs have been described as type A, B, C or D, each with a specific conserved amino acid sequence surrounding EPIYA. Database searching revealed strong non-random distribution of the B-motifs (including EPIYA and EPIYT) in Western H. pylori isolates. In silico analysis of Western H. pylori CagA sequences provided evidence that the EPIYT B-TPMs are significantly less associated with gastric cancer than the EPIYA B-TPMs. By generating and using a phosphorylated CagA B-TPM-specific antibody, we demonstrated the phosphorylated state of the CagA B-TPM EPIYT during H. pylori co-culture with host cells. We also showed that within host cells, CagA interaction with phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) was B-TPM tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent, and the recombinant CagA with EPIYT B-TPM had higher affinity to PI3-kinase and enhanced induction of AKT than the isogenic CagA with EPIYA B-TPM. Structural modeling of the CagA B-TPM motif bound to PI3-kinase indicated that the threonine residue at the pY+1 position forms a side-chain hydrogen bond to N-417 of PI3-kinase, which cannot be formed by alanine. During co-culture with AGS cells, an H. pylori strain with a CagA EPIYT B-TPM had significantly attenuated induction of interleukin-8 and hummingbird phenotype, compared to the isogenic strain with B-TPM EPIYA. These results suggest that the A/T polymorphisms could regulate CagA activity through interfering with host signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis, thus influencing cancer risk. PMID:25646814

  6. Frequency of vacA, cagA and babA2 virulence markers in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Gloria Luz; Monroy, Eric; Rodríguez, Raymundo; Arroniz, Salvador; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cortés, José Luis; Camacho, Ausencio; Negrete, Erasmo; Vaca, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Three major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vacuolating toxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA) and the adhesion protein BabA2. Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to establish the H. pylori and vacA, cagA and babA2 gene status in 238 adult patients, from a marginal urban area of Mexico, with chronic gastritis. Methods H. pylori was identified in cultures of gastric biopsies by nested PCR. vacA and cagA genes were detected by multiplex PCR, whereas babA2 gene was identified by conventional PCR. Results H. pylori-positive biopsies were 143 (60.1%). All H. pylori strains were vacA+; 39.2% were cagA+; 13.3% were cagA+ babA2+ and 8.4% were babA2+. Mexican strains examined possessed the vacA s1, m1 (43.4%), s1, m2 (24.5%), s2, m1 (20.3%) and s2, m2 (11.9%) genotypes. Conclusion These results show that the Mexican patients suffering chronic gastritis we have studied had a high incidence of infection by H. pylori. Forty four percent (63/143) of the H. pylori strains analyzed in this work may be considered as highly virulent since they possessed two or three of the virulence markers analyzed: vacA s1 cagA babA2 (9.8%, 14/143), vacA s1 babA2 (4.9%, 7/143), and vacA s1 cagA (29.4%, 42/143). However, a statistically significant correlation was not observed between vacAs1, cagA and babA2 virulence markers (χ2 test; P > 0.05). PMID:19405980

  7. Frequency of vacA, cagA and babA2 virulence markers in Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Mexican patients with chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Gloria Luz; Monroy, Eric; Rodríguez, Raymundo; Arroniz, Salvador; Rodríguez, Cristina; Cortés, José Luis; Camacho, Ausencio; Negrete, Erasmo; Vaca, Sergio

    2009-04-30

    Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with chronic gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Three major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the vacuolating toxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA) and the adhesion protein BabA2. Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to establish the H. pylori and vacA, cagA and babA2 gene status in 238 adult patients, from a marginal urban area of Mexico, with chronic gastritis. H. pylori was identified in cultures of gastric biopsies by nested PCR. vacA and cagA genes were detected by multiplex PCR, whereas babA2 gene was identified by conventional PCR. H. pylori-positive biopsies were 143 (60.1%). All H. pylori strains were vacA+; 39.2% were cagA+; 13.3% were cagA+ babA2+ and 8.4% were babA2+. Mexican strains examined possessed the vacA s1, m1 (43.4%), s1, m2 (24.5%), s2, m1 (20.3%) and s2, m2 (11.9%) genotypes. These results show that the Mexican patients suffering chronic gastritis we have studied had a high incidence of infection by H. pylori. Forty four percent (63/143) of the H. pylori strains analyzed in this work may be considered as highly virulent since they possessed two or three of the virulence markers analyzed: vacA s1 cagA babA2 (9.8%, 14/143), vacA s1 babA2 (4.9%, 7/143), and vacA s1 cagA (29.4%, 42/143). However, a statistically significant correlation was not observed between vacAs1, cagA and babA2 virulence markers (chi2 test; P > 0.05).

  8. [Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes in children with gastroduodenal diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Hong; Xie, Yong; Li, Bi-Min; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Wan, Sheng-Hua; Luo, Li-Juan; Xiao, Zhen-Jun; Li, Hong; Yi, Li-Jun; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes in the isolated strains of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) from children with gastroduodenal diseases in Jiangxi, China, as well as the association between cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes and the type of gastroduodenal diseases. The samples of gastric antral mucosa were collected from 316 children with gastroduodenal diseases in Jiangxi, and a total of 107 strains of H.pylori were isolated. The genomic DNA of these strains was extracted, and PCR was used to determine the ureA, cagA, vacA, and iceA genotypes. Of all the 107 isolated strains of H.pylori, the detection rates of ureA and cagA genes were 100% (107/107) and 94.4% (101/107) respectively. The overall detection rate of vacA gene was 100% (107/107), and the detection rates of vacAs1a, vacAs1c, vacAm1, and vacAm2 genes were 74.8% (80/107), 25.2% (27/107), 29.9% (32/107), and 69.2% (74/107) respectively, with both vacAm1 and vacAm2 genes detected in 0.9% (1/107) of all H.pylori strains. In the chimera of vacA gene, the detection rates of vacAs1a/m1, vacAs1a/m2, vacAs1c/m1, and vacAs1c/m2 genes were 26.2% (28/107), 51.4% (55/107), 3.7% (4/107), and 17.8% (19/107) respectively (P<0.001). The detection rates of iceA1 and iceA2 genes were 79.4% (85/107) and 9.3% (10/107), respectively (P<0.001), and both iceA1 and iceA2 genes were detected in 7.5% (8/107) of all strains. The detection rates of the genotypes of H.pylori showed no significant differences between the peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, and duodenal bulbar inflammation groups (P>0.05). The dominant genotypes of H.pylori are cagA, vacAs1a/m2, and iceA1, and there are mixed infections with H.pylori strains of different genotypes in children with gastroduodenal disease from Jiangxi, China. The genotypes of H.pylori are not associated with the type of gastroduodenal disease.

  9. Association among H. pylori virulence markers dupA, cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a few Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals develop severe gastric diseases and virulence factors of H. pylori appear to be involved in such clinical outcomes. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene A (dupA) is a novel virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that is associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk for gastric carcinoma in some populations. The aims of the present study were to determine the presence of dupA gene and evaluate the association among dupA and other virulence factors including cagA and vacA in Brazilian patients. Gastric biopsies were obtained from 205 dyspeptic patients (100 children and 105 adults). DNA was extracted and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and its virulence factors using the polymerase chain reaction method. Results Patients with gastritis tested positive for H. pylori more frequently. The dupA gene was detected in 41.5% of them (85/205); cagA gene was found in 98 isolates (47.8%) and vacA genotype s1/m1 in 50.2%, s1/m2 in 8.3%, s2/m2 in 36.6%, s2/m1 in 0.5% and s1/s2/m1/m2 in 4.4%. We also verified a significant association between cagA and dupA genes [p = 0.0003, relative risk (RR) 1.73 and confidence interval [CI] = 1.3–2.3]. The genotypes s1/m1 were also associated with dupA gene (p = 0.0001, RR: 1.72 and CI: 1.3–2.2). The same associations were found when analyzing pediatric and adult groups of patients individually. Conclusion Ours results suggest that dupA is highly frequent in Brazilian patients and is associated with cagA gene and vacA s1/m1 genotype, and it may be considered an important virulence factor in the development of gastric diseases in adults or children. PMID:24456629

  10. Characterization of virulence genes cagA and vacA in Helicobacter Pylori and their prevalence in gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Palmeiro, Jussara Kasuko; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Neves, Daniel Locatelli; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of H. pylori infection was determined using cultures of gastric biopsy samples of patients attended at the academic hospital of the Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Molecular methods were used to characterize the cagA and vacA genes from bacterial isolates associated with different diseases presented by patients. Out of a total of 81, forty-two gastric biopsy samples tested were positive for H. pylori, with a prevalence of 51.9%. No significant difference was found with regard to the gender (p=0.793) and age (p=0.183) of the patients. Genotype s1m1 vacA gene was found in 67% of the cases of peptic ulcer investigated (p=1.0), despite the limited number of patients with this disease (n=3). A correlation between the presence of less virulent strains (s2m2) and reflux esophagitis was found in the majority of the cases (45%), but without statistical significance. An association between the prevalence of cagA gene, found in 92% of isolates, and peptic ulcer was not observed (p=1.0), suggesting that this gene cannot be considered a specific marker of severity in our environment. The results reinforce the importance of conducting regional studies and the need to characterize H. pylori virulence genes associated with different diseases. PMID:24031754

  11. Activation of Helicobacter pylori CagA by tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for dephosphorylation of host cell proteins in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Püls, Jurgen; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2002-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori type I strains harbour the cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI), a 37 kb sequence,which encodes the components of a type IV secretion system. CagA, the first identified effector protein of the cag-PAI, is translocated into eukaryotic cells and tyrosine phosphorylated (CagAP-tyr) by a host cell tyrosine kinase. Translocation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of a set of phosphorylated host cell proteins of unknown identity. CagA proteins of independent H. pylori strains vary in sequence and thus in the number and composition of putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs). The CagA protein of H. pylori strain J99 (CagAJ99) does not carry any of three putative tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPM-A, TPM-B or TPM-C) predicted by the MOTIF algorithm in CagA proteins. CagA,n is not tyrosine phosphorylated and is inactive in the dephosphorylation of host cell proteins. By site-specific mutagenesis,we introduced a TPM-C into CagA,. by replacing a single lysine with a tyrosine. This slight modification resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of CagAJ99 and host cell protein dephosphorylation. In contrast, the removal of the indigenous TPM-C from CagAP12 did not abolish its tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that further phosphorylated sites are present in CagAP12. By generation of hybrid CagA proteins, a phosphorylation of the most N-terminal TPM-A could be excluded. Our data suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation at TPM-C is sufficient, but not exclusive,to activate translocated CagA. Activated CagAPtr might either convert into a phosphatase itself or activate a cellular phosphatase to dephosphorylate cellular phosphoproteins and modulate cellular signalling cascades of the host.

  12. MicroRNAs up-regulated by CagA of Helicobacter pylori induce intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongliang; Jiang, Qiaoli; Lou, Xiaojun; Ji, Xiaowei; Wen, Zhenzhen; Wu, Jia; Tao, Haiying; Jiang, Tingting; He, Wei; Wang, Caihua; Du, Qin; Zheng, Shu; Mao, Jianshan; Huang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    CagA of Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium-derived oncogenic protein closely associated with the development of gastric cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of widespread non-coding RNAs, many of which are involved in cell growth, cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. The relationship between CagA protein and miRNAs is unclear. Using mammalian miRNA profile microarrays, we found that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 expression was up-regulated in CagA-transformed cells, miRNA-1290 was up-regulated in an Erk1/2-dependent manner, and miRNA-584 was activated by NF-κB. miRNA-584 sustained Erk1/2 activities through inhibition of PPP2a activities, and miRNA-1290 activated NF-κB by knockdown of NKRF. Foxa1 was revealed to be an important target of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290. Knockdown of Foxa1 promoted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition significantly. Overexpression of miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 induced intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelial cells in knock-in mice. These results indicate that miRNA-584 and miRNA-1290 interfere with cell differentiation and remodel the tissues. Thus, the miRNA pathway is a new pathogenic mechanism of CagA.

  13. Spermine oxidase, a polyamine catabolic enzyme that links Helicobacter pylori CagA and gastric cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; de Sablet, Thibaut; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that Helicobacter pylori strains expressing the virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) stimulate increased levels of spermine oxidase (SMO) in gastric epithelial cells, while cagA– strains did not. SMO catabolizes the polyamine spermine and produces H2O2 that results in both apoptosis and DNA damage. Exogenous overexpression of CagA confirmed these findings, and knockdown or inhibition of SMO blocked CagA-mediated apoptosis and DNA damage. The strong association of SMO, apoptosis, and DNA damage was also demonstrated in humans infected with cagA+, but not cagA– strains. In infected gerbils and mice, DNA damage was CagA-dependent and only present in epithelial cells that expressed SMO. We also discovered SMOhigh gastric epithelial cells from infected animals with dysplasia that are resistant to apoptosis despite high levels of DNA damage. Inhibition of polyamine synthesis or SMO could abrogate the development of this cell population that may represent precursors for neoplastic transformation. PMID:22555547

  14. Prevalence of cagA and vacA among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Kiani, Faezeh; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soroush, Setareh; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Emaneini, Mohammad; Bogdanović, Lidija; Varzi, Ali Mohammad; Zarrilli, Raffaele; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-07-30

    The varieties of infections caused by Helicobacter pylori may be due to differences in bacterial genotypes and virulence factors as well as environmental and host-related factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cagA and vacA genes among H. pylori-infected patients in Iran and analyze their relevance to the disease status between two clinical groups via a meta-analysis method. Different databases including PubMed, ISI, Scopus, SID, Magiran, Science Direct, and Medlib were investigated, and 23 relevant articles from the period between 2001 and 2012 were finally analyzed. The relevant data obtained from these papers were analyzed by a random-effects model. Data were analyzed using R software and STATA. The prevalence of cagA and vacA genes among H. pylori-infected patients was 70% (95% CI, 64-75) and 41% (95% CI, 24.3-57.7), respectively. The prevalence of duodenal ulcers, peptic ulcers, and gastritis among cagA+ individuals was 53% (95% CI, 20-86), 65% (95% CI, 34-97), and 71% (95% CI, 59-84), respectively. Odds ratio (OR) between cagA-positive compared with cagA-negative patients showed a 1.89 (95% CI, 1.38-2.57) risk of ulcers. In conclusion, the frequency of cagA gene among H. pylori strains is elevated in Iran and it seems to be more frequently associated with gastritis. Therefore, any information about cagA and vacA prevalence among different H. pylori-infected clinical groups in the country can help public health authorities to plan preventive policies to reduce the prevalence of diseases associated with H. pylori infection.

  15. Detection of serum antibodies to CagA and VacA and of serum neutralizing activity for vacuolating cytotoxin in patients with Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis.

    PubMed Central

    Donati, M; Moreno, S; Storni, E; Tucci, A; Poli, L; Mazzoni, C; Varoli, O; Sambri, V; Farencena, A; Cevenini, R

    1997-01-01

    Thirty patients with dyspepsia, with histological diagnosis of gastritis, and with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) (n = 13) or nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (n = 17) were admitted to the study. Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin-producing strains (Tox+) were isolated from 14 (46.7%) patients, whereas non-cytotoxin-producing (Tox-) H. pylori strains were isolated from the remaining patients. Of 30 patients studied, 20 (66.7%) had serum cytotoxin neutralizing activity in vitro. Fourteen patients with Tox+ H. pylori strains showed serum cytotoxin neutralizing activity and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies reactive with both 87-kDa H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and 128-kDa cytotoxin-associated gene product (CagA) by immunoblotting using native enriched preparations of VacA and CagA proteins from H. pylori culture supernatants as the antigens. A 94-kDa antigen cross-reacting with the 87-kDa VacA protein could be demonstrated in culture supernatant with immune sera from humans and animals. All patients (n = 10) lacking serum neutralizing activity were also negative for IgG or IgA against VacA antigen, whereas 6 of the 10 patients showed IgG serum antibody responses against CagA antigen. The prevalence of antibodies to VacA and CagA antigens was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in patients with gastritis (20 and 26 patients for VacA and CagA, respectively, of 30 patients) than in H. pylori culture-negative controls (0 of 27 for both VacA and CagA) and in randomly selected blood donors (17 and 21 for VacA and CagA, respectively, of 120 subjects). All patients with PUD had antibodies to CagA, whereas 13 of 17 (76.5%) patients with NUD had anti-CagA antibodies. Serum IgG antibodies to VacA were present in 9 (69.2%) patients with PUD of 13 patients and in 11 (64.7%) patients with NUD of 17 patients. Anti-CagA antibodies seemed to correlate better with PUD than anti-VacA antibodies. PMID:9220168

  16. Frequency of Helicobacter pylori and CagA antibody in patients with gastric neoplasms and controls: the Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Uday C; Tiwari, Shridhar; Dhingra, Sadhna; Pandey, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Tripathi, Shweta; Singh, Himani; Gupta, V K; Nagpal, A K; Naik, Sita; Ayyagari, Archana

    2008-05-01

    Despite association between H. pylori and gastric neoplasm (GN) from the developed world, studies from India, where infection is more common and acquired early, are scant and contradictory. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients with GN from two northern and one eastern Indian centers during the period 1997-2005, 101 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), and 355 healthy volunteers (HV) were evaluated for H. pylori [rapid urease test (RUT), histology and anti-H. pylori, and CagA IgG serology]. Patients with GN [263 gastric carcinoma and 16 (6%) primary gastric lymphoma, 208 male] were older than HV (n = 355, 188 male) and NUD (n = 101, 54 male) patients (53 +/- 12 versus 44 +/- 17 and 43 +/- 13 years, respectively; P < 0.001). Eastern Indian patients with GN (n = 145) were younger than those from northern India (n = 134; 52 +/- 12 versus 55 +/- 12 years; P < 0.007, t-test). In GN and NUD patients H. pylori positivity by RUT [86/225 (38%) versus 46/101 (46%)], anti-H. pylori IgG [154/198 (78%) versus 85/101 (84%)], and histology [136/213 (64%) versus 55/101 (55%)] were comparable (chi(2)-test). Serum IgG anti-H. pylori antibody was more common among HV than among GN patients [300/355 (85%) versus 154/198 (78%); P = 0.04, chi(2)-test]. Intestinal metaplasia was more common in GN than in NUD patients [101/252 (40%) versus 2/98 (2%), P < 0.000, chi(2)-test]. CagAIgG was more common in GN than in NUD patients [124/163 (76%) versus 64/101 (63%)] but comparable to that in HV patients [87/98 (89%), P = NS]. Frequency of H. pylori as detected using endoscopy and serology-based tests is not higher among patients with GN as compared with controls in India.

  17. DNA sequence analysis of cagA 3' motifs of Helicobacter pylori strains from patients with peptic ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Salih, Barik A; Bolek, Bora Kazim; Arikan, Soykan

    2010-02-01

    The Helicobacter pylori cagA gene is a major virulence factor that plays an important role in gastric pathologies. DNA sequence data for the cagA 3' region of Western isolates differ markedly in their EPIYA motifs from those of East Asian isolates. An increase in the number of these motifs is known to be associated with gastric cancer. Whether such an association is also the case for peptic ulceration was investigated in this study. Gastric biopsies were collected from 96 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric ulcer (GU) and gastritis. The types of EPIYA motif detected by PCR among 28 DU strains were 13 ABC, eight ABCC, six ABCCC, and in one patient both ABC and ABCCCCC; among nine GU strains were two ABC, five ABCC and two ABCCC; and among 40 gastritis strains were 35 ABC and five ABCC. DNA sequencing was carried out to confirm the detection of the EPIYA motif types and to analyse their peptide sequences. A significant association was found between the number of the EPIYA-C motifs (>or=2) and peptic ulceration (P=0.00001) compared with gastritis. In conclusion, this study shows that our patients harboured cagA-positive H. pylori strains with EPIYA motifs of the Western type and that the increase in the number of EPIYA-C motifs was significantly associated with DU and GU but not with gastritis, indicating predictive association with the severity of the disease.

  18. [Helicobacter pylori: cagA analysis and vacA genotyping in Chile. Detection of a s2/m1 strain].

    PubMed

    Martínez, A; González, C; Kawaguchi, F; Montoya, R; Corvalán, A; Madariaga, J; Roa, J; García, A; Salgado, F; Solar, H; Palma, M

    2001-10-01

    The genes cagA and vacA encode H pylori virulence factors. To genotype these genes in H pylori strains isolated from patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. We studied 50 patients who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with positive culture for H pylori. Detection of cagA and vacA genotyping was done using polymerase chain reactions. The gene cagA was detected in 19 samples (38%). Signal sequences s1 and s2 of vacA gene were detected in 16 samples each (32%). There was simultaneous amplification of s1 and s2 in 6 samples and they were not detected in 9 samples. The middle region of vacA was m1 in 9 samples, m2 in 29 samples and there was simultaneous amplification of m1 and m2 in 12 samples. In 16 samples (32%), more than one type of signal sequence or medial region was detected. Of those patients in whom vacA was the only genotype detected, 15 were s2/m2, 7 were s1/m1, 4 were s1/m2 and 1 was s2/m1. In these patients, the infection with cagA- H pylori strains, predominates, the prevalence of infection with s1 or s2 strains is similar and the predominant medial region is m2.

  19. Hydrogen Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role in Gastric Carcinogenesis through Facilitating CagA Translocation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ge; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Benoit, Stéphane L; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Dominguez, Ricardo L; Morgan, Douglas R; Peek, Richard M; Maier, Robert J

    2016-08-16

    A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed. The quinone reductase inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) was used to specifically inhibit the H2-utilizing respiratory chain of outer membrane-permeabilized bacterial cells; that level of inhibitor also greatly attenuated CagA translocation into AGS cells, indicating the H2-generated transmembrane potential is a contributor to toxin translocation. The Δhyd strain showed a decreased frequency of DNA transformation, suggesting that H. pylori hydrogenase is also involved in energizing the DNA uptake apparatus. In a gerbil model of infection, the ability of the Δhyd strain to induce inflammation was significantly attenuated (at 12 weeks postinoculation), while all of the gerbils infected with the parent strain (7.13) exhibited a high level of inflammation. Gastric cancer developed in 50% of gerbils infected with the wild-type strain 7.13 but in none of the animals infected with the Δhyd strain. By examining the hydrogenase activities from well-defined clinical H. pylori isolates, we observed that strains isolated from cancer patients (n = 6) have a significantly higher hydrogenase (H2/O2) activity than the strains isolated from gastritis patients (n = 6), further supporting an association between H. pylori hydrogenase activity and gastric carcinogenesis in humans. Hydrogen-utilizing hydrogenases are known to be important for some respiratory pathogens to colonize hosts. Here a gastric cancer connection is made via a pathogen's (H. pylori) use of molecular hydrogen, a

  20. The importance of vacA, cagA, and iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Arents, N L; van Zwet, A A; Thijs, J C; Kooistra-Smid, A M; van Slochteren, K R; Degener, J E; Kleibeuker, J H; van Doorn, L J

    2001-09-01

    To study the relationship between the presence of H. pylori virulence factors and clinical outcome in H. pylori infected patients. DNA was isolated from an antral biopsy sample and vacA, cagA, and iceA genotype were determined by PCR and a reverse hybridization technique in 183 patients with culture-proven H. pylori infection: 51 with peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 62 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 70 with a normal endoscopy (gastritis only; GO). Forty-four samples (24%) showed more than one allelic variant in the vacA s- or in-region and/or both iceA1 and iceA2 genotypes, indicating multiple strain infection. These were excluded from statistical analysis. vacA s1 and cagA were significantly more common in PUD than in GERD and GO. Logistic regression analysis showed that GERD patients were more often infected with strains lacking both cagA and iceA than GO patients (OR = 0.36; CI = 0.15-0.89). Trend analysis showed that GERD patients were most often infected with less virulent strains (p < 0.002). Multiple strain infection is common. H. pylori strains possessing the vacA s1 genotype and/or cagA are associated with PUD. GERD patients, infected with H. pylori, mostly carry less virulent strains possessing neither cagA nor iceA1. Our findings support the hypothesis that virulent strains protect against the development of GERD.

  1. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro: role of VacA and CagA.

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, V; Ciacci, C; Zarrilli, R; Sommi, P; Tummuru, M K; Del Vecchio Blanco, C; Bruni, C B; Cover, T L; Blaser, M J; Romano, M

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with inflammation of the gastric mucosa and with gastric mucosal damage. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that two H. pylori virulence factors (VacA and CagA) impair gastric epithelial cell migration and proliferation, the main processes involved in gastric mucosal healing in vivo. Human gastric epithelial cells (MKN 28) were incubated with undialyzed or dialyzed broth culture filtrates from wild-type H. pylori strains or isogenic mutants defective in production of VacA, CagA, or both products. We found that (i) VacA specifically inhibited cell proliferation without affecting cell migration, (ii) CagA exerted no effect on either cell migration or proliferation, and (iii) undialyzed H. pylori broth culture filtrates inhibited both cell migration and proliferation through a VacA- and CagA-independent mechanism. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to damaging the gastric mucosa, H. pylori products may also impair physiological processes required for mucosal repair. PMID:8698518

  2. Helicobacter pylori vesicles carrying CagA localize in the vicinity of cell-cell contacts and induce histone H1 binding to ATP in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Turkina, Maria V; Olofsson, Annelie; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Arnqvist, Anna; Vikström, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces outer membrane vesicles (OMV), delivering bacterial substances including the oncogenic cytotoxin-associated CagA protein to their surroundings. We investigated the effects of H. pylori OMV carrying CagA (OMV-CagA) on cell junctions and ATP-binding proteome of epithelial monolayers, using proteomics, mass spectrometry and imaging. OMV-CagA localized in close vicinity of ZO-1 tight junction protein and induced histone H1 binding to ATP. We suggest the expression of novel events in the interactions between H. pylori OMV and epithelia, which may have an influence on host gene transcription and lead to different outcomes of an infection and development of cancer. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Interaction with CagF Is Required for Translocation of CagA into the Host via the Helicobacter pylori Type IV Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Marc Roger; Tasca, Elizabetta; Montecucco, Cesare; Stein, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Development of severe gastric diseases is strongly associated with those strains of Helicobacter pylori that contain the cag pathogenicity island (PAI) inserted into the chromosome. The cag PAI encodes a type IV secretion system that translocates the major disease-associated virulence protein, CagA, into the host epithelial cell. CagA then affects host signaling pathways, leading to cell elongations and inflammation. Since the precise mechanism by which the CagA toxin is translocated by the type IV secretion system remained elusive, we used fusion proteins and immunoprecipitation studies to identify CagA-interacting secretion components. Here we demonstrate that CagA, in addition to other yet-unidentified proteins, interacts with CagF, presumably at the inner bacterial membrane. This interaction is required for CagA translocation, since an isogenic nonpolar cagF mutant was translocation deficient. Our results suggest that CagF may be a protein with unique chaperone-like function that is involved in the early steps of CagA recognition and delivery into the type IV secretion channel. PMID:16368981

  4. Different distribution of Helicobacter pylori EPIYA- cagA motifs and dupA genes in the upper gastrointestinal diseases and correlation with clinical outcomes in iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Haddadi, Mohammad Hossein; Bazargani, Abdollah; Khashei, Reza; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran; Moini, Maryam; Rokni Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to determine the EPIYA-cagA Phosphorylation sites and dupA gene in H. pylori isolates among patients with upper gastrointestinal diseases. Background: Pathogenicity of the cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori is associated with EPIYA motifs and higher number of EPIYA-C segments is a risk factor of gastric cancer, while duodenal ulcer-promoting gene (dupA) is determined as a protective factor against gastric cancer. Patients and methods: A total of 280 non-repeated gastric biopsies obtained from patients undergoing endoscopy from January 2013 till July 2013. Samples were cultured on selective horse blood agar and incubated in microaerophilic atmosphere. The isolated organisms were identified as H. pylori by Gram staining and positive oxidase, catalase, and urease tests. Various motif types of cagA and the prevalence of dupA were determined by PCR method. Results: Out of 280 specimens, 128 (54.7%) isolated organisms were identified as H. pylori. Of 120 H. pylori isolates, 35.9% were dupA positive and 56.26% were cagA positive, while cagA with ABC and ABCC motifs were 55.5% and 44.5%, respectively. Fifty six percent of the isolates with the ABCC motif have had dupA genes. We also found a significant association between strains with genotypes of dupA-ABC and duodenal ulcer disease (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of cagA-positive H. pylori in Shiraz was as high as in western countries and higher numbers of EPIYA-C segments were seen in gastric cancer patients. We may also use dupA as a prognostic and pathogenic marker for duodenal ulcer disease and cagA with the segment C for gastric cancer and gastric ulcer disease in this region. PMID:26171136

  5. Evaluation of the Pattern of EPIYA Motifs in the Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene of Patients with Gastritis and Gastric Adenocarcinoma from the Brazilian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    Vilar E Silva, Adenielson; Junior, Mario Ribeiro da Silva; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Santos, Kemper Nunes; da Costa, Renata Aparecida Andrade; Fecury, Amanda Alves; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2014-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of different diseases. The clinical outcome of infection may be associated with the cagA bacterial genotype. The aim of this study was to determine the EPIYA patterns of strains isolated from patients with gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma and correlate these patterns with the histopathological features. Gastric biopsy samples were selected from 384 patients infected with H. pylori, including 194 with chronic gastritis and 190 with gastric adenocarcinoma. The presence of the cagA gene and the EPIYA motif was determined by PCR. The cagA gene was more prevalent in patients with gastric cancer and was associated with a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity, and development of intestinal metaplasia. The number of EPIYA-C repeats showed a significant association with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma (OR = 3.79, 95% CI = 1.92-7.46, and P = 0.002). A larger number of EPIYA-C motifs were also associated with intestinal metaplasia. In the present study, infection with H. pylori strains harboring more than one EPIYA-C motif in the cagA gene was associated with the development of intestinal metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma but not with neutrophil activity or degree of inflammation.

  6. Evaluation of the Pattern of EPIYA Motifs in the Helicobacter pylori cagA Gene of Patients with Gastritis and Gastric Adenocarcinoma from the Brazilian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    Vilar e Silva, Adenielson; Junior, Mario Ribeiro da Silva; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Santos, Kemper Nunes; da Costa, Renata Aparecida Andrade; Fecury, Amanda Alves; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2014-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of different diseases. The clinical outcome of infection may be associated with the cagA bacterial genotype. The aim of this study was to determine the EPIYA patterns of strains isolated from patients with gastritis and gastric adenocarcinoma and correlate these patterns with the histopathological features. Gastric biopsy samples were selected from 384 patients infected with H. pylori, including 194 with chronic gastritis and 190 with gastric adenocarcinoma. The presence of the cagA gene and the EPIYA motif was determined by PCR. The cagA gene was more prevalent in patients with gastric cancer and was associated with a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity, and development of intestinal metaplasia. The number of EPIYA-C repeats showed a significant association with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma (OR = 3.79, 95% CI = 1.92–7.46, and P = 0.002). A larger number of EPIYA-C motifs were also associated with intestinal metaplasia. In the present study, infection with H. pylori strains harboring more than one EPIYA-C motif in the cagA gene was associated with the development of intestinal metaplasia and gastric adenocarcinoma but not with neutrophil activity or degree of inflammation. PMID:26904732

  7. The Gastric Mucosa from Patients Infected with CagA+ or VacA+ Helicobacter pylori Has a Lower Level of Dual Oxidase-2 Expression than Uninfected or Infected with CagA-/VacA- H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqian; Zhou, Yunfeng; Zheng, Yufeng; Guo, Hong; Gao, Lei; Chen, Pan; Feng, Dandan; Wu, Lijuan; Yang, Moli; Qi, Yanli; Guo, Hao; Chang, Yongchao; Chu, Fong-Fong; Gao, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a well-recognized gastroduodenal pathogen and class I carcinogen. Dual oxidase-2 (DUOX2), a member of NADPH oxidase family, has several critical physiological functions, including thyroid hormone biosynthesis and host mucosal defense. To investigate the effect of H. pylori infection on DUOX2 gene expression in human stomach. The biopsies were obtained from patients who underwent endoscopic diagnosis. The patient serum was assayed for two virulence factors of H. pylori, CagA IgG and VacA. The inflammation in gastric mucosa was analyzed with histology. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of three members of NADPH oxidase, NOX1, NOX2, and DUOX2, as well as lactoperoxidase (LPO) in the gastric mucosa. NOX2, DUOX2, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) protein levels were quantified by Western blots or immunohistochemistry. The H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa had more severe inflammation than uninfected samples. However, the expression of DUOX2 mRNA and protein was lower in gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection compared to the uninfected. Among the H. pylori-infected patients, those having CagA IgG or VacA in the serum had lower DUOX2 expression levels than those infected with H. pylori without either virulence factor. The NOX2 and MPO levels were higher in those patients infected with H. pylori irrespective of the virulence factors than those uninfected patients. NOX1 and LPO mRNA were undetectable in the gastric mucosa. CagA+ or VacA+ H. pylori in the stomach of patients may suppress DUOX2 expression to promote its own survival. Increased NOX2 could not eliminate H. pylori infection.

  8. The Presence of Phage Orthologous Genes in Helicobacter pylori Correlates with the Presence of the Virulence Factors CagA and VacA.

    PubMed

    Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav; Murray, Bradley; Rosenwald, Anne G

    2016-06-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with ulcers and the development of gastric cancer. Several genes, including cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), are associated with increased gastric cancer risk. Some strains of H. pylori also contain sequences related to bacteriophage phiHP33; however, the significance of these phage-related sequences remains unknown. We assessed the extent to which phiHP33-related sequences are present in 335 H. pylori strains using homology searches then mapped shared genes between phiHP33 and H. pylori strains onto an existing phylogeny. One hundred and twenty-one H. pylori strains contain phage orthologous sequences, and the presence of the phage-related sequences correlates with the presence of CagA and VacA. Mapping of the phage orthologs onto a phylogeny of H. pylori is consistent with the hypothesis that these genes were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. phiHP33 phage orthologous sequences might be of significance in understanding virulence of different H. pylori strains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genotype diversity and interferon gamma expression in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carrillo, D N; Atrisco-Morales, J; Hernández-Pando, R; Reyes-Navarrete, S; Betancourt-Linares, R; Cruz-del Carmen, I; Illades Aguiar, B; Román-Román, A; Fernández-Tilapa, G

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main risk factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer. In H. pylori-infected individuals, the clinical result is dependent on various factors, among which are bacterial components, the immune response, and environmental influence. To compare IFN-γ expression with the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotypes in patients with chronic gastritis and patients with gastric cancer. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and 20 with gastric cancer were included in the study. Three gastric biopsies were taken; one was used for the molecular detection and genotyping of H. pylori; another was fixed in absolute alcohol and histologic sections were made for determining IFN-γ expression through immunohistochemistry. No differences were found in the cells that expressed IFN-γ between the patients with chronic gastritis (median percentage of positive cells: 82.6% in patients without H. pylori and 82% in infected persons) and those with gastric cancer (70.5% in H. pylori-negative patients and 78.5% in infected persons). IFN-γ expression was 69% in chronic gastritis patients infected with H. pylori vacAs2m2/cagA⁻ it was 86.5% in patients infected with H. pylori vacAs1m2/cagA⁻, 86.5% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁻, and 82% in vacAs1m1/cagA⁺. Similar data were found in the patients with gastric cancer. IFN-γ expression varied depending on the H. pylori vacA and cagA genotype, but not in accordance with the presence of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer.

  10. The Role of H. pylori CagA in Regulating Hormones of Functional Dyspepsia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Wang-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Deng, Jia-Qi; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori, Hp) colonizes the stomachs of approximately 20%–80% of humans throughout the world. The Word Healthy Organization (WHO) classified H. pylori as a group 1 carcinogenic factor in 1994. Recently, an increasing number of studies has shown an association between H. pylori infection and various extragastric diseases. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is considered a biopsychosocial disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis, and studies have shown that infection with CagA-positive H. pylori strains could explain some of the symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Moreover, CagA-positive H. pylori strains have been shown to affect the secretion of several hormones, including 5-HT, ghrelin, dopamine, and gastrin, and altered levels of these hormones might be the cause of the psychological disorders of functional dyspepsia patients. This review describes the mutual effects of H. pylori and hormones in functional dyspepsia and provides new insight into the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. PMID:27840636

  11. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status.

    PubMed

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; Jan van Doorn, Leen; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-07-15

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For our study, we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2,077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene, and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios (ORs) for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of IM or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared to subjects carrying cagA negative strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95% CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (p=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status.

  12. Simple method for determination of the number of Helicobacter pylori CagA variable-region EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs by PCR.

    PubMed

    Argent, Richard H; Zhang, Youli; Atherton, John C

    2005-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains possessing the cag pathogenicity island are associated with the development of gastric cancer. The CagA protein is translocated into epithelial cells and becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues within EPIYA motifs, which may be repeated within the variable region of the protein. Strains possessing CagA with greater numbers of these repeats have been more closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. Phosphorylated CagA leads to epithelial cell elongation, which is dependent on the number of variable-region EPIYA motifs. Thus, determination of the degree of CagA phosphorylation and the number of EPIYA motifs appears to be more important than detection of cagA alone. Determination of the number of EPIYA motifs by nucleotide sequencing, however, is a laborious and expensive process. We describe here a novel and rapid PCR method for determination of the pattern of repeats containing the EPIYA motif. This will aid in the identification of those strains that may be more likely to cause disease.

  13. Total leukocyte counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratios among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcers: independent of bacterial CagA status.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, A; Akbarpoor, V; Nabizadeh, M; Nemati, M; Rezayati, M T

    2013-01-01

    Elevated leukocyte counts can be a marker of inflammation and infection. The aim of this study was to determine the total leukocyte count and neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) among Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with peptic ulcer disease (PU) and among asymptomatic subjects (AS) and to evaluate if there is an association between these lab values and the presence of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Sixty H. pylori-infected PU patients, 63 AS carriers and 32 healthy H. pylori-negative subjects (controls) were included in the study. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts and differentials were determined using standard hematological methods. The mean total WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among PU patients than in controls (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Similarly, the mean WBC count, mean neutrophil count and NLCR were significantly higher among AS patients than in controls (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.02, respectively). The differences of mean WBC counts mean neutrophil counts and NLCR were also significantly different (p < 0.005, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) between the PU and AS patients. There were no differences in the PU and AS patients in regard to anti-CagA positivity. These results show the CagA factor was not associated with the presence or absence of symptoms in H. pylori infected patients.

  14. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA Genotypes and Correlation With Clinical Outcome in Patients With Dyspepsia in Hamadan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Arebestani, Mohammad Reza; Sayedin Khorasani, Masood; Majlesi, Amir; Jaefari, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is known to be a causative agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in human. Diverse genotypes of H. pylori strains have different virulence potency and geographic distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA), and the various vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes of H. pylori strains and clinical outcomes in patients referred to Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, biopsy samples were collected consecutively from 153 patients with gastric cancer (GC), peptic ulcer dyspepsia (PUD) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) in the gastroenterology department of Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Hamadan province, the west of Iran. H. pylori infection was confirmed in 83 patients (3 with GC, 27 with PUD, and 53 with NUD) by histology, rapid urease test (RUT) and culture. Genomic DNA was extracted from the bacterial isolate and was further confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing as H. pylori, and characterized based on cagA and vacA genotyping using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. In this study, vacA genotypes s1/m2, s1/m1, s2/m2 and s2/m1 were determined in 43.4%, 19.3%, 13.2% and 6% of the isolated H. pylori, respectively. The vacAs1 genotype was detected in 52 (62.6%) isolates, of which the vacAs1a genotype was detected in 45.2, 40.7, and 66.6% of the isolates from patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype was determined in 73 (87.9%) isolates and 10 (12.1%) were negative. The frequency rates of cagA gene were 84.9, 92.6 and 100% in isolates of patients with NUD, PUD, and GC, respectively. The cagA-positive genotype is strongly associated with s1a/m2 and s1a/m1 vacA genotypes. The most predominant VacA genotypes in our areas were s1/m2 and s1/m1, which regard as the genotypes with more virulence intensity. The H. pylori vacAs1a, cagA genotypes have a significant relationship with the

  15. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori cagA, cagE and vacA in different ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huck Joo; Rizal, Abdul Manaf; Rosmadi, Mohamed-Yusoff; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2005-04-01

    There is a geographic variation in Helicobacter pylori (HP) genotypes and virulence factors. Cytotoxin associated genes A (cagA) and E (cagE), and certain vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes are associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). There is also a different prevalence of PUD among different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The present study compared the distribution of vacA alleles and cagA and cagE status in three ethnic groups residing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and their association with clinical outcome. All patients with cultured positive HP were recruited prospectively. DNA was extracted and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to determine the cagA and cagE status and vacA alleles. The results of 127 patients (72 men and 55 women) were included. The mean age was 55.53 +/- 12.52 years. The ethnic distribution was 59 Chinese, 38 Indian and 30 Malay patients. The predominant genotype was s1a among the Malay (76.6%) and Indian patients (71.0%), and s1c among the Chinese patients (66.1%). The vacA middle region sequence m1 was detected in 66.7% of Malay, 54.2% of Chinese and 76.3% of Indian patients. Of the Malay, Chinese and Indian patients, 76.6%, 86.4% and 86.8%, respectively, were cagA positive, and 70.0%, 39.0% and 81.6%, respectively, were cagE positve. HP cagA, cagE and vacA were not associated with PUD. There is a distinctive difference in the HP strains among the three ethnic groups in Malaysia. There was no association between cagA, cagE or vacA genotypes and clinical outcome in the patients. None of these markers are helpful in predicting the clinical presentation of a HP infection.

  16. Risk of advanced gastric precancerous lesions in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects is influenced by ABO blood group and cagA status

    PubMed Central

    Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kato, Ikuko; Plummer, Martyn; Muñoz, Nubia; Stein, Angelika; van Doorn, Leen Jan; Franceschi, Silvia; Canzian, Federico

    2013-01-01

    A higher incidence of stomach cancer in ABO blood type A individuals than in those with blood type O has been known for a long time. We studied this association in relation to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) of different cagA status. For this study we used baseline gastric histopathology data and DNAs from frozen gastric biopsies of 2077 subjects enrolled in a chemoprevention trial for gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. We analyzed 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene and we assessed the presence of the Hp cagA gene. Odds ratios for risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions were calculated using individuals with normal gastric epithelium or non-atrophic gastritis as a reference. Among individuals carrying a cagA negative Hp infection or no Hp infection, those with blood type A had a lower risk of intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.38-0.94). In carriers of cagA positive Hp strains, individuals with blood type A had a higher risk of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia than those with blood type O (OR=1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and a higher risk if compared with subjects carrying cagA− strain and non-A blood group (OR=3.82, 95%CI=2.80-5.20). The interaction between Hp cagA status and blood type was statistically significant (P=0.0006). We showed that SNPs in the ABO gene, predictive of ABO blood groups, are associated with risk of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in individuals infected with Hp, but the assessment of the risk is strictly dependent on cagA status. PMID:23319424

  17. Helicobacter pylori CagL Y58/E59 Mutation Turns-Off Type IV Secretion-Dependent Delivery of CagA into Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Lind, Judith; Schmid, Benedikt; Backert, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is a major virulence determinant of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. The CagL protein is a specialized adhesin of the corresponding T4SS pilus, which establishes initial contact with the integrin β1 receptor on host target cells. Recent studies proposed that Y58 and E59 amino acid polymorphisms in CagL increase the virulence of H. pylori strains by enhanced translocation and phosphorylation of the CagA effector protein. These polymorphisms were therefore correlated with an increased risk of gastric cancer development. Here we show that the Y58/E59 motif, which is located in a loop connecting two α-helices, and corresponding polymorphisms could influence the function of CagL. However, expression of isogenic CagL Y58/E59 variants in H. pylori strain 26695 significantly blocked the translocation and phosphorylation of CagA as compared to complemented wild-type CagL. These results suggest that the function of the T4SS for delivery of CagA is turned-off by the Y58/E59 mutation in CagL. This activity appears to be similar to the one recently described for another T4SS pilus protein, CagY, which is also sufficient to cause gain or loss of T4SS function. These data support the hypothesis that certain mutations in CagL or recombination events in CagY may serve as a sort of molecular switch or perhaps rheostat in the T4SS, which could alter the function of the pilus and "tunes" injection of CagA and host pro-inflammatory responses, respectively. PMID:24893039

  18. Systematic analysis of phosphotyrosine antibodies recognizing single phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs in CagA of East Asian-type Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Lind, Judith; Backert, Steffen; Hoffmann, Rebecca; Eichler, Jutta; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Torres, Javier; Sticht, Heinrich; Tegtmeyer, Nicole

    2016-09-02

    Highly virulent strains of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that delivers the effector protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by members of the oncogenic c-Src and c-Abl host kinases at EPIYA-sequence motifs A, B and D in East Asian-type strains. These phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs serve as recognition sites for various SH2-domains containing human proteins, mediating interactions of CagA with host signaling factors to manipulate signal transduction pathways. Recognition of phospho-CagA is mainly based on the use of commercial pan-phosphotyrosine antibodies that were originally designed to detect phosphotyrosines in mammalian proteins. Specific anti-phospho-EPIYA antibodies for each of the three sites in CagA are not forthcoming. This study was designed to systematically analyze the detection preferences of each phosphorylated East Asian CagA EPIYA-motif by pan-phosphotyrosine antibodies and to determine a minimal recognition sequence. We synthesized phospho- and non-phosphopeptides derived from each predominant EPIYA-site, and determined the recognition patterns by seven different pan-phosphotyrosine antibodies using Western blotting, and also investigated representative East Asian H. pylori isolates during infection. The results indicate that a total of only 9-11 amino acids containing the phosphorylated East Asian EPIYA-types are required and sufficient to detect the phosphopeptides with high specificity. However, the sequence recognition by the different antibodies was found to bear high variability. From the seven antibodies used, only four recognized all three phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs A, B and D similarly well. Two of the phosphotyrosine antibodies preferentially bound primarily to the phosphorylated motif A and D, while the seventh antibody failed to react with any of the phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs. Control experiments confirmed that none of the

  19. Conversion of Helicobacter pylori CagA from senescence inducer to oncogenic driver through polarity-dependent regulation of p21

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yasuhiro; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hirayama, Toshiya; Ohba, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori CagA bacterial oncoprotein plays a critical role in gastric carcinogenesis. Upon delivery into epithelial cells, CagA causes loss of polarity and activates aberrant Erk signaling. We show that CagA-induced Erk activation results in senescence and mitogenesis in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cells, respectively. In nonpolarized epithelial cells, Erk activation results in oncogenic stress, up-regulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and induction of senescence. In polarized epithelial cells, CagA-driven Erk signals prevent p21Waf1/Cip1 expression by activating a guanine nucleotide exchange factor–H1–RhoA–RhoA-associated kinase–c-Myc pathway. The microRNAs miR-17 and miR-20a, induced by c-Myc, are needed to suppress p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. CagA also drives an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in polarized epithelial cells. These findings suggest that CagA exploits a polarity-signaling pathway to induce oncogenesis. PMID:20855497

  20. Association between cagA, vacAi, and dupA genes of Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients.

    PubMed

    Paredes-Osses, Esteban; Sáez, Katia; Sanhueza, Enrique; Hebel, Sonja; González, Carlos; Briceño, Carlos; García Cancino, Apolinaria

    2017-03-11

    In addition to the already known cagA gene, novel genetic markers have been associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) virulence: the dupA and vacAi genes. These genes might play an important role as specific markers to determine the clinical outcome of the disease, especially the vacAi gene, which has been expected to be a good marker of severe pathologies like gastric adenocarcinoma. In the present study, the association of cagA, dupA, and vacAi genes with gastroduodenal pathologies in Chilean patients was studied. One hundred and thirty-two patients positive for H. pylori were divided into two groups-non-severe and severe gastric pathologies-and investigated for the presence of cagA, dupA, and vacAi H. pylori virulence genes by PCR. The cagA gene was detected in 20/132 patients (15.2%), the vacAi1 gene was detected in 54/132 patients (40.9%), the vacAi2 gene was detected in 26/132 patients (19.7%), and the dupA gene was detected in 50/132 (37.9%) patients. Logistic regression model analysis showed that the vacAi1 isoform gene in the infected strains and the severity of the diseases outcome were highly associated, causing severe gastric damage that may lead to gastric cancer (p < 0.0001; OR = 8.75; 95% CI 3.54-21.64). Conversely, cagA (p = 0.3507; OR = 1.62; 95% CI 0.59-4.45) and vacAi2 (p = 0.0114; OR = 3.09; 95% CI 1.26-7.60) genes were not associated with damage, while the dupA gene was associated significantly with non-severe clinical outcome (p = 0.0032; OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.09-0.65). In addition, dupA gene exerts protection against severe gastric pathologies induced by vacAi1 by delaying the outcome of the disease by approximately 20 years.

  1. [Helicobacter pylori: focus on CagA and VacA major virulence factors].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Mazarí-Hiriart, Marisa; López-Vidal, Yolanda

    2004-01-01

    After colonizing the human gastric mucosa, Helicobacter pylori can remain within the host for years and even decades, and is associated with several, highly significant gastric pathologies. In Mexico, the seroprevalence at 1 year of age is 20% and the estimated increment in seropositivity per year is 5% for children aged 1-10 years. More than 80% of adults are infected by the time they are 18-20 years old. Bacterial virulence factors have been proposed for H. pylori, such as urease, flagella, heat-shock protein, lipopolysaccharide, adhesions, vacuolating cytotoxin, cag pathogenicity island and the cytotoxin-associated protein, the latter being the most studied mechanism to date.

  2. Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori CagA status and IL1B-31C>T genotypes: a host and environment interaction in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Camargo, M Constanza; Schneider, Barbara G; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U; Correa, Pelayo; Cebrian, Mariano E

    2012-06-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) has been associated with a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. In contrast to most countries, available information on GC mortality trends showed a gradual increase in Mexico. Our aim was to explore potential interactions among dietary (chili pepper consumption), infectious (Helicobacter pylori) and genetic factors (IL1B-31 genotypes) on GC risk. The study was performed in three areas of Mexico, with different GC mortality rates. We included 158 GC patients and 317 clinical controls. Consumption of capsaicin (Cap), the pungent active substance of chili peppers, was estimated by food frequency questionnaire. H. pylori CagA status was assessed by ELISA, and IL1B-31 genotypes were determined by TaqMan assays and Pyrosequencing in DNA samples. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate potential interactions. Moderate to high Cap consumption synergistically increased GC risk in genetically susceptible individuals (IL1B-31C allele carriers) infected with the more virulent H. pylori (CagA+) strains. The combined presence of these factors might explain the absence of a decreasing trend for GC in Mexico. However, further research on gene-environment interactions is required to fully understand the factors determining GC patterns in susceptible populations, with the aim of recommending preventive measures for high risk individuals.

  3. Helicobacter pylori genotyping from American indigenous groups shows novel Amerindian vacA and cagA alleles and Asian, African and European admixture.

    PubMed

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Genotyping from American Indigenous Groups Shows Novel Amerindian vacA and cagA Alleles and Asian, African and European Admixture

    PubMed Central

    Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Valencia, Gerardo; Mendoza, Irma; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda; Ramos, Irma; Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Romo, Carolina; Granados, Julio; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Berg, Douglas E.; Torres, Javier

    2011-01-01

    It is valuable to extend genotyping studies of Helicobacter pylori to strains from indigenous communities across the world to better define adaption, evolution, and associated diseases. We aimed to genetically characterize both human individuals and their infecting H. pylori from indigenous communities of Mexico, and to compare them with those from other human groups. We studied individuals from three indigenous groups, Tarahumaras from the North, Huichols from the West and Nahuas from the center of Mexico. Volunteers were sampled at their community site, DNA was isolated from white blood cells and mtDNA, Y-chromosome, and STR alleles were studied. H. pylori was cultured from gastric juice, and DNA extracted for genotyping of virulence and housekeeping genes. We found Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C, and D), Y-chromosome DYS19T, and Amerindian STRs alleles frequent in the three groups, confirming Amerindian ancestry in these Mexican groups. Concerning H.pylori cagA phylogenetic analyses, although most isolates were of the Western type, a new Amerindian cluster neither Western nor Asian, was formed by some indigenous Mexican, Colombian, Peruvian and Venezuelan isolates. Similarly, vacA phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of a novel Amerindian type in isolates from Alaska, Mexico and Colombia. With hspA strains from Mexico and other American groups clustered within the three major groups, Asian, African or European. Genotyping of housekeeping genes confirmed that Mexican strains formed a novel Asian-related Amerindian group together with strains from remote Amazon Aborigines. This study shows that Mexican indigenous people with Amerindian markers are colonized with H. pylori showing admixture of Asian, European and African strains in genes known to interact with the gastric mucosa. We present evidence of novel Amerindian cagA and vacA alleles in indigenous groups of North and South America. PMID:22073291

  5. Association Between Helicobacter pylori cagA, babA2 Virulence Factors and Gastric Mucosal Interleukin-33 mRNA Expression and Clinical Outcomes in Dyspeptic Patients.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Bahreini, Rasol; Bagheri, Nader; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been reported in more than half of the world human population. It is associated with gastric inflammation and noticeable infiltration of the immune cells to the stomach mucosa by several cytokines secretion. IL-1β, IL-18 have been shown to contribute to H. pylori induced gastritis, but the details of inflammation and association of virulence factors remain unclear. IL-1 cytokine family has a new additional cytokine, Interleukin-33 (IL-33), which is contemplated to have an important role for host defense against microorganisms. H. pylori virulence factors important in gastritis risk are the cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) and babA. This study evaluated IL-33 mucosal mRNA expression levels in infected and uninfected patients and its relationship with bacterial virulence factors cagA, babA2 and type of gastritis. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 79 H. pylori-infected patients and 51 H. pylori-negative patients. Mucosal IL-33 mRNA expression levels in gastric biopsies were assessed using real-time PCR. Existence of virulence factors were detected by PCR. IL-33 mRNA expression was significantly higher in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients (P<0.0001). Also there was a direct relationship between virulence factor bab-A2 and enhancement in IL-33 mRNA expression. Furthermore, IL-33 mRNA expression level was significantly lower in chronic gastritis patients compared with patients with active gastritis (P<0.001). IL-33 may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and induction of the chronic gastritis and severity of inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa.

  6. Association Between Helicobacter pylori cagA, babA2 Virulence Factors and Gastric Mucosal Interleukin-33 mRNA Expression and Clinical Outcomes in Dyspeptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Bahreini, Rasol; Bagheri, Nader; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been reported in more than half of the world human population. It is associated with gastric inflammation and noticeable infiltration of the immune cells to the stomach mucosa by several cytokines secretion. IL-1β, IL-18 have been shown to contribute to H. pylori induced gastritis, but the details of inflammation and association of virulence factors remain unclear. IL-1 cytokine family has a new additional cytokine, Interleukin-33 (IL-33), which is contemplated to have an important role for host defense against microorganisms. H. pylori virulence factors important in gastritis risk are the cag pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) and babA. This study evaluated IL-33 mucosal mRNA expression levels in infected and uninfected patients and its relationship with bacterial virulence factors cagA, babA2 and type of gastritis. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 79 H. pylori-infected patients and 51 H. pylori-negative patients. Mucosal IL-33 mRNA expression levels in gastric biopsies were assessed using real-time PCR. Existence of virulence factors were detected by PCR. IL-33 mRNA expression was significantly higher in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients (P<0.0001). Also there was a direct relationship between virulence factor bab-A2 and enhancement in IL-33 mRNA expression. Furthermore, IL-33 mRNA expression level was significantly lower in chronic gastritis patients compared with patients with active gastritis (P<0.001). IL-33 may play a crucial role in the inflammatory response and induction of the chronic gastritis and severity of inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa. PMID:27014647

  7. Computational approaches for evaluating the effect of sequence variations and the intrinsically disordered C-terminal region of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein on the interaction with tyrosine kinase Src.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Paula; Peñaranda, Natalia; Zamora, María Antonia; del Pilar Delgado, María; Bohorquez, Eliana; Castro, Harold; Barrios, Andrés Fernando González; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    The Helicobacter pylori CagA protein was the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified as important in the development of human malignancies such as gastric cancer. It is not clear how it is able to deregulate a set of cell control mechanisms to induce carcinogenesis following translocation into human gastric epithelial cells. It is likely, however, that structural variations in the CagA sequence alter its affinity with the host proteins inducing differences in the pathogenicity of different H. pylori strains. Using the recently elucidated N-terminal 3D structure of H. pylori CagA, information on the full cagA gene sequence, and intrinsically disordered protein structure predictions methods we evaluated the interaction of different CagA variants with the kinase Src. An automated docking followed by molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore CagA interaction modes with Src, one of its cellular partners. The computational approach let us establish that even in the presence of the same number and type of EPIYA motifs, CagA protein can reveal different spatial distributions. Based on the lowest affinity energy and higher number of interactions it was established that the principal forces governing the CagA-Src interaction are electrostatic. Results showed that EPIYA-D models presents higher affinity with some host proteins than EPIYA-C. Thus, we highlight the importance and advantage of the use of computational tools in combining chemical and biological data with bioinformatics for modeling and prediction purposes in some cases where experimental techniques present limitations.

  8. Analysis of serum antibody profile against H pylori VacA and CagA antigens in Turkish patients with duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Erzin, Yusuf; Altun, Sibel; Dobrucali, Ahmet; Aslan, Mustafa; Erdamar, Sibel; Dirican, Ahmet; Tuncer, Murat; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the frequency of seropositivity against CagA, VacA proteins and to determine their independent effects on the development of duodenal ulcer (DU) in Turkish patients. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective one from a tertiary referral hospital. Dyspeptic patients who were referred to our endoscopy unit for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between June 2003 and March 2004 and diagnosed to have DU or nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were included. Biopsies from the antrum and body of the stomach were taken in order to assess the current H pylori status by histology, rapid urease test and culture. Fasting sera were obtained from all patients and H pylori status of all sera was determined by IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All seropositive patients were further analysed using Western blot assays detecting IgG antibodies against CagA and VacA proteins. The χ2 test was used for statistical comparison of the values and age-sex adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent effects of CagA and VacA seropositivities on the development of DU. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with DU and 62 patients with NUD were eligible for the final analysis. Seropositivity for anti-CagA was detected in 51 of 62 (82%), and in 55 of 63 (87%) patients with NUD and DU, respectively (P = no significance), and seropositivity for anti-VacA was found in 25 of 62 (40% ) and in 16 of 63 (25%) patients, with NUD and DU, respectively. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that none of these virulence factors is associated with the development of DU in the studied Turkish patients with dyspepsia. PMID:17106939

  9. Analysis of serum antibody profile against H pylori VacA and CagA antigens in Turkish patients with duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Erzin, Yusuf; Altun, Sibel; Dobrucali, Ahmet; Aslan, Mustafa; Erdamar, Sibel; Dirican, Ahmet; Tuncer, Murat; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2006-11-14

    To investigate the frequency of seropositivity against CagA, VacA proteins and to determine their independent effects on the development of duodenal ulcer (DU) in Turkish patients. The study was designed as a prospective one from a tertiary referral hospital. Dyspeptic patients who were referred to our endoscopy unit for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between June 2003 and March 2004 and diagnosed to have DU or nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were included. Biopsies from the antrum and body of the stomach were taken in order to assess the current H pylori status by histology, rapid urease test and culture. Fasting sera were obtained from all patients and H pylori status of all sera was determined by IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All seropositive patients were further analysed using Western blot assays detecting IgG antibodies against CagA and VacA proteins. The c2 test was used for statistical comparison of the values and age-sex adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to determine the independent effects of CagA and VacA seropositivities on the development of DU. Sixty-three patients with DU and 62 patients with NUD were eligible for the final analysis. Seropositivity for anti-CagA was detected in 51 of 62 (82%), and in 55 of 63 (87%) patients with NUD and DU, respectively (P = no significance), and seropositivity for anti-VacA was found in 25 of 62 (40% ) and in 16 of 63 (25%) patients, with NUD and DU, respectively. These findings suggest that none of these virulence factors is associated with the development of DU in the studied Turkish patients with dyspepsia.

  10. In vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the 3’ region of cagA gene in Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier Andrés; Matta, Andrés Januer; Pazos, Alvaro; Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the in vitro effect of amoxicillin and clarithromycin on the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). METHODS: One hundred and forty-nine clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cultured from gastric biopsies from 206 Colombian patients with dyspeptic symptoms from a high-risk area for gastric cancer were included as study material. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the agar dilution method. Resistant isolates at baseline and in amoxicillin and clarithromycin serial dilutions were subjected to genotyping (cagA, vacA alleles s and m), Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) polymerase chain reaction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Images of the RAPD amplicons were analyzed by Gel-Pro Analyzer 4.5 program. Cluster analyses was done using SPSS 15.0 statistical package, where each of the fingerprint bands were denoted as variables. Dendrograms were designed by following Ward’s clustering method and the estimation of distances between each pair of H. pylori isolates was calculated with the squared Euclidean distance. RESULTS: Resistance rates were 4% for amoxicillin and 2.7% for clarithromycin with 2% double resistances. Genotyping evidenced a high prevalence of the genotype cagA-positive/vacA s1m1. The 3’ region of cagA gene was successfully amplified in 92.3% (12/13) of the baseline resistant isolates and in 60% (36/60) of the resistant isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. Upon observing the distribution of the number of EPIYA repetitions in each dilution with respect to baseline isolates, it was found that in 61.5% (8/13) of the baseline isolates, a change in the number of EPIYA repetitions lowered antibiotic pressure. The gain and loss of EPIYA motifs resulted in a diversity of H. pylori subclones after bacterial adjustment to changing conditions product of antibiotic pressure. RAPD PCR evidenced the close clonal relationship between baseline isolates and isolates growing in antibiotic dilutions. CONCLUSION: Antibiotic

  11. Statins Attenuate Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and Reduce Incidence of Gastric Cancer: In Vitro and Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Yu-An; Feng, Chun-Lung; Chen, Chih-Jung; Kao, Min-Chuan; Lai, Chih-Ho; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The correlation of Helicobacter pylori and the etiology of gastric cancer was substantially certain. Cholesterol-rich microdomains (also called lipid rafts), which provide platforms for signaling, are associated with H. pylori-induced pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Patients who have been prescribed statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, have exhibited a reduced risk of several types of cancer. However, no studies have addressed the effect of statins on H. pylori-associated gastric cancer from the antineoplastic perspective. In this study, we showed that treatment of gastric epithelial cells with simvastatin reduced the level of cellular cholesterol and led to attenuation of translocation and phosphorylation of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which is recognized as a major determinant of gastric cancer development. Additionally, a nationwide case-control study based on data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was conducted. A population-based case-control study revealed that patients who used simvastatin exhibited a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.83). In patients exhibiting H. pylori infection who were prescribed simvastatin, the adjusted OR for gastric cancer was 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.50). Our results combined an in vitro study with a nationwide population analysis reveal that statin use might be a feasible approach to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.

  12. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeryun; Servetas, Stephanie L; Kang, Jieun; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Cha, Ho Jin; Lee, Wan Jin; Kim, June; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Merrell, D Scott; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH) and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH). Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH), but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%); locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%), no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001) and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001) were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002). En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the vac

  13. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Cha, Ho Jin; Lee, Wan Jin; Kim, June; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Merrell, D. Scott; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH) and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH). Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH), but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%); locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%), no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001) and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001) were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002). En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the vac

  14. VacA and CagA Status as Biomarker of Two Opposite End Outcomes of Helicobacter pylori Infection (Gastric Cancer and Duodenal Ulcer) in a Moroccan Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khadir, Mounia; Alaoui Boukhris, Samia; Benajah, Dafr-Allah; El Rhazi, Karima; Ibrahimi, Sidi Adil; El Abkari, Mohamed; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Nejjari, Chakib; Mahmoud, Mustapha; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Bennani, Bahia

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection induces inflammation of the gastric mucosa, which may progress to precancerous lesions leading to gastric cancer. Pathological determinism is associated to some virulence genes of the bacterium, notably the vacA and cagA genes. The present study aimed to determine the H. pylori genotypes distribution and their association with sex, age and gastric diseases in a Moroccan population. Gastric biopsy was taken from 1079 consenting patients. The specimens were processed by PCR to identify H. pylori and to determine the genotypic profile by PCR characterizing vacA s, vacA m and vacA i regions directly from biopsies H. pylori positives. VacA genotyping revealed the predominance of vacA m2 (53.2%), vacA s2 (52.9%) and vacA i2 (52%). The most virulent vacA alleles (s1, i1 and m1) are more predominant in men (47.3%, 41.9% and 46.1% respectively) than in women (38.3%, 33.3% and 37% respectively). However, the association between vacA genotypes and age did not reach a statistical significant value. Logistic regression analysis results show that vacA i1m1 and vacA i1m2 genotypes were strongly associated with the risk of GC, the Odds Ratio (95% confidence interval) was 29.73 [5.08–173.73] and 9.17 [2.06–40.82] respectively, while vacAs1/cagA+ seems to be a risk factor for DU since it is inversely associated with GC (OR was 0.13 [0.02–0.75]. The results of this study suggest that vacA i1 genotype independently to vacAm status may be of a clinical usefulness and will help to identify patients at a high risk of GC development. PMID:28125638

  15. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1m1 genotype but not cagA or babA2 increase the risk of ulcer and gastric cancer in patients from Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Román, Adolfo; Martínez-Carrillo, Dinorah Nashely; Atrisco-Morales, Josefina; Azúcar-Heziquio, Julio César; Cuevas-Caballero, Abner Saúl; Castañón-Sánchez, Carlos Alberto; Reyes-Ríos, Roxana; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Reyes-Navarrete, Salomón; Cruz-Del Carmen, Iván; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of Helicobacter pylori are associated with gastric pathology. The objectives were to determine the frequency of infection and distribution of the vacA, cagA and babA2 genotypes of H. pylori in patients with gastric ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, and to evaluate the association of virulent genotypes with diagnosis. We studied 921 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia or with presumptive diagnosis of gastric cancer. The DNA of H. pylori and the vacA, cagA and babA2 genes was detected by PCR in total DNA from gastric biopsies. The association of H. pylori and of its cagA, vacA and babA2 genotypes with diagnosis was determined by calculating the odds ratio (OR). Chronic gastritis was confirmed in 767 patients, gastric ulcer in 115 and cancer in 39. The prevalence of H. pylori was 47.8, 49.6 and 61.5% in those groups, respectively. H. pylori was more frequent in the surrounding tissue (69.2%) than in the tumor (53.8%). The vacA s1m1 genotype predominated in the three groups (45.2, 61.4 and 83.3%, respectively). H. pylori was associated with cancer (ORadjusted = 2.08; 95% CI 1.05-4.13; p = 0.035) but not with ulcer (ORadjusted = 1.07; 95% CI 0.71-1.61; p = 0.728). The s1m1 genotype was associated with ulcer and cancer (ORadjusted = 2.02; 95% CI 1.12-3.62; p = 0.019 and ORadjusted = 6.58; 95% CI 2.15-20.08; p = 0.001, respectively). babA2 was associated with gastric cancer, and cagA was not associated with the diagnosis. In population from Southern Mexico, H. pylori and the s1m1 genotype were associated with gastric cancer and the s1m1/cagA+/babA2+ strains predominated in tumor and adjacent tissue.

  16. Helicobacter pylori isolated from Iranian drinking water: vacA, cagA, iceA, oipA and babA2 genotype status and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Khamesipour, Faham; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    Despite the clinical importance of Helicobacter pylori in human gastric disorders, its exact route of transmission is still uncertain. Based on the contentious hypothesis and findings of previous investigations, water may play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. This study was carried out to investigate the vacA, cagA, oipA, iceA and babA2 genotype status and antimicrobial resistance properties of H. pylori strains isolated from the drinking water samples of four major provinces in Iran. A total of 400 drinking water samples were cultured and tested. H. pylori-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes and antimicrobial resistance. Twelve of 400 (3%) water samples were positive for H. pylori. Samples from Isfahan province had the highest, while those from Shiraz had the lowest prevalence of H. pylori. The seasonal distribution was also determined, with the highest prevalence of bacteria in the summer season (7.36%). H. pylori strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against ampicillin (100%), erythromycin (75%), clarithromycin (75%), and trimethoprim (58.3%). The most commonly detected genotypes were vacAs1a (83.3%), vacAm1a (66.6%), vacAs2 (50%) and cagA (50%). The presence of similar genotypes in the H. pylori strains of drinking water and those of human clinical samples suggest that contaminated water maybe the sources of bacteria. Spiramycin and furazolidone are suggested for the treatment of cases of H. pylori infection.

  17. CagA phosphorylation EPIYA-C motifs and the vacA i genotype in Helicobacter pylori strains of asymptomatic children from a high-risk gastric cancer area in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Lucia Libanez Bessa Campelo; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Alves; Gonçalves, Maria Helane Rocha Batista; Chaves, Fernando Kennedy; Benigno, Tiago Gomes da Silva; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Silva, Cícero Igor Simões Moura; Anacleto, Charles; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common infections worldwide and is associated with gastric diseases. Virulence factors such as VacA and CagA have been shown to increase the risk of these diseases. Studies have suggested a causal role of CagA EPIYA-C in gastric carcinogenesis and this factor has been shown to be geographically diverse. We investigated the number of CagA EPIYA motifs and the vacA i genotypes in H. pylori strains from asymptomatic children. We included samples from 40 infected children (18 females and 22 males), extracted DNA directly from the gastric mucus/juice (obtained using the string procedure) and analysed the DNA using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The vacA i1 genotype was present in 30 (75%) samples, the i2 allele was present in nine (22.5%) samples and both alleles were present in one (2.5%) sample. The cagA-positive samples showed distinct patterns in the 3’ variable region of cagA and 18 of the 30 (60%) strains contained 1 EPIYA-C motif, whereas 12 (40%) strains contained two EPIYA-C motifs. We confirmed that the studied population was colonised early by the most virulent H. pylori strains, as demonstrated by the high frequency of the vacA i1 allele and the high number of EPIYA-C motifs. Therefore, asymptomatic children from an urban community in Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil are frequently colonised with the most virulent H. pylori strains. PMID:25494468

  18. Difluoromethylornithine Is a Novel Inhibitor of Helicobacter pylori Growth, CagA Translocation, and Interleukin-8 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Daniel P.; Asim, Mohammad; Leiman, David A.; de Sablet, Thibaut; Singh, Kshipra; Casero, Robert A.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects half the world's population, and carriage is lifelong without antibiotic therapy. Current regimens prescribed to prevent infection-associated diseases such as gastroduodenal ulcers and gastric cancer can be thwarted by antibiotic resistance. We reported that administration of 1% d,l-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) to mice infected with H. pylori reduces gastritis and colonization, which we attributed to enhanced host immune response due to inhibition of macrophage ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Although no ODC has been identified in any H. pylori genome, we sought to determine if DFMO has direct effects on the bacterium. We found that DFMO significantly reduced the growth rate of H. pylori in a polyamine-independent manner. Two other Gram-negative pathogens possessing ODC, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter rodentium, were resistant to the DFMO effect. The effect of DFMO on H. pylori required continuous exposure to the drug and was reversible when removed, with recovery of growth rate in vitro and the ability to colonize mice. H. pylori exposed to DFMO were significantly shorter in length than those untreated and they contained greater internal levels of ATP, suggesting severe effects on bacterial metabolism. DFMO inhibited expression of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A, and its translocation and phosphorylation in gastric epithelial cells, which was associated with a reduction in interleukin-8 expression. These findings suggest that DFMO has effects on H. pylori that may contribute to its effectiveness in reducing gastritis and colonization and may be a useful addition to anti-H. pylori therapies. PMID:21386987

  19. Helicobacter pylori CagA: From Pathogenic Mechanisms to Its Use as an Anti-Cancer Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Markus; Ruggiero, Paolo; Rappuoli, Rino; Bagnoli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than 50% of the human population, causing chronic inflammation, which however is largely asymptomatic. Nevertheless, H. pylori-infected subjects can develop chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer. Chronic exposure to the pathogen and its ability to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the injection of cytotoxin-associated gene A into gastric epithelial cells may be key triggers of carcinogenesis. By deregulating cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions as well as DNA methylation, histone modifications, expression of micro RNAs, and resistance to apoptosis, EMT can actively contribute to early stages of the cancer formation. Host response to the infection significantly contributes to disease development and the concomitance of particular genotypes of both pathogen and host may turn into the most severe outcomes. T regulatory cells (Treg) have been recently demonstrated to play an important role in H. pylori-related disease development and at the same time the Treg-induced tolerance has been proposed as a possible mechanism that leads to less severe disease. Efficacy of antibiotic therapies of H. pylori infection has significantly dropped. Unfortunately, no vaccine against H. pylori is currently licensed, and protective immunity mechanisms against H. pylori are only partially understood. In spite of promising results obtained in animal models of infection with a number of vaccine candidates, few clinical trials have been conducted so far and with no satisfactory outcomes. However, prophylactic vaccination may be the only means to efficiently prevent H. pylori-associated cancers. PMID:24133496

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, cagE, oipA, iceA, babA2 and babB genotypes in Iranian dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Hossein; Jafari, Fereshteh; Baghaei, Kaveh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Abdi, Saeed; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Mohammadzadeh, Alireza

    2017-04-01

    There is diversity in clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection in different regions. Microbial, host and environmental factors seem to be reason of such variation. Considering microbial factors, we studied H. pylori genotypes and their association with clinical feature of the infection. Overall 160 H. pylori-positive patients were enrolled in this study. Clinical information and biopsy were collected from each patient. The presence of the major virulence genes were determined by PCR. Regardless to clinical outcomes, vacA, cagA, cagE, oipA, iceA1, babA2 and babB genes was positive in 100%, 69%, 51%, 55%, 26%,78% and 28% of 160 strains respectively. The s1m2 was more common vacA allels and s1a and m1a were predominant s and m regions. In patient with gastric cancer (GC), the oipA was less frequent while the iceA1 was the most common. The babA2 was common in all patient groups. The babB was significantly observed in strains isolated from patients with GC. There were significant association among cagA status with presence of vacAs1, vacAm2, cagE, oipA, iceA1 and babA2. Presence of the babB and oipA was connected with higher and lower risk for GC respectively. There was no association between the cagA, vacA, cagE or iceA status and clinical outcome in patients in Iran. We showed that presence of the babB and iceA1 were significantly connected with higher risk for gastric cancer development in Iranian dyspeptic patients while H. pylori isolates with positive oipA had little threat for leading patients to cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, cagE, iceA, babA2 genotypes and correlation with clinical outcome in Turkish patients with dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Erzin, Y; Koksal, V; Altun, S; Dobrucali, A; Aslan, M; Erdamar, S; Dirican, A; Kocazeybek, B

    2006-12-01

    Distinct virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori have been associated with clinical outcome of the infection; however, considerable variations have been reported from different geographic regions and data on genotypes of Turkish H. pylori isolates are sparse. To determine the prevalence of specific genotypes of H. pylori in Turkish patients with dyspepsia. Ninety-three H. pylori-positive patients [30 with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), 30 with duodenal ulcer (DU), and 33 with gastric cancer (GC)] who were admitted to our endoscopy unit due to dyspepsia were enrolled in the study. H. pylori infection was confirmed in all patients by histology and rapid urease test (RUT). The presence of vacA alleles, cagA, cagE, iceA, and babA2 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical comparisons and multivariate regression analysis was performed to find out independent predictors of different clinical outcomes. Turkish strains examined predominantly possessed the vacA s1,m2 (48.4%) and s1,m1 (40.7%) genotypes. The vacA s1a genotype was detected in 66.7, 96.4, and 87.9% of isolates from patients with NUD, DU, and GC, respectively, and its presence was significantly associated with that of DU (p = .004), GC (p = .043), and cagA gene (p = .021). None of the cases was found to harbor the s1c genotype. The frequencies of the cagA and cagE genes among studied isolates were 73.6 and 59.3%, respectively. The cagA gene was significantly associated with the presence of DU (p = .004) and GC (p = .003), and the cagE gene, too, was significantly associated with the presence of DU (p = .002) and GC (p = .000). All H. pylori isolates possessed the iceA gene. In all, 68 isolates (74.7%) were positive for iceA1 and 23 (25.3%) for iceA2. The frequency of icea1 gene was significantly higher in cases with GC (85%) than in cases with NUD (60%) (p = .026). The frequency of babA2 gene was 23.3, 46.4, and 87.9% in

  2. VacA, cagA, iceA and oipA genotypes status and antimicrobial resistance properties of Helicobacter pylori isolated from various types of ready to eat foods.

    PubMed

    Hemmatinezhad, Behsan; Momtaz, Hassan; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-20

    Despite the high clinical standing of Helicobacter pylori, its exact routes of transmission and origin have not been determined. Based on the contentious hypothesis, foods play an important roles in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The present study was carried out to investigate the vacA, cagA, oipA and iceA genotypes status of H. pylori isolated from the various types of ready to eat foods. A total of 550 ready to eat food samples were cultured and tested. H. pylori-positive strains were analyzed for the presence of various genotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern. Seventy four out of 550 (13.45 %) samples were positive for H. pylori. Olvie salad (36 %), restaurant salad (30 %), fruit salad (28 %) and soup (22 %) were the most commonly contaminated. H. pylori strains harbored the highest levels of resistance against amoxicillin (94.59 %), ampicillin (93.24 %), metronidazole (89.18 %) and tetracycline (72.97 %). The most commonly detected genotypes were vacA s1a (78.37 %), vacA m2 (75.67 %), vacA m1a (51.35 %) and cagA (41.89 %). The prevalence of iceA1, iceA2 and oipA genotypes were 13.51, 4.05 and 18.91 %, respectively. S1am2 (70.27 %), s1am1a (39.18 %) and m1am2 (31.08 %) were the most commonly detected combined genotypes. Of 40 different genotypic combinations, s1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA- (12.16 %), s1a/cagA+/iceA1/oipA+ (10.81 %) and s1a/cagA-/iceA1/oipA+ (10.81 %) were the most prevalent. The present investigation showed that some types of ready to eat food samples maybe the sources of resistant and virulent strains of H. pylori. Warily use of antibiotics with respect to the results of disk diffusion method and careful health monitoring on food and staffs of food producing companies maybe reduce the risk of H. pylori in foods.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis, based on EPIYA repeats in the cagA gene of Indian Helicobacter pylori, and the implications of sequence variation in tyrosine phosphorylation motifs on determining the clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Santosh K; Sharma, Vishwas; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Gopi, Manoj; Saikant, R; Nandan, Amrita; Bardia, Avinash; Gunisetty, Sivaram; Katikala, Prasanth; Habeeb, Md Aejaz; Khan, Aleem A; Habibullah, C M

    2011-04-01

    The population of India harbors one of the world's most highly diverse gene pools, owing to the influx of successive waves of immigrants over regular periods in time. Several phylogenetic studies involving mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal variation have demonstrated Europeans to have been the first settlers in India. Nevertheless, certain controversy exists, due to the support given to the thesis that colonization was by the Austro-Asiatic group, prior to the Europeans. Thus, the aim was to investigate pre-historic colonization of India by anatomically modern humans, using conserved stretches of five amino acid (EPIYA) sequences in the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori. Simultaneously, the existence of a pathogenic relationship of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs), in 32 H. pylori strains isolated from subjects with several forms of gastric diseases, was also explored. High resolution sequence analysis of the above described genes was performed. The nucleotide sequences obtained were translated into amino acids using MEGA (version 4.0) software for EPIYA. An MJ-Network was constructed for obtaining TPM haplotypes by using NETWORK (version 4.5) software. The findings of the study suggest that Indian H. pylori strains share a common ancestry with Europeans. No specific association of haplotypes with the outcome of disease was revealed through additional network analysis of TPMs.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis, based on EPIYA repeats in the cagA gene of Indian Helicobacter pylori, and the implications of sequence variation in tyrosine phosphorylation motifs on determining the clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Santosh K.; Sharma, Vishwas; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Gopi, Manoj; Saikant, R; Nandan, Amrita; Bardia, Avinash; Gunisetty, Sivaram; Katikala, Prasanth; Habeeb, Md. Aejaz; Khan, Aleem A.; Habibullah, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The population of India harbors one of the world’s most highly diverse gene pools, owing to the influx of successive waves of immigrants over regular periods in time. Several phylogenetic studies involving mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomal variation have demonstrated Europeans to have been the first settlers in India. Nevertheless, certain controversy exists, due to the support given to the thesis that colonization was by the Austro-Asiatic group, prior to the Europeans. Thus, the aim was to investigate pre-historic colonization of India by anatomically modern humans, using conserved stretches of five amino acid (EPIYA) sequences in the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori. Simultaneously, the existence of a pathogenic relationship of tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs), in 32 H. pylori strains isolated from subjects with several forms of gastric diseases, was also explored. High resolution sequence analysis of the above described genes was performed. The nucleotide sequences obtained were translated into amino acids using MEGA (version 4.0) software for EPIYA. An MJ-Network was constructed for obtaining TPM haplotypes by using NETWORK (version 4.5) software. The findings of the study suggest that Indian H. pylori strains share a common ancestry with Europeans. No specific association of haplotypes with the outcome of disease was revealed through additional network analysis of TPMs. PMID:21734830

  5. CagA antibodies in Japanese children with nodular gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Kato, S; Sugiyama, T; Kudo, M; Ohnuma, K; Ozawa, K; Iinuma, K; Asaka, M; Blaser, M J

    2000-01-01

    cagA(+) Helicobacter pylori strains have been linked to more severe gastric inflammation, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer in adults, but there have been few studies of cagA in children. We examined the relationship between H. pylori cagA status and clinical status in Japanese children. Forty H. pylori-positive children were studied: 15 with nodular gastritis, 5 with gastric ulcers, and 20 with duodenal ulcers. H. pylori status was confirmed by biopsy-based tests and serum anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. As controls, 77 asymptomatic children with sera positive for anti-H. pylori IgG were enrolled. Levels of IgG antibodies to CagA in serum were measured by an antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 16 patients with successful H. pylori eradication, posttreatment levels of CagA and H. pylori IgG antibodies also were studied. The CagA antibody seropositivities of asymptomatic controls (81.8%) and patients with nodular gastritis, gastric ulcers, and duodenal ulcers (80.0 to 95.0%) were not significantly different. Compared with pretreatment levels of CagA antibodies, posttreatment levels decreased progressively and significantly. We conclude that, as in Japanese adults, a high prevalence of cagA(+) H. pylori strains was found in Japanese children, and that there was no association with nodular gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. In the assessment of eradicative therapies, monitoring of serum anti-CagA antibodies does not appear to offer any direct benefit over monitoring of anti-H. pylori antibodies.

  6. Identification of cagA tyrosine phosphorylation DNA motifs in Helicobacter pylori isolates from peptic ulcer patients by novel PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time fluorescence PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Owen, Robert J; Sharp, Sally I; Chisholm, Stephanie A; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

    2003-07-01

    Cag pathogenicity island-containing Helicobacter pylori (type I) induces signal transduction pathways resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Conventional block PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time LightCycler (LC) PCR hybridization assays, validated by direct sequencing, were designed to test for the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding to tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) A, B, and C in 84 isolates of H. pylori type I from patients in England. Overall, the PCR assays demonstrated that one or more TPMs were present in 62 strains (75%). Motif A was common (71% of strains), whereas motifs B and C were rarer (8% of strains). Strains lacking a TPM were typically vacuolating cytotoxin genotype vacA m2. Motif A was widely distributed in relation to disease severity and was more commonly (but not significantly [P = 0.071]) associated with gastric ulcer than with duodenal ulcer (86 versus 56%). The LC hybridization assay provided a rapid means of detecting all three motifs, but RFLP analysis was more specific for TPM-A. TPMs provide novel additional strain markers for defining cagA variation, including identification of RFLP types within TPM-A. The presence of a particular TPM was not of direct diagnostic value, either singly or in combination, but the higher proportion of TPM-A strains in gastric ulcer patients merits further investigation.

  7. Identification of cagA Tyrosine Phosphorylation DNA Motifs in Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Peptic Ulcer Patients by Novel PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Real-Time Fluorescence PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robert J.; Sharp, Sally I.; Chisholm, Stephanie A.; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

    2003-01-01

    Cag pathogenicity island-containing Helicobacter pylori (type I) induces signal transduction pathways resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins adjacent to the site of bacterial adhesion on host gastric epithelial cells. Conventional block PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and real-time LightCycler (LC) PCR hybridization assays, validated by direct sequencing, were designed to test for the presence of three nucleotide sequences corresponding to tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs) A, B, and C in 84 isolates of H. pylori type I from patients in England. Overall, the PCR assays demonstrated that one or more TPMs were present in 62 strains (75%). Motif A was common (71% of strains), whereas motifs B and C were rarer (8% of strains). Strains lacking a TPM were typically vacuolating cytotoxin genotype vacA m2. Motif A was widely distributed in relation to disease severity and was more commonly (but not significantly [P = 0.071]) associated with gastric ulcer than with duodenal ulcer (86 versus 56%). The LC hybridization assay provided a rapid means of detecting all three motifs, but RFLP analysis was more specific for TPM-A. TPMs provide novel additional strain markers for defining cagA variation, including identification of RFLP types within TPM-A. The presence of a particular TPM was not of direct diagnostic value, either singly or in combination, but the higher proportion of TPM-A strains in gastric ulcer patients merits further investigation. PMID:12843050

  8. Correlations between the CagA Antigen and Serum Levels of Anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA in Children.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Lim, Chun Woo; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Jun, Jin-Su; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We tested correlations between anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA levels and the urease test, anti-CagA protein antibody, degree of gastritis, and age. In total, 509 children (0-15 years) were enrolled. Subjects were stratified as 0-4 years (n = 132), 5-9 years (n = 274), and 10-15 years (n = 103) and subjected to the urease test, histopathology, ELISA, and western blot using whole-cell lysates of H. pylori strain 51. The positivity rate in the urease test (P = 0.003), the degree of chronic gastritis (P = 0.021), and H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001) increased with age. The median titer for anti-H. pylori IgG was 732.5 IU/mL at 0-4 years, 689.0 IU/mL at 5-9 years, and 966.0 IU/mL at 10-15 years (P < 0.001); the median titer for anti-H. pylori IgA was 61.0 IU/mL at 0-4 years, 63.5 IU/mL at 5-9 years, and 75.0 IU/mL at 10-15 years (P < 0.001). The CagA-positivity rate was 26.5% at 0-4 years, 36.5% at 5-9 years, and 46.6% at 10-15 years for IgG (P = 0.036), and 11.3% at 0-4 years, 18.6% at 5-9 years, and 23.3% at 10-15 years for IgA (P < 0.001). Anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA titers increased with the urease test grade, chronic gastritis degree, active gastritis, and H. pylori infiltration. Presence of CagA-positivity is well correlated with a high urease test grade and high anti-H. pylori IgG/IgA levels.

  9. In Silico Profiling of the Potentiality of Curcumin and Conventional Drugs for CagA Oncoprotein Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akhileshwar K; Tewari, Mallika; Shukla, Hari S; Roy, Bijoy K

    2015-08-01

    The oncoprotein cytotoxic associated gene A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori plays a pivotal role in the development of gastric cancer, so it has been an important target for anti-H. pylori drugs. Conventional drugs are currently being implemented against H. pylori. The inhibitory role of plant metabolites like curcumin against H. pylori is still a major scientific challenge. Curcumin may represent a novel promising drug against H. pylori infection without producing side effects. In the present study, a comparative analysis between curcumin and conventional drugs (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole) was carried out using databases to investigate the potential of curcumin against H. pylori targeting the CagA oncoprotein. Curcumin was filtered using Lipinski's rule of five and the druglikeness property for evaluation of pharmacological properties. Subsequently, molecular docking was employed to determine the binding affinities of curcumin and conventional drugs to the CagA oncoprotein. According to the results obtained from FireDock, the binding energy of curcumin was higher than those of amoxicillin, pantoprazole, and metronidazole, except for clarithromycin, which had the highest binding energy. Accordingly, curcumin may become a promising lead compound against CagA+ H. pylori infection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Echoes of a Distant Past: The cag Pathogenicity Island of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiani, Nicola; Censini, Stefano; Buti, Ludovico; Covacci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the multiple roles of the CagA protein encoded by the cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori and highlights the CagA degradation activities on p53. By subverting the p53 tumor suppressor pathway CagA induces a strong antiapoptotic effect. Helicobacter pylori infection has been always associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The pro-oncogenic functions of CagA also target the tumor suppressor ASPP2. In the absence of tumor suppressor genes, cells survive and proliferate at times and in places where their survival and proliferation are inappropriate. PMID:24097901

  11. babA2- and cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains are associated with duodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves; Santos, Adriana; Guerra, Juliana Becattini; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Oliveira, Celso Affonso; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Alvares; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-08-01

    The babA2 and cagA genes were investigated in 208 Brazilian Helicobacter pylori strains. A strong association between babA2 and duodenal ulcer or gastric carcinoma was observed, even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as age, gender, and cagA status. cagA-positive strains were also independently associated with H. pylori-related diseases.

  12. CagA and VacA genotypes in peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    FakhreYaseri, Hashem; Shakaraby, Mehdi; Bradaran, Hamid Reza; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Fakhre Yaseri, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The cag pathogenicity island includes a number of genes, including cytotoxin-associated protein A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes, which are associated with bacterial virulence. Although the role of cagA and vacA in the virulence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is well-established in epidemiological studies, the relationship between the cagA and vacA genotypes in Iran has yet to be fully elucidated. This study compared the association between cagA and vacA genotypes between peptic ulcer disease (PUD) patients and non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) patients. This case control study was done on 130 patients with positive H. pylori in histological and Giemsa reports. The case group comprised 65 PUD patients, and the control group included 65 NUD patients. The presence of the cagA and vacA genotypes was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy samples, taken via endoscopy. Both cagA and vacA genotypes were positive in 51.5% (17) of the PUD group and 20% (6) of the NUD group (p= 0.009), and both cagA and vacA genotypes were negative in 48.5% (16) and 80% (24) of the case and control groups, respectively (p= 0.03). CagA-positive H. pylori was detected in 41.5% (27) and 24.6% (16) of the case and control groups, respectively (p= 0.001), and vacA-positive H. pylori was found in 60% (39) and 46% (30) of the case and control groups, respectively. Both cagA and vacA genotypes were more prevalent in the PUD patients than in their NUD counterparts among our Iranian samples. It is seems that the determination of these two genotypes in PUD patients is a good screening tool for patient selection for endoscopy and treatment.

  13. CagA and VacA genotypes in peptic ulcer disease and non-ulcer dyspepsia: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    FakhreYaseri, Hashem; Shakaraby, Mehdi; Bradaran, Hamid Reza; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Fakhre Yaseri, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The cag pathogenicity island includes a number of genes, including cytotoxin-associated protein A (cagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) genotypes, which are associated with bacterial virulence. Although the role of cagA and vacA in the virulence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is well-established in epidemiological studies, the relationship between the cagA and vacA genotypes in Iran has yet to be fully elucidated. This study compared the association between cagA and vacA genotypes between peptic ulcer disease (PUD) patients and non-ulcer dyspeptic (NUD) patients. Methods: This case control study was done on 130 patients with positive H. pylori in histological and Giemsa reports. The case group comprised 65 PUD patients, and the control group included 65 NUD patients. The presence of the cagA and vacA genotypes was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on biopsy samples, taken via endoscopy. Results: Both cagA and vacA genotypes were positive in 51.5% (17) of the PUD group and 20% (6) of the NUD group (p= 0.009), and both cagA and vacA genotypes were negative in 48.5% (16) and 80% (24) of the case and control groups, respectively (p= 0.03). CagA-positive H. pylori was detected in 41.5% (27) and 24.6% (16) of the case and control groups, respectively (p= 0.001), and vacA-positive H. pylori was found in 60% (39) and 46% (30) of the case and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: Both cagA and vacA genotypes were more prevalent in the PUD patients than in their NUD counterparts among our Iranian samples. It is seems that the determination of these two genotypes in PUD patients is a good screening tool for patient selection for endoscopy and treatment. PMID:25664305

  14. Prevalence of CagA and VacA antibodies in children with Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer compared to prevalence in pediatric patients with active or nonactive chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, T; Martínez, M J; Urruzuno, P; Cilleruelo, M L; Madruga, D; Sebastian, M; Domingo, D; Sanz, J C; López-Brea, M

    2000-09-01

    VacA and CagA serological responses were detected in pediatric patients: 44 and 56%, respectively, in peptic ulcer (PU) patients, 33.3 and 44.4% in active chronic gastritis (ACG) patients, and 23.2 and 39.2% in non-ACG patients. Higher seroprevalence to CagA+VacA and to CagA+VacA+35-kDa antigen was found among PU patients. However, a low level of sensitivity and specificity was found for indirect detection of PU patients.

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all 'H. pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections.

  17. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  18. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…

  19. Intracellular and Interstitial Expression of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Precancerous Intestinal Metaplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Semino-Mora, Cristina; Doi, Sonia Q.; Marty, Aileen; Simko, Vlado; Carlstedt, Ingemar; Dubois, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer are associated with Helicobacter pylori, but the bacterium often is undetectable in these lesions. To unravel this apparent paradox, IM, H. pylori presence, and the expression of H. pylori virulence genes were quantified concurrently using histologic testing, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. H. pylori was detected inside metaplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cells, and cagA and babA2 expression was colocalized. Importantly, expression of cagA was significantly higher in patients with IM and adenocarcinoma than in control subjects. The preneoplastic “acidic” MUC2 mucin was detected only in the presence of H. pylori, and MUC2 expression was higher in patients with IM, dysplasia, and cancer. These novel findings are compatible with the hypothesis that all stages of gastric carcinogenesis are fostered by persistent intracellular expression of H. pylori virulence genes, especially cagA inside MUC2-producing precancerous gastric cells and pleomorphic cancer cells. PMID:12695995

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori: separation of H. pylori from East Asian and non-Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y; Osato, M S; Sepulveda, A R; Gutierrez, O; Figura, N; Kim, J G; Kodama, T; Kashima, K; Graham, D Y

    2000-02-01

    The predominant H. pylori strain circulating among geographic locations differs with regard to the genomic structure. This study determined whether structural subtypes of the cagA 3' repeat region could be used to identify the population of origin of H. pylori isolates. We examined 600 cagA-positive H. pylori (Colombia, 100; USA, 100; France, 100; Canada, 20; Italy, 20; Korea, 100; Japan, 100; Hong Kong, 20; Taiwan, 20; Vietnam, 20). The cagA 3' region was amplified by PCR using primers specific to Japanese and Western 3' cagA gene sequences. PCR using Japanese cagA primers resulted in PCR products in 99-6 % of strains from East Asia but no non-Asian strains. Conversely, PCR using Western cagA primers resulted in amplicons in 100% of non-Asian strains, and only one from East Asia. cagA genotyping is useful for molecular epidemiological studies as strains can be completely separated by differences in the cagA 3' region.

  1. Distinct cagA EPIYA motifs are associated with ethnic diversity in Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heather-Marie A; Goh, Khean-Lee; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hilmi, Ida; Dhamodaran, Subbiah; Forman, David; Mitchell, Hazel

    2009-08-01

    In vitro studies have shown that the biologic activity of CagA is influenced by the number and class of EPIYA motifs present in its variable region as these motifs correspond to the CagA phosphorylation sites. It has been hypothesized that strains possessing specific combinations of these motifs may be responsible for gastric cancer development. This study investigated the prevalence of cagA and the EPIYA motifs with regard to number, class, and patterns in strains from the three major ethnic groups within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations in relation to disease development. Helicobacter pylori isolates from 49 Chinese, 43 Indian, and 14 Malay patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and 21 gastric cancer (GC) cases were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction for the presence of cagA and the number, type, and pattern of EPIYA motifs. Additionally, the EPIYA motifs of 47 isolates were sequenced. All 126 isolates possessed cagA, with the majority encoding EPIYA-A (97.6%) and all encoding EPIYA-B. However, while the cagA of 93.0% of Indian FD isolates encoded EPIYA-C as the third motif, 91.8% of Chinese FD isolates and 81.7% of Chinese GC isolates encoded EPIYA-D (p < .001). Of Malay FD isolates, 61.5% and 38.5% possessed EPIYA-C and EPIYA-D, respectively. The majority of isolates possessed three EPIYA motifs; however, Indian isolates were significantly more likely to have four or more (p < .05). Although, H. pylori strains with distinct cagA-types are circulating within the primary ethnic groups resident in Malaysia and Singapore, these genotypes appear unassociated with the development of GC in the ethnic Chinese population. The phenomenon of distinct strains circulating within different ethnic groups, in combination with host and certain environmental factors, may help to explain the rates of GC development in Malaysia.

  2. Association of virulent genotypes and phylogenetic origins of Helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhan, Shuhui; Zhou, Jianhua; Huang, Jingjing; Yu, Xinjuan; Dong, Kaixin; Dong, Quanjiang

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the association between the genotypes, sequence variations and phylogenetic origins of strains of Helicobacter pylori with gastric cancer in Chinese patients. Strains of H. pylori were isolated from patients with chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Genotypes of the cagA and vacA genes were determined using polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis was used to detect variations in the 3' and 5' regions of cagA, and to detect known polymorphisms in cagE. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the analysis of seven housekeeping genes. A total of 67 strains of H. pylori were analysed. Nearly all strains of H. pylori carried cagA (65/67; 97.0%), an East Asia type of the cagA 3' region (63/65; 96.9%) and the vacA intermediate (i)1 genotype (65/67; 97.0%). None of the H. pylori strains examined had sequence variations in the 5' region of cagA or cagE. Phylogenetic analyses, however, revealed that strains of H. pylori from gastric cancer tended to cluster together. Virulent strains of H. pylori were highly prevalent, but virulent genotypes of H. pylori associated with gastric cancer were not detected in this geographical region. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  4. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N.; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infections. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cag PAI, CagA, VacA and gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:26372819

  5. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sgouras, Dionyssios N; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    Three decades have passed since Warren and Marshall described the successful isolation and culture of Helicobacter pylori, the Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of half the human population worldwide. Although it is documented that H. pylori infection is implicated in a range of disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, as well as associated organs, many aspects relating to host colonization, successful persistence, and the pathophysiological mechanisms of this bacteria still remain controversial and are constantly being explored. Unceasing efforts to decipher the pathophysiology of H. pylori infection have illuminated the crucially important contribution of multifarious bacterial factors for H. pylori pathogenesis, in particular the cag pathogenicity island (PAI), the effector protein CagA, and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA. In addition, recent studies have provided insight into the importance of the gastrointestinal microbiota on the cumulative pathophysiology associated with H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the key findings of publications related to the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection published during the last year, with an emphasis on factors affecting colonization efficiency, cagPAI, CagA, VacA, and gastrointestinal microbiota. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Helicobacter pylori induces cell migration and invasion through casein kinase 2 in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Do Yeon; Yu, Da Yeon; Kim, Shin; Lee, Yong Chan

    2014-12-01

    Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is causally linked with gastric carcinogenesis. Virulent H. pylori strains deliver bacterial CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Induction of high motility and an elongated phenotype is considered to be CagA-dependent process. Casein kinase 2 plays a critical role in carcinogenesis through signaling pathways related to the epithelial mesenchymal transition. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of H. pylori infection on the casein kinase 2-mediated migration and invasion in gastric epithelial cells. AGS or MKN28 cells as human gastric epithelial cells and H. pylori strains Hp60190 (ATCC 49503, CagA(+)) and Hp8822 (CagA(-)) were used. Cells were infected with H. pylori at multiplicity of infection of 100 : 1 for various times. We measured in vitro kinase assay to examine casein kinase 2 activity and performed immunofluorescent staining to observe E-cadherin complex. We also examined β-catenin transactivation through promoter assay and MMP7 expression by real-time PCR and ELISA. H. pylori upregulates casein kinase 2 activity and inhibition of casein kinase 2 in H. pylori-infected cells profoundly suppressed cell invasiveness and motility. We confirmed that casein kinase 2 mediates membranous α-catenin depletion through dissociation of the α-/β-catenin complex in H. pylori-infected cells. We also found that H. pylori induces β-catenin nuclear translocation and increases MMP7 expressions mediated through casein kinase 2. We show for the first time that CagA(+) H. pylori upregulates cellular invasiveness and motility through casein kinase 2. The demonstration of a mechanistic interplay between H. pylori and casein kinase 2 provides important insights into the role of CagA(+) H. pylori in the gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Molecular Basis of Pathogenicity in Helicobacter pylori Clinical Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Ivy Bastos; Fonseca, Tesiê Leopoldo; Moraes, Ernani Pinho de; Fernandes, Márcia Silveira; Mendoza-Sassi, Raul; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Juliano, Carlos Renan Varela; Scaini, Carlos James; Almeida da Silva, Pedro Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study identified pathogenicity genes in 40 Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates. The cagA, vacA, and iceA genes were detected in 65%, 97.5%, and 97.5% of the isolates, respectively. The cagA, iceA1, and vacAs1a/m1 genes were related to erosive gastritis, whereas the vacAs2/m2 and iceA2 genes were associated with enanthematous gastritis. PMID:20686086

  8. Neighborhood socio-economic characteristics, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Cohen, Sarah S; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Zheng, Wei; Williams, Scott M; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B

    2012-06-01

    The authors recently reported high Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence among African-Americans of high African ancestry. We sought to determine whether neighborhood-level socio-economic characteristics are associated with H. pylori prevalence and whether this helps explain the link between African ancestry and H. pylori. Antibodies to H. pylori proteins were assessed in the serum of 336 African-American and 329 white Southern Community Cohort Study participants. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for CagA+ and CagA- H. pylori were calculated using polytomous logistic regression in relation to 10 Census block group-level measures of socio-economic status. After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, three neighborhood-level factors were significantly inversely related to CagA+ H. pylori: percent completed high school; median house values; and percent employed (comparing highest to lowest tertile, OR, 0.47, 95 % CI, 0.26-0.85; OR, 0.56, 95 % CI, 0.32-0.99; and OR, 0.59, 95 % CI, 0.34-1.03, respectively). However, accounting for these measures did not attenuate the association between African ancestry and CagA+ H. pylori, with African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry maintaining two-, seven-, and ninefold increased odds, respectively, compared to whites. Neighborhood-level measures of education, employment, and house values are associated with CagA+ H. pylori sero-prevalence, but do not explain the persistent strong relationship between African ancestry level and CagA+ H. pylori. The findings suggest that neighborhood socio-economic status can help to highlight high-risk areas for prevention and screening efforts and that the link between African ancestry and H. pylori may have a biological basis.

  9. The significance of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    SHIOTA, Seiji; SUZUKI, Rumiko; YAMAOKA, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only a small fraction of these patients develop associated diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than those in other countries. The incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors in addition to the host and environmental factors. Virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA, vacA, dupA, iceA, oipA and babA, have been demonstrated to be predictors of severe clinical outcomes. Interestingly, meta-analysis showed that CagA seropositivity was associated with gastric cancer compared with gastritis even in East Asian countries where almost of the strains possessing cagA. Meta-analysis also confirmed the significance of vacA, dupA and iceA. However, there remains the possibility that additional important pathogenic genes can be existed because H. pylori consists of approximately 1 600 genes. Despite advances in our understanding of the development of H. pylori-related diseases, further work is required to clarify the roles of H. pylori virulence factors. PMID:23452293

  10. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia.

  11. Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries.

  12. Association between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors and Gastroduodenal Diseases in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Watada, Masahide; Kinjo, Nagisa; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Kinjo, Fukunori

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer in Okinawa is lowest in Japan. Some previous reports using small number of strains suggested that the high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with Western-type cagA in Okinawa compared to other areas in Japan might contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer. It has still not been confirmed why the prevalence of Western-type cagA strains is high in Okinawa. We examined the association between the virulence factors of H. pylori and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa. The genotypes of cagA and vacA of 337 H. pylori strains were determined by PCR and gene sequencing. The genealogy of these Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa was analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Overall, 86.4% of the strains possessed cagA: 70.3% were East-Asian type and 16.0% were Western type. After adjustment by age and sex, the presence of East-Asian-type cagA/vacA s1m1 genotypes was significantly associated with gastric cancer compared to gastritis (odds ratio = 6.68, 95% confidence interval = 1.73 to 25.8). The structure of Western-type CagA in Okinawa was different from that of typical Western-type CagA found in Western countries. Intriguingly, MLST analysis revealed that the majority of Western-type cagA strains formed individual clusters but not hpEurope. Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries. PMID:22189111

  13. Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Within the Context of Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Noto, Jennifer M; Lee, Josephine Y; Gaddy, Jennifer A; Cover, Timothy L; Amieva, Manuel R; Peek, Richard M

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains that harbor the oncoprotein CagA increase gastric cancer risk, and this risk is augmented under iron-deficient conditions. We demonstrate here that iron depletion induces coccoid morphology in strains lacking cagA. To evaluate the stability of augmented H. pylori virulence phenotypes stimulated by low-iron conditions, H. pylori isolated from iron-depleted conditions in vivo were serially passaged in vitro. Long-term passage decreased the ability of hypervirulent strains to translocate CagA or induce interleukin 8, indicating that hypervirulent phenotypes stimulated by low-level iron conditions are reversible. Therefore, rectifying iron deficiency may attenuate disease among H. pylori-infected persons with no response to antibiotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Neighborhood socio-economic characteristics, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Sonderman, Jennifer S.; Zheng, Wei; Williams, Scott M.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The authors recently reported high Helicobacter pylori sero-prevalence among African-Americans of high African ancestry. We sought to determine whether neighborhood-level socio-economic characteristics are associated with H. pylori prevalence and whether this helps explain the link between African ancestry and H. pylori. Methods Antibodies to H. pylori proteins were assessed in the serum of 336 African-American and 329 white Southern Community Cohort Study participants. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for CagA+ and CagA− H. pylori were calculated using polytomous logistic regression in relation to 10 Census block group-level measures of socio-economic status. Results After adjusting for individual-level characteristics, three neighborhood-level factors were significantly inversely related to CagA+ H. pylori: percent completed high school; median house values; and percent employed (comparing highest to lowest tertile, OR, 0.47, 95 % CI, 0.26–0.85; OR, 0.56, 95 % CI, 0.32–0.99; and OR, 0.59, 95 % CI, 0.34–1.03, respectively). However, accounting for these measures did not attenuate the association between African ancestry and CagA+ H. pylori, with African-Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry maintaining two-, seven-, and ninefold increased odds, respectively, compared to whites. Conclusions Neighborhood-level measures of education, employment, and house values are associated with CagA+ H. pylori sero-prevalence, but do not explain the persistent strong relationship between African ancestry level and CagA+ H. pylori. The findings suggest that neighborhood socio-economic status can help to highlight high-risk areas for prevention and screening efforts and that the link between African ancestry and H. pylori may have a biological basis. PMID:22527167

  15. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A. Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9 %. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17–91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5 %. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5 %, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2 %). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy. PMID:24965801

  16. Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Cruz, Modesto; Abreu, José A Jiménez; Mitsui, Takahiro; Terao, Hideo; Disla, Mildre; Iwatani, Shun; Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Miyuki; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-09-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer in the Dominican Republic is not high, the disease remains a significant health problem. We first conducted a detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori status in the Dominican Republic. In total, 158 patients (103 females and 55 males; mean age 47.1±16.2 years) were recruited. The status of H. pylori infection was determined based on four tests: rapid urease test, culture test, histological test and immunohistochemistry. The status of cagA and vacA genotypes in H. pylori was examined using PCR and gene sequencing. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 58.9 %. No relationship was found between the H. pylori infection rate and the age range of 17-91 years. Even in the youngest group (patients aged <29 years), the H. pylori infection rate was 62.5 %. Peptic ulcer was found in 23 patients and gastric cancer was found in one patient. The H. pylori infection rate in patients with peptic ulcer was significantly higher than that in patients with gastritis (82.6 versus 54.5 %, P<0.01). The cagA-positive/vacA s1m1 genotype was the most prevalent (43/64, 67.2 %). Compared with H. pylori-negative patients, H. pylori-positive patients showed more severe gastritis. Furthermore, the presence of cagA was related to the presence of more severe gastritis. All CagA-positive strains had Western-type CagA. In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and stomach of patients from Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Mônica Baraúna; Martins, Luisa Caricio; Melo Barbosa, Hivana Patricia; dos Santos Barile, Katarine Antonia; de Almeida, Sintia Silva; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To establish whether virulence factor genes vacA and cagA are present in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) retrieved from gastric mucosa and dental plaque in patients with dyspepsia. METHODS: Cumulative dental plaque specimens and gastric biopsies were submitted to histological examination, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the presence of cagA and vacA polymorphisms. RESULTS: Detection of H. pylori from dental plaque and gastric biopsy samples was greater by PCR compared to histological examination and the rapid urease test. DNA from H. pylori was detected in 96% of gastric mucosa samples and in 72% of dental plaque samples. Sixty-three (89%) of 71 dental plaque samples that were H. pylori-positive also exhibited identical vacA and cagA genotypes in gastric mucosa. The most common genotype was vacAs1bm1 and cagA positive, either in dental plaque or gastric mucosa. These virulent H. pylori isolates were involved in the severity of clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: These pathogenic strains were found simultaneously in dental plaque and gastric mucosa, which suggests that gastric infection is correlated with the presence of H. pylori in the mouth. PMID:20572307

  18. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Silva Jr, Mário Ribeiro da; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Silva, Adenielson Vilar e; Oliveira, Claudia Suellen Ferro de; Santos, Kemper Nunes do; Costa, Renata Aparecida Andrade da; Fecury, Amanda Alves; Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2013-01-01

    This study compares virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in 2 cities in the Brazilian Amazon. The study analyzed 168 patients with chronic gastritis from Belém and 151 from Bragança, State of Pará, Brazil. Levels of bacterial DNA associated with cagA and vacA alleles were checked by PCR, and hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for histologic diagnosis. In Bragança 87% of patients were genotype s1m1 cagA-positive (s1m1 cagA+), compared with 76% in Belém. In samples from patients in both cities, there was an association between s1m1 cagA+ strains and gastric mucosal damage. Both cities have a high frequency of s1m1 cagA+ strains of H. pylori.

  19. cag Pathogenicity island-dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in infected patients with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Sadeghiani, Marzieh; Bagheri, Nader; Shahi, Heshmat; Reiisi, Somayeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rashidi, Reza; Mahsa, Majid; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Salimi, Elaheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2017-07-12

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been involved in the pathogenesis of most important gastroduodenal diseases. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a large family of zincendopeptidases which play important roles in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we examined MMP-7 mRNA levels in the gastric mucosa of patients with H. pylori infection and evaluated the effects of virulence factors, such as vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin-associated gene), in H. pylori-infected patients upon the MMP-7 mRNA mucosal levels. We also determined the correlation between mucosal MMP-7 mRNA levels and the types of disease. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 50 H. pylori-infected patients and 50 uninfected individuals. Mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and non-infected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The presences of cagA and vacA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. MMP-7 expression was significantly higher in biopsies of patients infected with H .pylori compared to uninfected individuals. In addition, mucosal MMP-7 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected patients significantly associated with the cagA status and the types of disease. Our results suggest that MMP-7 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori. Peptic ulcer was associated with cag pathogenicity island-dependent MMP-7 upregulation.

  20. Association between Helicobacter pylori and Barrett's esophagus, erosive esophagitis, and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Joel H; Inadomi, John M; Scheiman, James; Schoenfeld, Philip; Appelman, Henry; Zhang, Min; Metko, Val; Kao, John Y

    2014-02-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori, particularly the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)+ strain, is believed to protect against Barrett's esophagus, but it is not clear if it protects against gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to determine whether H pylori infection is associated with GERD symptoms, erosive esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus within the same cohort. We analyzed data from a case-control study of 533 men (ages, 50-79 y) who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 2 tertiary medical centers in Michigan between 2008 and 2011 and who also were recruited to undergo upper endoscopy. We assessed 80 additional men found to have Barrett's esophagus during clinically indicated upper-endoscopy examinations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between serum antibodies against H pylori or cagA and GERD symptoms, esophagitis, and Barrett's esophagus, compared with randomly selected men undergoing colorectal cancer screens (n = 177). H pylori infection was associated inversely with Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.97), particularly the cagA+ strain (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.90). There was a trend toward an inverse association with erosive esophagitis (H pylori OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37-1.08; and cagA+ OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.21-1.03). However, GERD symptoms were not associated with H pylori infection (OR, 0.948; 95% CI, 0.548-1.64; and cagA+ OR, 0.967; 95% CI, 0.461-2.03). Based on a case-control study, infection with H pylori, particularly the cagA+ strain, is associated inversely with Barrett's esophagus. We observed a trend toward an inverse association with esophagitis, but not with GERD symptoms. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Shridhar; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Ghoshal, Uday C; Dhingra, Sadhna; Pandey, Rakesh; Singh, Manisha; Ayyagari, Archana; Naik, Sita

    2005-01-01

    Despite a possible role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinoma (GC), its pathogenesis is not clear. There is scanty data on apoptosis in GC in relation to H. pylori and CagA antibody. Therefore, we studied gastric epithelial apoptosis in GC and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) with or without H. pylori infection, and the degree of apoptosis in relation to CagA antibody status. 20 patients each with GC and NUD were investigated for H. pylori using rapid urease test (RUT), IgG anti-H. pylori and anti-CagA antibodies, histology of endoscopically normal-looking mucosa for H. pylori, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and apoptosis using TUNEL assay. Positivity to one tissue-based (RUT or histology) and one serology based (anti-H. pylori or CagA IgG) test was taken as diagnostic of active H. pylori infection, and negative result in both tissue-based tests suggested its absence. Patients with GC more often had anti-H. pylori IgG (16 of 20 vs. 8 of 20; p=0.02) and a trend towards higher apoptotic index (AI) (48.6 [19.2 to 71.7] vs. 41.4 [11.7 to 63.6]; p=0.06) than NUD. AI was higher in GC (66.7 [57.5 to 71.7] vs. 32.6 [19.2 to 39.8]; p<0.0001) and NUD (58.6 [50.7 to 63.6] vs. 24.4 [11.7 to 32.2]; p<0.0001) infected with H. pylori than in those without infection. AI was also higher in GC than in NUD with H. pylori infection (66.7 [57.5 to 71.7] vs. 58.6 [50.7 to 63.6]; p=0.01). Four of the 20 patients with GC and none with NUD had IM (p=ns). There was no difference in AI in relation to CagA antibody. AI positively correlated with patients' age in presence of H. pylori infection (correlation coefficient=0.5, p=0.03) but not in its absence. Exaggerated apoptosis may play a role in H. pylori-mediated gastric diseases including carcinogenesis. AI increases with aging in patients infected with H. pylori.

  2. High Dietary Salt Intake Exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Loh, John T.; Zhang, Feng; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.; Algood, Holly M. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on the actions of a bacterial oncoprotein known as CagA. Epidemiological studies have shown that high dietary salt intake is also a risk factor for gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of a high-salt diet, we infected Mongolian gerbils with a wild-type (WT) cagA+ H. pylori strain or an isogenic cagA mutant strain and maintained the animals on a regular diet or a high-salt diet. At 4 months postinfection, gastric adenocarcinoma was detected in 100% of the WT-infected/high-salt-diet animals, 58% of WT-infected/regular-diet animals, and none of the animals infected with the cagA mutant strain (P < 0.0001). Among animals infected with the WT strain, those fed a high-salt diet had more severe gastric inflammation, higher gastric pH, increased parietal cell loss, increased gastric expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and decreased gastric expression of hepcidin and hydrogen potassium ATPase (H,K-ATPase) compared to those on a regular diet. Previous studies have detected upregulation of CagA synthesis in response to increased salt concentrations in the bacterial culture medium, and, concordant with the in vitro results, we detected increased cagA transcription in vivo in animals fed a high-salt diet compared to those on a regular diet. Animals infected with the cagA mutant strain had low levels of gastric inflammation and did not develop hypochlorhydria. These results indicate that a high-salt diet potentiates the carcinogenic effects of cagA+ H. pylori strains. PMID:23569116

  3. High dietary salt intake exacerbates Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gaddy, Jennifer A; Radin, Jana N; Loh, John T; Zhang, Feng; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Algood, Holly M Scott; Cover, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, and H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis is dependent on the actions of a bacterial oncoprotein known as CagA. Epidemiological studies have shown that high dietary salt intake is also a risk factor for gastric cancer. To investigate the effects of a high-salt diet, we infected Mongolian gerbils with a wild-type (WT) cagA(+) H. pylori strain or an isogenic cagA mutant strain and maintained the animals on a regular diet or a high-salt diet. At 4 months postinfection, gastric adenocarcinoma was detected in 100% of the WT-infected/high-salt-diet animals, 58% of WT-infected/regular-diet animals, and none of the animals infected with the cagA mutant strain (P < 0.0001). Among animals infected with the WT strain, those fed a high-salt diet had more severe gastric inflammation, higher gastric pH, increased parietal cell loss, increased gastric expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and decreased gastric expression of hepcidin and hydrogen potassium ATPase (H,K-ATPase) compared to those on a regular diet. Previous studies have detected upregulation of CagA synthesis in response to increased salt concentrations in the bacterial culture medium, and, concordant with the in vitro results, we detected increased cagA transcription in vivo in animals fed a high-salt diet compared to those on a regular diet. Animals infected with the cagA mutant strain had low levels of gastric inflammation and did not develop hypochlorhydria. These results indicate that a high-salt diet potentiates the carcinogenic effects of cagA(+) H. pylori strains.

  4. Relation of atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori-CagA+ and interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Rafaela; Une, Clas; Ramírez, Vanessa; Alpízar-Alpízar, Warner; González, María I; Ramírez, José A; de Mascarel, Antoine; Cuenca, Patricia; Pérez-Pérez, Guillermo; Mégraud, Francis

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the association of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) CagA+ infection and pro-inflammatory polymorphisms of the genes interleukin (IL)-1RN and IL-1B with the risk of gastric atrophy and peptic ulcers in a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, a country with high incidence and mortality of gastric cancer. METHODS: Seven biopsy specimens, a fasting blood sample and a questionnaire concerning nutritional and sociodemographic factors were obtained from 501 consecutive patients who had undergone endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. A histopathological diagnosis was made. Pepsinogen concentrations were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Infection with H pylori CagA+ was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and PCR respectively. RESULTS: In this dyspeptic population, 86% were H pylori positive and of these, 67.8% were positive for CagA. Atrophic antral gastritis (AAG) was associated with CagA+ status [odd ratio (OR) = 4.1; P < 0.000] and fruit consumption (OR = 0.3; P < 0.00). Atrophic body gastritis (ABG) was associated with pepsinogen PGI/PGII < 3.4 (OR = 4.9; P < 0.04) and alcohol consumption (OR = 7.3; P < 0.02). Duodenal ulcer was associated with CagA+ (OR = 2.9; P < 0.04) and smoking (OR = 2.4; P < 0.04). PGI < 60 μg/L as well as PGI/PGII < 3.4 were associated with CagA+. CONCLUSION: In a dyspeptic population in Costa Rica, H pylori CagA+ is not associated with ABG, but it is a risk factor for AAG. The pro-inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms IL-1B + 3945 and IL-1RN are not associated with the atrophic lesions of this dyspeptic population. PMID:19030199

  5. Helicobacter pylori and Its Virulence Factors' Effect on Serum Oxidative DNA Damages in Adults With Dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Heshmat; Bahreiny, Rasoul; Reiisi, Somayeh

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter Pylori infection is a common gastrointestinal infection that can cause pathological effects, increase oxidative stress and induce an inflammatory response in gastric mucosa. Inflammatory aspects may prompt the production of radical oxygen substance (ROS) which may damage cells and release 8-hydroxydyoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) to serum. In this study, we evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors and the association between serum level of 8-OHdG, H. pylori infection, and its various virulence factors. The presence of H. pylori and prevalence of cagA, babA and oipA genes in samples were determined by rapid urease test (RUT), histopathological exam (HE) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and oxidative DNA damage situation were assessed by using serum level of 8-OHdG. There was not any direct relation between H. pylori negative and H. pylori oipA+specimens by 8-OHdG serum level (P>0.05). In all clinical observations, the presence of cagA and oipA genes was common. There was a statistical relationship between the presence of cagA, babA factors, and high serum level of 8-OHdG (P<0.05). The presence of cagA and babA virulence factors may be associated with increased serum 8-OHdG in dyspeptic patients and may induce the damage to gastric cells.

  6. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  7. Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Within the Context of Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Jennifer M.; Lee, Josephine Y.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Cover, Timothy L.; Amieva, Manuel R.; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains that harbor the oncoprotein CagA increase gastric cancer risk, and this risk is augmented under iron-deficient conditions. We demonstrate here that iron depletion induces coccoid morphology in strains lacking cagA. To evaluate the stability of augmented H. pylori virulence phenotypes stimulated by low-iron conditions, H. pylori isolated from iron-depleted conditions in vivo were serially passaged in vitro. Long-term passage decreased the ability of hypervirulent strains to translocate CagA or induce interleukin 8, indicating that hypervirulent phenotypes stimulated by low-level iron conditions are reversible. Therefore, rectifying iron deficiency may attenuate disease among H. pylori–infected persons with no response to antibiotics. PMID:25505301

  8. The relationship between cytotoxin-associated gene A positive Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Muyesser Sayki; Ekiz, Fuat; Deveci, Murat; Sahin, Mustafa; Topaloglu, Oya; Karbek, Basak; Tutal, Esra; Ginis, Zeynep; Cakal, Erman; Ozbek, Mustafa; Yuksel, Osman; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between cagA [cytotoxin-associated gene A] positivity and thyroid autoimmunity and thyroid volume. This prospective study included 78 Helicobacter pylori-positive (H. pylori) dyspeptic patients in the study group, and 50 age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched H. pylori-negative dyspeptic patients in the control group. All the controls were evaluated via upper gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsy or breath test, and were found as H. pylori negative. Gastric biopsy specimens were obtained via endoscopy and histological examination was performed for documentation of H. pylori. In all, 55.1% (n = 43) of the H. pylori-positive patients were cagA positive. There was no significant difference in metabolic syndrome parameters or thyroid function test results between the study and control groups. The frequency of anti-TPO and Hashimoto's thyroiditis positivity was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group. Thyroid volume was higher and severe parenchymal heterogeneity was more common in the H. pylori-positive patients. H. pylori infection might be a risk factor for autoimmune thyroid disease and high thyroid volume in patients diagnosed with histological evaluation. However, cagA positivity has no additional effect on these parameters.

  9. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes and Clinical Outcomes in Saudi Patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori have been described: the cytotoxin-associated gene product (cagA) and the vacuolating toxin (vacA). Since considerable geographic diversity in the prevalence of H. pylori virulence factors has been reported, the aim of this work was to determine if there is a significant correlation between different H. pylori virulence genes (cagA and vacA) in 68 patients, from Saudi Arabia, and gastric clinical outcomes. H. pylor was recognized in cultures of gastric biopsies. vacA and cagA genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cagA gene was obtained with 42 isolates (61.8%). The vacA s- and m- region genotypes were determined in all strains studied. Three genotypes were found: s1/m1 (28%), s1/m2 (40%) and s2/m2 (26%). The s2/m1 genotype was not found in this study. The relation of the presence of cagA and the development of cases to gastritis and ulcer was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The study showed a significant correlation between the vacA s1/m2 genotype and gastritis cases, and a significant correlation between vacA s1/m1 genotype and peptic ulcer cases. The results of this study might be used for the identification of high-risk patients who are infected by vacA s1/m1 genotype of H. pylori strains. In conclusion, H. pylori strains of vacA type s1 and the combination of s1/m1 were associated with peptic ulceration and the presence of cagA gene. PMID:22323867

  10. Association of CagA and VacA presence with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia in a Turkish population

    PubMed Central

    Bulent, Kantarceken; Murat, Aladag; Esin, Atik; Fatih, Koksal; MMMurat, Harputluoglu; Hakan, Harputluoglu; Melih, Karincaoglu; Mehmet, Ates; Bulent, Yildirim; Fatih, Hilmioglu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The mostly known genotypic virulence features, of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) and Vacuolating cytotoxin gene A (VacA). We investigated the association of these major virulence factors with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia in our region. METHODS: One hundred and forty two dyspeptic patients were studied (average age 44.8 ± 15.9 years, range 15-87 years, 64 males and 78 females). Antral and corpus biopsies were taken for detecting and genotyping of H. pylori. 107 patients who were H. pylori positive by histological assessment were divided into three groups according to endoscopic findings: Duodenal ulcer (DU), gastric ulcer (GU) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect CagA and VacA genes of H. pylori using specific primers. RESULTS: H. pylori was isolated from 75.4% (107/142) of the patients. Of the 107 patients, 66 (61.7%) were CagA-positive and 82 (76.6%) were VacA-positive. CagA gene was positively associated with DU and GU (P < 0.01, P < 0.02), but not with NUD (P > 0.05). Although VacA positivity in ulcer patients was higher than that in NUD group, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There is a significantly positive association between CagA genes and DU and GU. The presence of VacA is not a predictive marker for DU, GU, and NUD in our patients. PMID:12854168

  11. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  12. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction. PMID:24914316

  13. Frequency of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with gastritis.

    PubMed

    Salimzadeh, Loghman; Bagheri, Nader; Zamanzad, Behnam; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-03-01

    The outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been related to specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), cagA gene, oipA and babA2 gene are important virulence factor involving gastric diseases. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between virulence factors of H. pylori and histopathological findings. Gastroduodenoscopy was performed in 436 dyspeptic patients. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, virulence factors and for histopathological assessment. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect virulence factors of H. pylori using specific primers. vacA genotypes in patients infected with H. pylori were associated with cagA, iceA1 and iceA2. In the patients with H. pylori infection there was a significant relationship between cagA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and chronic inflammation (P = 0.013) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.034). Neutrophil infiltration was found to be more severe in the s1 group than in the s2 group (P = 0.042). Also was a significant relationship between oipA positivity and neutrophil activity (P = 0.004) and with H. pylori density (P = 0.018). No significant relationships were observed between other vacA genotypes and histopathological parameters. H. pylori strains showing cagA, vacA s1 and oipA positivity are associated with more severe gastritis in some histological features but virulence factors of H. pylori do not appear to determine the overall pattern of gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on chronic periodontitis by the change of microecology and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhekai; Zhang, Yu; Li, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuedi; Kang, Wenyan; Han, Yingnan; Geng, Xiwen; Ge, Shaohua; Sun, Yundong

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a pathogen inducing peptic disease, is recently found to be binding to the progress of periodontitis. Most previous studies are case-controlled, and they investigate the risk of H. pylori infection in disease the development of while few studies evaluate the correlation between H. pylori and periodontal pathogens. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between H. pylori infection with periodontal parameters, periodontal pathogens and inflammation. The results indicated that patients with H. pylori showed significantly higher probing depth and attachment loss than those without (p < 0.05). Among 28 subgingival plaque samples from 14 patients, the frequencies of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Treponema denticola were significantly higher with H. pylori infection than those without H. pylori infection (p < 0.05). However, the frequency of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, after human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was stimulated with cagA-positive standard strains (cagA+ H. pylori 26695), the expression of periodontitis-related molecules Wnt5a, interleukin 8 (IL-8), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) significantly increased (p < 0.05). Conversely, the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was almost stable. Meanwhile, cagA+ H. pylori promoted significantly higher expression of IL-8 and Wnt5a than isogenic cagA mutants strains (cagA− H. pylori 26695) did. Taken together, our data suggested that H. pylori might promote the growth of some periodontal pathogens and aggravate the progress of chronic periodontitis. PMID:27602578

  15. Implication of Cytotoxic Helicobacter pylori Infection in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Delitala, Alessandro P.; Pes, Giovanni M.; Malaty, Hoda M.; Pisanu, Gavino; Delitala, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been linked to Helicobacter pylori infection, although results are conflicting. No previous study addressed a possible link between H. pylori infection and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). In this study, a correlation among H. pylori infection and the risk of autoimmune diabetes in comparison with T2D was investigated. Methods. Sera from 234 LADA patients, 105 patients with late-onset T1D, and 156 patients with T2D were analyzed for anti-H. pylori and the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA) IgG antibodies. Results. H. pylori seroprevalence was comparable in LADA (52%), late-onset T1D (45%), and T2D (49%) with no gender differences. The seroprevalence of CagA IgG was significantly higher in autoimmune diabetes (late-onset T1D: 45%, LADA: 40%) compared to T2D (25%; p < 0.028). Conclusions. Although H. pylori seroprevalence was similar in LADA, T1D, and T2D, anti-CagA positivity was significantly increased among patients with autoimmune diabetes, suggesting that more virulent H. pylori strains might be a trigger for immune mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. PMID:26824048

  16. [Helicobacter pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin: clinical, endoscopic and genetic characteristics].

    PubMed

    González, Nicolás; Fernández, Lucía; Pérez Pérez, Guillermo; Saona, Gustavo; Raisler, Katherine; Eugenia Torres, María; Olivares, Asalia; Stein, Silvana; Cohen, Henry

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of H pylori varies in different regions around the world and its associated clinical manifestations are more severe in certain ethnic groups. Prevalence of H pylori in different groups is scarcely known in Uruguay. To determine the prevalence, clinical and endoscopic characteristics of H pylori infection in Uruguayan patients of African origin. Fifty Afro-descendant patients attending the Clinics of Gastroenterology at Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, were studied. They were all examined by upper endoscopy and H pylori infection was determined by histology, urease test and culture. Presence of cagA was ascertained by PCR. The prevalence of H pylori infection determined by histology and urease test in Afro-descendants was 70%. No relationship was found between symptoms that led to consultation and the presence of infection. It was not possible either to establish a relationship between H pylori and endoscopic findings. CagA gene was detected in 62% of cases, but there was no relationship between its presence and the endoscopic findings. The prevalence of H pylori infection in Afro-descendant Uruguayan patients is high, comparable with that found in other developing regions. However, an association of the presence of infection with symptoms or endoscopic findings was not found. CagA did not result in a risk factor for the presence of more severe gastroduodenal lesions in this group of patients.

  17. Association of Malaysian Helicobacter pylori virulence polymorphisms with severity of gastritis and patients' ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Alfizah, Hanafiah; Ramelah, Mohamed; Rizal, Abdul M; Anwar, Abdullah S; Isa, Mohamed R

    2012-10-01

    Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes do exist and may contribute to differences in H. pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases among races in the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to characterize the polymorphisms in H. pylori cagA and vacA in Malaysian population. A total of 110 H. pylori isolates were genotyped by PCR and sequenced for cagA and PCR-RFLP for vacA. East Asian cagA was predominantly detected (64.5%), whereas vacA s1m1 and s1m2 alleles were detected in 60.9 and 37.3% of strains, respectively. A statistical association between cagA type with patients' ethnicity (p < .0001) and age group >50 years old (p = .027) was identified. vacA alleles showed significant association with age group >50 years old (p = .017) and increased neutrophil activity in gastric mucosa (p = .028 and p = .016 for moderate and marked activity, respectively). Further identification of vacA polymorphism revealed that 84% of strains from Malays and Indians showed one RFLP pattern (RFLP-1), whereas more than one RFLP patterns (RFLP-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8) were predominantly observed in strains from Chinese (82%) (p < .0001). Increasing severity of gastric inflammation was observed in gastric mucosa infected with strains carrying RFLP-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (p = .037). About 86.6% of H. pylori strains with East Asian cagA were vacA RFLP-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8, and 88% of Western cagA strains were vacA RFLP-1 (p < .0001). Chinese and Indians are susceptible to different virulence genotypes of H. pylori, whereas Malays showed a mixed virulence genotypes. Marked differences in the polymorphisms of cagA and vacA were observed among strains in Malaysian population. This provides a new insight into the pathogenicity of H. pylori in multiracial population. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Vania; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Touati, Eliette

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for the most commonly found infection in the world's population. It is the major risk factor for gastric cancer development. Numerous studies published over the last year provide new insights into the strategies employed by H. pylori to adapt to the extreme acidic conditions of the gastric environment, to establish persistent infection and to deregulate host functions, leading to gastric pathogenesis and cancer. In this review, we report recent data on the mechanisms involved in chemotaxis, on the essential role of nickel in acid resistance and gastric colonization, on the importance of adhesins and Hop proteins and on the role of CagPAI-components and CagA. Among the host functions, a special focus has been made on the escape from immune response, the ability of bacteria to induce genetic instability and modulate telomeres, the mechanism of autophagy and the deregulation of micro RNAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Helicobacter pylori

    MedlinePlus

    ... illnesses. H. pylori , which used to be called Campylobacter pylori , also can cause peptic ulcers (commonly known ... H. Pylori Antigen Food Safety for Your Family Campylobacter Infections Pyloric Stenosis Peptic Ulcers Digestive System Vomiting ...

  20. Molecular analysis of Helicobacter pylori virulent-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients

    PubMed Central

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Chomvarin, Chariya; Sripa, Banchob; Chau-in, Siri; Pugkhem, Ake; Namwat, Wises; Wongboot, Warawan; Khampoosa, Bandit

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Helicobacter pylori virulence-associated genes in hepatobiliary patients, including vacA, iceA, babA2, cagA and cagE, have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate these genes and the association of those and the clinical outcomes in hepatobiliary diseases. Methods Eighty H. pylori-PCR-positive cases were obtained from hepatobiliary patients, representing both cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (n = 58) and cholelithiasis (n = 22). The diversity of virulence genes was examined by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of cagA was determined using the maximum parsimony method. Results The vacAs1a + c/m1, iceA1 and babA2 genes were the most predominant genotypes in both CCA and cholelithiasis patients. The cagA and cagE genes were found significantly more frequently in patients with CCA than those with cholelithiasis (P < 0.05). The cagA positive samples were the Western-type cagA and showed that almost all of the detected sequences in Thai hepatobiliary and Thai gastric cancer patients were classified in the same cluster but separated from the cluster of Japan and other countries. Conclusions The cagA and cagE genes may be associated in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary diseases, especially of CCA. Besides the bacterial variation, other host factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatobiliary cancer. PMID:23043664

  1. Disruption of Nitric Oxide Signaling by Helicobacter pylori Results in Enhanced Inflammation by Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Verriere, Thomas; Scull, Brooks P.; de Sablet, Thibaut; Glumac, Ashley; Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    A strong cellular crosstalk exists between the pathogen Helicobacter pylori and high-output NO production. However, how NO and H. pylori interact to signal in gastric epithelial cells and modulate the innate immune response is unknown. We show that chemical or cellular sources of NO induce the anti-inflammatory effector heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in gastric epithelial cells through a pathway that requires NF-κB. However, H. pylori decreases NO-induced NF-κB activation, thereby inhibiting HO-1 expression. This inhibitory effect of H. pylori results from activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 by the H. pylori virulence factor CagA and by the host signaling molecules ERK1/2 and JNK. Consistent with these findings, HO-1 is downregulated in gastric epithelial cells of patients infected with cagA+, but not cagA− H. pylori. Enhancement of HO-1 activity in infected cells or in H. pylori-infected mice inhibits chemokine generation and reduces inflammation. These data define a mechanism by which H. pylori favors its own pathogenesis by inhibiting HO-1 induction through the action of CagA. PMID:21987660

  2. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors as tools to study human migrations.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria de Magalhães; Cunha, Roberto Penna de Almeida; Saraiva, Ivan Euclides Borges; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos

    2010-12-15

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common infections worldwide. In most individuals it consists in a lifelong host-pathogen relationship without consequences, but in some subjects it is associated with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Polymorphism in genes that code bacterial virulence factors, cagA and vacA, are independently associated with the infection severe outcomes and are geographically diverse. In the last decade, accumulated knowledge allowed to characterize typical H. pylori strain patterns for all the major human populations; patterns that can be used to study the origin of specific human groups. Thus, the presence or absence of cagA, cagA EPIYA genotypes, and vacA subtypes can be used as tools to study not only the geographic origin of specific human populations, but also to identify markers of historical contact between different ethnicities. We report here a study including a set of native Amazon Amerindians that had supposedly been some, but little, contact with European Brazilian colonizer and/or African slaves. They harbor H. pylori strains in a mixed pattern with Asian and Iberian Peninsula characteristics. It is possible that this finding represents H. pylori recombination upon short contact between human groups. Alternatively, it could be due to a founder effect from a small cluster of Asian origin native Americans.

  3. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle habits in the development of gastroduodenal diseases in a population from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Vilar-e-Silva, Adenielson; Fecury, Amanda Alves; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2013-01-01

    Although more than half of the world's population is colonized with Helicobacter pylori, it remains unknown why this organism is able to produce severe disease in some hosts and be innocuous in others. The clinical outcome of infection is determined by several factors, including differences in the host response to bacterial stimulation, specific virulence factors of the organism and environmental influences, or a combination of these factors. This study compared the prevalence of H. pylori infection and risk factors (infection with CagA+ strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and inadequate eating habits) between patients with different gastrointestinal disorders and associated these risk factors with the histopathological findings. In a prospective study, samples were collected from 442 patients and a standardized questionnaire regarding lifestyle habits (excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and eating habits) was applied. The presence of H. pylori and of the cagA gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gastric biopsies were obtained for histological assessment. The frequency of alcohol consumption, smoking, inadequate diet and infection with CagA+ H. pylori was higher among patients with peptic ulcer and adenocarcinoma when compared to those with gastritis. Gastric inflammation was more pronounced in patients infected with CagA+ strains. We conclude that infection with CagA+ H. pylori strains, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and inadequate eating habits increase the risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma.

  4. Role of dupA in virulence of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo

    2016-12-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gastric human pathogen associated with acute and chronic gastritis, 70% of all gastric ulcers, 85% of all duodenal ulcers, and both forms of stomach cancer, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Recently, attention has focused on possible relationship between presence of certain virulence factor and H. pylori-associated diseases. Some contradictory data between this bacterium and related disorders has been observed since not all the colonized individuals develop to severe disease. The reported diseases plausibility related to H. pylori specific virulence factors became an interesting story about this organism. Although a number of putative virulence factors have been identified including cytotoxin-associated gene a (cagA) and vacA, there are conflicting data about their actual participation as specific risk factor for H. pylori-related diseases. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene a (dupA) is a virulence factor of H. pylori that is highly associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk of gastric cancer. The prevalence of dupA in H. pylori strains isolated from western countries is relatively higher than in H. pylori strains from Asian countries. Current confusing epidemiological reports will continue unless future sophisticated and molecular studies provide data on functional and complete dupA cluster in H. pylori infected individuals. This paper elucidates available knowledge concerning role of dupA in virulence of H. pylori after a decade of its discovery.

  5. Role of dupA in virulence of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Perez-Perez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gastric human pathogen associated with acute and chronic gastritis, 70% of all gastric ulcers, 85% of all duodenal ulcers, and both forms of stomach cancer, mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and adenocarcinoma. Recently, attention has focused on possible relationship between presence of certain virulence factor and H. pylori-associated diseases. Some contradictory data between this bacterium and related disorders has been observed since not all the colonized individuals develop to severe disease. The reported diseases plausibility related to H. pylori specific virulence factors became an interesting story about this organism. Although a number of putative virulence factors have been identified including cytotoxin-associated gene a (cagA) and vacA, there are conflicting data about their actual participation as specific risk factor for H. pylori-related diseases. Duodenal ulcer promoting gene a (dupA) is a virulence factor of H. pylori that is highly associated with duodenal ulcer development and reduced risk of gastric cancer. The prevalence of dupA in H. pylori strains isolated from western countries is relatively higher than in H. pylori strains from Asian countries. Current confusing epidemiological reports will continue unless future sophisticated and molecular studies provide data on functional and complete dupA cluster in H. pylori infected individuals. This paper elucidates available knowledge concerning role of dupA in virulence of H. pylori after a decade of its discovery. PMID:28028359

  6. Study of the clinical relevance of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes to gastric diseases among Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    El-Khlousy, Mona; Rahman, Eiman A; Mostafa, Sally; Bassam, Amira; Elgawad, Heba A; Elnasr, Mohamed S; Mohey, Mohammad; Ghaith, Doaa

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is common in Egypt. It has been associated with gastritis, ulcers and it is a risk factor for gastric cancer. We aimed to study the correlation between the presence of H. pylori virulence factors and the histopathological and endoscopic findings in gastric biopsies. Gastric biopsies from thirty seven patients scheduled for diagnostic endoscopy in Cairo University hospital were included in the study. All gastric biopsies were subjected to histopathological examination and PCR assay for detection of 16S rRNA gene to diagnose H. pylori infection, detection of H. pylori virulence factors by PCR for cagA and vacA genotypes and serological analysis of H. pylori (cagA, vacA, P25, and P19) IgG antibodies by immunoblot assay were done. H. pylori infection was detected in 23 (62.2%) cases by histopathology while 28/37 (75.7%) were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by PCR. By PCR seventeen samples out of 37 (45.9%) were positive for cagA gene and five (13.5%) for cag empty site gene. The most common vacA genotype identified was vacA s2m2 genotype in 10 (27.02%). No statistical correlation was found between IgG antibodies against different antigens of H. pylori virulence factors (cagA, vacA, p25, and p19) and the degree of gastritis except for IgG antibodies against the UreA antigen. Copyright © 2016 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in biological and virulent characteristics of Helicobacter pylori exposed to high salt.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Jing, Jing-Jing; Gong, Yue-Hua; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Wen-Lu; Piao, Ying; Wang, Yan-Li; Yuan, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The effect of high salt environments on biological characteristics of Helicobacter pylori is still unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated biological characteristics of the bacterium exposed to high salt concentrations. H. pylori strain, L301, was cultured in media supplemented with different concentrations (3%, 15% and 30%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) under microaerophilic conditions for 48 h. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy, the ATP content was quantitated by single-tube fluorescent light-emission and the levels of CagA and UreB proteins were determined by Western blotting. After exposure to NaCl, H. pylori transformed from common spiral shape to U or even coccoid shapes. The ATP content was significantly higher in 30% NaCl group than in 15% and 3% NaCl group and the level of CagA protein increased with the salt concentration. The urease reaction was all strongly positive in H. pylori exposed to different salt concentrations. The level of 8-OHdG expression was significantly increased in GES-1 cells co-cultured with H. pylori exposed to high salt, compared with the level in uninfected cells. H. pylori survives under exposure to high salt concentrations up to 30%, exhibiting changes in mobility, morphology and CagA expression, associated with increased 8-OHdG in the gastric epithelial cells, indicative of DNA damage.

  8. Detection of cytoplasmic proteins from Helicobacter pylori in Colony Lift Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rengifo, Diana F; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Haas, Rainer; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F

    2015-12-01

    Use of the Colony Lift Immunoassay has been described for several Gram negative bacteria of medical interest. In all cases detection was limited to the use of antibodies against outer membrane proteins. Here we describe the adaptation of this method for detection of the cytoplasmic CagA toxin from Helicobacter pylori. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lewis Antigen Expression by Helicobacter pylori Strains Colonizing Different Regions of the Stomach of Individual Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Valencia, Gerardo; Muñoz-Perez, Leopoldo; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in the expression of Lewis antigens (Le) of 226 single colonies of Helicobacter pylori isolated from four regions of the stomach of eight adults is shown. Ley was expressed more in strains colonizing antrum than in strains colonizing fundus, whereas Lex was more common in fundus strains. cagA+ strains were more associated with Le-negative strains. PMID:18550746

  10. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes.

  11. Assessment of Risk and Sero-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization among Remote Orang Asli Tribes in Peninsula Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Thevakumar, Kavitha; Chandren, Josephine Rebecca; Perez-Perez, Guillermo Ignacio; Chua, Eng Guan; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Leow, Alex Hwong Ruey; Goh, Khean Lee; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Marshall, Barry J.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai; Wong, Li Ping

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is related to human poverty with marked differences between developing and developed countries. Socioeconomic factors and living standards are the main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. The aim of this study was to assess the risk and sero-prevalence of H. pylori colonization among Orang Asli in Peninsula Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on Orang Asli subjects in seven isolated settlements spanning across all three major tribes (Negrito, Proto Malay and Senoi) in Malaysia. Socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects were obtained through interview. Subjects were tested for H. pylori colonization based on CagA and whole cell (WC) antigen serological assays. A total of 275 subjects participated in this study. Among these subjects, 115 (44.7%) were H. pylori sero-positive with highest sero-prevalence among Negrito (65.7%). Among subjects who were H. pylori sero-positive, CagA sero positivity was also significantly higher among Negrito. The highest proportion of respondents reported to be H. pylori sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (57.9%), males (56.2%), Negrito (48.6%) and live in bamboo house (92.3%). The highest proportion of respondents reported to be CagA sero-positive was from age group 30 years old and below (41.4%), males (35.6%) and Negrito (48.6%). The results of this study demonstrate that H. pylori colonization can be related to age, gender, tribes and house materials and CagA sero-positive stain closely associated with age, gender and tribes. PMID:27441568

  12. Characteristics of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Debets-Ossenkopp, Yvette J; Reyes, Germán; Mulder, Janet; aan de Stegge, Birgit M; Peters, José T A M; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Tanca, J; Peña, Amado S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E

    2003-01-01

    In Ecuador, Helicobacter pylori infections are highly prevalent. A total of 42 H. pylori clinical isolates from 86 patients attending the outpatient clinic of the gastroenterology department of the university hospital of Guayaquil in Ecuador were characterized. Their susceptibility, and cagA and vacA status were determined. Resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found in 80.9% and 9.5% of strains, respectively. Neither amoxicillin- nor tetracycline-resistant strains were found. The most prevalent genotype was the cagA(+), vacA s1b,m1 type. This genotype was associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer. Typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA showed no genetic relationship among the strains.

  13. H pylori status and angiogenesis factors in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mangia, Anita; Chiriatti, Annalisa; Ranieri, Girolamo; Abbate, Ines; Coviello, Maria; Simone, Giovanni; Zito, Francesco Alfredo; Montemurro, Severino; Rucci, Antonello; Leo, Alfredo Di; Tommasi, Stefania; Berloco, Pasquale; Xu, Jian Ming; Paradiso, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate H pylori expression in gastric cancer patients in relation to primary tumor angiogenic markers, such as microvessel density (MVD), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGF-R1), p53 and circulating VEGF levels. METHODS: Angiogenic markers were analyzed immunohistochemically in 56 primary gastric cancers. H pylori cytotoxin (vacA) and the cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) amplification were evaluated using PCR assay. Serum H pylori IgG antibodies and serum/plasma circulating VEGF levels were detected in 39 and 38 patients by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 69% of patients were positive for circulating IgG antibodies against H pylori. cagA-positive H pylori strains were found in 41% of gastric patients. vacA was found in 50% of patients; s1 strains were more highly expressed among vacA-positive patients. The presence of the s1 strain was significantly associated with cagA (P = 0.0001). MVD was significantly correlated with both tumor VEGF expression (r = 0.361, P = 0.009) and serum VEGF levels (r = -0.347, P = 0.041). Conversely, neither VEGF-R1 expression nor MVD was related to p53 expression. However, H pylori was not related to any angiogenic markers except for the plasma VEGF level (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: H pylori antigen is related to higher plasma VEGF levels, but not to angiogenic characteristics. It can be hypothesized that the toxic effects of H pylori on angiogenesis occurs in early preclinical disease phase or in long-lasting aggressive infections, but only when high H pylori IgG levels are persistent. PMID:17006982

  14. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-10

    mammal species, both wild and domestic (117, 146). Although both groups are Gram -negative, spiral-shaped microaerophiles, these bacteria employ biological...addition to CagA translocation, the H. pylori type T4S system can also deliver fragments of peptidoglycan , which ultimately activate the transcription...genes encoding iron-containing proteins. For example, in Gram -negative species such as E. coli and V. cholerae, genes that are regulated by classic

  15. Performance of a Multiplex Serological Helicobacter pylori Assay on a Novel Microfluidic Assay Platform.

    PubMed

    Filomena, Angela; Guenther, Anna; Planatscher, Hannes; Topin, Francois; She, Joseph; Formichella, Luca; Terradot, Laurent; Gerhard, Markus; Joos, Thomas O; Meyer, Hannelore; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole

    2017-10-03

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) occurs in 50% of the world population, and is associated with the development of ulcer and gastric cancer. Serological diagnostic tests indicate an H. pylori infection by detecting antibodies directed against H. pylori proteins. In addition to line blots, multiplex assay platforms provide smart solutions for the simultaneous analysis of antibody responses towards several H. pylori proteins. We used seven H. pylori proteins (FliD, gGT, GroEL, HpaA, CagA, VacA, and HP0231) and an H. pylori lysate for the development of a multiplex serological assay on a novel microfluidic platform. The reaction limited binding regime in the microfluidic channels allows for a short incubation time of 35 min. The developed assay showed very high sensitivity (99%) and specificity (100%). Besides sensitivity and specificity, the technical validation (intra-assay CV = 3.7 ± 1.2% and inter-assay CV = 5.5 ± 1.2%) demonstrates that our assay is also a robust tool for the analysis of the H. pylori-specific antibody response. The integration of the virulence factors CagA and VacA allow for the assessment of the risk for gastric cancer development. The short assay time and the performance of the platform shows the potential for implementation of such assays in a clinical setting.

  16. Impact of alcohol drinking on gastric cancer development according to Helicobacter pylori infection status.

    PubMed

    Ma, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woohyun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jang, Jieun; Hwang, Yunji; Ahn, Chunghyun; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2015-11-03

    Helicobacter pylori are major carcinogen of gastric cancer, but the associations among gastric cancer, H. pylori infection status, and alcohol consumption are not fully described. This study aimed to clarify how H. pylori infection status affects the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk. We selected 949 case-cohort participants from the 18,863 Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) populations. Gastric cancer incidence inside and outside of the subcohort were 12 and 254 cases, respectively. Seropositivities for CagA, VacA, and H. pylori infection were determined by performing immunoblot assays. Weighted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Relative to non-drinking, heavy drinking (⩾7 times a week), and binge drinking (⩾55 g alcohol intake per occasion) showed a 3.48-fold (95% CI, 1.13-10.73) and 3.27-fold (95% CI, 1.01-10.56) higher risk in subjects not previously infected by H. pylori. There was no significant association between drinking pattern and gastric cancer risk in H. pylori IgG seropositive subjects. An increased risk for gastric cancer in heavy- and binge-drinking subjects were also present in subjects not infected by CagA- or VacA-secreting H. pylori. Heavy and binge alcohol consumption is an important risk factor related to an increasing incidence of gastric cancer in a population not infected by H. pylori.

  17. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  18. [IMMUNOLOGIC MONITORING OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI PERSISTENCE IN THE ORGANISM].

    PubMed

    Belaya, Yu A; Belaya, O F; Petrukhin, V G; Vakhrameeva, M S; Bystrova, S M; Pronin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Generalized results of 15-year prospective studies of frequency of occurrence and dynamics of circulation of pathogenetically significant LPS/O-antigens, high molecular weight proteins, including CagA, and VacA of Helicobacter pylori in biological media of organism in patients with gastrointestinal diseases and asymptomatic volunteers due to effects of external and internal factors are presented. Features of antigen circulation and reciprocal immune reaction of the organism are established, that reflect their interaction in the parasite-host tandem, risk and prognosis of possible complications in the process of long-term persistence of Helicobacter pylori in the organism.

  19. Validation of a Novel Immunoline Assay for Patient Stratification according to Virulence of the Infecting Helicobacter pylori Strain and Eradication Status.

    PubMed

    Formichella, Luca; Romberg, Laura; Meyer, Hannelore; Bolz, Christian; Vieth, Michael; Geppert, Michael; Göttner, Gereon; Nölting, Christina; Schepp, Wolfgang; Schneider, Arne; Ulm, Kurt; Wolf, Petra; Holster, Ingrid Lisanne; Kuipers, Ernst J; Birkner, Bernd; Soutschek, Erwin; Gerhard, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection shows a worldwide prevalence of around 50%. However, only a minority of infected individuals develop clinical symptoms or diseases. The presence of H. pylori virulence factors, such as CagA and VacA, has been associated with disease development, but assessment of virulence factor presence requires gastric biopsies. Here, we evaluate the H. pylori recomLine test for risk stratification of infected patients by comparing the test score and immune recognition of type I or type II strains defined by the virulence factors CagA, VacA, GroEL, UreA, HcpC, and gGT with patient's disease status according to histology. Moreover, the immune responses of eradicated individuals from two different populations were analysed. Their immune response frequencies and intensities against all antigens except CagA declined below the detection limit. CagA was particularly long lasting in both independent populations. An isolated CagA band often represents past eradication with a likelihood of 88.7%. In addition, a high recomLine score was significantly associated with high-grade gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Thus, the recomLine is a sensitive and specific noninvasive test for detecting serum responses against H. pylori in actively infected and eradicated individuals. Moreover, it allows stratifying patients according to their disease state.

  20. Validation of a Novel Immunoline Assay for Patient Stratification according to Virulence of the Infecting Helicobacter pylori Strain and Eradication Status

    PubMed Central

    Formichella, Luca; Romberg, Laura; Meyer, Hannelore; Bolz, Christian; Vieth, Michael; Geppert, Michael; Göttner, Gereon; Nölting, Christina; Schepp, Wolfgang; Schneider, Arne; Ulm, Kurt; Wolf, Petra; Holster, Ingrid Lisanne; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Birkner, Bernd; Soutschek, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection shows a worldwide prevalence of around 50%. However, only a minority of infected individuals develop clinical symptoms or diseases. The presence of H. pylori virulence factors, such as CagA and VacA, has been associated with disease development, but assessment of virulence factor presence requires gastric biopsies. Here, we evaluate the H. pylori recomLine test for risk stratification of infected patients by comparing the test score and immune recognition of type I or type II strains defined by the virulence factors CagA, VacA, GroEL, UreA, HcpC, and gGT with patient's disease status according to histology. Moreover, the immune responses of eradicated individuals from two different populations were analysed. Their immune response frequencies and intensities against all antigens except CagA declined below the detection limit. CagA was particularly long lasting in both independent populations. An isolated CagA band often represents past eradication with a likelihood of 88.7%. In addition, a high recomLine score was significantly associated with high-grade gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Thus, the recomLine is a sensitive and specific noninvasive test for detecting serum responses against H. pylori in actively infected and eradicated individuals. Moreover, it allows stratifying patients according to their disease state. PMID:28638837

  1. Surface Antigen Profiling of Helicobacter pylori-Infected and -Uninfected Gastric Cancer Cells Using Antibody Microarray.

    PubMed

    Sukri, Asif; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Kosai, Nik Ritza; Mohamed Taher, Mustafa; Mohamed Rose, Isa

    2016-10-01

    Comprehensive immunophenotyping cluster of differentiation (CD) antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma, specifically between Helicobacter pylori-infected and -uninfected gastric cancer patients by using DotScan(™) antibody microarray has not been conducted. Current immunophenotyping techniques include flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry are limited to the use of few antibodies for parallel examination. We used DotScan(™) antibody microarray consisting 144 CD antibodies to determine the distribution of CD antigens in gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to elucidate the effect of H. pylori infection toward CD antigen expression in gastric cancer. Mixed leukocytes population derived from gastric adenocarcinoma patients were immunophenotyped using DotScan(™) antibody microarray. AGS cells were infected with H. pylori strains and cells were captured on DotScan(™) slides. Cluster of differentiation antigens involved in perpetuating the tolerance of immune cells to tumor cells was upregulated in gastric adenocarcinoma cells compared to normal cells. CD279 which is essential in T cells apoptosis was found to be upregulated in normal cells. Remarkably, H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients exhibited upregulated expression of CD27 that important in maintenance of T cells. Infection of cagA+ H. pylori with AGS cells increased CD antigens expression which involved in cancer stem cell while cagA- H. pylori polarized AGS cells to express immune-regulatory CD antigens. Increased CD antigens expression in AGS cells infected with cagA+ H. pylori were also detected in H. pylori-infected gastric cancer patients. This study suggests the tolerance of immune system toward tumor cells in gastric cancer and distinct mechanisms of immune responses exploited by different H. pylori strains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Heme Oxygenase-1 Dysregulates Macrophage Polarization and the Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Verriere, Thomas; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; de Sablet, Thibaut; Delgado, Alberto G.; Bravo, Luis E.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori incites a futile inflammatory response, which is the key feature of its immunopathogenesis. This leads to the ability of this bacterial pathogen to survive in the stomach and cause peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Myeloid cells recruited to the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection have been directly implicated in the modulation of host defense against the bacterium and gastric inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exhibits anti-inflammatory functions. Our aim was to analyze the induction and role of HO-1 in macrophages during H. pylori infection. We now show that phosphorylation of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA) in macrophages results in expression of hmox-1, the gene encoding HO-1, through p38/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling. Blocking phagocytosis prevented CagA phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. The expression of HO-1 was also increased in gastric mononuclear cells of human patients and macrophages of mice infected with cagA+ H. pylori strains. Genetic ablation of hmox-1 in H. pylori-infected mice increased histologic gastritis, which was associated with enhanced M1/Th1/Th17 responses, decreased Mreg response, and reduced H. pylori colonization. Gastric macrophages of H. pylori-infected mice and macrophages infected in vitro with this bacterium showed an M1/Mreg mixed polarization type; deletion of hmox-1 or inhibition of HO-1 in macrophages caused an increased M1 and a decreased of Mreg phenotype. These data highlight a mechanism by which H. pylori impairs the immune response and favors its own survival via activation of macrophage HO-1. PMID:25108023

  3. Role of Activated Protein C in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Satoko; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Taguchi, Yukiko; Yamaguchi, Michihiko; Nakashima, Shigehito; Suzuki, Koji; Adachi, Yukihiko; Imoto, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    The protein C (PC) pathway has recently been suggested to play a role in the regulation of the inflammatory response. To further extend the anti-inflammatory effect of activated PC (APC) in vivo, particularly its biological relevance to human disease, the activity of APC in the mucosa of patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and the effect of vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), and H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on PC activation were evaluated. This study comprised 35 patients with chronic gastritis. There were 20 patients with and 15 without H. pylori infection. The levels of PC and APC-PC inhibitor (PCI) complex were measured by immunoassays. The level of PC was significantly decreased and the level of APC-PCI complex was significantly increased in biopsy specimens from gastric corpus and antrum in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis as compared to H. pylori-negative subjects. The concentrations of VacA, CagA, and LPS were significantly correlated with those of the APC-PCI complex in biopsy mucosal specimens from the gastric corpus and antrum. H. pylori LPS, VacA, and CagA induced a dose-dependent activation of PC on the surface of monocytic cells. APC inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induced by H. pylori LPS. Overall, these results suggest that H. pylori infection is associated with increased APC generation in the gastric mucosa. The inhibitory activity of APC on TNF-α secretion may serve to protect H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal damage. PMID:10768983

  4. Heme oxygenase-1 dysregulates macrophage polarization and the immune response to Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Gobert, Alain P; Verriere, Thomas; Asim, Mohammad; Barry, Daniel P; Piazuelo, M Blanca; de Sablet, Thibaut; Delgado, Alberto G; Bravo, Luis E; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T

    2014-09-15

    Helicobacter pylori incites a futile inflammatory response, which is the key feature of its immunopathogenesis. This leads to the ability of this bacterial pathogen to survive in the stomach and cause peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Myeloid cells recruited to the gastric mucosa during H. pylori infection have been directly implicated in the modulation of host defense against the bacterium and gastric inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible enzyme that exhibits anti-inflammatory functions. Our aim was to analyze the induction and role of HO-1 in macrophages during H. pylori infection. We now show that phosphorylation of the H. pylori virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) in macrophages results in expression of hmox-1, the gene encoding HO-1, through p38/NF (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling. Blocking phagocytosis prevented CagA phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. The expression of HO-1 was also increased in gastric mononuclear cells of human patients and macrophages of mice infected with cagA(+) H. pylori strains. Genetic ablation of hmox-1 in H. pylori-infected mice increased histologic gastritis, which was associated with enhanced M1/Th1/Th17 responses, decreased regulatory macrophage (Mreg) response, and reduced H. pylori colonization. Gastric macrophages of H. pylori-infected mice and macrophages infected in vitro with this bacterium showed an M1/Mreg mixed polarization type; deletion of hmox-1 or inhibition of HO-1 in macrophages caused an increased M1 and a decrease of Mreg phenotype. These data highlight a mechanism by which H. pylori impairs the immune response and favors its own survival via activation of macrophage HO-1.

  5. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system. PMID:28287480

  6. Helicobacter pylori Outer Membrane Protein-Related Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yuichi; Kido, Yasutoshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2017-03-11

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and induces inflammation, and in some cases persistent infection can result in gastric cancer. Attachment to the gastric mucosa is the first step in establishing bacterial colonization, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) play a pivotal role in binding to human cells. Some OMP interaction molecules are known in H. pylori, and their associated host cell responses have been gradually clarified. Many studies have demonstrated that OMPs are essential to CagA translocation into gastric cells via the Type IV secretion system of H. pylori. This review summarizes the mechanisms through which H. pylori utilizes OMPs to colonize the human stomach and how OMPs cooperate with the Type IV secretion system.

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: long-term results of bacterium eradication and association with bacterium virulence profiles.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Giovanni; Luppi, Mario; Zucchini, Patrizia; Morselli, Monica; Potenza, Leonardo; Forghieri, Fabio; Volzone, Francesco; Jovic, Gordana; Leonardi, Giovanna; Donelli, Amedea; Torelli, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori may lead to improvement of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), although its efficacy over time is uncertain. We report the results of H pylori screening and eradication in 75 consecutive adult patients with ITP. We also used molecular methods to investigate lymphocyte clonality and H pylori genotypes in the gastric biopsies from 10 H pylori-positive patients with ITP and 19 H pylori-positive patients without ITP with chronic gastritis. Active H pylori infection was documented in 38 (51%) patients and successfully eradicated in 34 (89%) patients. After a median follow-up of 60 months, a persistent platelet response in 23 (68%) of patients with eradicated infection was observed; 1 relapse occurred. No differences in mucosal B- or T-cell clonalities were observed between patients with ITP and control participants. Of note, the frequency of the H pylori cagA gene (P = .02) and the frequency of concomitant H pylori cagA, vacAs1, and iceA genes (triple-positive strains; P = .015) resulted statistically higher in patients with ITP than in control participants. All asymptomatic H pylori-positive patients with ITP were suffering from chronic gastritis. Our data suggest a sustained platelet recovery in a proportion of patients with ITP by H pylori eradication alone. Overrepresentation of specific H pylori genotypes in ITP suggests a possible role for bacterium-related factors in the disease pathogenesis.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rural and Urban Dyspeptic Patients from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Monica; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Reyes, Nelson; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Rojas, Héctor; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the Helicobacter pylori prevalence in a rural mestizo population and compare it to an urban population from Venezuela. The study was performed in gastric juice samples of 71 dyspeptic patients from Caracas (urban) and 39 from Tucupita (rural), in the Orinoco Delta region. Helicobacter pylori was detected by amplification of 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes in 55.0% patients from urban and 87.2% from rural populations. cagA was found positive in 51% and 62% urban and rural patients, respectively. Non-H. pylori Helicobacter species were not detected in the urban population, but was found in 7.7% of patients in the rural study site. Frequency values of the 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes were higher in the rural population. The odds ratio for each gene was 15.18 for 16S rRNA, 2.34 for glmM, 2.89 for ureA, and 1.53 cagA, showing significant differences except for cagA when gene frequency was compared in both populations. These results demonstrate a higher frequency of H. pylori and gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infection in a rural mestizo population with low hygienic standards as compared with city dwellers, representing a potential risk for the development of gastroduodenal diseases.

  9. [Mucosal immune response to Helicobacter pylori in children with gastroduodenal diseases and allergy].

    PubMed

    Mazurina, S A; Ilintseva, N V; Gervazieva, V B

    2014-01-01

    In children with chronic gastritis/gastroduodenitis, erosions and ulcer of stomach and duodenum and associated allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis) CagA, sIgA and IgE antibodies to the H. pylori were determined by ELISA in the supernatants of feces. H. pylori infection was determined according to "Maastricht IV". The frequency and contents of CagA did not differ among the groups we studied. However, in children with positive urease test the contents of CagA was significantly higher (p = 0.03) compared with other children. The highest levels of sIgA were found in the feces supernatants from non-allergic children with CG/CGD and were associated with H. pylori infection. The immune response in children with erosions and ulcer of stomach and duodenum and in children with allergy was presented the sIgE to H. pylori. Also, the negative correlation between the level sIgE to H. pylori and content sIgA was found in children with allergy. Thus, increased IgE indicates not only allergy, but also acts as a protective role in the development of anti-infective immunity.

  10. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rural and Urban Dyspeptic Patients from Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Monica; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Reyes, Nelson; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Rojas, Héctor; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to assess the Helicobacter pylori prevalence in a rural mestizo population and compare it to an urban population from Venezuela. The study was performed in gastric juice samples of 71 dyspeptic patients from Caracas (urban) and 39 from Tucupita (rural), in the Orinoco Delta region. Helicobacter pylori was detected by amplification of 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes in 55.0% patients from urban and 87.2% from rural populations. cagA was found positive in 51% and 62% urban and rural patients, respectively. Non-H. pylori Helicobacter species were not detected in the urban population, but was found in 7.7% of patients in the rural study site. Frequency values of the 16S rRNA, glmM, and ureA genes were higher in the rural population. The odds ratio for each gene was 15.18 for 16S rRNA, 2.34 for glmM, 2.89 for ureA, and 1.53 cagA, showing significant differences except for cagA when gene frequency was compared in both populations. These results demonstrate a higher frequency of H. pylori and gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infection in a rural mestizo population with low hygienic standards as compared with city dwellers, representing a potential risk for the development of gastroduodenal diseases. PMID:26195456

  11. Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: an idea for how to live in peace.

    PubMed

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2014-08-07

    In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the "persistence mechanisms" of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria "invisible" to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts.

  12. Structural modifications of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide: An idea for how to live in peace

    PubMed Central

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Miszczyk, Eliza; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the findings and concepts underlying the “persistence mechanisms” of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative rod bacterium that was discovered as a gastric pathogen by Marshall and Warren in 1984. H. pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of nearly half of the human population. Infections appear in early childhood and, if not treated, persist for life. The presence or absence of symptoms and their severity depend on multiple bacterial components, host susceptibility and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between pathogenicity and commensalism. Many studies have shown that H. pylori components may facilitate the colonization process and the immune response of the host during the course of H. pylori infection. These H. pylori-driven interactions might result from positive or negative modulation. Among the negative immunomodulators, a prominent position is occupied by a vacuolating toxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) protein. However, in light of the recent studies that are presented in this review, it is necessary to enrich this panel with H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Together with CagA and VacA, LPS suppresses the elimination of H. pylori bacteria from the gastric mucosa by interfering with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, diminishing the inflammatory response, and affecting the adaptive T lymphocyte response, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections. The complex strategy of H. pylori bacteria for survival in the gastric mucosa of the host involves both structural modifications of LPS lipid A to diminish its endotoxic properties and the expression and variation of Lewis determinants, arranged in O-specific chains of H. pylori LPS. By mimicking host components, this phenomenon leaves these bacteria “invisible” to immune cells. Together, these mechanisms allow H. pylori to survive and live for many years within their hosts. PMID:25110419

  13. Antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Boehnke, Kevin F; Valdivieso, Manuel; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Sexton, Rachael; Thompson, Kathryn C; Osorio, Soledad; Reyes, Italo Novoa; Crowley, John J; Baker, Laurence H; Xi, Chuanwu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Gastric carcinoma is the most common cancer and cause of cancer mortality in Peru. Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that colonizes the human stomach, is a Group 1 carcinogen due to its causal relationship to gastric carcinoma. While eradication of H. pylori can help prevent gastric cancer, characterizing regional antibiotic resistance patterns is necessary to determine targeted treatment for each region. Thus, we examined primary antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of H. pylori in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods H. pylori strains were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with histologically proven H. pylori infection. Primary antibiotic resistance among isolates was examined using E-test strips. Isolates were examined for the presence of the cagA pathogenicity island and the vacA m1/m2 alleles via polymerase chain reaction. Results Seventy-six isolates were recovered from gastric biopsies. Clinical isolates showed evidence of antibiotic resistance to 1 (27.6%, n=21/76), 2 (28.9%, n=22/76), or ≥3 antibiotics (40.8%). Of 76 isolates, eight (10.5%) were resistant to amoxicillin and clarithromycin, which are part of the standard triple therapy for H. pylori infection. No trends were seen between the presence of cagA, vacA m1, or vacA m2 and antibiotic resistance. Conclusion The rate of antibiotic resistance among H. pylori isolates in Lima, Peru, is higher than expected and presents cause for concern. To develop more targeted eradication therapies for H. pylori in Peru, more research is needed to better characterize antibiotic resistance among a larger number of clinical isolates prospectively. PMID:28331349

  14. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion.

  15. What constitutes an Arabian Helicobacter pylori? Lessons from comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narender; Albert, M John; Al Abkal, Hanan; Siddique, Iqbal; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the human gastric pathogen, causes a variety of gastric diseases ranging from mild gastritis to gastric cancer. While the studies on H. pylori are dominated by those based on either East Asian or Western strains, information regarding H. pylori strains prevalent in the Middle East remains scarce. Therefore, we carried out whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis of three H. pylori strains isolated from three native Arab, Kuwaiti patients. H. pylori strains were sequenced using Illumina platform. The sequence reads were filtered and draft genomes were assembled and annotated. Various pathogenicity-associated regions and phages present within the genomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out to determine the genetic relatedness of Kuwaiti strains to various lineages of H. pylori. The core genome content and virulence-related genes were analyzed to assess the pathogenic potential. The three genomes clustered along with HpEurope strains in the phylogenetic tree comprising various H. pylori lineages. A total of 1187 genes spread among various functional classes were identified in the core genome analysis. The three genomes possessed a complete cagPAI and also retained most of the known outer membrane proteins as well as virulence-related genes. The cagA gene in all three strains consisted of an AB-C type EPIYA motif. The comparative genomic analysis of Kuwaiti H. pylori strains revealed a European ancestry and a high pathogenic potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kusters, Johannes G.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Kuipers, Ernst J.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:16847081

  17. Virulence attributes of Helicobacter pylori isolates & their association with gastroduodenal disease

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A.; Shukla, S.; Prasad, K.N.; Ghoshal, U.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives Certain genotype(s) of Helicobacter pylori strains may play important role in the development of gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study was undertaken to investigate the association of cagA, cagA3/ region subtypes, babA2 and vacA genotypes of H. pylori with GC, PUD and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) as there are no such studies from India. Methods A total of 348 consecutive adult patients (NUD 241, PUD 45, GC 62) undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between September 2002 and May 2007 in a tertiary referral centre at Lucknow, north India, were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Genotyping for cagA, cagA3/ subtypes, babA2 and vacA was performed by PCR using sequence specific primers. Results H. pylori infection was higher in patients with PUD than with GC (80 vs. 56.5%, P < 0.01) and NUD (80 vs. 55.2%, P= 0.002). cagA positive H. pylori isolates were detected in 80 per cent in GC, 83.3 per cent in PUD and 76.7 per cent in NUD with no significant difference among them. Only A subtype of cagA3/ was detected and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 68.8, 69.4 and 52.6 per cent respectively. Presence of babA2 genotype was 31.4 per cent and it had significant association with PUD when compared with NUD (52.8 vs. 26.3%, P<0.003). On univariate regression analysis, s1a allele was associated with GC (P<0.050) and s1a/m2 vacA genotype with both GC (P=0.014) and PUD (P=0.016). Interpretation & conclusions H. pylori infection was strongly associated with PUD with a very high proportion of patients with GC have s1a allele and s1a/m2 vacA genotype. Both s1a/m2 vacA genotype and babA2 are associated with PUD. The study shows that different virulence attributes of H. pylori are involved in different gastroduodenal disorders. PMID:21623037

  18. Virulence attributes of Helicobacter pylori isolates & their association with gastroduodenal disease.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A; Shukla, S; Prasad, K N; Ghoshal, U C

    2011-05-01

    Certain genotype(s) of Helicobacter pylori strains may play important role in the development of gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). This study was undertaken to investigate the association of cagA, cagA3/ region subtypes, babA2 and vacA genotypes of H. pylori with GC, PUD and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) as there are no such studies from India. A total of 348 consecutive adult patients (NUD 241, PUD 45, GC 62) undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between September 2002 and May 2007 in a tertiary referral centre at Lucknow, north India, were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Genotyping for cagA, cagA3/ subtypes, babA2 and vacA was performed by PCR using sequence specific primers. H. pylori infection was higher in patients with PUD than with GC (80 vs. 56.5%, P < 0.01) and NUD (80 vs. 55.2%, P= 0.002). cagA positive H. pylori isolates were detected in 80 per cent in GC, 83.3 per cent in PUD and 76.7 per cent in NUD with no significant difference among them. Only A subtype of cagA3/ was detected and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 68.8, 69.4 and 52.6 per cent respectively. Presence of babA2 genotype was 31.4 per cent and it had significant association with PUD when compared with NUD (52.8 vs. 26.3%, P<0.003). On univariate regression analysis, s1a allele was associated with GC (P<0.050) and s1a/m2 vacA genotype with both GC (P=0.014) and PUD (P=0.016). H. pylori infection was strongly associated with PUD with a very high proportion of patients with GC have s1a allele and s1a/m2 vacA genotype. Both s1a/m2 vacA genotype and babA2 are associated with PUD. The study shows that different virulence attributes of H. pylori are involved in different gastroduodenal disorders.

  19. Innate immunity components and cytokines in gastric mucosa in children with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Michalkiewicz, Jacek; Helmin-Basa, Anna; Grzywa, Renata; Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczyslawa; Szaflarska-Poplawska, Anna; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Marszalek, Andrzej; Bodnar, Magdalena; Nowak, Magdalena; Dzierzanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate the expression of innate immunity components and cytokines in the gastric mucosa among H. pylori infected and uninfected children. Materials and Methods. Biopsies of the antral gastric mucosa from children with dyspeptic symptoms were evaluated. Gene expressions of innate immunity receptors and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression of selected molecules was tested by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS. H. pylori infection did not lead to a significant upregulation of MyD88, TLR2, TLR4, CD14, TREM1, and TREM2 mRNA expression but instead resulted in high mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and CD163. H. pylori cagA(+) infection was associated with higher IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression, as compared to cagA(-) strains. H. pylori infected children showed increased IFN-γ and TNF-α protein levels. IFN-γ mRNA expression correlated with both H. pylori density of colonization and lymphocytic infiltration in the gastric mucosa, whereas TNF-α protein expression correlated with bacterial density. CONCLUSION. H. pylori infection in children was characterized by (a) Th1 expression profile, (b) lack of mRNA overexpression of natural immunity receptors, and (c) strong anti-inflammatory activities in the gastric mucosa, possibly resulting from increased activity of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. This may explain the mildly inflammatory gastric inflammation often observed among H. pylori infected children.

  20. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal pathology: new threats of the old friend.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Niyaz; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2005-01-05

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. It infects over 50% of the worlds' population, however, only a small subset of infected people experience H. pylori-associated illnesses. Associations with disease-specific factors remain enigmatic years after the genome sequences were deciphered. Infection with strains of Helicobacter pylori that carry the cytotoxin-associated antigen A (cagA) gene is associated with gastric carcinoma. Recent studies revealed mechanisms through which the cagA protein triggers oncopathogenic activities. Other candidate genes such as some members of the so-called plasticity region cluster are also implicated to be associated with carcinoma of stomach. Study of the evolution of polymorphisms and sequence variation in H. pylori populations on a global basis has provided a window into the history of human population migration and co-evolution of this pathogen with its host. Possible symbiotic relationships were debated since the discovery of this pathogen. The debate has been further intensified as some studies have posed the possibility that H. pylori infection may be beneficial in some humans. This assumption is based on increased incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus following H. pylori eradication in some countries. The contribution of comparative genomics to our understanding of the genome organisation and diversity of H. pylori and its pathophysiological importance to human healthcare is exemplified in this review.

  1. Validation of Urine Test for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Indonesian Population

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Uwan, Willy Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    We measured the accuracy of the urine test (RAPIRUN) for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia (Jakarta, Pontianak, and Jayapura) using histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or culture as gold standards. We also used immunohistochemistry to identify CagA phenotype and analyzed H. pylori CagA diversity in Indonesia. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in 88 consecutive dyspeptic patients based on the urine test was 15.9% (14/88), 38.1% for patients in Jayapura that had higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that in Jakarta (9.7%, P = 0.02) and Pontianak (8.3%, P = 0.006). Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of RAPIRUN were 83.3%, 94.7%, 71.4%, 97.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. All of the H. pylori-positive patients were immunoreactive for anti-CagA antibody but not immunoreactive for East Asian specific anti-CagA antibody in all H. pylori-positive subjects. We confirmed the high accuracy of RAPIRUN in Indonesian population. In general, we found less virulent type of H. pylori in Indonesia, which partly explained the low incidence gastric cancer in Indonesia. PMID:26824034

  2. The internalization of Helicobacter pylori plays a role in the failure of H. pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Hua; Lv, Zhi-Fa; Zhong, Yao; Liu, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Shu-Ping; Xie, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) internalization involves invasion of cells by the bacterium. Several studies have shown that H. pylori can invade human gastric epithelial cells, immune cells, and Candida yeast in vivo and in vitro. Whether bacterial invasion plays a role in eradication failure is unclear. To investigate the relationship between H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells and H. pylori eradication failure. Forty-two clinical strains isolated from H. pylori-positive patients with different outcomes after treatment with furazolidone-based therapy were examined (17 failures and 25 successes). The H. pylori strains were shown to be susceptible to amoxicillin and furazolidone, and the patients also exhibited good compliance. Genotyping was performed for cagA and vacA (s and m). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, furazolidone, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was determined by E-tests. The levels of H. pylori invasion of GES-1 cells were detected by gentamicin colony-forming unit assays. The internalization level in the eradication success group was 5.40±5.78 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell, and the median was 6.194 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell; the internalization level in the eradication failure group was 8.98±5.40 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell, and the median was 10.28 × 10(-3)  cfu/cell. The eradication failure group showed a greater invasion level than the eradication success group (P<.05). No significant difference was observed between the susceptible strains and the resistant strains when the internalization levels were compared (P>.05). The results showed that H. pylori invasion of the gastric epithelia might play a role in eradication failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Pathogenic diversity of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mégraud, F

    1997-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been shown to possess a very heterogeneous genoma despite its common phenotypic properties. Some characteristics relevant to pathogenesis have also been found to be heterogeneous. This is the case for adherence properties and the amount of urease produced, but it was not possible to relate these properties to disease entities. A vacuolating cytotoxin which alters epithelial cells has been found in about 60% of strains isolated from patients with ulcers versus 30% from those with gastritis only. The cagA gene can be used as a marker to detect the cag pathogenicity island. This DNA fragment seems to induce an increased inflammation in the gastric tissue via release of interleukin 8 by the epithelial cells. The association of this marker is strongly linked with ulcers compared with gastritis only (80% vs 55%, respectively). A number of other properties may be heterogeneous, but the low number of strains studied does not allow conclusions to be drawn.

  4. Helicobacter pylori colonization and pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, spontaneous prematurity, and small for gestational age birth.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Holster, I Lisanne; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriëtte A; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Blaser, Martin J; Steegers, Eric A P; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), small for gestational age (SGA), and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) each may be complications of impaired placental function in pregnancy. Although their exact pathogenesis is still unknown, certain infectious agents seem to play a role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization has been associated with increased risk for PE. Our aim was to assess the association between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. We measured IgG anti-H. pylori and CagA antibodies in serum of pregnant women (median 20.5 weeks, range 16.5-29.4) who participated in a population-based prospective cohort study. Delivery and medical records were assessed. Information on demographics, education, and maternal risk factors was collected by questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess associations between H. pylori colonization and PE, SGA, and PTB. In total, 6348 pregnant women were assessed. H. pylori positivity was found in 2915 (46%) women, of whom 1023 (35%) also were CagA-positive. Pregnancy was complicated by PE, SGA, or PTB in 927 (15%) women. H. pylori colonization was associated with PE (aOR 1.51; 95%CI 1.03-2.25). Differentiation according to CagA status revealed the same risk. H. pylori was positively related with SGA, mainly explained by CagA-positive strains (aOR 1.34; 1.04-1.71). No association was observed between H. pylori and PTB. Our data suggest that H. pylori colonization may be a risk factor for PE and SGA. If these associations are confirmed by future studies and shown to be causal, H. pylori eradication may reduce related perinatal morbidity and mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori in bottled mineral water: genotyping and antimicrobial resistance properties.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Khamesipour, Faham; Jonaidi-Jafari, Nematollah; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2016-03-12

    Up to now, fecal-oral and oral-oral are the most commonly known routes for transmission of H. pylori, therefore, contaminated water can play an important role in transmission of H. pylori to humans. Genotyping using virulence markers of H. pylori is one of the best approaches to study the correlations between H. pylori isolates from different samples. The present research was carried out to study the vacA, cagA, cagE, oipA, iceA and babA2 genotyping and antimicrobial resistance properties of H. pylori isolated from the bottled mineral water samples of Iran. Of 450 samples studied, 8 samples (1.77%) were contaminated with H. pylori. Brand C of bottled mineral water had the highest prevalence of H. pylori (3.63%). The bottled mineral water samples of July month had the highest levels of H. pylori-contamination (50%). H. pylori strains had the highest levels of resistance against metronidazole (62.5%), erythromycin (62.5%), clarithromycin (62.5%), amoxicillin (62.5%) and trimethoprim (62.5%). Totally, 12.5% of strains were resistant to more than 6 antibiotics. VvacAs1a (100%), vacAm1a (87.5%), cagA (62.5%), iceA1 (62.5%), oipA (25%), babA2 (25%) and cagE (37.5%) were the most commonly detected genotypes. M1as1a (62.5%), m1as2 (37.5%), m2s2 (37.5%) and S1a/cagA+/IceA2/oipA-/babA2-/cagE- (50%) were the most commonly detected combined genotypes. Contaminated bottled mineral water maybe the sources of virulent and resistant strains H. pylori. Careful monitoring of bottled mineral water production may reduce the risk of H. pylori transmission into the human population.

  6. Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Different Siberian Ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, Vladislav V; Kasparov, Edward V; Tonkikh, Julia L; Shtygasheva, Olga V; Butorin, Nikolay N; Amelchugova, Olga S; Vasyutin, Alexander V; Bronnikova, Elena P; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in eastern Siberia is consistently established. In the same geographic area, however, fragmentary information is available on the epidemiology of the peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection (including CagA status) and PUD in different eastern Siberian ethnicities. An endoscopy population of 3149 eastern Siberian dyspeptic patients was considered [1727 Europoids and 1422 Mongoloids (Evenks = 792; Khakases = 630)]. H. pylori status was assessed by urease test and/or serum anti-H. pylori IgG and/or histology. CagA status was serologically assessed (anti-CagA antibodies). All the Siberian ethnicities featured high rates of H. pylori infection (Europoids = 87.1%, Evenks = 88.6%, Khakases = 85.4%). Among the 1504 H. pylori-positive Europoids, the prevalence of CagA-positive status (68.7%) was significantly higher than that featured by the 1240 H. pylori-positive Mongoloid ethnicities (46.9%; p < .001 for both comparisons). Peptic ulcer disease significantly prevailed among Europoids (prevalence among Europoid Evenks and Khakases: 8.9% and 8.3%, respectively; prevalence among Mongoloid Evenks and Khakases = 1.0% and 4.4%, respectively). eastern Siberian populations feature consistent high rates of H. pylori infection, but different prevalence of peptic ulcer disease. In particular, Europoids featured a prevalence of both CagA-positive status and peptic ulcer disease significantly higher than that of the Mongoloid ethnicities. These results suggest that both environmental factors (coexisting with the H. pylori infection) and host-related variables modulate the clinicopathological expression of the H. pylori -associated gastric diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Helicobacter pylori virulence and cancer pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is human gastric pathogen that causes chronic and progressive gastric mucosal inflammation and is responsible for the gastric inflammation-associated diseases, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Specific outcomes reflect the interplay between host-, environmental- and bacterial-specific factors. Progress in understanding putative virulence factors in disease pathogenesis has been limited and many false leads have consumed scarce resources. Few in vitro-in vivo correlations or translational applications have proved clinically relevant. Reported virulence factor-related outcomes reflect differences in relative risk of disease rather than specificity for any specific outcome. Studies of individual virulence factor associations have provided conflicting results. Since virulence factors are linked, studies of groups of putative virulence factors are needed to provide clinically useful information. Here, the authors discuss the progress made in understanding the role of H. pylori virulence factors CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin, OipA and DupA in disease pathogenesis and provide suggestions for future studies.

  8. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers in patients with gastroduodenal diseases in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases. We studied the association of H. pylori virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) and vacuolating associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles in patients with non ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), gastric ulcer (GU), gastric carcinoma (GC) and duodenal ulcer (DU). Methods H. pylori infection established by both rapid urease test and histology were studied. The cagA and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of vacA i1 and i2 PCR product was carried out. Results Two hundred and twenty-four patients were included, 141 (63%) were males with a mean age of 45 ± 16, range 16-83 years. The virulence marker cagA was associated with GU in 20(63%) (p = 0.04), DU in 23(72%) (p = 0.003) and GC in 29(73%) (p = 0.001) compared to NUD in 51(42%). VacA s1am1 was associated with GU in 23(72%) (p = 0.001), DU in 17(53%) (p < 0.001) and GC in 23(58%) (p = 0.003) compared to NUD in 38(32%) while vacA s1bm1 was also associated with GU in 9(28%) (p = 0.001), DU in 12(37%) (p < 0.001) and GC 11(28%) (p < 0.001) compared to NUD in 13(11%), respectively. The diagnoses of GU in 21(66%), DU in 16(50%), GC in 20(50%) and NUD in 50(42%) were associated with moderately active chronic inflammation. CagA in 55(45%) (p = 0.037), vacA s1am1 in 51(51%) (P < 0.001), s1bm1 in 25(56%) (p = 0.002), s1am2 32(30%) (p < 0.001) and s1bm2 29(69%) (p = 0.004) were also associated with moderately active chronic inflammation. Conclusion CagA was negative in majority of NUD patients with H. pylori infection. However, cagA was associated with peptic ulcer and GC. VacA allele's s1am1 and s1bm1 were associated with H. pylori associated diseases and inflammation. PMID:19930551

  9. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers in patients with gastroduodenal diseases in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abid, Shahab; Abbas, Zaigham; Jafri, Wasim; Ahmad, Zubair; Ahmed, Rashida; Islam, Muhammad

    2009-11-20

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known to be associated with a spectrum of gastroduodenal diseases. We studied the association of H. pylori virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA) and vacuolating associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles in patients with non ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), gastric ulcer (GU), gastric carcinoma (GC) and duodenal ulcer (DU). H. pylori infection established by both rapid urease test and histology were studied. The cagA and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing of vacA i1 and i2 PCR product was carried out. Two hundred and twenty-four patients were included, 141 (63%) were males with a mean age of 45 +/- 16, range 16-83 years. The virulence marker cagA was associated with GU in 20(63%) (p = 0.04), DU in 23(72%) (p = 0.003) and GC in 29(73%) (p = 0.001) compared to NUD in 51(42%). VacA s1am1 was associated with GU in 23(72%) (p = 0.001), DU in 17(53%) (p < 0.001) and GC in 23(58%) (p = 0.003) compared to NUD in 38(32%) while vacA s1bm1 was also associated with GU in 9(28%) (p = 0.001), DU in 12(37%) (p < 0.001) and GC 11(28%) (p < 0.001) compared to NUD in 13(11%), respectively. The diagnoses of GU in 21(66%), DU in 16(50%), GC in 20(50%) and NUD in 50(42%) were associated with moderately active chronic inflammation. CagA in 55(45%) (p = 0.037), vacA s1am1 in 51(51%) (P < 0.001), s1bm1 in 25(56%) (p = 0.002), s1am2 32(30%) (p < 0.001) and s1bm2 29(69%) (p = 0.004) were also associated with moderately active chronic inflammation. CagA was negative in majority of NUD patients with H. pylori infection. However, cagA was associated with peptic ulcer and GC. VacA allele's s1am1 and s1bm1 were associated with H. pylori associated diseases and inflammation.

  10. High Frequency of vacA s1m2 Genotypes Among Helicobacter pylori Isolates From Patients With Gastroduodenal Disorders in Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pajavand, Hamid; Alvandi, Amirhooshang; Mohajeri, Parviz; Bakhtyari, Somaye; Bashiri, Homayoon; Kalali, Behnam; Gerhard, Markus; Najafi, Farid; Abiri, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori infection and related diseases outcome are mediated by a complex interplay between bacterial, host and environmental factors. Several distinct virulence factors of H. pylori have been shown to be associated with different clinical outcomes. Here we focused on vacA and cagA genotypes of H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastric disorder. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of two toxins and genotypes of VacA toxin in patients referred to a central hospital in the west of Iran (Imam Reza hospital, Kermanshah) during 2011 - 2012. Patients and Methods: Samples were collected from patients infected with H. pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens from the stomach antrum and corpus were cultured. PCR analysis was performed for genotyping H. pylori vacA and cagA genes. Results: Helicobacter pylori was isolated from 48% (96/200) of patients with gastroduodenal disorders. In 81/96 (84%) cases, the cagA gene was present. Among different genotypes of vacA, two s1m2 and s2m2 genotypes were dominant with frequency of 39.5% and 50%, respectively. The frequency of the s1m1 genotype was 7.2% (7/96), which is much lower than elsewhere. H. pylori isolates with positive results for cagA gene and vacA s1m2 genotypes showed statistically significant correlation with peptic ulcer (s1m2 13/34 [38.2%] P = 0.003). However, isolates of H. pylori infection with cagA gene and vacA s2m2 genotypes were significantly associated with development of gastritis (s2m2 41/42 [97.6%] P = 0.000). Conclusions: About 90% of H. pylori strains potentially contained vacA s2m2 and s1m2 genotypes. Infection with H. pylori strain containing the cagA gene or the vacA s1m1 and s1m2 genotypes was associated with increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). PMID:26862378

  11. Susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection: results of an epidemiological investigation among gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Panic, Nikola; Mastrostefano, Elena; Leoncini, Emanuele; Persiani, Roberto; Arzani, Dario; Amore, Rosarita; Ricci, Riccardo; Sicoli, Federico; Sioletic, Stefano; Bulajic, Milutin; D' Ugo, Domenico; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the clinical, demographic, lifestyle factors and selected genetic polymorphisms that affect the susceptibility towards Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in gastric cancer patients. Histological confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma cases that underwent curative gastrectomy between 2002 and 2012 were included. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained to determine the H. pylori status, and further cagA status and vacA m and s genotypes by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires, and blood samples were collected for EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, IL1B, IL1-RN, MTHFR and p53 genotyping. Proportions were compared in univariate analysis, while the relation between putative risk factors and H. pylori status and genotype were measured using logistic regression analysis. One hundred forty-nine gastric cancer patients were included, of which 78.5% were H. pylori positive. Among positive patients 50% were cagA+, 72.5% vacA m1 and 80.7% vacA s1. The presence of cagA was less frequent among vacA m1 (p = 0.031) and vacA s1 (p = 0.052) subtypes. The presence of father history for any cancer was a significant risk factor for H. pylori infection [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 8.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-64.55]. EPHX1 exon 3 T > C (OR = 0.35, CI 95% 0.13-0.94), IL1B-511 T > C (OR = 0.38, CI 95% 0.15-0.97) and IL1-RN VNTR (OR = 0.19, CI 95% 0.06-0.58) polymorphisms were protective towards H. pylori infection in the univariate analysis. Wine consumption was associated with higher risk of carrying the H. pylori vacA m1 virulent subtype (p = 0.034). Lastly, cardiovascular diseases were less common among cagA positive subjects (p = 0.023). Father history of any cancer is a risk factor for H. pylori infection. Polymorphisms in IL1B-511, IL1-RN and EPHX1 exon 3 genes might be protective towards H. pylori infection.

  12. HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Igor Dias Ferreira; Queiroz, André Lima de; Silva Júnior, Mário Ribeiro da; Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms whereby Helicobacter pylori produces different pathological manifestations in the stomach and duodenum are not fully understood. Considering the geographic diversity in the prevalence of virulence factors of this microorganism and their association with the development of different diseases, the search for pathogenicity markers such as CagA and VacA alleles by molecular techniques has intensified. To investigate the presence of H. pylori infection and the frequency of different genotypes of this bacterium in patients with gastrointestinal diseases from Northern Brazil, and to establish their association with the histopathological findings. In a prospective study, samples were collected from 554 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and gastric cancer) seen at a referral hospital attending the entire State of Pará, located in the metropolitan region of Belém. Data such as gender and age obtained with an epidemiological questionnaire were analyzed. The presence of H. pylori and the bacterial genotype were investigated by PCR. Gastric biopsies were assessed histologically. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 91%. Infection was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. In these groups, there was a predominance of men and older patients when compared to the other two groups studied. The predominant bacterial genotype was s1m1cagA+, which was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer. A significant association was observed between s1m1cagA+ strains and a higher degree of inflammation, neutrophil activity and development of intestinal metaplasia. The present study demonstrates a high incidence of H. pylori infection in the patients analyzed, especially among those with gastric ulcer and gastric cancer. Virulent s1m1cagA+ strains predominated and were associated with more severe lesions.

  13. Helicobacter pylori inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiu-Kun; Yuan, Sheng-Ling; Wang, Yan-Chun; Tao, Hao-Xia; Jiang, Wei; Guan, Zhang-Yan; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Chun-Jie

    2016-12-28

    To study the impact on cleavage of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) regulated by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Cleavage of TRAF1 was detected by western blotting in the human gastric cancer cell line AGS following treatment with an apoptosis inducer. Cleavage of TRAF1 mediated by caspase was examined in vitro using specific caspase inhibitors. The effect of the COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment on gastric cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was measured using flow cytometry. The impact of H. pylori infection on TRAF1 cleavage was detected in the presence of apoptosis inducer. The roles of H. pylori virulence factors that may regulate TRAF1 cleavage were analyzed using isogenic cagA-, vacA- and cagE-null mutants. TRAF1 was found to be cleaved in AGS cells treated with the apoptosis inducer, and caspase-8 was the major caspase involved in the cleavage of TRAF1. The COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment significantly induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05) as well as promoted H. pylori-induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). H. pylori infection was found to significantly inhibit the cleavage of TRAF1 and to inhibit the activation of caspase-8 in the presence of the apoptosis inducer at specific infection times and different cell/bacteria ratios. We also found that the effects of cagE- and cagA-null mutants on the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage and activation of caspase-8 were significantly attenuated, compared with wild-type H. pylori, in the presence of the apoptosis inducer, showing that the virulence factor CagA was mainly involved in the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage. H. pylori infection significantly inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism, which would increase the relative amounts of full-length TRAF1 and exert an antiapoptotic effect on H. pylori-infected cells.

  14. Virulence factor genotypes of Helicobacter pylori affect cure rates of eradication therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The cure rates of Helicobacter pylori infection by using a combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and antimicrobial agents are mainly influenced by bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and the magnitude of acid inhibition during the treatment. Currently used empirical triple therapies do not reliably produce a ≥80% cure rate on an intention-to-treat basis. Therefore, tailored regimens based on relevant microbiological findings and pharmacogenomics are recommended for attaining an acceptable ≥95% cure rate. Recently, virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA and vacA, are reported to be major factors determining the cure rates. Individuals infected with strains with cagA-negative and vacA s2 genotypes have significantly increased risk of eradication failure of H. pylori infection. These virulence factors enhance gastric mucosal inflammation and are associated with the development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori virulence factors induce proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which influence mucosal inflammation and/or gastric acid secretion. When physicians select an H. pylori eradication regimen with an acceptable cure rate, they might need to consider H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA and vacA. PMID:19219527

  15. Interleukin polymorphisms and differential methylation status in gastric cancer: an association with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Débora Menezes; Neves-Filho, Eduardo Henrique Cunha; Alves, Markênia Kélia Santos; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2013-04-01

    Interleukin polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori infection are believed to play critical roles in DNA methylation, a process frequently associated with carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between interleukin polymorphisms and methylation status of three genes related to gastric cancer. Furthermore, the influence of the H. pylori strains was evaluated. 75 gastric tumor samples had the DNA extracted for interleukin polymorphisms genotyping by PCR-RFLP, promoter methylation by MS-PCR and detection and subtyping of H. pylori by PCR. In the cardia tumors, methylation in the COX-2 promoter was associated with IL1RN*2 (p = 0.015), and the associated genotypes IL1B511T + IL1RN*2 seem to be important in the methylation of COX-2 (p = 0.013), especially in the presence of cagA(+) (p = 0.026) and vacAs1 (p = 0.025) H. pylori strains. The associated genotypes IL6 CC+TNF GG seem to be involved in the unmethylation of CDKN2A (p = 0.046), along with H. pylori cagA(+) infection. DNA methylation in gastric cancer seems to be influenced by the presence of interleukin polymorphisms and by the H. pylori cagA/vacAs1m1 strains.

  16. [Molecular detection and genotypification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies from symptomatic adult patients in Santa Fe, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Félix; Barbaglia, Yanina; Bucci, Pamela; Tedeschi, Fabián A; Zalazar, Fabián E

    2013-01-01

    Our goals were: a) to detect Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies of symptomatic adults by PCR, b) to detect the presence of the cagA gene as well as of the allelic variants of the vacA gene, and c) to correlate genotypes with the endoscopic diagnoses. H. pylori was detected in 81 % (39/48) of patients by nested PCR for hsp60. The presence of cagA was detected in 15/22 of samples and vacA s1 - m1 was the most frequent allelic combination (15/22). Gastritis, the most frequent diagnosis, was associated with genotype cagA+ in 10/13 of patients. In this group, 9/13 showed the allelic variant vacA s1- m1. The variant vacA s2 - m2 was detected in 3/3 of gastritis cases by H. pylori with the cagA- genotype. These results are the first reported in our region and provide data of epidemiological interest.

  17. Comparison of the virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori and their associated diseases in patients from Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Jafri, Wasim; Usman, Muhammad W; Jafri, Fatima; Awan, Safia

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria, which is associated with development of gastroduodenal diseases. The prevalence of H. pylori and the virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene A and E (cagA, cagE) and vacuolating-associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles varies in different parts of the world. H. pylori virulence markers cagA, cagE, and vacA alleles in local and Afghan nationals with H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases were studied. Two hundred and ten patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and positive for H. pylori by the urease test and histology were included. One hundred and nineteen were local nationals and 91 were Afghans. The cagA, cagE, and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction. The nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was common in the Afghan patients (P = 0.025). In Afghan H. pylori strains, cagA was positive in 14 (82%) with gastric carcinoma (GC) compared with 29 (45%) with NUD (P = 0.006), whereas cagE was positive in 11 (65%) with GC and 4 (67%) with duodenal ulcer (DU) compared with 12 (18%) with NUD (P < 0.001 and 0.021, respectively). The vacA s1a/b1was positive in 10 (59%) of GC compared with 20 (31%) in NUD (P = 0.033). In Pakistani strains, cagE was positive in 12 (60%) with GC, 7 (58%) with GU, 12 (60%) with DU compared with 11 (16%) with NUD (P < 0.001, 0.004, and < 0.001, respectively). In Pakistani strains, cagA/s1a/m1 was 39 (33%) compared with Afghans in 17 (19%) (P = 0.022). Moderate to severe mucosal inflammation was present in 51 (43%) Pakistani patients compared with 26 (28%) (P = 0.033) in Afghans. It was also associated with grade 1 lymphoid aggregate development in Pakistani patients 67 (56%) compared with 36 (40%) (P = 0.016) in Afghans. Distribution of H. pylori virulence marker cagE with DU was similar in Afghan and Pakistan H. pylori strains. Chronic active inflammation was significantly associated with Pakistani H. pylori strains.

  18. Comparison of the Virulence Markers of Helicobacter Pylori and their Associated Diseases in Patients from Pakistan and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Jafri, Wasim; Usman, Muhammad W.; Jafri, Fatima; Awan, Safia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria, which is associated with development of gastroduodenal diseases. The prevalence of H. pylori and the virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene A and E (cagA, cagE) and vacuolating-associated cytotoxin gene (vacA) alleles varies in different parts of the world. H. pylori virulence markers cagA, cagE, and vacA alleles in local and Afghan nationals with H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases were studied. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and ten patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and positive for H. pylori by the urease test and histology were included. One hundred and nineteen were local nationals and 91 were Afghans. The cagA, cagE, and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was common in the Afghan patients (P = 0.025). In Afghan H. pylori strains, cagA was positive in 14 (82%) with gastric carcinoma (GC) compared with 29 (45%) with NUD (P = 0.006), whereas cagE was positive in 11 (65%) with GC and 4 (67%) with duodenal ulcer (DU) compared with 12 (18%) with NUD (P < 0.001 and 0.021, respectively). The vacA s1a/b1 was positive in 10 (59%) of GC compared with 20 (31%) in NUD (P = 0.033). In Pakistani strains, cagE was positive in 12 (60%) with GC, 7 (58%) with GU, 12 (60%) with DU compared with 11 (16%) with NUD (P < 0.001, 0.004, and < 0.001, respectively). In Pakistani strains, cagA/s1a/m1 was 39 (33%) compared with Afghans in 17 (19%) (P = 0.022). Moderate to severe mucosal inflammation was present in 51 (43%) Pakistani patients compared with 26 (28%) (P = 0.033) in Afghans. It was also associated with grade 1 lymphoid aggregate development in Pakistani patients 67 (56%) compared with 36 (40%) (P = 0.016) in Afghans. Conclusion: Distribution of H. pylori virulence marker cagE with DU was similar in Afghan and Pakistan H. pylori strains. Chronic active inflammation was significantly associated with Pakistani H. pylori

  19. CagA-dependent downregulation of B7-H2 expression on gastric mucosa and inhibition of Th17 responses during Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Lina, Taslima T.; Pinchuk, Irina V.; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y.; Beswick, Ellen J.; Reyes, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric epithelial cells (GECs) are the primary target for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and may act as antigen presenting cells (APC) regulating local T cell responses. We previously reported that H. pylori infection of GECs induces the expression of the T cell co-inhibitory molecule B7-H1 on GECs. This process contributes to the hyporesponsiveness of CD4+ effector T cells and accumulation of T regulatory cells. In the studies presented herein we investigated the impact of H. pylori cytotoxin CagA on the modulation of the expression of the T cell co-stimulator B7-H2 by GEC. B7-H2 is involved in promoting Th17 type responses. H. pylori infection downregulates B7-H2 expression by GECs in a CagA dependent manner. IFNγ, which is increased in the H. pylori infected gastric mucosa, synergizes with H. pylori in downregulating B7-H2 expression by GECs. CagA-mediated modulation of B7-H2 on GEC involves p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation. The CagA-dependent B7-H2 downregulation in GEC correlates with a decrease in Th17 type responses in vitro and in vivo. Further, CagA-dependent modulation of Th17 responses inversely correlated with the H. pylori colonization levels in vivo. Our data suggest that CagA contributes to the ability of H. pylori to evade Th17 mediated clearance by modulating expression of B7-H2 and, thus, to the establishment of the H. pylori chronic infection. PMID:23997227

  20. PCR assay targeting virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori isolated from drinking water and clinical samples in Lahore metropolitan, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Samra, Zahoor Qadir; Javaid, Umber; Ghafoor, Sadia; Batool, Aleeza; Dar, Nadia; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylorus is considered for chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma and its high infection rate is observed in overcrowded and lower socioeconomic groups in developing countries. This study was designed to identify the role of drinking water in the transmission and prevalence of H. pylori (HP). Selective HP medium was developed for enrichment and presumptive identification of H. pylori by urease, catalase and species specific 16S rRNA tests. The virulence genes (vacA 's' and 'm' regions and cagA) of H. pylori in 90 out of 225 H. pylori positive drinking water samples were present (40%). Ten out of 18 biopsies (55.55%) and 15 out of 50 vomiting fluids of gastric disease patients (30%) were also positive for virulence genes. Anti-H. pylori antibodies were also detected in 31 out of 50 patients' sera. The presence of virulence genes was also directly confirmed by hybridization studies using non-radioactive DNA probes of 16S rRNA, vacA and cagA genes. The presence of H. pylori in water is due to poor sanitary conditions, improper waste disposal and lack of public health education. PCR-based analysis and colony hybridization can be used for detection of H. pylori in clinical and environmental samples.

  1. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  2. Virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Soolmaz; Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high importance of Helicobacter pylori, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly determined. According to controversial theories and results of previous studies, animal source foods - especially milk - play an important role in the transmission of H. pylori to humans. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors in H. pylori strains isolated from milk and dairy products and study their antimicrobial resistance properties. A total of 520 raw milk and 400 traditional dairy product samples were cultured and tested. Those that were H. pylori-positive were analyzed for the presence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. One hundred and three out of 520 milk samples (19.8%) and 77 out of 400 dairy products samples (19.2%) were contaminated with H. pylori. The most frequently contaminated samples were ovine milk (35%) and traditional cheese (30%). Total prevalence of vacA, cagA, iceA and oipA factors were 75%, 76.6%, 41.6% and 25%, respectively. H. pylori strains of milk and dairy products harbored high levels of resistance to ampicillin (84.4%), tetracycline (76.6%), erythromycin (70.5%) and metronidazole (70%). High presence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori suggest that milk and dairy samples may be the sources of bacteria that can cause severe infection. Our findings should raise awareness about antibiotic resistance in H. pylori strains in Iran.

  3. Frequency of infection with Helicobacter pylori isolates of different antimicrobial profiles in children and adolescents: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gościniak, Grażyna; Biernat, Monika M; Bińkowska, Aldona; Kus, Agnieszka; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can occur as a mixed infection caused by several strains of H. pylori. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of colonization of the gastric mucosa by strains of H. pylori with different susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The study was carried out on gastric biopsies taken from 54 previously untreated Polish children and adolescents. Of the 15 positive cultures, from each primary medium, 6 single H. pylori colonies were isolated, making a total of 90 isolates, and the susceptibility to metronidazole (MZ), amoxicillin (AC) and clarithromycin (CH) was determined by E-test method. The presence of the cagA gene and vacA alleles (s1, s2, m1, m2) was determined by PCR. Positive culture for H. pylori was noted in 15/54 (27.7%) of patients. All H. pylori isolates were susceptible to AC, 27.8% were resistant to MZ and 38.9% to CH. The results showed 7/15 (46.7%) of children were infected with H. pylori strains with antibiotic heteroresistance, resistant to CH (5/15, 33.3%) and to MZ (2/15, 13.3%). The cagA + vacA s1/m2 combination was predominant genotype among detected H. pylori strains. The isolates possessing different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the same patient were identified. Microbiological analyses confirmed the presence of isolates possessing different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in 47% of examined children with H. pylori infection. Different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates detected in the same patient may influence the success of eradication therapy.

  4. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier.

    PubMed

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-09-07

    To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier.

  5. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on the healing process of the gastric barrier

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, Eliza; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Sicińska, Paulina; Hinc, Krzysztof; Obuchowski, Michał; Gajewski, Adrian; Moran, Anthony P; Chmiela, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of selected well defined Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antigens on gastric barrier cell turnover. METHODS In this study, using two cellular models of gastric epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we have focused on exploring the effects of well defined H. pylori soluble components such as glycine acid extract antigenic complex (GE), subunit A of urease (UreA), cytotoxin associated gene A protein (CagA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on cell turnover by comparing the wound healing capacity of the cells in terms of their proliferative and metabolic activity as well as cell cycle distribution. Toxic effects of H. pylori components have been assessed in an association with damage to cell nuclei and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation. RESULTS We showed that H. pylori GE, CagA and UreA promoted regeneration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, which is necessary for effective tissue healing. However, in vivo increased proliferative activity of these cells may constitute an increased risk of gastric neoplasia. In contrast, H. pylori LPS showed a dose-dependent influence on the process of wound healing. At a low concentration (1 ng/mL) H. pylori LPS accelerated of healing epithelial cells, which was linked to significantly enhanced cell proliferation and MTT reduction as well as lack of alterations in cell cycle and downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) production as well as cell nuclei destruction. By comparison, H. pylori LPS at a high concentration (25 ng/mL) inhibited the process of wound repair, which was related to diminished proliferative activity of the cells, cell cycle arrest, destruction of cell nuclei and downregulation of the EGF/STAT3 signalling pathway. CONCLUSION In vivo H. pylori LPS driven effects might lead to the maintenance of chronic inflammatory response and pathological disorders on the level of the gastric mucosal barrier. PMID:27672275

  6. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    PubMed

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  7. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Biochemical and functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Annelie; Vallström, Anna; Petzold, Katja; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Schleucher, Jürgen; Carlsson, Sven; Haas, Rainer; Backert, Steffen; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Gröbner, Gerhard; Arnqvist, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease and/or gastric cancer. Adhesion of bacteria to the stomach mucosa is an important contributor to the vigour of infection and resulting virulence. H. pylori adheres primarily via binding of BabA adhesins to ABO/Lewis b (Leb) blood group antigens and the binding of SabA adhesins to sialyl-Lewis x/a (sLex/a) antigens. Similar to most Gram-negative bacteria, H. pylori continuously buds off vesicles and vesicles derived from pathogenic bacteria often include virulence-associated factors. Here we biochemically characterized highly purified H. pylori vesicles. Major protein and phospholipid components associated with the vesicles were identified with mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. A subset of virulence factors present was confirmed by immunoblots. Additional functional and biochemical analysis focused on the vesicle BabA and SabA adhesins and their respective interactions to human gastric epithelium. Vesicles exhibit heterogeneity in their protein composition, which were specifically studied in respect to the BabA adhesin. We also demonstrate that the oncoprotein, CagA, is associated with the surface of H. pylori vesicles. Thus, we have explored mechanisms for intimate H. pylori vesicle–host interactions and found that the vesicles carry effector-promoting properties that are important to disease development. PMID:20659286

  9. Functional interaction and structural characteristics of unique components of Helicobacter pylori T4SS.

    PubMed

    Merino, Enrique; Flores-Encarnación, Marcos; Aguilar-Gutiérrez, Germán Rubén

    2017-05-04

    The Helicobacter pylori infection of the human gastric mucosa causes chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers and is associated with the development of gastric cancer. Epidemiological studies show that these gastric diseases are related to virulent H. pylori strains that harbor the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island (cag PAI). The cag PAI is a DNA insertion in the H. pylori chromosome that encodes ~ 27 proteins, including the oncoprotein CagA. Approximately 20 of these proteins have been designated as cag type IV secretion system (T4SS) components. However, only 11 of these proteins share function, structure, and/or sequence similarities with the prototypical VirB/VirD4 T4SS of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The VirB/VirD4 orthologs of the cag T4SS of H. pylori are required for CagA translocation and stimulate the gastric epithelial cells to produce and secrete interleukin-8 (IL-8). The cag PAI encodes eight additional proteins, such as Cag3 (Cagδ/HP0522), CagM (Cag16/HP0537), CagU (Cag11/HP0531), CagI (Cag19/HP0540), and CagH (Cag20/HP0541), which are also required for the translocation of CagA and IL-8 secretion, meanwhile CagF (Cag22/HP0543), CagG (Cag21/HP0542), and CagZ (Cag6/HP0526) are just required for the translocation of CagA. However, relatively little is known about their functions and structural organization because they exhibit a nondetectable sequence similarity with T4SS components in the current databases. In this review, we conducted an exhaustive analysis of the literature to present the biochemistry, putative role, localization, and interactions of each of these eight additional cag T4SS components. © 2017 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Analysis of virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori isolated from a Vietnamese population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of gastric cancer differs among countries in Asia, and it has been suggested that virulence factors associated with Helicobacter pylori are partly responsible. The aim of this study was to investigate several genetic factors regarded as virulence or molecular epidemiologic markers in H. pylori isolates from Vietnamese subjects. Results The cagA, vacA and cag right-end junction genotypes of 103 H. pylori strains from Vietnam (54 from Hanoi and 49 from Ho Chi Minh) were determined by PCR and sequencing. Three types of deletion in the region located upstream of the cagA Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) repeat region were identified: the 39-bp deletion type, the 18-bp deletion type, and the no-deletion type. The majority of strains studied (77%; 80/103) had the 18-bp deletion irrespective of geographical location in the country or clinical outcome. All of the 39-bp and 18-bp deletion-type strains possessed the East Asian type cagA repeat region. The type II cag right-end junction genotype was predominant (84%). The vacA m1 genotype was significantly more common in strains isolated in Hanoi, where the incidence of gastric cancer is higher, than in strains from Ho Chi Minh. Conclusion Pre-EPIYA-region typing of the cagA gene could provide a new genetic marker of H. pylori genomic diversity. Our data support the hypothesis that vacA m1 is closely associated with gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:19698173

  11. Prevalence of the Helicobacter pylori babA2 gene and correlation with the degree of gastritis in infected Slovenian children.

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Šterbenc, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Luzar, Boštjan; Zidar, Nina; Orel, Rok; Poljak, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aims of our study were to determine the prevalence of the babA2 gene within Helicobacter pylori strains circulating in the Slovenian pediatric population, to further clarify its significance in causing inflammation of gastric mucosa in children and to verify whether cagA, vacA, iceA and babA genes work independently or synergistically in causing gastritis. A total of 163 H. pylori isolates obtained from the same number of children were tested for the presence of cagA, vacA and iceA genes using previously established methods, while the babA2 gene was determined using novel polymerase chain reaction assay targeting a 139-bp fragment of the central region of babA2. The babA2 gene was detected in 47.9% of H. pylori samples. The presence of the babA2 gene was strongly associated with cagA, vacA s1 and vacA m1 genotype. The babA2 status correlated positively with bacterial density score, activity of inflammation and chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa. No significant correlation was found between the babA2 status and the presence of atrophy or intestinal metaplasia. In addition, the activity of gastric inflammation and density score were significantly associated with the coexpression of the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1 and babA2 genes. The study, which included the largest number of pediatric H. pylori samples to date, confirmed that babA2 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori gastritis in children. Furthermore, our results suggest that babA2, cagA and vacA s1 and m1 gene products may work synergistically in worsening the inflammation of gastric mucosa.

  12. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rumiko; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using 7 housekeeping genes can also help predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed 7 modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from 6 ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance. PMID:22197766

  13. Life in the human stomach: persistence strategies of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Nina R.; Hartung, Mara L.; Müller, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori has co-evolved with humans and colonizes roughly one half of the human population, but only causes overt gastric disease in a subset of infected hosts. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis of this bacterium and the mechanisms it uses to promote persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa, with a focus on recent insights into the role of the virulence factors VacA, CagA and CagL. We also describe the immunobiology of H. pylori infection and highlight how this bacterium manipulates the innate and adaptive immune systems of the host to promote its own persistence. PMID:23652324

  14. Detection of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) DNA in digestive systems from cadavers by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Sayaka; Azuma, Takeshi; Motani, Hisako; Sato, Yayoi; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Yajima, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Ootsuka, Katsura; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2009-04-01

    It is thought that there is a close relationship between regionality and DNA polymorphism of H.pylori. The application of H.pylori DNA to estimate the origin of unidentified cadavers may be possible. Previously, we detected H.pylori DNA in five stomach lesions by PCR in 50% of 100 cadavers in forensic autopsies. Furthermore, to see the localization of H.pylori in the digestive system, we tried to assay H.pylori DNA by real-time PCR. Mucous membranes at 14 points of digestive systems (5 points of the stomach, 1 point of the duodenum, 5 points of the small intestine, 3 points of the large intestine) were obtained from three cadavers whose stools were H.pylori-positive by an ImmunoCardST!HpSA detection kit. Genomic DNA was extracted using a DNA extraction kit. The 23Sr-DNA region was PCR-amplified (320 bp) by a TOYOBO Kit and the same region was assayed by real-time PCR using a Taqman probe. The PCR products were detected in 5 points of the stomach and 1 point of the duodenum in each sample. The more peripheral the intestine lesion was the weaker the band became. The quantitative PCR showed that there were more PCR products in 5 points of the stomach and 1 point of the duodenum than in the other tissues. H.pylori DNA was detected not only in the stomach but also in the duodenum and small intestine. There was a difference in the amount of H.pylori DNA detected in each organ. Further study is required for immunohistochemical staining, and to determine the relationship between a persons natural state and the H.pylori DNA polymorphism (which codes for CagA).

  15. Determination of strains of Helicobacter pylori and of polymorphism in the interleukin-8 gene in patients with stomach cancer.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Ruth Maria Dias Ferreira; Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Arnaud, Vanda Catão; Leite, Ana Claudia Klautau; Barile, Katarine Antonia Dos Santos; Martins, Luisa Caricio

    2011-01-01

    Gastric neoplasia is the second most common cause of death by cancer in the world and H. pylori is classified as a type I human carcinogen by the World Health Organization. However, despite the high prevalence of infection by H. pylori around the world, less than 3% of individuals carrying the bacteria develop gastric neoplasias. Such a fact indicates that evolution towards malignancy may be associated with bacterial factors in the host and the environment. To investigate the association between polymorphism in the region promoting the IL-8 (-251) gene and the H. pylori genotype, based on the vacA alleles and the presence of the cagA gene, using clinical and histopathological data. In a prospective study, a total of 102 patients with stomach cancer and 103 healthy volunteers were analysed. Polymorphism in interleukin 8 (-251) was determined by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism reaction and sequencing. PCR was used for genotyping the vacA alleles and the cagA in the bacterial strains PCR. Gastric biopsies were histologically assessed. The H. pylori serology was positive for 101 (99%) of all patients analysed, and 98 (97%) of them were colonized by only one strain. In patients with monoinfection, 82 (84%) of the bacterial strains observed had the s1b/m1 genotype. The cagA gene was detected in 74 (73%) of patients infected by H. pylori. The presence of the cagA gene was demonstrated as associated with the presence of the s1b/m1 genotype of the vacA gene (P = 0.002). As for polymorphism in the interleukin 8 (-251) gene we observed that the AA (P = 0.026) and AT (P = 0.005) genotypes were most frequent in the group of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. By comparing the different types of isolated bacterial strains with the interleukin -8 (-251) and the histopathological data we observed that carriers of the A allele (AT and AA) infected by virulent strains (m1s1 cagA+) demonstrated a greater risk of presenting a degree of inflammation (OR = 24.75 CI 95

  16. Structural definition on the surface of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion apparatus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Jiro; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2003-06-01

    Genetic and functional studies have indicated that the type IV secretion system (TFSS) of Helicobacter pylori forms a secretion complex in the cell envelope that protrudes towards the outside in order to inject CagA protein into gastric epithelial cells. However, the proposed structural model is based on partial amino acid homology with the components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens TFSS. Therefore, we undertook the identification of the structural features of the TFSS exposed on the surface of H. pylori and found that filamentous structures present on the bacterial surface are related to the secretion apparatus. Using immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies directed to tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA (pY-CagA) and Hp0532 (VirB7) in the infection assay, pY-CagA signals were detected just below the host cell-attached bacteria, where Hp0532 (VirB7) signals were detected as co-localized, suggesting that the CagA injected into the host cell through the TFSS apparatus is still mostly confined to the areas just below the attached bacteria after being phosphorylated. Furthermore, the filamentous structures on bacterium were found to be associated with Hp0532 (VirB7) or Hp0528 (VirB9), the major components of TFSS, by immunogold electron microscopy. These results strongly suggest that the H. pylori TFSS apparatus is a filamentous macromolecular structure protruding from the bacterial envelope.

  17. Differential effects of multiplicity of infection on Helicobacter pylori-induced signaling pathways and interleukin-8 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Birgit; Kilian, Petra; Reboll, Marc Rene; Resch, Klaus; DiStefano, Johanna Kay; Frank, Ronald; Beil, Winfried; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab

    2011-02-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. We used four different H. pylori strains isolated from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease to examine their differential effects on signaling pathways and IL-8 gene response in gastric epithelial cells. IL-8 mRNA level is elevated in response to high (100) multiplicity of infection (MOI) independent of cagA, vacA, and dupA gene characteristics. By lower MOIs (1 or 10), only cagA ( + ) strains significantly induce IL-8 gene expression. This is based on differential regulation of IL-8 promoter activity. Analysis of intracellular signaling pathways indicates that H. pylori clinical isolates induce IL-8 gene transcription through NF-κB p65, but by a MOI-dependent differential activation of MAPK pathways. Thus, the major virulence factors of H. pylori CagA, VacA, and DupA might play a minor role in the level of IL-8 gene response to a high bacterial load.

  18. Comparative Genomics Revealed Multiple Helicobacter pylori Genes Associated with Biofilm Formation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Eng Guan; Tay, Alfred Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Marshall, Barry J.; Ho, Bow; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Loke, Mun Fai

    2016-01-01

    Background Biofilm formation by Helicobacter pylori may be one of the factors influencing eradication outcome. However, genetic differences between good and poor biofilm forming strains have not been studied. Materials and Methods Biofilm yield of 32 Helicobacter pylori strains (standard strain and 31 clinical strains) were determined by crystal-violet assay and grouped into poor, moderate and good biofilm forming groups. Whole genome sequencing of these 32 clinical strains was performed on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Annotation and comparison of the differences between the genomic sequences were carried out using RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) and SEED viewer. Genes identified were confirmed using PCR. Results Genes identified to be associated with biofilm formation in H. pylori includes alpha (1,3)-fucosyltransferase, flagellar protein, 3 hypothetical proteins, outer membrane protein and a cag pathogenicity island protein. These genes play a role in bacterial motility, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, Lewis antigen synthesis, adhesion and/or the type-IV secretion system (T4SS). Deletion of cagA and cagPAI confirmed that CagA and T4SS were involved in H. pylori biofilm formation. Conclusions Results from this study suggest that biofilm formation in H. pylori might be genetically determined and might be influenced by multiple genes. Good, moderate and poor biofilm forming strain might differ during the initiation of biofilm formation. PMID:27870886

  19. Host-interactive genes in Amerindian Helicobacter pylori diverge from their Old World homologs and mediate inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Mane, S P; Dominguez-Bello, M G; Blaser, M J; Sobral, B W; Hontecillas, R; Skoneczka, J; Mohapatra, S K; Crasta, O R; Evans, C; Modise, T; Shallom, S; Shukla, M; Varon, C; Mégraud, F; Maldonado-Contreras, A L; Williams, K P; Bassaganya-Riera, J

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant member of the gastric microbiota and has been associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in adults. H. pylori populations have migrated and diverged with human populations, and health effects vary. Here, we describe the whole genome of the cag-positive strain V225d, cultured from a Venezuelan Piaroa Amerindian subject. To gain insight into the evolution and host adaptation of this bacterium, we undertook comparative H. pylori genomic analyses. A robust multiprotein phylogenetic tree reflects the major human migration out of Africa, across Europe, through Asia, and into the New World, placing Amerindian H. pylori as a particularly close sister group to East Asian H. pylori. In contrast, phylogenetic analysis of the host-interactive genes vacA and cagA shows substantial divergence of Amerindian from Old World forms and indicates new genotypes (e.g., VacA m3) involving these loci. Despite deletions in CagA EPIYA and CRPIA domains, V225d stimulates interleukin-8 secretion and the hummingbird phenotype in AGS cells. However, following a 33-week passage in the mouse stomach, these phenotypes were lost in isolate V225-RE, which had a 15-kb deletion in the cag pathogenicity island that truncated CagA and eliminated some of the type IV secretion system genes. Thus, the unusual V225d cag architecture was fully functional via conserved elements, but the natural deletion of 13 cag pathogenicity island genes and the truncation of CagA impaired the ability to induce inflammation.

  20. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children.

    PubMed

    Li'e, Chen; Juan, Che; Dongying, Jiang; Guiling, Feng; Tihua, Zheng; Yanfei, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure were determined for all participants. There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011). We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022). Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P < 0.001). However, among those without H. pylori infection, ETS did not predispose towards chronic tonsillitis. Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  1. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  2. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  3. Epstein Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori co-infection are positively associated with severe gastritis in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Carreón-Talavera, Ricardo; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Gomez-Delgado, Alejandro; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori infection is acquired during childhood and causes a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa, which is considered the main risk factor to acquire gastric cancer (GC) later in life. More recently, infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have also been associated with GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory responses and its relationship with H. pylori infection remains poorly studied. Here, we assessed whether EBV infection in children correlated with the stage of gastritis and whether co-infection with H. pylori affected the severity of inflammation. 333 pediatric patients with chronic abdominal pain were studied. From them, gastric biopsies were taken and inflammation graded according to the Sydney system; peripheral blood was drawn and antibodies against EBV (IgG and IgM anti-VCA) and H. pylori (IgG anti-whole bacteria and anti-CagA) were measured in sera. We found that children infected only by EBV presented mild mononuclear (MN) and none polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell infiltration, while those infected by H. pylori presented moderate MN and mild PMN. In contrast, patients co-infected with both pathogens were significantly associated with severe gastritis. Importantly, co-infection of H. pylori CagA+/EBV+ had a stronger association with severe MN (PR 3.0) and PMN (PR 7.2) cells than cases with single H. pylori CagA+ infection. Co-infection with EBV and H. pylori in pediatric patients is associated with severe gastritis. Even single infections with H. pylori CagA+ strains are associated with mild to moderate infiltration arguing for a cooperative effect of H. pylori and EBV in the gastric mucosa and revealing a critical role for EBV previously un-appreciated. This study points out the need to study both pathogens to understand the mechanism behind severe damage of the gastric mucosa, which could identified children with increased risk to present more serious lesions later in life.

  4. Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Review and the Role of Biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Frydman, Galit H.; Davis, Nick; Beck, Paul L.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is typically a diagnosis of exclusion, assigned by clinicians after ruling out other identifiable etiologies. Since a report by Gasbarrini et al. in 1998, an accumulating body of evidence has proposed a pathophysiological link between ITP and chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Clinical reports have described a spontaneous resolution of ITP symptoms in about 50% of chronic ITP patients following empirical treatment of H. pylori infection, but response appears to be geography dependent. Studies have also documented that ITP patients in East Asian countries are more likely to express positive antibody titers against H. pylori-specific cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA), a virulence factor that is associated with an increased risk for gastric diseases including carcinoma. While a definitive mechanism by which H. pylori may induce thrombocytopenia remains elusive, proposed pathways include molecular mimicry of CagA by host autoantibodies against platelet surface glycoproteins, as well as perturbations in the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Traditional treatments of ITP have been largely empirical, involving the use of immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin therapy. However, based on the findings of clinical reports emerging over the past 20 years, health organizations around the world increasingly suggest the detection and eradication of H. pylori as a treatment for ITP. Elucidating the exact molecular mechanisms of platelet activation in H. pylori-positive ITP patients, while considering biogeographical differences in response rates, could offer insight into how best to use clinical H. pylori eradication to treat ITP, but will require well-designed studies to confirm the suggested causative relationship between bacterial infection and an autoimmune disease state. PMID:25728540

  5. Impact of alcohol drinking on gastric cancer development according to Helicobacter pylori infection status

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Woohyun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jang, Jieun; Hwang, Yunji; Ahn, Chunghyun; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori are major carcinogen of gastric cancer, but the associations among gastric cancer, H. pylori infection status, and alcohol consumption are not fully described. This study aimed to clarify how H. pylori infection status affects the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk. Methods: We selected 949 case–cohort participants from the 18 863 Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) populations. Gastric cancer incidence inside and outside of the subcohort were 12 and 254 cases, respectively. Seropositivities for CagA, VacA, and H. pylori infection were determined by performing immunoblot assays. Weighted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Relative to non-drinking, heavy drinking (⩾7 times a week), and binge drinking (⩾55 g alcohol intake per occasion) showed a 3.48-fold (95% CI, 1.13–10.73) and 3.27-fold (95% CI, 1.01–10.56) higher risk in subjects not previously infected by H. pylori. There was no significant association between drinking pattern and gastric cancer risk in H. pylori IgG seropositive subjects. An increased risk for gastric cancer in heavy- and binge-drinking subjects were also present in subjects not infected by CagA- or VacA-secreting H. pylori. Conclusions: Heavy and binge alcohol consumption is an important risk factor related to an increasing incidence of gastric cancer in a population not infected by H. pylori. PMID:26379079

  6. Lewis antigen expression in gastric mucosa of children: relationship with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Terezinha; Soares, Paula Cristina M; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A; Serpa, Jacinta; Queiroz, Dulciene M; Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andréia C

    2004-01-01

    Lewis epithelial antigen expression has a role in Helicobacter pylori adherence, presumably mainly in cagA-positive strains. The authors investigated whether Lewis antigen expression in children's gastric mucosa was associated with H. pylori infection, cagA status, patient age, or presence of duodenal ulcer (DU). The expression of Lewis A (Le(a)), B (Le(b)), X (Le(x)), and Y (Le(y)) was detected by immunohistochemistry in the antral and oxyntic mucosae of 70 children. Children were divided in four age groups (<4 years; 4-8 years; 9-12 years; and 13-18 years). Forty-seven of the 70 children had H. pylori and 17 had DU. The cagA status was determined by polymerase chain reaction in 34 patients. Le(a) and Le(b) were expressed in 64% and 44% of the patients, respectively; Le(x) and Le(y) were expressed in the glands in all of the patients and in the superficial epithelium. Le(b) expression was more common among patients without H. pylori (15/23, 65%) than in those with H. pylori (16/47, 34%) (P = 0.03). In noninfected patients, Le(b) and superficial Le(y) expression were associated with increased age. Le(b) expression was more common in patients with chronic gastritis than in those with DU. Le(x) superficial expression was significantly associated with DU in patients with H. pylori. In children, the expression of Le(b) and Le(y) in the superficial gastric epithelium depends on age. Other receptors, such as Le(x), may have a role in H. pylori colonization, especially in patients with DU. Studies assessing the expression of Lewis antigens in children may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of acquisition of H. pylori infection.

  7. Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Review and the Role of Biogeography.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Galit H; Davis, Nick; Beck, Paul L; Fox, James G

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is typically a diagnosis of exclusion, assigned by clinicians after ruling out other identifiable etiologies. Since a report by Gasbarrini et al. in 1998, an accumulating body of evidence has proposed a pathophysiological link between ITP and chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Clinical reports have described a spontaneous resolution of ITP symptoms in about 50% of chronic ITP patients following empirical treatment of H. pylori infection, but response appears to be geography dependent. Studies have also documented that ITP patients in East Asian countries are more likely to express positive antibody titers against H. pylori-specific cytotoxic-associated gene A (CagA), a virulence factor that is associated with an increased risk for gastric diseases including carcinoma. While a definitive mechanism by which H. pylori may induce thrombocytopenia remains elusive, proposed pathways include molecular mimicry of CagA by host autoantibodies against platelet surface glycoproteins, as well as perturbations in the phagocytic activity of monocytes. Traditional treatments of ITP have been largely empirical, involving the use of immunosuppressive agents and immunoglobulin therapy. However, based on the findings of clinical reports emerging over the past 20 years, health organizations around the world increasingly suggest the detection and eradication of H. pylori as a treatment for ITP. Elucidating the exact molecular mechanisms of platelet activation in H. pylori-positive ITP patients, while considering biogeographical differences in response rates, could offer insight into how best to use clinical H. pylori eradication to treat ITP, but will require well-designed studies to confirm the suggested causative relationship between bacterial infection and an autoimmune disease state.

  8. Helicobacter pylori Induction of the Gastrin Promoter Through GC-Rich DNA Elements

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Tamara P.; Gray, Brian M.; Eaton, Kathyrn A.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection has been linked to the development of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. H. pylori- infected patients and animal models develop hypergastrinemia, chronic gastritis, and gastric atrophy. Since gastrin is an important regulator of gastric acid secretion and cell growth, H. pylori regulation of this hormone has been implicated in its pathogenesis. We investigated the effect of H. pylori infection on gastrin gene expression in mice and the effect of human isolates of the bacteria on gastrin transcription in a cell line. In addition to an increase in gastrin mRNA in H. pylori-infected mice, we found that the bacteria induced the endogenous human gastrin gene through MAP kinase-dependent signaling but not NFκB-dependent signaling. Moreover, activation of gastrin through MAPK signaling did not require CagA or VacA virulence factors. In transfection studies, we demonstrated that H. pylori-induction of the gastrin promoter thorough a GC-rich motif was mediated by inducible binding of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors. In conclusion, co-culturing live H. pylori bacteria with human cells is sufficient to induce gastrin gene expression. PMID:21083750

  9. Anti-bacterial effects of enzymatically-isolated sialic acid from glycomacropeptide in a Helicobacter pylori-infected murine model

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Hye-Ji; Koh, Hong Bum; Kim, Hee-Kyoung; Cho, Hyang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization of the stomach mucosa and duodenum is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathology in humans. Efforts to find effective anti-bacterial strategies against H. pylori for the non-antibiotic control of H. pylori infection are urgently required. In this study, we used whey to prepare glycomacropeptide (GMP), from which sialic acid (G-SA) was enzymatically isolated. We investigated the anti-bacterial effects of G-SA against H. pylori in vitro and in an H. pylori-infected murine model. MATERIALS/METHODS The anti-bacterial activity of G-SA was measured in vitro using the macrodilution method, and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production was measured in H. pylori and AGS cell co-cultures by ELISA. For in vivo study, G-SA 5 g/kg body weight (bw)/day and H. pylori were administered to mice three times over one week. After one week, G-SA 5 g/kg bw/day alone was administered every day for one week. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of G-SA. In addition, real-time PCR was performed to measure the genetic expression of cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). RESULTS G-SA inhibited the growth of H. pylori and suppressed IL-8 production in H. pylori and in AGS cell co-cultures in vitro. In the in vivo assay, administration of G-SA reduced levels of IL-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines whereas IL-10 level increased. Also, G-SA suppressed the expression of cagA in the stomach of H. pylori-infected mice. CONCLUSION G-SA possesses anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect in an experimental H. pylori-infected murine model. G-SA has potential as an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of H. pylori infection and H. pylori-induced gastric disease prevention. PMID:28194260

  10. Human gastric mucins differently regulate Helicobacter pylori proliferation, gene expression and interactions with host cells.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Emma C; Sjöling, Åsa; Navabi, Nazanin; Holgersson, Jan; Lundin, Samuel B; Lindén, Sara K

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA) appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.

  11. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva, dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Hassan; Souod, Negar; Dabiri, Hossein; Sarshar, Meysam

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare genotype of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolated from saliva, dental plaques, gastric biopsy, and stool of each patient in order to evaluate the mode of transmission of H. pylori infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 300 antral gastric biopsy, saliva, dental plaque and stool samples which were obtained from patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy referred to endoscopy centre of Hajar hospital of Shahrekord, Iran from March 2010 to February 2011. Initially, H. pylori strains were identified by rapid urease test (RUT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied to determine the presence of H. pylori (ureC) and for genotyping of voculating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) and cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) genes in each specimen. Finally the data were analyzed by using statistical formulas such as Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests to find any significant relationship between these genes and patient’s diseases. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 300 gastric biopsy samples, 77.66% were confirmed to be H. pylori positive by PCR assay while this bacterium were detected in 10.72% of saliva, 71.67% of stool samples. We were not able to find it in dental plaque specimens. The prevalence of H. pylori was 90.47% among patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD), 80% among patients with gastric cancer, and 74.13% among patients with none ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) by PCR assay. The evaluation of vacA and cagA genes showed 6 differences between gastric biopsy and saliva specimens and 11 differences between gastric and stool specimens. 94.42% of H. pylori positive specimens were cagA positive and all samples had amplified band both for vacA s and m regions. There was significant relationship between vacA s1a/m1a and PUD diseases (P = 0.04), s2/m2 genotype and NUD diseases (P = 0.05). No statically significant relationship was found between cagA status with clinical outcomes and

  12. From inflammation to gastric cancer: Role of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a multifactorial disease and a leading cause of mortality and the risk factors for this include environmental factors and factors that influence host-pathogen interaction and complex interplay between these factors. Gastric adenocarcinomas are of two types, namely intestinal and diffuse type, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been suspected of being causally linked to the initiation of chronic active gastritis, which leads to adenocarcinoma of the intestinal type. Even though most individuals with H. pylori infection do not show any clinical symptoms, long-term infection leads to inflammation of gastric epithelium and approximately 10% of infected patients develop peptic ulcers and 1–3% of patients develop gastric adenocarcinoma. Among the several mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis, CagA and peptidoglycan of H. pylori, which enter the infected gastric epithelial cells play an important role by triggering oncogenic pathways. Inflammation induced by H. pylori in gastric epithelium, which involves the cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 pathway and IL-1β, is also an important factor that triggers chronic active gastritis and adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection induced oxidative stress and dysregulated E-cadherin/β-catenin/p120 interactions and function also play a critical role in tumorigenesis. Environmental and dietary factors, in particular salt intake, are known to modify the pathogenesis induced by H. pylori. Gastric cancer induced by H. pylori appears to involve several mechanisms, making this mode of tumorigenesis a highly complicated process. Nevertheless, there are many events in this tumorigenesis that remain to be clarified and investigated. PMID:28356927

  13. Association between Helicobacter pylori cagA-related genes and clinical outcomes in Colombia and Japan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Specific genotypes of several virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori (eg, cagA-positive, vacA s1, oipA "on" and babA-positive) have been reported to be predictors of severe clinical outcomes. Importantly, the presence of these genotypes correlates with each other. We hypothesized that novel virulence genes correlate with the presence of cagA. Therefore, we aimed to find novel candidate virulence genes that correlate with cagA and examined the association of these genes with clinical outcomes in Colombian and Japanese populations. Methods cagA-associated genes were selected based on previous H. pylori genome microarray data. A total of 343 strains (174 from Colombia and 169 from Japan) were examined for the status of cagA, vacA, and candidate genes by polymerase chain reaction and dot blot. Results Microarray data showed that 9 genes were significantly correlated with the presence of cagA. Among the 9 genes, the functions of 4 were known, and we selected these 4 genes as candidate genes (hp0967, jhp0045, jhp0046, and jhp0951). The prevalences of cagA, vacA s1/m1 genotype, and hp0967 were significantly higher in Japan than Colombia, whereas those of jhp0045 and jhp0046 were more prevalent in Colombia than Japan. The prevalences of jhp0045 and jhp0046 in cagA-positive cases of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those from gastritis in Colombia (P = 0.015 and 0.047, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of 4 candidate genes was independent of clinical outcomes in Japan. Conclusions jhp0045 and jhp0046 might be novel markers for predicting gastric cancer in cagA-positive cases in Colombia, but not in Japan. PMID:22189161

  14. Helicobacter pylori inactivation and virulence gene damage using a supported sensitiser for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Calvino-Fernández, M; García-Fresnadillo, D; Benito-Martínez, S; McNicholl, A G; Calvet, X; Gisbert, J P; Parra-Cid, T

    2013-10-01

    About half of the world's population is currently infected with Helicobacter pylori, which is involved in the development of several gastro-duodenal pathologies. The increasing number of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of the first-line therapy, so new strategies to improve the H. pylori eradication rates are needed. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) benefits from photogenerated reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, which inactivate microorganisms by means of photosensitising dyes and visible light. Therefore, it could be a suitable alternative for H. pylori eradication in the gastro-duodenal tract, particularly in patients infected with antibiotic resistant strains. We evaluated APDT against H. pylori, in vitro, using a new photosensitising material (PSM) based on a ruthenium(II) complex covalently bound to micrometric glass beads. Five H. pylori isolates (classified according to cagA genotype, and metronidazole-clarithromycin resistance) were used. Bacteria were mixed with the PSM and incubated in the dark or illuminated by blue light. Aliquots (min 1', 2', 5', 15' and 30') were cultured and colonies were counted after 2-3 days. A 99.99999% decrease was detected in the number of colonies in the irradiated wells where the bacterium was mixed with the PSM, compared to non-illuminated wells or with irradiated wells without PSM. It was also confirmed that DNA is a molecular target for oxidant species released during APDT (evaluated by alkaline gel electrophoresis after endonuclease III incubation, ureC and cagA RT-PCR, and bacterial fingerprint). Results were independent of cagA gene and antibiotic resistances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation between virulence markers of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity and gastric biopsies.

    PubMed

    Medina, Myriam Lucrecia; Medina, Marcelo Gabriel; Merino, Luis Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with virulence factors. The presence of these factors is useful as molecular markers in the identification of the high risk for developing severe gastric pathologies. To correlate the presence of virulence markers cagA and bab2A of H. pylori in oral and gastric biopsy samples. An observational, prospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was carried out between September 2011 and September 2012. Patients suffering dyspepsia with indication for upper gastrointestinal video endoscopy who attended the Gastroenterology Service of the Hospital Dr. Julio C. Perrando were included. Epidemiological investigation was completed. To detect the bacteria and their virulence genes, samples of saliva, dental plaque and gastric biopsy were taken and processed by PCR. Sixty-one patients were selected for this study (30 women and 31 men). H. pylori was detected in 31 gastric biopsies and 31 oral samples. Significant difference between oral and gastric samples was found in cagA genotype. Agreement between oral and gastric genotypes was found in 38.7% of samples from the same patient. This study is the first in provide information about the genotypes of the Argentinean Northeast H. pylori strains. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection, the most of patients had less virulent genotypes in oral cavity and gastric tissue. The cagA / babA2 combination was not frequent in the samples studied. There was not a statistical correlation between the virulence genes and gastroduodenal or oral diseases. Although in some patients the same genotype was found both in oral and gastric samples, it cannot be ensure that they corresponding to the same strain because a DNA sequencing was not performed.

  16. Comparative genomics of Helicobacter pylori isolates recovered from ulcer disease patients in England

    PubMed Central

    Kauser, Farhana; Hussain, M Abid; Ahmed, Irshad; Srinivas, Sriramula; Devi, S Manjulata; Majeed, Ahmed A; Rao, K Rajender; Khan, Aleem A; Sechi, Leonardo A; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2005-01-01

    Background Genomic diversity of H. pylori from many different human populations is largely unknown. We compared genomes of 65 H. pylori strains from Nottingham, England. Molecular analysis was carried out to identify rearrangements within and outside the cag-pathogenicity-island (cag PAI) and DNA sequence divergence in candidate genes. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out based on various high-resolution genotyping techniques. Results Analyses of virulence genes (cagT, cagE, cagA, vacA, iceA, oipA and babB) revealed that H. pylori strains from England are genetically distinct from strains obtained from other countries. The toxigenic vacA s1m1 genotype was found to be less common and the plasticity region cluster was found to be disrupted in all the isolates. English isolates showed a predominance of iceA1 alleles and a functional proinflammatory oipA gene. The English H. pylori gene pool revealed several Asian/oriental features. This included the predominance of cagA – glr (cagA right junction) motif types III and II (up to 42%), presence of vacA m1c alleles and phylogenetic affinity towards East Asian / Amerindian gene pools based on fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis and glmM sequence analysis. Conclusion Overall, our results demonstrated genetic affinities of H. pylori in England with both European and the Asian gene pools and some distinctive genetic features of virulence genes that may have evolved in this important European population. PMID:15916705

  17. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  18. Helicobacter pylori Perturbs Iron Trafficking in the Epithelium to Grow on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Shumin; Noto, Jennifer M.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) injects the CagA effector protein into host epithelial cells and induces growth factor-like signaling, perturbs cell-cell junctions, and alters host cell polarity. This enables Hp to grow as microcolonies adhered to the host cell surface even in conditions that do not support growth of free-swimming bacteria. We hypothesized that CagA alters host cell physiology to allow Hp to obtain specific nutrients from or across the epithelial barrier. Using a polarized epithelium model system, we find that isogenic ΔcagA mutants are defective in cell surface microcolony formation, but exogenous addition of iron to the apical medium partially rescues this defect, suggesting that one of CagA's effects on host cells is to facilitate iron acquisition from the host. Hp adhered to the apical epithelial surface increase basolateral uptake of transferrin and induce its transcytosis in a CagA-dependent manner. Both CagA and VacA contribute to the perturbation of transferrin recycling, since VacA is involved in apical mislocalization of the transferrin receptor to sites of bacterial attachment. To determine if the transferrin recycling pathway is involved in Hp colonization of the cell surface, we silenced transferrin receptor expression during infection. This resulted in a reduced ability of Hp to colonize the polarized epithelium. To test whether CagA is important in promoting iron acquisition in vivo, we compared colonization of Hp in iron-replete vs. iron-deficient Mongolian gerbils. While wild type Hp and ΔcagA mutants colonized iron-replete gerbils at similar levels, ΔcagA mutants are markedly impaired in colonizing iron-deficient gerbils. Our study indicates that CagA and VacA act in concert to usurp the polarized process of host cell iron uptake, allowing Hp to use the cell surface as a replicative niche. PMID:21589900

  19. Race, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori infection in a low-income United States population

    PubMed Central

    Epplein, Meira; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Peek, Richard M.; Michel, Angelika; Williams, Scott M.; Pawlita, Michael; Correa, Pelayo; Cai, Qiuyin; Blot, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer incidence in African Americans is twice that of whites, and differing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strain-specific isolates may help explain the disparity. Methods Serum levels of antibodies to each of 15 Helicobacter pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology for a sample of 689 African American and white participants from the Southern Community Cohort Study. African and European admixture was estimated using a panel of 276 ancestry genetic markers, with “low”, “medium”, and “high” categories of African ancestry defined as <85%, 85-95%, and ≥95%. Results The majority (79%) of our study population were sero-positive for Helicobacter pylori. African American race was associated with a 2- to 6-fold increased odds for sero-positivity to 8 Helicobacter pylori proteins, including the cancer-associated virulence constituents CagA (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-9.1), and VacA (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.5). Compared to whites, African Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry had 1.6-, 4.1-, and 5.2-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to Helicobacter pylori, primarily related to CagA sero-positive strains, for which increasing African ancestry led to 2.5-, 9.6-, and 13.1-fold increased odds. Among African Americans alone, compared to those of low African ancestry, African Americans of medium and high African ancestry had 2.5- and 3.4-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to Helicobacter pylori, and 3.5-and 4.9-fold increased odds of CagA sero-positive Helicobacter pylori strains. Conclusions Host genetic variation and/or lifestyle factors associated with African ancestry contribute to the likelihood of infection with Helicobacter pylori, particularly its virulent strains, in this low-income U.S. southern population. Impact Our findings that low-income African Americans of high African ancestry have a particularly high prevalence of antibodies against Helicobacter

  20. Race, African ancestry, and Helicobacter pylori infection in a low-income United States population.

    PubMed

    Epplein, Meira; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Peek, Richard M; Michel, Angelika; Williams, Scott M; Pawlita, Michael; Correa, Pelayo; Cai, Qiuyin; Blot, William J

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer incidence in African Americans is twice that of whites, and differing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori strain-specific isolates may help explain the disparity. Serum levels of antibodies to each of 15 H. pylori proteins were assessed using multiplex serology for a sample of 689 African American and white participants from the Southern Community Cohort Study. African and European admixture was estimated using a panel of 276 ancestry genetic markers, with "low," "medium," and "high" categories of African ancestry defined as <85%, 85% to 95%, and ≥95%. The majority (79%) of our study population were sero-positive for H. pylori. African American race was associated with a two- to sixfold increased odds for sero-positivity to eight H. pylori proteins, including the cancer-associated virulence constituents CagA [odds ratio (OR), 6.4; 95% CI, 4.5-9.1], and VacA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5). Compared to whites, African Americans of low, medium, and high African ancestry had 1.6-, 4.1-, and 5.2-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to H. pylori, primarily related to CagA sero-positive strains, for which increasing African ancestry led to 2.5-, 9.6-, and 13.1-fold increased odds. Among African Americans alone, compared to those of low African ancestry, African Americans of medium and high African ancestry had 2.5- and 3.4-fold increased odds of sero-positivity to H. pylori, and 3.5- and 4.9-fold increased odds of CagA sero-positive H. pylori strains. Host genetic variation and/or lifestyle factors associated with African ancestry contribute to the likelihood of infection with H. pylori, particularly its virulent strains, in this low-income U.S. southern population. Our findings that low-income African Americans of high African ancestry have a particularly high prevalence of antibodies against H. pylori provides a framework for further research into better detection and prevention of gastric cancer in this population. ©2011 AACR.

  1. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Kienesberger, Sabine; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Rivera-Correa, Juan L; Tosado-Acevedo, Rafael; Li, Huilin; Dubois, Andre; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis A; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Blaser, Martin J

    2012-08-24

    Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that Rhesus macaques might provide a model to

  2. Serologic host response to Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni in socially housed Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori are successful colonizers of the human gastric mucosa. Colonization increases the risk of peptic ulcer disease and adenocarcinoma. However, potential benefits of H. pylori colonization include protection against early-onset asthma and against gastrointestinal infections. Campylobacter jejuni are a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea and complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we describe the development of reliable serological assays to detect antibodies against those two bacteria in Rhesus macaques and investigated their distribution within a social group of monkeys. Methods Two cohorts of monkeys were analyzed. The first cohort consisted of 30 monkeys and was used to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antibodies detection. To evaluate colonization of those macaques, stomach biopsies were collected and analyzed for the presence of H. pylori by histology and culture. C. jejuni ELISAs were established using human serum with known C. jejuni antibody status. Next, plasma samples of the 89 macaques (Cohort 2) were assayed for antibodies and then statistically analyzed. Results An H. pylori IgG ELISA, which was 100% specific and 93% sensitive, was established. In contrast, the IgA ELISA was only 82% specific and 61% sensitive. The CagA IgG assay was 100% sensitive and 61% of the macaques were positive. In cohort 2, 62% macaques were H. pylori sero-positive and 52% were CagA positive. The prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG increased with monkey age as described for humans. Of the 89 macaques 52% showed IgG against C. jejuni but in contrast to H. pylori, the sero-prevalence was not associated with increasing age. However, there was a drop in the IgG (but not in IgA) mean values between infant and juvenile macaques, similar to trends described in humans. Conclusions Rhesus macaques have widespread exposure to H. pylori and C. jejuni, reflecting their social conditions and implying that

  3. A Helicobacter pylori Homolog of Eukaryotic Flotillin Is Involved in Cholesterol Accumulation, Epithelial Cell Responses and Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Melanie L; D'Costa, Kimberley; Rossiter, Amanda E; Wang, Lin; Turner, Lorinda; Steer, David L; Masters, Seth L; Croker, Ben A; Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria; Ferrero, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori acquires cholesterol from membrane raft domains in eukaryotic cells, commonly known as "lipid rafts." Incorporation of this cholesterol into the H. pylori cell membrane allows the bacterium to avoid clearance by the host immune system and to resist the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides. The presence of cholesterol in H. pylori bacteria suggested that this pathogen may have cholesterol-enriched domains within its membrane. Consistent with this suggestion, we identified a hypothetical H. pylori protein (HP0248) with homology to the flotillin proteins normally found in the cholesterol-enriched domains of eukaryotic cells. As shown for eukaryotic flotillin proteins, HP0248 was detected in detergent-resistant membrane fractions of H. pylori. Importantly, H. pylori HP0248 mutants contained lower levels of cholesterol than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.01). HP0248 mutant bacteria also exhibited defects in type IV secretion functions, as indicated by reduced IL-8 responses and CagA translocation in epithelial cells (P < 0.05), and were less able to establish a chronic infection in mice than wild-type bacteria (P < 0.05). Thus, we have identified an H. pylori flotillin protein and shown its importance for bacterial virulence. Taken together, the data demonstrate important roles for H. pylori flotillin in host-pathogen interactions. We propose that H. pylori flotillin may be required for the organization of virulence proteins into membrane raft-like structures in this pathogen.

  4. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and atopy in young Ethiopian children: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Taye, B; Enquselassie, F; Tsegaye, A; Amberbir, A; Medhin, G; Fogarty, A; Robinson, K; Davey, G

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence from developed countries indicates that Helicobacter pylori infection correlates with a reduced risk of atopy and allergic disorders; however, limited data are available from low-income countries. We examined associations between H. pylori infection in early childhood and atopy and reported allergic disorders at the age of 6.5 years in an Ethiopian birth cohort. A total of 856 children (85.1% of the 1006 original singletons in a population-based birth cohort) were followed up at age six and half years. An interviewer-led questionnaire administered to mothers provided information on demographic and lifestyle variables. Questions on allergic disease symptoms were based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) core allergy and environmental questionnaire. Serum samples were analysed for total IgE levels and anti-H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) IgG antibody using commercially available ELISA kits. Stool samples were analysed for H. pylori antigen using a rapid immunochromatographic test. The independent effects of H. pylori infection (measured at age of 3, 5 and 6.5 years) on prevalence and incidence of atopy and reported allergic disorders (measured at age of 6.5 years) were determined using multiple logistic regression. In cross-sectional analysis, current H. pylori infection at age 6.5 years was inversely, though not significantly, related to prevalence of atopy and "any allergic condition" at age 6.5 years. However, detection of H. pylori infection at any point up to age 6.5 years was associated with a significantly reduced odds of both atopy and "any allergic condition" (adjusted OR AOR, 95% CI, 0.54; 0.32-0.92, P = .02, and .31; 0.10-0.94, P = .04, respectively). In longitudinal analyses, H. pylori infection at age 3 was inversely associated with incidence of atopy (AOR, 95% CI, 0.49; 0.27-0.89, P = .02). Furthermore, among H. pylori-infected children, those with a CagA

  5. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal name: Helicobacter pylori Related tests: Gastrin At a Glance Test ... else I should know? How is it used? Helicobacter pylori testing is used to diagnose an infection ...

  6. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helicobacter Pylori Infections Page Content Article Body Most people, ... always) caused by bacteria—specifically, an organism called Helicobacter pylori. H pylori infections occur at a low ...

  7. Prevalence of virulent Helicobacter pylori strains in patients affected by idiopathic dysrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Francesco; Brisinda, Donatella; Buccelletti, Francesco; Ruggieri, Maria Pia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Sorbo, Annarita; Marsiliani, Davide; Venuti, Angela; Fenici, Peter; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Silveri, Nicolò Gentiloni; Fenici, Riccardo

    2013-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori virulent strains have been shown to affect cardiovascular diseases through molecular mimicry mechanisms. Silent autoimmune myocarditis has been hypothesized to be the cause of idiopathic dysrhythmias (IA). The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of virulent H. pylori strains in patients affected by IA. In this study,54 patients (40 men, mean age 44 ± 17 years) affected by IA and 50 healthy subjects (34 men, mean age 45 ± 9) were evaluated. IA, defined as dysrhythmias with no evidence of other cardiac pathology, were either supraventricular (SVA, 23 patients; mean age 45 ± 15 years) or ventricular (VA, 31 patients; mean age 42 ± 18 years). H. pylori infection and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were evaluated. H. pylori strains expressing the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and the vacuolating-cytotoxin A (vacA) were also assessed through western blot. The prevalence of H. pylori is similar in IA patients and in controls (42 vs. 44%; p > 0.05); H. pylori infection is observed in 48 and 39% of the patients are affected by SVA and VA, respectively. The prevalence of CagA-positive strains is increased in IA patients compared to controls (65 vs. 42%; p < 0.01); similarly, the prevalence of VacA-positive strains is also increased in IA patients (74 vs. 46%; p < 0.006). Excluding belching, infected patients did not show any difference in GI symptoms, when compared to non-infected subjects. From this study it is concluded that there is an epidemiological link between CagA and VacA-positive H. pylori strains in IA patients.

  8. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos; Harris, Paul R.; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N.; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least 2-fold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted-odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p=0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p<0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42, and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (ROC area under curve <0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  9. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Harris, Paul R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Carolina Flórez, Astrid; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least twofold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p = 0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p < 0.05) associated with residence in high-risk areas, but ORs were moderate (1.26, 1.42 and 1.41, respectively) and their discriminatory power was low (area under the curve < 0.6). The association of Catalase was independent from effects of either CagA or VacA. Sensitivity analyses for antibody associations restricted to H. pylori-seropositive individuals generally replicated significant associations. Our findings suggest that humoral responses to H. pylori are insufficient to distinguish high and low gastric cancer risk in Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. © 2015 UICC.

  10. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Hassan; Dabiri, Hossein; Souod, Negar; Gholami, Mohsen

    2014-04-03

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant's samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4-8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human.

  11. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in cows, sheep, goats and human beings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is one of the most controversial bacteria in the world causing diverse gastrointestinal diseases. The transmission way of this bacterium still remains unknown. The possibility of zoonotic transmission of H. pylori has been suggested, but is not proven in nonprimate reservoirs. In the current survey, we investigate the presence of H. pylori in cow, sheep and goat stomach, determine the bacterium virulence factors and finally compare the human H. pylori virulence factors and animals in order to examine whether H. pylori might be transmitted from these animals to human beings. Methods This cross- sectional study was performed on 800 gastric biopsy specimens of cows, sheep, goats and human beings. The PCR assays was performed to detection of H. pylori, vacA and cagA genes. The PCR products of Ruminant’s samples with positive H. pylori were subjected to DNA sequencing analysis. Statistical tests were applied for data analysis. Results Overall 6 (3%) cows, 32 (16%) sheep and 164 (82%) human beings specimens were confirmed to be H. pylori positive; however we were not able to detect this bacterium in all 200 goat samples. The vacA s1a/m1a was the predominant H. pylori genotype in all three kinds of studied population. There was 3.4–8.4% variability and 92.9-98.5% homology between sheep and human samples. Conclusions Considering the high sequence homology among DNA of H. pylori isolated from sheep and human, our data suggest that sheep may act as a reservoir for H. pylori and in the some extent share the ancestral host for the bacteria with human. PMID:24708464

  12. Helicobacter pylori in Iran: A systematic review on the association of genotypes and gastroduodenal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Elham; Poursina, Farkhondeh; de Wiele, Tom Van; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian; Adibi, Peyman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is known as a major etiologic factor for a variety of gastroduodenal diseases. In Iran, with a high rate of H. pylori infection close to 90%, numerous studies have revealed many aspects of interaction between the bacterium, mucosal surface and induction of disease outcome. The organism is genetically diverse and several virulence factors are attributed to the more virulent strains. The well-characterized virulence factors of H. pylori are cytotoxin associated gene A and vacuolating cytotoxin gene A. The distribution pattern of H. pylori genotypes and its association with disease status varies geographically. The present review focused on the virulence factors and genotyping of H. pylori in relation to gastroduodenal disorders in different regions of Iran. Methods: In total, 398 studies were reported on different aspects related to H. pylori in our electronic search from 1995-2011. H. pylori infection and its virulence factors in association with disease status were investigated in 159 reports. Looking specifically at the gastrointestinal tract disorders, the most relevant reports including 37 papers were selected. Results: We found no correlation of cagA genotype and disease status in the majority of studies, whereas vacA was demonstrated as a useful marker in predicting the disease outcome. The results of reports on other virulence factors of H. pylori such as blood group antigen-binding adhesion gene A, the induced by contact with epithelium gene A, the outer inflammatory protein A, the duodenal ulcer promoting gene A, and Helicobacter outer membrane gene and their relation with disease status were contradictory. Conclusions: Although different markers of H. pylori were emphasized as useful when predicting disease outcomes in some studies, the inconsistent researches and the scarcity of data made any conclusion or even comparison impossible. Considering the gap of information observed during our search

  13. The Prevalence of Mixed Helicobacter pylori Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Subjects in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Khandoker Mohammad K; Hossain, Md Enayet; Sultana, Jinath; Sarker, Shafiqul A; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Rahman, Motiur; Nahar, Shamsun

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a highly genetically diverse bacterial species, which can persist in the gastric environment for decades. Recent studies have shown that single infections predominate in developed countries, whereas mixed infections are more prevalent in developing countries. Mixed infections of this bacterium may be important for adaptation to the hostile gastric environment and may facilitate dyspeptic symptoms. To calculate the prevalence of mixed infections in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, 2010 H. pylori isolates collected from 83 symptomatic and 91 asymptomatic subjects from Dhaka, Bangladesh, were analyzed by (i) random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting (RAPD) and (ii) multiplex PCR amplification for cagA and vacA virulence gene alleles. The overall prevalence of mixed H. pylori infection was 60.15% (77/128), indicating substantial co-colonization in this population. We additionally found that symptomatic subjects (53%) had a significantly higher rate of mixed infection than asymptomatic individuals (36.3%) (p = .016) and that the prevalence of the cagA and vacA and vacA m1/s1 and vacA m2/s1 alleles were higher in subjects with mixed infection. Our findings suggest that an increased diversity of the H. pylori strains in the gastric environment may contribute to the development of disease symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. In vivo expression of Helicobacter pylori virulence genes in patients with gastritis, ulcer, and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, Francisco; Reyes-Leon, Adriana; Nieto-Patlán, Erik; Hansen, Lori M; Burgueño, Juan; Ramos, Irma P; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Bermúdez, Hector; Blancas, Juan M; Cabrera, Lourdes; Ribas-Aparicio, Rosa María; Solnick, Jay V; Torres-López, Javier

    2012-02-01

    The best-studied Helicobacter pylori virulence factor associated with development of peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer (GC) rather than asymptomatic nonatrophic gastritis (NAG) is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that injects the CagA oncoprotein into host epithelial cells. Here we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to measure the in vivo expression of genes on the cagPAI and of other virulence genes in patients with NAG, duodenal ulcer (DU), or GC. In vivo expression of H. pylori virulence genes was greater overall in gastric biopsy specimens of patients with GC than in those of patients with NAG or DU. However, since in vitro expression of cagA was not greater in H. pylori strains from patients with GC than in those from patients with NAG or DU, increased expression in GC in vivo is likely a result of environmental conditions in the gastric mucosa, though it may in turn cause more severe pathology. Increased expression of virulence genes in GC may represent a stress response to elevated pH or other environmental conditions in the stomach of patients with GC, which may be less hospitable to H. pylori colonization than the acidic environment in patients with NAG or DU.

  15. Interleukin-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori in a Brazilian Amazon population

    PubMed Central

    Melo Barbosa, Hivana Patricia; Martins, Luisa Caricio; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Mônica Baraúna; Aragão, Charliana Damasceno; de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α polymorphisms, infection by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and the development of gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 177 patients with various gastrointestinal diseases and from 100 healthy volunteers. The polymorphisms in IL-1β and TNF-α genes were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) and those from IL-1RN with PCR. The presence of infection due to H pylori and the presence of the CagA toxin were detected by serology. The histopathological parameters in the gastric biopsies of the patients were according to the Sydney classification. RESULTS: A comparison of the frequencies of the different polymorphisms studied among the patients and the control group demonstrated that the allele IL-1RN*2 was more frequent among patients with gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma. Carriers of the allele IL-RN*2 and those with reactive serology for anti-CagA IgG had a greater risk of developing peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma, as well as a higher degree of inflammation and neutrophilic activity in the gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a positive association between IL-1RN gene polymorphism and infection by positive H pylori CagA strains and the development of gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma. PMID:19322919

  16. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence.

    PubMed

    Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Shiota, Seiji; Matsuda, Miyuki; Binh, Tran Thanh; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Mahachai, Varocha; Tshering, Lotay; Dung, Ho D Q; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsunari, Osamu; Myint, Thein; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3)galT(jhp0563) was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  17. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-01-01

    Background The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. Results We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. Conclusion These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent. PMID:17584914

  18. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India.

    PubMed

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-06-20

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent.

  19. Salt intake and type of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori-infected Portuguese men.

    PubMed

    Pintalhao, Mariana; Dias-Neto, Marina; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lopes, Carla; Figueiredo, Céu; David, Leonor; Lunet, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    The relation between salt intake and intestinal metaplasia (IM) types and the potential interaction with H. pylori virulence are poorly understood and may contribute to further understand gastric carcinogenesis. We quantified the association between dietary salt exposure and complete, incomplete, and mixed IM, taking into account the potential effect modification according to the virulence of H. pylori infecting strains. H. pylori-infected male volunteers (n = 233) underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and completed questionnaires comprising different measures of salt exposure (main food items/groups contributing to dietary salt intake, estimated dietary sodium intake, visual analogical scale for salt intake, preference for salty/salted foods). A histological diagnosis was assigned based on the most severe lesion observed. H. pylori virulence was assessed by characterizing vacA and cagA genes. Odds ratios were estimated through age- and education-adjusted logistic regression models. The risk of IM was not significantly increased in H. pylori infected subjects with higher levels of salt consumption. The lack of association was consistent across measures of salt exposure, categories of H. pylori virulence, and types of IM. In conclusion, in this H. pylori positive population, salt intake did not increase the risk of any IM type, regardless of the virulence of the infecting strains.

  20. Identification of Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients in Surabaya, Indonesia, using five diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, M; Shiota, S; Suzuki, R; Matsuda, M; Uchida, T; Kido, Y; Kawamoto, F; Maimunah, U; Adi, P; Rezkitha, Y; Nasronudin; Nusi, I; Yamaoka, Y

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is controversial. We examined the H. pylori infection rate in 78 patients in a hospital in Surabaya using five different tests, including culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, rapid urease test, and urine antibody test. Furthermore, we analysed virulence factors in H. pylori strains from Indonesia. The H. pylori infection rate was only 11.5% in all patients studied, and 2.3% of Javanese patients and 18.0% of Chinese patients were infected (P = 0.01). Although severe gastritis was not observed, activity and inflammation were significantly higher in patients positive for H. pylori than in patients negative for H. pylori. Among genotypes identified from five isolated strains, cagA was found in four; two were vacA s1m1. All cagA-positive strains were oipA 'on' and iceA1 positive. We confirmed both a low H. pylori infection rate and a low prevalence of precancerous lesions in dyspeptic patients in a Surabaya hospital, which may contribute to the low incidence of gastric cancer in Indonesia.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Gastric Cancer Initiation and Progression by Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Servetas, Stephanie L.; Bridge, Dacie R.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Infection with the Gram-negative, microaerophilic pathogen Helicobacter pylori results in gastric cancer (GC) in a subset of infected individuals. As such, H. pylori is the only World Health Organization classified bacterial class I carcinogen. Numerous studies have identified mechanisms by which H. pylori alters host cell signaling pathways to cause disease. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore mechanisms associated with induction of GC. Recent Findings Over the last year and a half, new mechanisms contributing to the etiology of H. pylori associated GC development have been discovered. In addition to utilizing the oncogenic CagA toxin to alter host cell signaling pathways, H. pylori also induces host DNA damage and alters DNA methylation to perturb downstream signaling. Furthermore, H. pylori activates numerous host cell pathways and proteins that result in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induction of cell survival and proliferation. Summary Mounting evidence suggests that H. pylori promotes gastric carcinogenesis using a multifactorial approach. Intriguingly, many of the targeted pathways and mechanism show commonality with diverse forms of cancer. PMID:26779778

  2. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treating Helicobacter pylori for gastric cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Sharp, Linda

    2013-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that Helicobacter pylori eradication reduces gastric cancer incidence by 35%. Current consensus is that H. pylori screening and treatment is cost-effective only in high-risk populations. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence for cost-effectiveness of H. pylori screening and treatment in different population settings and risk levels for H. pylori infection. Ten unique cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses were identified. All found that screening for H. pylori to prevent gastric cancer in the general population costs less than $50,000 per LYG. This finding was robust for differences in H. pylori prevalence, gender and ethnicity. Based on limited evidence, re-treatment (for treatment failure), repeated screening, limiting screening and treatment to those with the CagA phenotype, or universal treatment, does not appear to be cost-effective. However, most included studies failed to consider both the broader benefits as well as the adverse effects of widespread use of antibiotics for H. pylori.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of screening and treating H. Pylori for gastric cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Sharp, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. A meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials concluded that H. Pylori eradication reduces gastric cancer incidence by 35%. Current consensus is that H. Pylori screening and treatment is cost-effective only in high-risk populations. This paper provides an up-to-date overview of the evidence for cost-effectiveness of H. Pylori screening and treatment in different population settings and risk levels for H. Pylori infection. Ten unique cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses were identified. All found that screening for H. Pylori to prevent gastric cancer in the general population costs less than $50,000 per LYG. This finding was robust for differences in H. Pylori prevalence, gender and ethnicity. Based on limited evidence, re-treatment (for treatment failure), repeated screening, limiting screening and treatment to those with the CagA phenotype, or universal treatment, does not appear to be cost-effective. However, most included studies failed to consider both the broader benefits as well as the adverse effects of widespread use of antibiotics for H. Pylori. PMID:24182612

  4. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and regulatory cytokines as predictors of clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Carolina; Diaz, Maria Ines; Valdivia, Alejandra; Godoy, Alex; Peña, Alfredo; Rollan, Antonio; Kirberg, Arturo; Hebel, Eduardo; Fierro, Jaqueline; Klapp, Gerardo; Venegas, Alejandro; Harris, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in Chile (73%). Usually a minority of infected patients develops complications such as ulcers and gastric cancer that have been associated with the presence of virulence factors (cagA, vacA) and host T helper response (Th1/Th2). Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between strain virulence and host immune response, using a multiple regression approach for the development of a model based on data collected from H. pylori infected patients in Chile. We analyzed levels of selected cytokines determined by ELISA (IL-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-4) and the presence of cagA and vacA alleles polymorphisms determined by PCR in antral biopsies of 41 patients referred to endoscopy. By multiple regression analysis we established a correlation between bacterial and host factors using clinical outcome (gastritis and duodenal ulcer) as dependent variables. The selected model was described by: clinical outcome = 0.867491 (cagA) + 0.0131847 (IL-12/IL-10) + 0.0103503 (IFN-γ/IL-4) and it was able to explain over 90% of clinical outcomes observations (R2=96.4). This model considers that clinical outcomes are better explained by the interaction of host immune factors and strain virulence as a complex and interdependent mechanism. PMID:17336120

  5. Determination of Helicobacter pylori virulence by analysis of the cag pathogenicity island isolated from Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Kaveh; Shokrzadeh, Leila; Jafari, Fereshteh; Dabiri, Hossein; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Bolfion, Mehdi; Zojaji, Homayon; Aslani, Mehdi; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    Background The cag pathogenicity island (PAI), which can divide into two parts: cagI and cagII, is the most well-known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Aims We investigated the association between genetic variations within the cag PAI (cagA and cagE in the cagI and cagT in the cagII) and clinical outcomes in Iranian population. Subjects A total of 231 patients including 182 patients with gastritis, 41 with peptic ulcer and 8 with gastric cancer. Methods The presences of the cagA, cagE and cagT genes were measured by polymerase chain reaction and the results were compared with clinical outcomes and gastric histology. Results The cagA, cagE and cagT genes were found in 154 (66.7%), 90 (39.0%) and 70 (30.3%) of clinical isolates. At least 144 (62.3%) strains possessed partially deleted cag PAI (e.g., 69 [29.9%] strains were cagA-positive, but cagE and cagT-negative). Conclusion The simple gene as well as the combination of the genes in the cag PAI appeared not to be useful markers to predict H. pylori-related diseases in Iranian population. The genomic sequences of the cag PAI in Iranian strains might be considerably different from those in other geographic locations. PMID:19261552

  6. Relevance of Helicobacter pylori vacA 3'-end Region Polymorphism to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakhti, Seyedeh Zahra; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Mohammadi, Shiva; Zahri, Saber; Bakhti, Fatemeh Sadat; Feizi, Farideh; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Siavoshi, Farideh

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe gastrointestinal disease. We identified a novel polymorphic site in the 3'-end region of H. pylori vacA gene, denoted by c1/-c2 (c1: with deletion of 15 bp), and examined associations of this and the previous four sites as well as cagA status with gastroduodenal diseases, in a total of 217 Iranian H. pylori isolates. Histopathologic evaluations were performed and patients with gastric cancer (GC) were further classified based on the anatomic site of tumor, including cardia and noncardia GC, and the histopathologic type of tumor, including intestinal- and diffuse-type GC. The vacA m1, i1, d1, c1, and cagA genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk of GC, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 4.29 (2.03-9.08), 6.11 (2.63-14.19), 3.18 (1.49-6.76), 15.13 (5.86-39.01), and 2.59 (1.09-6.12), respectively. The vacA c1 genotype had an increased age- and sex-adjusted risk for GC by the multiple logistic regression analysis; the OR was 38.32 (95% CI, 6.60-222.29). This association was independent of and larger than the associations of the m-, i-, and d-type of vacA or cagA status with GC. No significant correlation was found between s1, whether independently or in combination, and the risk of GC or peptic ulcer disease (PUD). The vacA i1 and cagA genotypes were linked to an increased risk of PUD; the OR (95% CI) was 2.80 (1.45-5.40) and 2.62 (1.23-5.61), respectively. The presence of both the vacA i1 and cagA genotypes further increased the risk of PUD; the OR was 5.20 (95% CI, 1.92-14.03). The H. pylori vacA c1 genotype might therefore be one of the strongest risk predictors of GC in male patients aged ≥55 in Iran. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Multiplex-PCR-Based Screening and Computational Modeling of Virulence Factors and T-Cell Mediated Immunity in Helicobacter pylori Infections for Accurate Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Oktem-Okullu, Sinem; Tiftikci, Arzu; Saruc, Murat; Cicek, Bahattin; Vardareli, Eser; Tozun, Nurdan; Kocagoz, Tanil; Sezerman, Ugur; Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Sayi-Yazgan, Ayca

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of H. pylori infection is closely related with bacteria's virulence factors and host immune response. The association between T cells and H. pylori infection has been identified, but the effects of the nine major H. pylori specific virulence factors; cagA, vacA, oipA, babA, hpaA, napA, dupA, ureA, ureB on T cell response in H. pylori infected patients have not been fully elucidated. We developed a multiplex- PCR assay to detect nine H. pylori virulence genes with in a three PCR reactions. Also, the expression levels of Th1, Th17 and Treg cell specific cytokines and transcription factors were detected by using qRT-PCR assays. Furthermore, a novel expert derived model is developed to identify set of factors and rules that can distinguish the ulcer patients from gastritis patients. Within all virulence factors that we tested, we identified a correlation between the presence of napA virulence gene and ulcer disease as a first data. Additionally, a positive correlation between the H. pylori dupA virulence factor and IFN-γ, and H. pylori babA virulence factor and IL-17 was detected in gastritis and ulcer patients respectively. By using computer-based models, clinical outcomes of a patients infected with H. pylori can be predicted by screening the patient's H. pylori vacA m1/m2, ureA and cagA status and IFN-γ (Th1), IL-17 (Th17), and FOXP3 (Treg) expression levels. Herein, we report, for the first time, the relationship between H. pylori virulence factors and host immune responses for diagnostic prediction of gastric diseases using computer—based models. PMID:26287606

  8. An association between sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, J; Al-Khattaf, A; Barson, A; Burnie, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Helicobacter pylori has recently been detected in the stomach and trachea of cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and proposed as a cause of SIDS.
AIMS—To establish the incidence of H pylori in the stomach, trachea, and lung of cases of SIDS and controls.
METHODS—Stomach, trachea, and lung tissues from 32 cases of SIDS and eight control cases were examined retrospectively. Diagnosis of SIDS was based on established criteria. Controls were defined by death within 1 year of age and an identifiable cause of death. Tissues were examined histologically for the presence of bacteria. Extracted DNA from these tissues was tested for H pylori ureC and cagA sequences by nested polymerase chain reaction and amplicons detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cut off for each ELISA for each of the tissue types was taken as the mean optical density plus two times the standard deviation of a range of negative controls.
RESULTS—Ages of SIDS cases ranged from 2 to 28 weeks. Ages of controls ranged from 3 to 44 weeks. For the ureC gene, 25 SIDS cases were positive in one or more tissues compared with one of the controls. For the cagA gene, 25 SIDS cases were positive in one or more tissues compared with one of the controls.
CONCLUSIONS—There is a highly significant association between H pylori ureC and cagA genes in the stomach, trachea, and lung of cases of SIDS when compared with controls.

 PMID:11040154

  9. Accumulated evidence on Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of asthma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Xun, Pengcheng; Tsinovoi, Cari; He, Ka

    2017-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection has been suggested to be related to a decreased risk of asthma, but findings in the literature are inconsistent. To quantitatively summarize the existing evidence on the association between H pylori infection and asthma risk. The PubMed database was searched for observational studies of H pylori infection in relation to the risk of asthma published in English through May 2017. Measurements of association were pooled using a meta-analytic approach and expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Twenty-four studies were identified in this meta-analysis, including 8 case-control studies composed of 1,247 cases and 2,410 controls, and 16 cross-sectional studies composed of 50,290 participants (4,185 cases and 46,105 noncases). The average H pylori infection rates were 40.01% and 48.74% in case-control and cross-sectional studies, respectively. Five studies subcategorized H pylori infection according to CagA status, in which 59.37% of H pylori-infected participants were identified as having CagA positivity. Helicobacter pylori infection was significantly inversely associated with the risk of asthma in case-control studies (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.98) but was borderline significant in cross-sectional studies (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.76-1.02). The observed inverse association persisted for CagA-positive H pylori infection (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93, P for interaction = .03) but not for CagA-negative strains (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.66-1.78). No significant difference was observed across age or region subgroups. The accumulated evidence supports that H pylori infection, especially CagA-positive H pylori infection, is inversely associated with the risk of asthma. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploiting the Gastric Epithelial Barrier: Helicobacter pylori's Attack on Tight and Adherens Junctions.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Schmidt, Thomas P; Harrer, Aileen; Wessler, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Highly organized intercellular tight and adherens junctions are crucial structural components for establishing and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, which control the microbiota and protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of multiple infectious diseases as well as various cancers. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts an amazing set of strategies to manipulate these epithelial cell-to-cell junctions, which are implicated in changing cell polarity, migration and invasive growth as well as pro-inflammatory and proliferative responses. This chapter focuses on the H. pylori pathogenicity factors VacA, CagA, HtrA and urease, and how they can induce host cell signaling involved in altering cell-to-cell permeability. We propose a stepwise model for how H. pylori targets components of tight and adherens junctions in order to disrupt the gastric epithelial cell layer, giving fresh insights into the pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  11. High exposure, spontaneous clearance, and low incidence of active Helicobacter pylori infection: the Sorbo San Basile study.

    PubMed

    Luzza, Francesco; Suraci, Evelina; Larussa, Tiziana; Leone, Isabella; Imeneo, Maria

    2014-08-01

    A decreased incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection has been prospected to occur nowadays. To evaluate the exposure to H. pylori, prevalence and incidence of active infection, and related risk factors in the general population. In a small town of Southern Italy (932 inhabitants), 595 (3-97 years) and 157 (12-82 years) subjects among those with no evidence of active H. pylori infection participated at baseline and 10 years later, respectively. A questionnaire was administered. Active H. pylori infection was assessed by (13) C-urea breath test (UBT). Serum VacA and CagA antibodies were determined. Of 518 subjects who were evaluated by both UBT and serology, 310 (59.8%) were UBT positive, 479 (92.4%) VacA positive, and 369 (71.2%) CagA positive. Subjects UBT negative and serology positive were 169 (32%), ranging 1 (14.2%) to 29 (82.8%) from last to first decades of life. Age, female gender, and people per room were independent risk factors for subjects UBT positive compared to those UBT negative and serology positive. Ten years later, subjects who became UBT positive were four of 157 (0.25% per year) while those who became seropositive for VacA and/or CagA were 17 of 26 (6.5% per year). H. pylori infection is highly dynamic with wide range of spontaneous clearance. It is easily cleared in the first decades of life, more recent years, less crowded homes, and males. It disappears and recurs more often than it was previously thought, implying that the current decline in its prevalence is due to real clearance instead of a fall in infection rate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Helicobacter pylori serological biomarkers of gastric cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Pawlita, Michael; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Santibáñez, Miguel; Peiró, Rosana; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-09-06

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the main risk factors for non-cardia gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected persons develop the disease. This study aims at identifying H. pylori related serological biomarkers of risk for gastric cancer. Incident gastric cancer cases and population controls (age, sex and region frequency-matched) from the MCC-Spain multicase-control Study were included. Seroreactivities against 16H. pylori proteins were determined using multiplex serology. Infection was defined as seropositivity against≥4 proteins. Relation of serological results to non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer was assessed using multivariable mixed logistic regression and principal components analysis. Seroprevalence was 88% among 2071 controls, 95% among 202 non-cardia gastric cancer cases (OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6)) and 85% among 62 cardia cancer cases (OR=0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.1)). In infected subjects, seropositivity for UreA, HP231, NapA and Cagδ was associated with lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, while seropositivity for CagA and VacA was associated with higher risk. Seropositivity for CagA and seronegativity for Cagδ maintained the association after additional adjustment by serostatus of significant proteins. We identified two antibody reactivity patterns: the "virulent-pattern", related to a threefold higher risk of non-cardia gastric cancer and the "non-virulent pattern", related to a 60% decreased risk (4th vs. first quartile). In our population, people seropositive for H. pylori were characterized by two patterns of antibody reactivity against H. pylori proteins: 1) Combined high seroreactivity against several proteins, associated with a lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, and 2) High seroreactivity against CagA and VacA, associated with an increased risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reciprocal impact of host factors and Helicobacter pylori genotypes on gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand-Jahromy, Sahar; Siavoshi, Farideh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Nejad Sattari, Taher; Latifi-Navid, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and patient age and sex on the development of gastric diseases. METHODS: H. pylori-infected patients (n = 233) referred to the endoscopy unit at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) were diagnosed with chronic gastritis (CG), gastric ulcer (GU), or duodenal ulcer (DU). Brucella blood agar was used for biopsy cultures and H. pylori isolation under microaerobic conditions. H. pylori isolates were confirmed with biochemical tests and through amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from fresh cultures of the H. pylori isolates and used for amplification of vacA alleles and the cagA gene. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between H. pylori genotypes, age (< 40 years vs > 40 years) and sex of the patient, and gastric diseases. RESULTS: CG was the most prevalent gastric disease (113/233; 48.5%), compared to GU (64/233; 27.5%) and DU (56/233; 24%). More patients were male, and gastric diseases were more frequent in patients > 40 years (P < 0.05). The percentage of CG and GU patients that were male and female did not show a significant difference; however DU was more common in males (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a diagnosis of CG in patients > 40 years was more common in females (18.5%) than males (11.6%) (P = 0.05), whereas a diagnosis of GU or DU in patients > 40 years was more frequent in males (14.6% vs 10.7% and 12.4% vs 4.3%, respectively). Overall, genotyping of the H. pylori isolates revealed that the vacA s1 (82%), vacA m2 (70%), and cagA+ (72.5%) alleles were more frequent than vacA s2 (18%), vacA m1 (29.2%), and cagA- (all P < 0.05). The vacA s1m2cagA+ genotype was the most prevalent within the three disease groups. vacA s1m2 frequency was 56.2% with a similar occurrence in all diagnoses, while vacA s1m1 appeared more often in DU patients (33.9%). A genotype of vacA s2m2 occurred in 15% of isolates and was more common in CG patients (21

  14. Reciprocal impact of host factors and Helicobacter pylori genotypes on gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Honarmand-Jahromy, Sahar; Siavoshi, Farideh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Nejad Sattari, Taher; Latifi-Navid, Saeid

    2015-08-21

    To assess the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and patient age and sex on the development of gastric diseases. H. pylori-infected patients (n = 233) referred to the endoscopy unit at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) were diagnosed with chronic gastritis (CG), gastric ulcer (GU), or duodenal ulcer (DU). Brucella blood agar was used for biopsy cultures and H. pylori isolation under microaerobic conditions. H. pylori isolates were confirmed with biochemical tests and through amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from fresh cultures of the H. pylori isolates and used for amplification of vacA alleles and the cagA gene. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between H. pylori genotypes, age (< 40 years vs > 40 years) and sex of the patient, and gastric diseases. CG was the most prevalent gastric disease (113/233; 48.5%), compared to GU (64/233; 27.5%) and DU (56/233; 24%). More patients were male, and gastric diseases were more frequent in patients > 40 years (P < 0.05). The percentage of CG and GU patients that were male and female did not show a significant difference; however DU was more common in males (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a diagnosis of CG in patients > 40 years was more common in females (18.5%) than males (11.6%) (P = 0.05), whereas a diagnosis of GU or DU in patients > 40 years was more frequent in males (14.6% vs 10.7% and 12.4% vs 4.3%, respectively). Overall, genotyping of the H. pylori isolates revealed that the vacA s1 (82%), vacA m2 (70%), and cagA (+) (72.5%) alleles were more frequent than vacA s2 (18%), vacA m1 (29.2%), and cagA(-) (all P < 0.05). The vacA s1m2cagA (+) genotype was the most prevalent within the three disease groups. vacA s1m2 frequency was 56.2% with a similar occurrence in all diagnoses, while vacA s1m1 appeared more often in DU patients (33.9%). A genotype of vacA s2m2 occurred in 15% of isolates and was more common in CG patients (21.2%); vacA s2m1

  15. The design of vaccines against Helicobacter pylori and their development.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Covacci, A; Telford, J L; Montecucco, C; Rappuoli, R

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram negative, spiral, microaerophylic bacterium that infects the stomach of more than 50% of the human population worldwide. It is mostly acquired during childhood and, if not treated, persists chronically, causing chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and in some individuals, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric B cell lymphoma. The current therapy, based on the use of a proton-pump inhibitor and antibiotics, is efficacious but faces problems such as patient compliance, antibiotic resistance, and possible recurrence of infection. The development of an efficacious vaccine against H. pylori would thus offer several advantages. Various approaches have been followed in the development of vaccines against H. pylori, most of which have been based on the use of selected antigens known to be involved in the pathogenesis of the infection, such as urease, the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), the cytotoxin-associated antigen (CagA), the neutrophil-activating protein (NAP), and others, and intended to confer protection prophylactically and/or therapeutically in animal models of infection. However, very little is known of the natural history of H. pylori infection and of the kinetics of the induced immune responses. Several lines of evidence suggest that H. pylori infection is accompanied by a pronounced Th1-type CD4(+) T cell response. It appears, however, that after immunization, the antigen-specific response is predominantly polarized toward a Th2-type response, with production of cytokines that can inhibit the activation of Th1 cells and of macrophages, and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The exact effector mechanisms of protection induced after immunization are still poorly understood. The next couple of years will be crucial for the development of vaccines against H. pylori. Several trials are foreseen in humans, and expectations are that most of the questions being asked now on the host-microbe interactions will be answered.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Shmuely, Haim; Shimon, Ilan; Gitter, Limor Azulay

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection as environmental risk factors for Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) has been reported. We investigated this hypothesis in women in which HT is more common. Serum immunoglobulin G antibodies against H pylori (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), CagA protein (Western blot assay), circulating antibodies to thyroid antigens, mainly thyroperoxidase (TPOAbs) and thyroglobulin (TgAbs), were tested in 101 females with HT and 111 non-HT control women without a history of autoimmune disease. Thyroid function, socioeconomic status at childhood, and family history of thyroid malfunction were also studied. Forty-seven HT women (46.5%) tested seropositive for H pylori versus 48 controls (43.2%; P = 0.63). The prevalence of anti-CagA antibodies was 21.3% in HT-infected patients and 31.2% in infected controls (P = 0.352). Women with HT were older than the controls at a significance level of 0.03, and higher prevalence of hypothyroidism (69% vs 13.5%, respectively) and family history of thyroid malfunction (59% vs 34%, respectively) (P < 0.001 in both). Body mass index, diaphragmatic hernia, peptic ulcer, heartburn, use of proton pump inhibitors, childhood socioeconomic background, and crowding index showed no significant difference between HT-positive or negative individuals. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that H pylori seropositivity was not associated with HT (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 0.57–1.83, P = 0.95) and that family thyroid malfunction was independently associated with an increased risk of HT (odds ratio 3.39, 95% confidence interval 1.86–6.18, P < 0.001). No association was found between H pylori infection and HT in women. Family history of thyroid malfunction is a risk factor for HT. PMID:27442635

  17. Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis and the effect of H. pylori eradication in patients with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takafumi; Tsuzuki, Tomoyuki; Mizuno, Tomokazu; Minami, Masaaki; Ina, Kenji; Kusugami, Kazuo; Takamatsu, Junki; Adachi, Kouichi; El-Omar, Emad; Ohta, Michio; Goto, Hidemi

    2004-10-01

    The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has been reported widely. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection, its virulence profile and the effectiveness of its eradication in patients with ITP. Twenty patients with ITP, 20 with peptic ulcer (10 gastric ulcer (GU), 10 duodenal ulcer (DU)) and 20 with NUD were studied. The virulence profile of the strains was assessed by genotyping for cagA, vacA, iceA, and hpyIIIR/hrgA and by assaying for IL-8 and DNA fragmentation after incubation with AGS cells. Infected patients and two uninfected ITP patients received triple therapy and platelets were counted before and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after eradication therapy. H. pylori infection was found in 17 ITP (85%), 20 ulcer (100%) and 13 NUD (65%) patients. Biopsies and strains were collected from five ITP, 20 ulcer and 13 NUD patients. The ITP patients had a pangastritis or corpus-predominant gastritis pattern. All H. pylori isolates, from ITP, ulcer and NUD patients, were cagA(+) and vacA s1/m1, and did not differ in levels of IL-8 induction or DNA fragmentation. Fifteen ITP (88%) and 17 ulcer (85%) patients had successful eradication of H. pylori. Ten of these 15 (67%) H. pylori-eradicated ITP patients had platelet recovery. There was no significant change in platelet count in the two ITP patients in whom eradication failed or in the two originally H. pylori-uninfected ITP patients, or in the treated ulcer patients. Age at onset of ITP was the main determinant of platelet recovery: 100% of patients diagnosed after the age of 60 recovered compared with only 22% of those diagnosed before 50. H. pylori-infected ITP patients have a corpus-predominant pattern of gastritis but the virulence profile of their strains does not differ from that of ulcer or NUD patients. Eradication of H. pylori infection is a good therapeutic option for some patients with chronic ITP, especially for those who

  18. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane protein Q allele distribution is associated with distinct pathologies in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Khan, Rustam; Salim, Saima Azhar; Awan, Safia; Abrar, Ambar; Jafri, Wasim

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains expressing outer membrane protein Q (HopQ) promote adherence to the gastric epithelial cell. We characterized HopQ alleles in relation to H. pylori-related disease, histology and virulence markers. Gastric biopsies were obtained at esophagogastroduodenoscopy from patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. H. pylori culture, histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HopQ types, cagA, cagA-promoter and vacA alleles were performed. DNA extracted was used for PCR. Sequencing of PCR products of HopQ types 1 and 2 was followed by BLAST query. We examined 241 H. pylori isolates. HopQ type 1 was positive in 70 (29%) isolates, type 2 in 60 (25%) isolates, while both type 1 and type 2 in 111 (46%) H. pylori isolates, respectively. Nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) was associated with HopQ type 2 in 48 (41%) isolates, while gastric carcinoma (GC) in 37 (53%) (P<0.001) with type 1 isolates. Gastric ulcers (GU) were 39 (46%) (P<0.001) in H. pylori infection with multiple HopQ alleles compared to 6 (23%) in HopQ type 1. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that multiple HopQ alleles were associated with GU OR 2.9 (1.07-7.8) (P=0.03). HopQ type 1 was associated with cagA 58 (84%) (P<0.001) and cagA-promoter 58 (83%) (P<0.001) compared to 14 (23%) and 17 (28%) respectively, in type 2. VacAs1a was associated with HopQ type 1 in 59 (84%) isolates compared to HopQ type 2 in 35 (58%) (P=0.002) isolates. VacAm1 was associated with HopQ type 1 in 53 (76%) isolates compared to HopQ type 2 in 32 (53%) (P=0.004) isolates. H. pylori infection with multiple HopQ alleles was predominant. H. pylori infection with single HopQ type 1 was associated with GC in the presence of other H. pylori virulence markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Helicobacter pylori inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiu-Kun; Yuan, Sheng-Ling; Wang, Yan-Chun; Tao, Hao-Xia; Jiang, Wei; Guan, Zhang-Yan; Cao, Cheng; Liu, Chun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the impact on cleavage of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) regulated by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS Cleavage of TRAF1 was detected by western blotting in the human gastric cancer cell line AGS following treatment with an apoptosis inducer. Cleavage of TRAF1 mediated by caspase was examined in vitro using specific caspase inhibitors. The effect of the COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment on gastric cell apoptosis during H. pylori infection was measured using flow cytometry. The impact of H. pylori infection on TRAF1 cleavage was detected in the presence of apoptosis inducer. The roles of H. pylori virulence factors that may regulate TRAF1 cleavage were analyzed using isogenic cagA-, vacA- and cagE-null mutants. RESULTS TRAF1 was found to be cleaved in AGS cells treated with the apoptosis inducer, and caspase-8 was the major caspase involved in the cleavage of TRAF1. The COOH-terminal TRAF1 fragment significantly induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05) as well as promoted H. pylori-induced cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). H. pylori infection was found to significantly inhibit the cleavage of TRAF1 and to inhibit the activation of caspase-8 in the presence of the apoptosis inducer at specific infection times and different cell/bacteria ratios. We also found that the effects of cagE- and cagA-null mutants on the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage and activation of caspase-8 were significantly attenuated, compared with wild-type H. pylori, in the presence of the apoptosis inducer, showing that the virulence factor CagA was mainly involved in the inhibition of TRAF1 cleavage. CONCLUSION H. pylori infection significantly inhibits the cleavage of TRAF1 via a CagA-dependent mechanism, which would increase the relative amounts of full-length TRAF1 and exert an antiapoptotic effect on H. pylori-infected cells. PMID:28082808

  20. Helicobacter pylori Induces Serine Phosphorylation of EGFR via Novel TAK1-p38 Activation Pathway in an HB-EGF-Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Refaat, Alaa; Zhou, Yue; Sualeh Muhammad, Jibran; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Saiki, Ikuo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of Helicobacter pylori with gastric epithelial cells can result in the activation of transcription factor NF-κB via TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). In this study, we have demonstrated the role of H. pylori in the activation of EGFR via TAK1-mediated phosphorylation of p38. Gastric epithelial AGS or MKN-45 cells were co-cultured with wild-type or cagA(-) H. pylori strains. H. pylori was added to the cells, and the activation of EGFR, p65 (NF-κB) subunit, p38, ERK, and TAK1 was examined by Western blotting. Infected cells were pretreated with or without ligands, chemical inhibitors, anti-HB-EGF antibody, and siRNAs to evaluate the effects on phosphorylation of various EGFR residues. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were performed to detect the internalization of EGFR. Incubating cells with wild-type and CagA(-) H. pylori strains resulted in the rapid and transient phosphorylation of serine residues of EGFR. RNAi experiments using siRNA against TAK1 and p38 pathways blocked the phosphorylation of serine residue. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry revealed that EGFR was internalized in H. pylori-infected cells after EGFR phosphorylation in a p38-dependent manner. In contrast, pretreatment with gefitinib and anti-HB-EGF antibody did not block both the phosphorylation and internalization of EGFR. Helicobacter pylori induces internalization of EGFR via novel TAK1-p38-serine activation pathway which is independent of HB-EGF. The interaction between TAK1 and EGFR in H. pylori-infected cells might open new dimensions in understanding H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. [Susceptibility of 36 Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates to four first-line antibiotics and virulence factors].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Reganon, J; Alarcón, T; Domingo, D; López-Brea, M

    2006-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori possess various virulence factors, including cagA and vacA genes, that are associated with more aggressive symptoms such as bleed-ing ulcer and gastric cancer. Although there are different treatment regimens, there is still a failure rate of up to 20% due to antibiotic resistance, among other causes. In our country resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin is increasing, especially in children, although they are still susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. In order to determine the susceptibility pattern to these antibiotics 36 H. pylori clinical isolates were studied. MIC was determined by agar diffusion and agar dilution, and vacA and cagA genes were detected by conventional PCR. All isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Resistance to metronidazole by diffusion or dilution tests was 35.7% and 36.1%, respectively, and to clarithromycin, 21.4% and 22.3%, respectively. There was one strain that showed intermediate resistance to clarithromycin (MIC 0.38 mg/l), using agar diffusion, and that was included among the resistant strains. Three discrepancies were observed between the diffusion and dilution methods. The vacA s1 allele was detected in 17.2% of the strains, and vacA s2 in 82.8%; 51.7% of the total were cagA+. In conclusion, all strains tested in our study were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline, allowing them to be considered as first-line antibiotics, while clarithromycin and metronidazole maintain a slight increase in their resistance level. The cagA+ strains were detected in expected quantities, while the s1 allele of the vacA gene was detected in lower quantities.

  2. Latest insights into the effects of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kazunari; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    There appears to be the strong association between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and gastric cancer. We reviewed the latest evidences about the effects of H pylori infection on gastric carcinogenesis, classified into epidemiology, dynamics of gastric mucosal changes, DNA damages, virulence factors, host factors, and source of gastric malignancy. Through the considerable progress made in research into virulence factors resulting from differences between H pylori strains, such as cagA positivity, as well as into host factors, such as gene polymorphisms, a diverse spectrum of H pylori-associated diseases, including gastric cancer, is beginning to lend itself to elucidation. The impact of the novel hypothesis advanced by Houghton et al proposing bone-marrow derived stem cells (BMDC) as a potential source of gastric malignancy on evolving research remains to be seen with interest. Further progress in research into H pylori eradication as a viable prophylaxis of gastric cancer, as well as into the mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis, is to be eagerly awaited for the current year and beyond. PMID:16718758

  3. Mixed Infections of Helicobacter pylori Isolated from Patients with Gastrointestinal Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-Chun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Li, Ju-Pi; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Wu, Hua-Shan; Sun, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Ling; Lee, Ju-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Persistent Helicobacter pylori infection may induce several upper gastrointestinal diseases. Two major virulence factors of H. pylori, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), are thought to be associated with the severity of disease progression. The distribution of vacA and cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI) alleles varies in H. pylori isolated from patients in different geographic regions. Aim. To assess the association between mixed infection of H. pylori clinical isolates from Taiwanese patients and the severity of gastrointestinal diseases. Methods. A total of 70 patients were enrolled in this study. Six distinct and well-separated colonies were isolated from each patient and 420 colonies were analyzed to determine the genotypes of virulence genes. Results. The prevalence of mixed infections of all H. pylori-infected patients was 28.6% (20/70). The rate of mixed infections in patients with duodenal ulcer (47.6%) was much higher than that with other gastrointestinal diseases (P < 0.05). Conclusions. H. pylori mixed infections show high genetic diversity that may enhance bacterial adaptation to the hostile environment of the stomach and contribute to disease development. PMID:27738429

  4. Evolutionary History of the Helicobacter pylori Genome: Implications for Gastric Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Correa, Pelayo; Piazuelo, M Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The genome of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori has evolved over the millennia since its migration out of Africa along with its human host approximately 60,000 years ago. Human migrations, after thousands of years of permanent settlement in those lands, resulted in seven prototypes of genetic populations of H. pylori with distinct geographical distributions. In all continents, present day isolates of H. pylori have molecular markers that reflect population migrations. The colonization of the Americas as well as the slave trade introduced European and African strains to the New World. The relationship between H. pylori genome and gastric cancer rates is linked to the presence of the cagA gene, but the knowledge on this subject is incomplete because other genes may be involved in certain populations. A new situation for Homo sapiens is the absence of H. pylori colonization in certain, mostly affluent, populations, apparently brought about by improved home sanitation and widespread use of antibiotics during the last decades. The disappearance of H. pylori from the human microbiota may be linked to emerging epidemics of esophageal adenocarcinoma, some allergic diseases such as asthma and some autoimmune disorders.

  5. Helicobacter pylori-induced premature senescence of extragastric cells may contribute to chronic skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori, one of the most frequently observed bacterium in the human intestinal flora, has been widely studied since Marshall and Warren documented a link between the presence of H. pylori in the gastrointestinal tract and gastritis and gastric ulcers. Interestingly, H. pylori has also been found in several other epithelial tissues, including the eyes, ears, nose and skin that may have direct or indirect effects on host physiology and may contribute to extragastric diseases, e.g. chronic skin diseases. More recently, it has been shown that H. pylori cytotoxin CagA expression induces cellular senescence of human gastric nonpolarized epithelial cells that may lead to gastrointestinal disorders and systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that also chronic skin diseases may be promoted by stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of skin cells, namely fibroblasts and keratinocytes, stimulated with H. pylori cytotoxins. Future studies involving cell culture models and clinical specimens are needed to verify the involvement of H. pylori in SIPS-based chronic skin diseases.

  6. Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Exert Immunostimulatory Effect on H. pylori-Induced Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Małgorzata; Andryszczyk, Marek; Motyl, Ilona; Wieczyńska, Jolanta; Gackowska, Lidia; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (antagonistic or nonantagonistic against H. pylori in vitro) would differ in their abilities to modulate the DCs maturation profiles reflected by their phenotype and cytokine expression patterns. Methods. Monocyte-derived DCs maturation was elicited by their direct exposure to the LAB strains of L. rhamnosus 900 or L. paracasei 915 (antagonistic and nonantagonistic to H. pylori, resp.), in the presence or absence of H. pylori strain cagA+. The DCs maturation profile was assessed on the basis of surface markers expression and cytokines production. Results. We observed that the LAB strains and the mixtures of LAB with H. pylori are able to induce mature DCs. At the same time, the L. paracasei 915 leads to high IL-10/IL-12p70 cytokine ratio, in contrast to L. rhamnosus 900. Conclusions. This study showed that the analyzed lactobacilli strains are more potent stimulators of DC maturation than H. pylori. Interestingly from the two chosen LAB strains the antagonistic to H. pylori-L. rhamnosus strain 900 has more proinflammatory and probably antibactericidal properties. PMID:25759836

  7. Multiple infection and microdiversity among Helicobacter pylori isolates in a single host in India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Rajashree; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; De, Ronita; Ghosh, Prachetash; Ganguly, Mou; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G B; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most diverse bacterial species that chronically infects more than 70% of Indian population. Interestingly, data showing microdiversity of the H. pylori strains within a particular gastric niche remained scarce. To understand the extent of genetic diversity among H. pylori strains within a given host, 30 patients with gastro-duodenal problems were subjected to endoscopy and from each patient 10 single colonies were isolated. Characterization of each of these 10 single colonies by DNA fingerprinting as well as genotyping of several important genetic markers viz. cagA, vacA, iceA, vapD, cag PAI empty site, IS605, RFLP and two other genetic segments within cag PAI revealed that all of the 30 patients were infected with more than one strain and sometimes strains with 5 to 6 types of genetic variants. Analyses of certain genetic loci showed the microdiversity among the colonies from single patient, which may be due to the recombination events during long-term carriage of the pathogen. These results suggest that most of the patients have acquired H. pylori due to repeated exposure to this pathogen with different genetic make-up, which may increase the possibility of super infections. Genetic exchanges between these unrelated H. pylori strains may support certain H. pylori variant to grow better in a given host than the parental strain and thereby increasing the possibility for the severity of the infection.

  8. Helicobacter pylori in water systems for human use in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Mazari-Hiriart, M; López-Vidal, Y; Calva, J J

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer in humans. Transmission of H. pylori is still not certain with some epidemiological data suggesting water as a possible transmission route. The objective of this study was to detect H. pylori 16S rRNA gene in five water systems in the Mexico City area. Samples were taken between 1997 and 2000 from extraction wells (system 1), from dams used as water sources, both pre- and post-treatment (systems 2 and 3), treated wastewater (system 4) and non-treated wastewater (system 5). Detection of the H. pylori 16S rRNA gene in water samples was carried out using nested PCR in 139 water samples and confirmed by using cagA gene detection by PCR-hybridisation. The results showed the presence of H. pylori in 58 (42%) of the water samples in total with a prevalence of 68% in system 1, 100% in system 2, 0% in system 3, 17% in system 4 and 20% in system 5. This first stage showed the presence of H. pylori in the tested water systems; nevertheless, viability of the microorganism in water and vegetables needs to be confirmed as well as demonstration of a relationship between human and environmental strains.

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaqi; Zagai, Ulrika; Hallmans, Göran; Nyrén, Olof; Engstrand, Lars; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Duell, Eric J; Overvad, Kim; Katzke, Verena A; Kaaks, Rudolf; Jenab, Mazda; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Riboli, Elio; Aune, Dagfinn; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Capellá, Gabriel; Agudo, Antonio; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Martínez, Begoña; Redondo-Sanchez, Daniel; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Hm Peeters, Petra; Regnér, Sara; Lindkvist, Björn; Naccarati, Alessio; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Barré, Amélie; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Ye, Weimin

    2017-04-15

    The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction < 0.01). Our findings provided evidence supporting the null association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Helicobacter pylori upregulates Nanog and Oct4 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote cancer stem cell-like properties in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yong, Xin; Tang, Bo; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Xie, Rui; Qin, Yong; Luo, Gang; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Dong, Hui; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is considered a major risk factor for gastric cancer. CagA behaves as a major bacterial oncoprotein playing a key role in H. pylori-induced tumorigenesis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to possess the ability to initiate tumorigenesis and promote progression. Although studies have suggested that cancer cells can exhibit CSC-like properties in the tumor microenvironment, it remains unclear whether H. pylori infection could induce the emergence of CSC-like properties in gastric cancer cells and, the underlying mechanism. Here, gastric cancer cells were co-cultured with a CagA-positive H. pylori strain or a CagA isogenic mutant strain. We found that H. pylori-infected gastric cancer cells exhibited CSC-like properties, including an increased expression of CSC specific surface markers CD44 and Lgr5, as well as that of Nanog, Oct4 and c-myc, which are known pluripotency genes, and an increased capacity for self-renewal, whereas these properties were not observed in the CagA isogenic mutant strain-infected cells. Further studies revealed that H. pylori activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in a CagA-dependent manner and that the activation of this pathway was dependent upon CagA-positive H. pylori-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin at the C-terminal Ser675 and Ser552 residues in a c-met- and/or Akt-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that this activation was responsible for H. pylori-induced CSC-like properties. Moreover, we found the promoter activity of Nanog and Oct4 were upregulated, and β-catenin was observed to bind to these promoters during H. pylori infection, while a Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor suppressed promoter activity and binding. Taken together, these results suggest that H. pylori upregulates Nanog and Oct4 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway to promote CSC-like properties in gastric cancer cells.

  11. A pilot study of Helicobacter pylori genotypes and cytokine gene polymorphisms in reflux oesophagitis and peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, R A; Ozgur, O; Gucuyeter, S; Kaklikkaya, N; Cobanoglu, U; Aydin, F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes various diseases such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. While majority of the people infected with H. pylori is asymptomatic, 15-20 % of them develop such diseases. The main factors, which determine the development of H. pylori related diseases might be bacterial virulence, host genetic and environmental factors.The aim of this study was to reveal the factors that play a role in the disease development in patients with reflux esophagitis and peptic ulcer, infected with Helicobacter pylori. Environmental factors such as medical agents, smoking and body mass index were evaluated. The factors specific to bacteria such as vacA, CagA, babA and iceA virulence genotypes and the host factors such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-γ, TNF-α, ve TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms were compared between the two groups.H. pylori infected twenty five patients with reflux esophagitis and peptic ulcer were enrolled in the study. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding environmental factors. IL-2 -330T +166T (p=0.037) and IL10 -1082A; -819C (p=0.049) gene polymorphisms were significantly more common in the group of patients with peptic ulcer compared to the group with reflux esophagitis. In both groups of patients, either with reflux esophagitis or peptic ulcer, multiple H. pylori virulence genotypes (cagA, vacA, babA) (mean values 74 %, 78 %, 54 % respectively) were observed.In this study, we revealed that cytokine gene polymorphisms may play a role in the development peptic ulcer while H. pylori virulence genotypes seem to be crucial for the development of associated diseases (Tab. 4, Ref. 51).

  12. Multiple cag genotypes of Helicobacter pylori isolates colonize the oesophagus in individual hosts in a Venezuelan population.

    PubMed

    Peña, Jessy; Rojas, Héctor; Reyes, Nelson; Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; García-Amado, María-Alexandra; Michelangeli, Fabián; Contreras, Monica

    2017-03-01

    Multiple Helicobacter pylori strains colonize and coexist in the stomach of one single patient, carrying heterogeneous distributions of cag genotypes. The oesophagus provides a niche for H. pylori colonization; however, little is known about its adaptive role. Using PCR for cagA, cagE and virB11 genes from cag-pathogenicity island (PAI) and Etest for antimicrobial susceptibility test, we determined cag-PAI genotypes associated with H. pylori virulence, when positive cultures were matching in both the stomach and the oesophagus (96 isolates; 8 out of 80 dyspeptic patients). The stomach showed complete cag-PAI islands in 77 % of the isolates, whereas the oesophagus showed complete cag-PAI islands only in 44 % of the isolates. Expression of CagA and interleukin 8 correlated with inflammatory processes and histopathological changes in the stomach, but not in the oesophagus. Different cag-PAI profiles were found in both mucosae of an individual host, and at least one oesophagus profile corresponded to one profile identified in stomach. The antibiotic resistance profiles showed variability in the colonization by single or mixed H. pylori isolates in the gastric and oesophageal mucosa both intra- and inter-individuals. These results demonstrate colonization with multiple H. pylori isolates in the oesophageal mucosa, like those found in the stomach of individual hosts. H. pylori was characterized by a dominant partial island, low interleukin 8 induction with lower histopathological damage and lower antibiotic resistance, suggesting that the microenvironmental changes in individual hosts select less virulent isolates in the oesophagus than in the stomach. New approaches to ensure effective eradication therapy in multi-resistant H. pylori strains must be developed.

  13. Intact cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori without disease association in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Patra, Rajashree; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; De, Ronita; Datta, Simanti; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ramamurthy, T; Nair, G Balakrish; Berg, Douglas E; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2011-04-01

    Several genes including the cagA in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) of Helicobacter pylori are thought to be associated with the gastroduodenal diseases and hence variation in the genetic structure of the cag PAI might be responsible for different clinical outcomes. Our study was undertaken to characterize the cag PAI of H. pylori strains from duodenal ulcer (DU) patients and asymptomatic or non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD/AV) subjects from Kolkata, India. Strains isolated from 52 individuals (30DU and 22NUD/AV) were analyzed by PCR using 83 different primers for the entire cag PAI and also by dot-blot hybridization. Unlike H. pylori strains isolated from other parts of India, 82.6% of the strains used in this study had intact cag PAI, 9.6% had partially deleted cag PAI, and 7.7% of the strains lacked the entire cag PAI. Dot-blot hybridization yielded positive signals in 100% and 93.8% of PCR-negative strains for HP0522-523 and HP0532-HP0534 genes, respectively. An intact cagA promoter region was also detected in all cagA-positive strains. Furthermore, the expression of cagA mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR for the representative strains from both DU and NUD/AV subjects indicating the active cagA promoter regions of these strains. A total of 66.7% of Kolkata strains produced a ∼390-bp shorter amplicon than the standard strain 26695 for the HP0527 gene, homologue of virB10. However, sequence analyses confirmed that the deletion did not alter the reading frame of the gene, and mRNA transcripts were detected by RT-PCR analysis. The strains isolated from DU and NUD/AV express CagA protein and possess a functional type IV secretion system, as revealed by Western blot analyses. Interestingly, no significant differences in cag PAI genetic structure were found between DU and NUD/AV individuals suggesting that other bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility, and environmental determinants also influence the disease outcome at least in certain geographical locations

  14. Intact cag pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori without disease association in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Rajashree; Chattopadhyay, Santanu; De, Ronita; Datta, Simanti; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Ramamurthy, T.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Berg, Douglas E.; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.

    2011-01-01

    Several genes including the cagA in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) of Helicobacter pylori are thought to be associated with the gastroduodenal diseases and hence variation in the genetic structure of the cag PAI might be responsible for different clinical outcomes. Our study was undertaken to characterize the cag PAI of H. pylori strains from duodenal ulcer (DU) patients and asymptomatic or non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD/AV) subjects from Kolkata, India. Strains isolated from 52 individuals (30 DU and 22 NUD/AV) were analyzed by PCR using 83 different primers for the entire cag PAI and also by dot-blot hybridization. Unlike H. pylori strains isolated from other parts of India, 82.6% of the strains used in this study had intact cag PAI, 9.6% had partially deleted cag PAI, and 7.7% of the strains lacked the entire cag PAI. Dot-blot hybridization yielded positive signals in 100% and 93.8% of PCR-negative strains for HP0522-523 and HP0532-HP0534 genes, respectively. An intact cagA promoter region was also detected in all cagA-positive strains. Furthermore, the expression of cagA mRNA was confirmed by RT-PCR for the representative strains from both DU and NUD/AV subjects indicating the active cagA promoter regions of these strains. A total of 66.7% of Kolkata strains produced a ~390-bp shorter amplicon than the standard strain 26695 for the HP0527 gene, homologue of virB10. However, sequence analyses confirmed that the deletion did not alter the reading frame of the gene, and mRNA transcripts were detected by RT-PCR analysis. The strains isolated from DU and NUD/AV express CagA protein and possess a functional type IV secretion system, as revealed by Western blot analyses. Interestingly, no significant differences in cag PAI genetic structure were found between DU and NUD/AV individuals suggesting that other bacterial virulence factors, host susceptibility, and environmental determinants also influence the disease outcome at least in certain geographical locations

  15. Caveolin-1 Protects B6129 Mice against Helicobacter pylori Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitkova, Ivana; Yuan, Gang; Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus; Kirchner, Thomas; Reu, Simone; Röcken, Christoph; Schäfer, Claus; Schmid, Roland M.; Vogelmann, Roger; Ebert, Matthias P. A.; Burgermeister, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a scaffold protein and pathogen receptor in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major risk factor for human gastric cancer (GC) where Cav1 is frequently down-regulated. However, the function of Cav1 in H. pylori infection and pathogenesis of GC remained unknown. We show here that Cav1-deficient mice, infected for 11 months with the CagA-delivery deficient H. pylori strain SS1, developed more severe gastritis and tissue damage, including loss of parietal cells and foveolar hyperplasia, and displayed lower colonisation of the gastric mucosa than wild-type B6129 littermates. Cav1-null mice showed enhanced infiltration of macrophages and B-cells and secretion of chemokines (RANTES) but had reduced levels of CD25+ regulatory T-cells. Cav1-deficient human GC cells (AGS), infected with the CagA-delivery proficient H. pylori strain G27, were more sensitive to CagA-related cytoskeletal stress morphologies (“humming bird”) compared to AGS cells stably transfected with Cav1 (AGS/Cav1). Infection of AGS/Cav1 cells triggered the recruitment of p120 RhoGTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p120RhoGAP/DLC1) to Cav1 and counteracted CagA-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements. In human GC cell lines (MKN45, N87) and mouse stomach tissue, H. pylori down-regulated endogenous expression of Cav1 independently of CagA. Mechanistically, H. pylori activated sterol-responsive element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) to repress transcription of the human Cav1 gene from sterol-responsive elements (SREs) in the proximal Cav1 promoter. These data suggested a protective role of Cav1 against H. pylori-induced inflammation and tissue damage. We propose that H. pylori exploits down-regulation of Cav1 to subvert the host's immune response and to promote signalling of its virulence factors in host cells. PMID:23592983

  16. Clarithromycin resistance and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulent genotypes in patients from Southern México with chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Alarcón-Millán, Judit; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc Mariano; Castañón-Sánchez, Carlos Alberto; De Sampedro-Reyes, José; Cruz-Del Carmen, Iván; Betancourt-Linares, Reyes; Román-Román, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    In developing countries, clarithromycin resistance and frequency of re-infection are factors that contribute to high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this research was determine the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance and its relation with A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations in the domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates in patients from Southern Mexico with chronic gastritis. Another purpose of this work was to study the prevalence of virulent genotypes and distribution of resistant strains according to the vacA/cagA/babA2 H. pylori genotypes. One hundred forty-four patients with chronic gastritis were studied. Forty-five H. pylori strains were isolated and clarithromycin susceptibility was determined by the disk-diffusion method. The 82.2% of the strains had the combination of alleles vacA s1 m1 and the cagA gene was detected in 77.8% and 40% of the strains were babA2 positive. The vacA s1 m1 genotype was detected more frequently in cagA(+) strains, vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(-) genotype was more frequent than vacA s1m1/cagA(+)/babA2(+), 37.8% and 33.3%, respectively. Eight strains were clarithromycin resistant, in three of these, point mutations were identified, but only in one strain the A2143G mutation associated with clarithromycin resistance was found. Other point mutations (A1821G, G1826A, T1830C, A2089G, T1600C, C1601T, C1602T, T1610C, A1611C and T1633G) that have not been associated with clarithromycin resistance were identified. The highest proportion of resistant strains was vacA s1m1/cagA(+) (62.5%). In patients from southern Mexico with chronic gastritis, the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance is within internationally accepted range (17.8%) and allows continued use of triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. However, it is necessary to monitor the evolution of clarithromycin resistance in this area. The largest proportion of resistant H. pylori strains is not harboring the A2142G, A2142C and A2143G mutations

  17. Virulence and potential pathogenicity of coccoid Helicobacter pylori induced by antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    She, Fei-Fei; Su, Dong-Hui; Lin, Jian-Yin; Zhou, Lin-Ying

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To explore the virulence and the potential pathogenicity of coccoid Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) transformed from spiral form by exposure to antibiotic. METHODS: Three strains of H. pylori, isolated from gastric biopsy specimens of confirmed peptic ulcer, were converted from spiral into coccoid from by exposure to metronidazole. Both spiral and coccoid form of H. pylori were tested for the urease activity, the adherence to Hep 2 cells and the vacuolating cytotoxicity to Hela cells, and the differences of the protein were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The mutation of the genes including ureA, ureB, hpaA, vacA and cagA, related with virulence, was detected by means of PCR and PCR-SSCP. RESULTS: In the coccoid H. pylori, the urease activity, the adherence to Hep 2 cells and the vacuolating cytotoxicity to Hela cells alldecreased. In strain F44, the rate and index of adherence reduced from 70.0% ± 5.3% to 33% ± 5.1% and from 2.6 ± 0.4 to 0.96 ± 0.3 (P < 0. 01), respectively. The invasion of coccoid H. pylori into Hep 2 cell could be seen under electronmicroscope. SDS-PAGE showed that the content of the protein with the molecular weight over Mr 74000 decreased, and the hybriditional signal in band Mr 125000 weakened, while the band Mr 110000 and Mr 63000 strengthened in coccoid H.pylori as shown in Western blot. The results of PCR were all positive, and PCR-SSCP indicated that there may exist the point mutation in gene hpaA or vacA. CONCLUSION: The virulence and the proteins with molecular weight over Mr 74000 in coccoid H.pylori decrease, but no deletion exists in amplification fragments from ureA, ureB, hpaA, vacA and cagA genes, suggesting that coccoid H.pylori may have potential pathogenicity. PMID:11819770

  18. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the Gingerols Inhibit the Growth of Cag A+ Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Gail B.; Pendland, Susan L.; Yun, Gina S.; Lu, Zhi-Zhen; Stoia, Adina

    2013-01-01

    Background Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments such as motion sickness, dyspepsia and hyperemesis gravidarum, and is also reported to have chemopreventative activity in animal models. The gingerols are a group of structurally related polyphenolic compounds isolated from ginger and known to be the active constituents. Since Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the primary etiological agent associated with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric and colon cancer, the anti-HP effects of ginger and its constituents were tested in vitro. Materials and Methods A methanol extract of the dried powdered ginger rhizome, fractions of the extract and the isolated constituents, 6-,8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogoal, were tested against 19 strains of HP, including 5 CagA+ strains. Results The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 6.25–50 µg/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC range of 0.78 to 12.5 µg/ml and with significant activity against the CagA+ strains. Conclusion These data demonstrate that ginger root extracts containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventative effects. PMID:14666666

  19. Association of Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nanbakhsh, Fariba; Behrouzi-Lak, Tahereh; Tabean, Mahsa; Oshnouei, Sima; Mazlumi, Pooya

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the importance of cytokine type in embryo implantation in uterus specified and activated macrophages interfere the tube movements and embryo retention in uterine tubes by smooth muscle relaxation and disrupting ciliary function. Therefore, increased risk of infection with HP during pregnancy, we investigated relation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and prevalence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in this study. This is cross-sectional study from March 2012 to May 2013. Totally 207 women were enrolled randomly from which 101 had EP (Case group) and 106 were selected as control group with normal pregnancy. A 2-cc blood sample was taken from each patient to evaluate the specific IgG titer by ELISA method. All results of samples with positive H. pylori IgG were assayed for anti-CagA, IgG antibodies. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. The associations between CagA positive cases with odds of Ectopic pregnancy incidence were analyzed by using SPSS software, ver. 19 (Chicago, IL, USA). Mean (± SD) of age were 21.0 ± 5.78 and 30.78 ± 5.10 years for cases and controls group respectively. These groups didn't show any significance difference in age and parity.H. pylori IgG antibodies were positive among 99 and 103 (98.2% vs. 97.2%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Relationship between IgG status and EP was not significant (OR = 1.31: 95% CI = 0.7-2.52, Pvalue = 0.37). In particular anti-CagA antibodies were positive among 45 and 39(45.92% vs. 36.97%) in women with EP and normal pregnancy respectively. Among women with CagA positive strains had higher odds of Ep (OR = 1.46: 95% CI = 0.8-2.65, Pvalue = 0.18), but it wasn't significant. According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and Ectopic pregnancy. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on EP.

  20. Analysis of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan reveals high degrees of pathogenicity and high frequencies of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3' region of cagA throughout the tree. We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan Reveals High Degrees of Pathogenicity and High Frequencies of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. Methods The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. Results A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3′ region of cagA throughout the tree. Conclusions We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. PMID:24827414

  2. High prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains and risk factors associated with resistance in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Sonia; Pérez-Pérez, Guillermo; Alarcón, Teresa; López-Brea, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Clarithromycin is one of the antibiotics used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections, and clarithromycin resistance is the most important factor when it comes to predicting eradication failure. The present study analyzed H. pylori isolates for the presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations and determined the risk factors associated with resistance among H. pylori isolates collected in Madrid, Spain, in 2008. We studied 118 H. pylori strains isolated from the same number of patients. A total of 76.3% of the patients were born in Spain, 52.7% were children, 20.3% had previously been treated, and 66.1% were female. Clarithromycin resistance was determined by Etest. H. pylori strains were considered resistant if the MIC was ≥1 mg/liter. DNA extraction was carried out by use of the NucliSens easyMAG platform with NucliSens magnetic extraction reagents (bioMérieux). The DNA sequences of the 23S rRNA genes of clarithromycin-resistant and -sensitive strains were determined to identify specific point mutations. The vacA genotype and cagA status were determined by PCR. We found that 42 (35.6%) strains were resistant to clarithromycin by Etest. Etest results were confirmed by detection of the presence of point mutations in 34 (88.1%) of these strains. Eight H. pylori strains were resistant to clarithromycin by Etest but did not have a point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Mutation at A2143G was found in 85.3% of the strains, mutation at A2142G in 8.8%, and mutation at T2182C in 5.9%. Dual mutations were found in 8.8% of the strains. H. pylori clarithromycin-resistant strains were strongly associated with pediatric patients, with patients born in Spain, and with patients who had previously been treated (P ≤ 0.02). In addition, H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin more frequently presented the vacA s2/m2 genotype and were more likely to be cagA negative than susceptible strains (39.1% and 11.2%, respectively; P value < 0.001). We concluded that, in the

  3. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide is synthesized via a novel pathway with an evolutionary connection to protein N-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hug, Isabelle; Couturier, Marc R; Rooker, Michelle M; Taylor, Diane E; Stein, Markus; Feldman, Mario F

    2010-03-19

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component on the surface of Gram negative bacteria and is composed of lipid A-core and the O antigen polysaccharide. O polysaccharides of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori contain Lewis antigens, mimicking glycan structures produced by human cells. The interaction of Lewis antigens with human dendritic cells induces a modulation of the immune response, contributing to the H. pylori virulence. The amount and position of Lewis antigens in the LPS varies among H. pylori isolates, indicating an adaptation to the host. In contrast to most bacteria, the genes for H. pylori O antigen biosynthesis are spread throughout the chromosome, which likely contributed to the fact that the LPS assembly pathway remained uncharacterized. In this study, two enzymes typically involved in LPS biosynthesis were found encoded in the H. pylori genome; the initiating glycosyltransferase WecA, and the O antigen ligase WaaL. Fluorescence microscopy and analysis of LPS from H. pylori mutants revealed that WecA and WaaL are involved in LPS production. Activity of WecA was additionally demonstrated with complementation experiments in Escherichia coli. WaaL ligase activity was shown in vitro. Analysis of the H. pylori genome failed to detect a flippase typically involved in O antigen synthesis. Instead, we identified a homolog of a flippase involved in protein N-glycosylation in other bacteria, although this pathway is not present in H. pylori. This flippase named Wzk was essential for O antigen display in H. pylori and was able to transport various glycans in E. coli. Whereas the O antigen mutants showed normal swimming motility and injection of the toxin CagA into host cells, the uptake of DNA seemed to be affected. We conclude that H. pylori uses a novel LPS biosynthetic pathway, evolutionarily connected to bacterial protein N-glycosylation.

  4. Helicobacter pylori with East Asian-type cagPAI genes is more virulent than strains with Western-type in some cagPAI genes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Yan, Jin-Jun; Yang, Ya-Chao; Wu, Chun-Mei; Hu, Yan; Geng, Jian-Li

    The severity of Helicobacter pylori-related disease is correlated with the presence and integrity of a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI). cagPAI genotype may have a modifying effect on the pathogenic potential of the infecting strain. After analyzing the sequences of cagPAI genes, some strains with the East Asian-type cagPAI genes were selected for further analysis to examine the association between the diversity of the cagPAI genes and the virulence of H. pylori. The results showed that gastric mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher in patients with East Asian-type cagPAI genes H. pylori strain compared with mosaicism cagPAI genes H. pylori strain (p<0.05). H. pylori strains with the East Asian-type cagPAI genes were closely associated with IL-8 secretion in vitro and in vivo compared with H. pylori strains with the mosaicism cagPAI genes (p<0.01). H. pylori strains with East Asian-type cagPAI genes are able to strongly translocate CagA to host cells. These results suggest that H. pylori strains with East Asian-type cagPAI genes are more virulent than the strains of cagPAI gene/genes that are Western type. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel epidermal growth factor receptor pathway mediates release of human β-defensin 3 from Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Jibran S; Zaidi, Syed F; Zhou, Yue; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    Persistent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in hostile gastric mucosa can result in gastric diseases. Helicobacter pylori induces to express antimicrobial peptides from gastric epithelial cells, especially human β-defensin 3 (hBD3), as an innate immune response, and this expression of hBD3 is mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of a serine residue of EGFR via transforming growth factor β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), and subsequent p38α activation is essential for H. pylori-induced hBD3 release from gastric epithelial cells. We showed that this pathway was dependent on H. pylori type IV secretion system and was independent of H. pylori-derived CagA or peptidoglycan. H. pylori infection induced phosphorylation of serine residue of EGFR, and this phosphorylation was followed by internalization of EGFR; consequently, hBD3 was released at an early phase of the infection. In the presence of TAK1 or p38α inhibitors, synthesis of hBD3 was completely inhibited. Similar results were observed in EGFR-, TAK1- or p38α-knockdown cells. However, NOD1 knockdown in gastric epithelial cells did not inhibit hBD3 induction. Our study has firstly demonstrated that this novel EGFR activating pathway functioned to induce hBD3 at an early phase of H. pylori infection.

  6. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two-thirds of ... or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of antibiotics ...

  7. Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Mark S; Shaffer, Carrie L; Israel, Dawn A; Peek, Richard M; Cover, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is associated with asymptomatic gastric inflammation (gastritis) and an increased risk of duodenal ulceration, gastric ulceration, and non-cardia gastric cancer. In previous studies, the genome sequences of H. pylori strains from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease have been analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of an H. pylori strain (98-10) isolated from a patient with gastric cancer and an H. pylori strain (B128) isolated from a patient with gastric ulcer disease. Results Based on multilocus sequence typing, strain 98-10 was most closely related to H. pylori strains of East Asian origin and strain B128 was most closely related to strains of European origin. Strain 98-10 contained multiple features characteristic of East Asian strains, including a type s1c vacA allele and a cagA allele encoding an EPIYA-D tyrosine phosphorylation motif. A core genome of 1237 genes was present in all five strains for which genome sequences were available. Among the 1237 core genes, a subset of alleles was highly divergent in the East Asian strain 98-10, encoding proteins that exhibited <90% amino acid sequence identity compared to corresponding proteins in the other four strains. Unique strain-specific genes were identified in each of the newly sequenced strains, and a set of strain-specific genes was shared among H. pylori strains associated with gastric cancer or premalignant gastric lesions. Conclusion These data provide insight into the diversity that exists among H. pylori strains from diverse clinical and geographic origins. Highly divergent alleles and strain-specific genes identified in this study may represent useful biomarkers for analyzing geographic partitioning of H. pylori and for identifying strains capable of inducing malignant or premalignant gastric lesions. PMID:19123947

  8. Plasticity Region Genes jhp0940, jhp0945, jhp0947, and jhp0949 of Helicobacter pylori in Isolates from Mexican Children.

    PubMed

    Romo-González, Carolina; Consuelo-Sánchez, Alejandra; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; García-Zúñiga, Magdalena; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael

    2015-06-01

    The genes jhp0940, jhp0945, jhp0947, and jhp0949 belong to the plasticity region of the Helicobacter pylori genome. Due to their prevalence in isolates from patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer, they have been proposed as markers of gastroduodenal diseases. These genes are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine induction through the NF-κB activation pathway. Nevertheless, the status of these genes is unknown in H. pylori isolates from children. The aim of the present work was to determine the frequency of the jhp0940-jhp0945-jhp0947-jhp0949 genes in H. pylori isolates from children. We identified the jhp0940, jhp0945, jhp0947, and jhp0949 genes and the relationship of each with the virulence factors cagA, cagPAI, and dupA by PCR in 49 isolates of H. pylori from children. The results were corroborated using dot blots. In addition, we compared the prevalence of these genes with the prevalence in adults. The prevalence of jhp0940 (53.1%), jhp0945 (44.9%), jhp0947 (77.6%), and jhp0949 (83.7%) was determined in the isolates from children, as was the prevalence of the virulence genes cagA (63.3%), cagPAI (71.4%), and dupA (37.5%). No association was found between the four genes of the plasticity region and the virulence genes. The presence of the intact locus integrated by jhp0940-jhp0945-jhp0947-jhp0949 was very common among the isolates from children. The genes jhp0940, jhp0947, and jhp0949 were present in more than 50% of the H. pylori isolates, and the joint presence of jhp0940-jhp0945-jhp0947-jhp0949 was very frequent. The frequency of these genes in isolates from children could contribute to the virulence of H. pylori and the evolution of the infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Study of the oipA genetic diversity and EPIYA motif patterns in cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains from Venezuelan patients with chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Keila; Valderrama, Elvis; Sayegh, Marjorie; Ramírez, José Luis; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2014-11-01

    CagA and OipA are involved, among other virulence factors, in the ability of Helicobacter pylori to colonize the gastric mucosa and to modulate the host environment during the establishment of chronic infection. The number and type of EPIYA phosphorylation motifs and the presence and functional status of oipA have been involved in the induction of cellular transformations playing an important role in the development of H. pylori associated gastric diseases. This work determined the prevalence of the oipA virulence factor and EPIYA motif patterns in cagA-positive H. pylori gastric biopsies from chronic gastritis patients from the Central-Western region of Venezuela. DNA was extracted directly from gastric biopsies collected by upper endoscopy from 113 patients. The EPIYA motif genotyping and oipA gene functional status was determined by PCR and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis with the 3' variable region of cagA sequences was performed. Only Western-type EPIYA variants were detected: ABC (68.14%), ABCC (29.20%) and ABCCC (2.66%). High prevalence of strains with the oipA gene (93.8%) and its functional status "ON" (83%) was observed. No significant association between EPIYA motif patterns or oipA functional status with the histological changes in the gastric mucosa was found. Our study demonstrated the absolute predominance of the Western-type cagA gene in a Venezuelan admixed population. This is the first report showing oipA status of H. pylori strains in Venezuela. Further studies with a larger number of samples and including other pathologies are necessary to continue evaluating the role of the H. pylori virulence factors in the prevalence of gastric diseases in our country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer in the Middle East: A new enigma?

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Nawfal R

    2010-01-01

    The Middle East is the home of ethnic groups from three main backgrounds: Semitic (Arabs and Jews), Indo-European (Persians and Kurdish) and Turkic (Turkish and Turkmens). Its geographic location, which has been under continuous influences from Asia, Europe and Africa, has made it an ideal site for epidemiological studies on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and genotyping. The gastric cancer rate differs in this region from very high in Iran (26.1/105) to low in Israel (12.5/105) and very low in Egypt (3.4/105). Epidemiological studies showed that the prevalence of H. pylori is almost similar in those countries with a high level of infection in childhood. Importantly, the frequency of vacA s1 and m1 regions and cagA+ genotypes were higher in non Semitic populations who inhabit the North than Semitic populations, the inhabitants of Southern parts of the Middle East. H. pylori infection prevalence, distribution pattern of virulence factors, diet and smoking could not have explained the difference in cancer rate. This reflects the multifactorial aetiology of gastric cancer and suggests that H. pylori infection does not always directly correlate with the risk for gastrointestinal disease, such as gastric cancer. Further detailed investigations and international comparative studies of each risk factor need to be performed to investigate whether this represents a true enigma. PMID:20614477

  11. The study of H. pylori putative candidate factors for single- and multi-component vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Nasrin; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Moghim, Sharareh; Rashidi, Niloufar; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori has grown to colonize inside the stomach of nearly half of the world's population, turning into the most prevalent infections in the universe. Medical care failures noticeably confirm the need for a vaccine to hinder or deal with H. pylori. This review is planned to discuss the most known factors as a vaccine candidate, including single (AhpC, BG, CagA, KatA, Fla, Hsp, HWC, Lpp, LPS, NAP, OMP, OMV, SOD, Tpx, Urease, VacA) and multi-component vaccines. Many promising results in the field of single and multivalent vaccine can be seen, but there is no satisfactory outcome and neither a prophylactic nor a therapeutic vaccine to treat or eradicate the infection in human has been acquired. Hence, selecting suitable antigen is an important factor as an appropriate adjuvant. Taken all together, the development of efficient anti-H. pylori vaccines relies on the fully understanding of the interactions between H. pylori and its host immune system. Therefore, more work should be done on epitope mapping, analysis of molecular structure, and determination of the antigen determinant region as well due to design a vaccine, preferably a multi-component vaccine to elicit specific CD4 T-cell responses that are required for H. pylori vaccine efficacy.

  12. Cutting Edge: Helicobacter pylori Induces Nuclear Hypersegmentation and Subtype Differentiation of Human Neutrophils In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Laura C; Weems, Megan N; Allen, Lee-Ann H

    2017-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and causes a spectrum of disease that includes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. A chronic, neutrophil-rich inflammatory response characterizes this infection. It is established that H. pylori stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis and a robust respiratory burst, but other aspects of this interaction are incompletely defined. We demonstrate here that H. pylori induces N1-like subtype differentiation of human neutrophils as indicated by profound nuclear hypersegmentation, a CD62L(dim), CD16(bright), CD11b(bright), CD66b(bright), CD63(bright) surface phenotype, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity. Hypersegmentation requires direct neutrophil-H. pylori contact as well as transcription and both host and bacterial protein synthesis, but not urease, NapA, VacA, CagA, or CagT. The concept of neutrophil plasticity is new and, to our knowledge, these data are the first evidence that neutrophils can undergo subtype differentiation in vitro in response to bacterial pathogen infection. We hypothesize that these changes favor H. pylori persistence and disease.

  13. Cutting Edge: Helicobacter pylori Induces Nuclear Hypersegmentation and Subtype Differentiation of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Laura C.; Weems, Megan N.

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects the human stomach and causes a spectrum of disease that includes gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma. A chronic, neutrophil-rich inflammatory response characterizes this infection. It is established that H. pylori stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis and a robust respiratory burst, but other aspects of this interaction are incompletely defined. We demonstrate here that H. pylori induces N1-like subtype differentiation of human neutrophils as indicated by profound nuclear hypersegmentation, a CD62Ldim, CD16bright, CD11bbright, CD66bbright, CD63bright surface phenotype, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and cytotoxicity. Hypersegmentation requires direct neutrophil–H. pylori contact as well as transcription and both host and bacterial protein synthesis, but not urease, NapA, VacA, CagA, or CagT. The concept of neutrophil plasticity is new and, to our knowledge, these data are the first evidence that neutrophils can undergo subtype differentiation in vitro in response to bacterial pathogen infection. We hypothesize that these changes favor H. pylori persistence and disease. PMID:28148734

  14. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen A A A What's in this article? ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) bacteria ...

  15. Architecture of the Helicobacter pylori Cag-type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Terradot, Laurent; Waksman, Gabriel

    2011-04-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SS) are macromolecular assemblies used by bacteria to transport material across their membranes. T4SS are generally composed of a set of twelve proteins (VirB1-11 and VirD4). This represents a dynamic machine powered by three ATPases. T4SS are widespread in pathogenic bacteria where they are often used to deliver effectors into host cells. For example, the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori encodes a T4SS, the Cag-T4SS, which mediates the injection of the toxin CagA. We review the progress made in the past decade in our understanding of T4SS architecture. We translate this new knowledge to derive an understanding of the structure of the H. pylori Cag system, and use recent protein-protein interaction data to refine this model. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  16. Gastric bypass surgery does not increase susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach of rat or mouse.

    PubMed

    Stenström, Björn; Løseth, Kirsti; Bevanger, Lars; Sturegård, Erik; Wadström, Torkel; Chen, Duan

    2005-01-01

    Gastric bypass is a clinical option for obesity surgery. An increased susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection in the bypassed stomach has been speculated. The aim of the present study was to examine the susceptibility of the bypassed stomach to H. pylori infection in rats and mice. Adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats and NMRI mice were subjected to either gastric bypass or laparotomy only as control. The animals were inoculated with the CagA- and VacA- positive H. pylori strain 67/21 (not mouse-adapted) in the first experiment and with 9 additional isolates in the second, by injection into the bypassed stomach or the control stomach during surgery. The stomach of each animal was collected for H. pylori culture 2-3 weeks later. While all the rats were H. pylori negative, 54% of gastric bypassed mice and 75% of controls were positive (P = 0.4). We conclude that susceptibility to H. pylori infection in the stomach is not increased by gastric bypass surgery.

  17. Helicobacter pylori modulates host cell responses by CagT4SS-dependent translocation of an intermediate metabolite of LPS inner core heptose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Saskia C; Faber, Eugenia; Bats, Simon H; Murillo, Tatiana; Speidel, Yvonne; Coombs, Nina; Josenhans, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA. Although these transported molecules are known to contribute to cellular responses to some extent, a major part of the cagPAI-induced signaling leading to IL-8 secretion remains unexplained. We report here that biosynthesis of heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), an important intermediate metabolite of LPS inner heptose core, contributes in a major way to the H. pylori cagPAI-dependent induction of proinflammatory signaling and IL-8 secretion in human epithelial cells. Mutants defective in the genes required for synthesis of HBP exhibited a more than 95% reduction of IL-8 induction and impaired CagT4SS-dependent cellular signaling. The loss of HBP biosynthesis did not abolish the ability to translocate CagA. The human cellular adaptor TIFA, which was described before to mediate HBP-dependent activity in other Gram-negative bacteria, was crucial in the cagPAI- and HBP pathway-induced responses by H. pylori in different cell types. The active metabolite was present in H. pylori lysates but not enriched in bacterial supernatants. These novel results advance our mechanistic understanding of H. pylori cagPAI-dependent signaling mediated by intracellular pattern recognition receptors. They will also allow to better dissect immunomodulatory activities by H. pylori and to improve the possibilities of intervention in cagPAI- and inflammation-driven cancerogenesis.

  18. Helicobacter pylori modulates host cell responses by CagT4SS-dependent translocation of an intermediate metabolite of LPS inner core heptose biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Eugenia; Bats, Simon H.; Murillo, Tatiana; Speidel, Yvonne; Coombs, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA. Although these transported molecules are known to contribute to cellular responses to some extent, a major part of the cagPAI-induced signaling leading to IL-8 secretion remains unexplained. We report here that biosynthesis of heptose-1,7-bisphosphate (HBP), an important intermediate metabolite of LPS inner heptose core, contributes in a major way to the H. pylori cagPAI-dependent induction of proinflammatory signaling and IL-8 secretion in human epithelial cells. Mutants defective in the genes required for synthesis of HBP exhibited a more than 95% reduction of IL-8 induction and impaired CagT4SS-dependent cellular signaling. The loss of HBP biosynthesis did not abolish the ability to translocate CagA. The human cellular adaptor TIFA, which was described before to mediate HBP-dependent activity in other Gram-negative bacteria, was crucial in the cagPAI- and HBP pathway-induced responses by H. pylori in different cell types. The active metabolite was present in H. pylori lysates but not enriched in bacterial supernatants. These novel results advance our mechanistic understanding of H. pylori cagPAI-dependent signaling mediated by intracellular pattern recognition receptors. They will also allow to better dissect immunomodulatory activities by H. pylori and to improve the possibilities of intervention in cagPAI- and inflammation-driven cancerogenesis. PMID:28715499

  19. Differences in interleukin 8 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa tissues from patients in Bhutan and the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Iwatani, Shun; Cruz, Modesto; Jiménez Abreu, José A; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Disla, Mildre; Terao, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Tshering, Lotay; Mitsui, Takahiro; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of Helicobacter pylori infection vary geographically. H pylori strains, disease presentation, and environments differ markedly in Bhutan and Dominican Republic. The aims were to compare the strains, histology, and expression of interleukin (IL) 8 and IL-10 from gastric mucosa from the 2 countries. H pylori status was assessed by the combination of rapid urease test, culture, and histology. Histology was evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and cytokines in gastric biopsies were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were 138 subjects from Bhutan and 155 from Dominican Republic. The prevalence of H pylori infection was 65% and 59%, respectively. The genotype of cagA was predominantly East Asian type in Bhutan versus Western type in Dominican Republic. Gastritis severity was significantly higher in H pylori-infected subjects from Bhutan than those from Dominican Republic. IL-8 expression by H pylori infection was 5.5-fold increased in Bhutan versus 3-fold in Dominican Republic (P < .001); IL-10 expression was similar. IL-8 expression levels among H pylori-infected cases tended to be positively correlated with polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration scores in both countries. IL-8 expression among those with grade 2 and 3 polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Dominican Republic. The difference in IL-8 expression in the 2 countries is reflected in the different disease pattern between them. Whether the dominant factor is differences in H pylori virulence, in host-H pylori-environmental interactions, genetic factors or all remains unclear. However, severity of inflammation appears to be a critical factor in disease pathogenesis. We compared IL-8 messenger RNA levels between the high gastric cancer risk country, Bhutan (mainly East Asian-type H pylori), and the lower gastric cancer risk country, Dominican Republic (mainly Western-type H pylori).

  20. Differences in interleukin-8 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa tissues from patients in Bhutan and the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Iwatani, Shun; Cruz, Modesto; Jiménez Abreu, José A.; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Disla, Mildre; Terao, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Machachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Tshering, Lotay; Mitsui, Takahiro; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y.; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes of Helicobacter pylori infection vary geographically. H. pylori strains, disease presentation, and environments differ markedly in Bhutan and Dominican Republic. The aims were to compare the strains, histology and expression of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 from gastric mucosa from the two countries. H. pylori status was assessed by the combination of rapid urease test, culture and histology. Histology was evaluated using the updated Sydney System and cytokines in gastric biopsies were measured using real-time PCR. There were 138 subjects from Bhutan and 155 from Dominican Republic. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 65% and 59%, respectively. The genotype of cagA was predominantly East-Asian type in Bhutan vs. Western type in Dominican Republic. Gastritis severity was significantly higher in H. pylori-infected subjects from Bhutan than those from Dominican Republic. IL-8 expression by H. pylori-infection was 5.5-fold increase in Bhutan vs. 3-fold in Dominican Republic (p <0.001); IL-10 expression was similar. IL-8 expression levels among H. pylori-infected cases tended to be positively correlated with polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) and monocyte infiltration (MNC) scores in both countries. IL-8 expression among those with grade 2 and 3 PMN and MNC was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Dominican Republic. The difference in IL-8 expression in two countries is reflected in the different disease pattern between them. Whether the dominant factor is differences in H. pylori virulence, in host-H. pylori-environmental interactions, genetic factors or all remains unclear. However, severity of inflammation appears to be a critical factor in disease pathogenesis. We compared IL-8 mRNA levels between high gastric cancer risk country; Bhutan (mainly East Asian type H. pylori) and lower gastric cancer risk country; Dominican Republic (mainly Western type H. pylori). PMID:25454482

  1. Microbiota studies in the bile duct strongly suggest a role for Helicobacter pylori in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés-Jiménez, F; Guitron, A; Segura-López, F; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Iwai, S; Hernández-Guerrero, A; Torres, J

    2016-02-01

    Biliary tract cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECCA) represents the sixth commonest cause of cancer in the gastrointestinal tract in western countries. We aimed to characterize the microbiota and its predicted associated functions in the biliary tract of ECCA and benign biliary pathology (BBP). Samples were taken from 100 patients with ECCA and 100 patients with BBP by endoscopic cholangio-pancreatography for DNA extraction. Ten patients with ECCA and ten with BBP were selected for microbiota studies using the V4-16S rRNA gene and sequenced in Illumina platform. Microbiota analyses included sample-to-sample distance metrics, ordination/clustering and prediction of functions. Presence of Nesterenkonia sp. and Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genes were tested in the 100 ECCA and 100 BBP samples. Phylum Proteobacteria dominated all samples (60.4% average). Ordination multicomponent analyses showed significant microbiota separation between ECCA and BBP (p 0.010). Analyses of 4002 operational taxonomic units with presence variation in at least one category probed a separation of ECCA from BBP. Among these, Nesterenkonia decreased, whereas Methylophilaceae, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Novosphingobium and H. pylori increased in ECCA. Predicted associated functions showed increased abundance of H. pylori virulence genes in ECCA. cagA and vacA genes were confirmed by PCR in ECCA and BBP samples. This is the first microbiota report in ECCA and BBP to show significant changes in microbial composition. Bacterial species unusual for human flora were found: Methylophilaceae and Nesterenkonia are reported in hypersaline soils, and Mesorhizobium is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Enrichment of virulence genes confirms previous studies suggesting that H. pylori might be associated with ECCA. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Helicobacter pylori and oesophageal and gastric cancers in a prospective study in China

    PubMed Central

    Kamangar, F; Qiao, Y-L; Blaser, M J; Sun, X-D; Katki, H; Fan, J-H; Perez-Perez, G I; Abnet, C C; Zhao, P; Mark, S D; Taylor, P R; Dawsey, S M

    2006-01-01

    In a cohort of 29 584 residents of Linxian, China, followed from 1985 to 2001, we conducted a case–cohort study of the magnitude of the association of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity with cancer risk in a random sample of 300 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 600 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, all 363 diagnosed gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas, and a random sample of the entire cohort (N=1050). Baseline serum was evaluated for IgG antibodies to whole-cell and CagA H. pylori antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Risks of both gastric cardia and non-cardia cancers were increased in individuals exposed to H. pylori (Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals=1.64; 1.26–2.14, and 1.60; 1.15–2.21, respectively), whereas risk of oesophageal squamous cell cancer was not affected (1.17; 0.88–1.57). For both cardia and non-cardia cancers, HRs were higher in younger individuals. With longer time between serum collection to cancer diagnosis, associations became stronger for cardia cancers but weaker for non-cardia cancers. CagA positivity did not modify these associations. The associations between H. pylori exposure and gastric cardia and non-cardia adenocarcinoma development were equally strong, in contrast to Western countries, perhaps due to the absence of Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinomas in Linxian, making all cardia tumours of gastric origin, rather than a mixture of gastric and oesophageal malignancies. PMID:17179990

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease from Published Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Rangan, Pooja; Bhat, Srinidhi Subraya; Liu, Longjian

    2016-02-01

    The association between helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and coronary heart disease (CHD) has long been debated, and the results from previous meta-analysis are varied. The aim for this study was to identify the association between Hp and CHD using published perspective cohort studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed on studies published from January, 1992 to April, 2014. All studies included used data from prospective cohort studies of CHD events or CHD deaths. Random effect models were applied in all estimations. H. pylori infection increased the risk of CHD events by 11% (19 studies, n = 22,207, risk ratio (RR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.22). This effect was greater for studies that had less than 5 years' follow-up time (RR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.00-1.32). However, this effect was not significant for studies that had follow-up times ≥10 years (n = 5100, RR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.87-1.24). Neither Cag-A seropositive nor Cag-A seronegative strains of H. pylori were associated with a significantly increased risk of CHD events or deaths based on the current published data. In conclusion, H. pylori infection increased the risk of CHD events, especially in a patient's early life, but this association was weaker or might be masked by other CHD risk factors in long-term observations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Partial characterization of a cell proliferation-inhibiting protein produced by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Knipp, U; Birkholz, S; Kaup, W; Opferkuch, W

    1996-01-01

    Despite the induction of an immunological reaction, Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis is a chronic disease, suggesting that this microbe can evade the host immune defense. Previous studies by our group showed that H. pylori suppresses the in vitro proliferative response of human mononuclear cells to mitogens and antigens. Here we demonstrate that the antiproliferative activity of H. pylori also affects the proliferation of various mammalian cell lines (U937, Jurkat, AGS, Kato-3, HEP-2, and P388D1). This effect is detectable in the first 16 h of incubation and maximal between 24 and 48 h. In addition, the presence of H. pylori significantly diminished the protein synthesis of cells in the first 6 h of incubation, comparable to the results with cycloheximide and diphtheria toxin. The urease enzyme, the cagA gene product, and the vacuolizing cytotoxin of H. pylori were excluded as causative agents of the antiproliferative effect by using isogenic knockout mutant strains. The inhibitory effect was not due to a lytic activity of this bacterium. The results reported here indicate that the responsible factor is a protein with an apparent native molecular mass of 100 +/- 10 kDa. Our work implicates the presence of a protein factor in H. pylori (termed PIP [for proliferation-inhibiting protein]) with antiproliferative activity for mammalian cells, including immunocompetent and epithelial cells. Thus, it is reasonable to presume that this property may contribute to the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced diseases. It may be involved on the one hand in immune response evasion and on the other hand in the suppression of epithelial repair mechanisms. PMID:8751889

  5. An Inverse Relationship between the Expression of the Gastric Tumor Suppressor RUNX3 and Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Epithelial Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Woo Chul; Joo, Kyu Re; Kim, Min Ji; Youn, Gun Jung; Kim, Yaeni; Lee, Joune Seup; Lee, Hyewon; Jung, Ji Han; Lee, Yun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims This study was performed to determine the association between RUNX3 expression and Helicobacter pylori infection in premalignant gastric lesions. Methods We examined 107 patients with gastric epithelial dysplasia who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection or submucosal dissection. All tissue samples were evaluated by RUNX3 staining and subclassified by immunophenotype. H. pylori infection in dysplastic lesions and the normal surrounding tissue was examined by silver staining, and cagA status was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Results The loss of RUNX3 expression was observed in 62 cases (57.9%), and an association with H. pylori infection was found in 54 cases (50.5%). The infection rate with the cagA-positive H. pylori strain was 63.0%. In RUNX3-negative lesions, the rate of H. pylori infection (p=0.03) and the frequency of category 4 lesions (according to the revised Vienna classification) were high (p=0.02). In addition, the gastric mucin phenotype was predominant. In RUNX3-negative category 4 lesions, the rate of cagA-positive H. pylori infection rate was high but not significantly increased (p=0.08). Conclusions Infection with H. pylori is associated with inactivation of RUNX3 in early gastric carcinogenesis. This mechanism was prominent in gastric cancer with a gastric mucin phenotype. PMID:24312710

  6. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori isolates in expression of antigens and induction of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ren-Xian; Luo, Dong-Jiao; Sun, Ai-Hua; Yan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To obtain evidence for selection of antigens used in genetically engineered vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) was established on the basis of recombinant protein antigens rUreB, rHpaA, rVacA, rCagA1, rNapA, rFlaA and rFlaB of H pylori to detect expression rates of the antigens in bacterial isolates as well as positive rates of the antibodies in sera from H pylori-infected patients. PCR was applied to the detection of carrying rates of the genes encoding antigens in the isolates. RESULTS: The outputs of rUreB, rHpaA, rVacA, rCagA1, rNapA, rFlaA and rFlaB were approximately 35%, 32%, 15%, 23%, 56%, 25% and 20% of the total bacterial proteins, respectively. One hundred and fifty-one strains of H pylori were isolated from 347 biopsy specimens of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric adenocarcinoma, with a positive rate of 43.5%. All of the isolates expressed UreB, HpaA, FlaA and FlaB while 52.3%, 92.1% and 93.4% of the isolates expressed VacA, CagA and NapA, respectively. In the sera of 151 H pylori-infected patients, the positive rates of IgG antibodies against UreB, HpaA, VacA, CagA, NapA, FlaA and FlaB were 100%, 87.4%, 43%, 71.5%, 89.4%, 84.8% and 79.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the expression frequencies of VacA and NapA were found to be relative to the severity of gastric diseases (P = 0.016 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: UreB antigen is the top option of developing genetically engineered vaccine against H pylori followed by NapA or HpaA. PMID:18720546

  7. Downregulated regulatory T cell function is associated with increased peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori-infection.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nader; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Elahi, Shokrollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Shafigh, Mohammedhadi; Rashidii, Reza; Sarafnejad, Abdulfatah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Faridani, Rana; Tahmasbi, Kamran; Kheiri, Soleiman; Razavi, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronically colonizes gastric/duodenal mucosa and induces gastroduodenal disease such as gastritis and peptic ulcer and induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection is not removed, a state of chronic active gastritis persists for life if untreated. The objective of this study was to determine the number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in gastric mucosa of patients with gastritis and peptic ulcer and determined the relationship between main virulence factor of H. pylori and Tregs. A total of 89 patients with gastritis, 63 patients with peptic ulcer and 40 healthy, H. pylori-negative subjects were enrolled in this study. Expression of CD4 and Foxp3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Antrum biopsy was obtained for detection of H. pylori, bacterial virulence factors and histopathological assessments. TGF-β1, IL-10 and FOXP3 expressions were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The numbers of CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3, INF-γ and IL-17A in infected patients were significantly higher than the ones in uninfected patients. Also, the number of CD4(+) T cells was independent on the vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) and outer inflammatory protein A (oipA), but it was positively correlated with cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA). Instead, the number of Foxp3(+) T cells was dependent on the vacA and oipA, but it was independent on cagA. The number of Foxp3(+) T cells and the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 in infected patients with gastritis were significantly higher than the ones in infected patients with peptic ulcer. Moreover, the number of CD4(+) T cells and the expression of IL-17A and INF-γ was the lowest in the gastritis patients, however, increased progressively in the peptic ulcer patients. Additionally, the numbers of CD4(+) and Foxp3(+) T cells as well as the expression of IL-10, TGF-β1, FOXP3 and INF-γ were

  8. Intergenerational reduction in Helicobacter pylori prevalence is similar between different ethnic groups living in a Western city.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Wouter J; Holster, I Lisanne; van Gilst, Bianca; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Kuipers, Ernst J; Moll, Henriëtte A; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonisation rates in childhood have declined in Western populations, but it is unknown whether this trend is similar in children of non-Western ethnic backgrounds, born in a Western country. We aimed to identify H. pylori status in children, and determine mother-to-child transmission and risk factors for colonisation. Antibodies against H. pylori and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) were measured in children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Information on demographics and characteristics was collected using questionnaires. We analysed the serum of 4467 children (mean age 6.2 years±0.4 SD) and compared the results with the H. pylori status of their mothers (available for 3185 children). Overall, 438 (10%) children were H. pylori-positive, of whom 142 (32%) were CagA-positive. Independent risk factors for colonisation were: maternal H. pylori positivity (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.62 to 2.77), non-Dutch ethnicity (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.73), female gender (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.80) and lower maternal education level (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.79). Comparing mothers and children, we found an intergenerational decrease of 76% and 77% for Hp(+)CagA(-) and Hp(+)CagA(+)-strains, respectively, consistent across all nine ethnic groups studied. Male gender, higher maternal educational level and no older siblings, were independently associated with absence of H. pylori. Although the highest H. pylori and CagA prevalence was found in children of non-Dutch ethnicities, the decreased colonisation rates were uniform across all ethnic groups, implying the importance of environmental factors in H. pylori transmission in modern cities, independent of ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Helicobacter pylori induces beta3GnT5 in human gastric cell lines, modulating expression of the SabA ligand sialyl-Lewis x.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Nuno T; Magalhães, Ana; Ferreira, Bibiana; Oliveira, Maria J; Carvalho, Ana S; Mendes, Nuno; Gilmartin, Tim; Head, Steven R; Figueiredo, Céu; David, Leonor; Santos-Silva, Filipe; Reis, Celso A

    2008-06-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is recognized as a cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori adhesion to gastric cells is mediated by bacterial adhesins such as sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA), which binds the carbohydrate structure sialyl-Lewis x. Sialyl-Lewis x expression in the gastric epithelium is induced during persistent H. pylori infection, suggesting that H. pylori modulates host cell glycosylation patterns for enhanced adhesion. Here, we evaluate changes in the glycosylation-related gene expression profile of a human gastric carcinoma cell line following H. pylori infection. We observed that H. pylori significantly altered expression of 168 of the 1,031 human genes tested by microarray, and the extent of these alterations was associated with the pathogenicity of the H. pylori strain. A highly pathogenic strain altered expression of several genes involved in glycan biosynthesis, in particular that encoding beta3 GlcNAc T5 (beta3GnT5), a GlcNAc transferase essential for the biosynthesis of Lewis antigens. beta3GnT5 induction was specific to infection with highly pathogenic strains of H. pylori carrying a cluster of genes known as the cag pathogenicity island, and was dependent on CagA and CagE. Further, beta3GnT5 overexpression in human gastric carcinoma cell lines led to increased sialyl-Lewis x expression and H. pylori adhesion. This study identifies what we believe to be a novel mechanism by which H. pylori modulates the biosynthesis of the SabA ligand in gastric cells, thereby strengthening the epithelial attachment necessary to achieve successful colonization.

  10. Virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori vacA increase markedly gastric mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in gastritis patients.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Sanei, Mohammad Hosein; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Afshin; Salimzadeh, Loghman; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Bagheri, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the main cause of gastric inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress the activation and proliferation of antigen-specific T cells and mediate immunologic tolerance. TGF-β1 was shown to be secreted in a subset of Treg cells known as 'Th3 cells'. These cells have not been sufficiently studied in context to H. pylori-induced inflammation in human gastric mucosa. In this study we therefore, aimed to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the context of H. pylori colonization in chronic gastritis, to examine the relationship between it and histopathologic findings and to compare it with virulence factors. Total RNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori-negative patients with gastritis. Mucosal TGF-β1 mRNA expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsies was determined by real-time PCR. Presence of vacA, cagA, iceA, babA2 and oipA virulence factors was evaluated using PCR. TGF-β1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori-uninfected patients. There was association between virulence factors and TGF-β1 mRNA expression. TGF-β1 mRNA expression in mucosa was significantly higher in patients with vacA s1 and s1m1. TGF-β1 may play an important role in the inflammatory response and promote the chronic and persistent inflammatory changes in the gastric. This may ultimately influence the outcome of H. pylori-associated diseases that arise within the context of gastritis and vacA may suffice to induce expression of TGF-β1 mRNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of the antimicrobial peptide TP4 against Helicobacter pylori infection: in vitro membrane perturbation via micellization and in vivo suppression of host immune responses in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Jayaram Lakshmaiah; Huang, Han-Ning; Wu, Chang-Jer; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is marked by a strong association with various gastric diseases, including gastritis, ulcers, and gastric cancer. Antibiotic treatment regimens have low success rates due to the rapid occurrence of resistant H. pylori strains, necessitating the development of novel anti-H. pylori strategies. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of a novel peptide, Tilapia Piscidin 4 (TP4), against multidrug resistant gastric pathogen H. pylori, based on its in vitro and in vivo efficacy. TP4 inhibited the growth of both antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori (CagA+, VacA+) via membrane micelle formation, which led to membrane depolarization and extravasation of cellular constituents. During colonization of gastric tissue, H. pylori infection maintains high T regulatorysubsets and a low Th17/Treg ratio, and results in expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Treatment with TP4 suppressed Treg subset populations and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TP4 restored the Th17/Treg balance, which resulted in early clearance of H. pylori density and recovery of gastric morphology. Toxicity studies demonstrated that TP4 treatment has no adverse effects in mice or rabbits. The results of this study indicate that TP4 may be an effective and safe monotherapeutic agent for the treatment of multidrug resistant H. pylori infections. PMID:26002554

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

  13. Quasispecies development of Helicobacter pylori observed in paired isolates obtained years apart from the same host.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, E J; Israel, D A; Kusters, J G; Gerrits, M M; Weel, J; van Der Ende, A; van Der Hulst, R W; Wirth, H P; Höök-Nikanne, J; Thompson, S A; Blaser, M J

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori isolates show greater genetic diversity than other bacterial species studied, but the basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Whether detectable genomic mutation appears within an H. pylori population during persistent colonization was investigated. Paired H. pylori populations obtained across 7- to 10-year intervals from 13 patients were characterized by use of methods including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping for cagA, vacA, iceA, recA, and IS605; random arbitrarily primed DNA (RAPD)-PCR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis; and ELISA, to determine Lewis phenotypes. Genotyping, including recA sequence analysis, revealed that initial and follow-up populations represented the same population in 11 patients (85%). Nevertheless, distinct dissimilarities were shown within each of these 11 pairs by both RAPD-PCR and AFLP analyses. During follow-up, Lewis-y levels, but not Lewis-x levels, decreased significantly. The changes detected by RAPD-PCR and AFLP indicate that genetic drift occurs within H. pylori populations over the course of years of colonization of a single host.

  14. Characterization of the low-pH responses of Helicobacter pylori using genomic DNA arrays.

    PubMed

    Allan, E; Clayton, C L; McLaren, A; Wallace, D M; Wren, B W

    2001-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is unique among bacterial pathogens in its ability to persist in the acidic environment of the human stomach. To identify H. pylori genes responsive to low pH, the authors assembled a high-density array of PCR-amplified random genomic DNA. Hybridization of radiolabelled cDNA probes, prepared using total RNA from bacteria exposed to buffer at either pH 4.0 or pH 7.0, allowed both qualitative and quantitative information on differential gene expression to be obtained. A previously described low-pH-induced gene, cagA, was identified together with several novel genes that may have relevance to the survival and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric environment. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in LPS and phospholipid synthesis and secF, encoding a component of the protein export machinery. A hypothetical protein unique to H. pylori (HP0681) was also found to be acid induced. Genes down-regulated at pH 4.0 include those encoding a sugar nucleotide biosynthesis protein, a flagellar protein and an outer-membrane protein. Differential gene expression was confirmed by total RNA slot-blot hybridization.

  15. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori determines host-adaptive responses upon coculture with gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T; Fox, James G

    2013-07-01

    While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease.

  16. Coiled Coil Rich Proteins (Ccrp) Influence Molecular Pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Schätzle, Sarah; Specht, Mara; Waidner, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori relies on its capacity to adapt to a hostile environment and to escape the host response. Although there have been great advances in our understanding of the bacterial cytoskeleton, major gaps remain in our knowledge of its contribution to virulence. In this study we have explored the influence of coiled coil rich proteins (Ccrp) cytoskeletal elements on pathogenicity factors of H. pylori. Deletion of any of the ccrp resulted in a strongly decreased activity of the main pathogenicity factor urease. We further investigated their role using in vitro co-culture experiments with the human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS modeling H. pylori - host cell interactions. Intriguingly, host cell showed only a weak “scattering/hummingbird” phenotype, in which host cells are transformed from a uniform polygonal shape into a severely elongated state characterized by the formation of needle-like projections, after co-incubation with any ccrp deletion mutant. Furthermore, co-incubation with the ccrp59 mutant resulted in reduced type IV secretion system associated activities, e.g. IL-8 production and CagA translocation/phosphorylation. Thus, in addition to their role in maintaining the helical cell shape of H. pylori Ccrp proteins influence many cellular processes and are thereby crucial for the virulence of this human pathogen. PMID:25822999

  17. Usefulness of Housekeeping Genes for the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Strain Discrimination and Detection of Multiple Infection.

    PubMed

    Palau, Montserrat; Kulmann, Marcos; Ramírez-Lázaro, María José; Lario, Sergio; Quilez, María Elisa; Campo, Rafael; Piqué, Núria; Calvet, Xavier; Miñana-Galbis, David

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects human stomachs of over half the world's population, evades the immune response and establishes a chronic infection. Although most people remains asymptomatic, duodenal and gastric ulcers, MALT lymphoma and progression to gastric cancer could be developed. Several virulence factors such as flagella, lipopolysaccharide, adhesins and especially the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA and the oncoprotein CagA have been described for H. pylori. Despite the extensive published data on H. pylori, more research is needed to determine new virulence markers, the exact mode of transmission or the role of multiple infection. Amplification and sequencing of six housekeeping genes (amiA, cgt, cpn60, cpn70, dnaJ, and luxS) related to H. pylori pathogenesis have been performed in order to evaluate their usefulness for the specific detection of H. pylori, the genetic discrimination at strain level and the detection of multiple infection. A total of 52 H. pylori clones, isolated from 14 gastric biopsies from 11 patients, were analyzed for this purpose. All genes were specifically amplified for H. pylori and all clones isolated from different patients were discriminated, with gene distances ranged from 0.9 to 7.8%. Although most clones isolated from the same patient showed identical gene sequences, an event of multiple infection was detected in all the genes and microevolution events were showed for amiA and cpn60 genes. These results suggested that housekeeping genes could be useful for H. pylori detection and to elucidate the mode of transmission and the relevance of the multiple infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Antibody reactivity against Helicobacter pylori proteins in a sample of the Spanish adult population in 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Larrea, Nerea; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Butt, Julia; Pawlita, Michael; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Amiano, Pilar; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Clofent, Juan; Alguacil, Juan; Huerta, José María; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molinuevo, Amaia; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Casabonne, Delphine; Sierra, Ángeles; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-10-01

    Differences in Helicobacter pylori protein expression have been related to the risk of severe gastric diseases. In Spain, a marked geographic pattern in gastric cancer mortality has long been reported. To characterize antibody reactivity patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins, by age, sex, and region of birth, in a large sample of the Spanish adult population. Antibody reactivity was quantified by H. pylori multiplex serology in a sample from the control group of the multicase-control study MCC-Spain. For this analysis, 2555 population-based controls were included. Each participant was classified as seropositive or seronegative for each protein according to specific cutoffs. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence was defined as positivity against ≥4 proteins. Descriptive analyses by age, sex, and region of birth were performed for both seroprevalence and seroreactivity (continuous measure). Differences among groups were tested by logistic and linear regression models. Overall H. pylori seroprevalence increased with age in both sexes. For ages 55-74, seroprevalence was lower in women than in men (84% vs 92%, P<.001). Region of birth explained 7% of the variability in seroprevalence. Among H. pylori seropositive subjects, proteins with the highest seroprevalence were GroEL, NapA, HP231, and Omp. Seropositivity for most of the proteins increased or remained stable with age, rising mainly for CagA, GroEL, and HyuA in women. A clear cohort effect was not observed. This is the first study to describe the antibody patterns against 16 H. pylori proteins in the Spanish population. We found variability in the H. pylori antibody profiles according to both individual factors such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as the region of birth. The slightness of the reduction in seropositivity with decreasing age highlights the ongoing importance of this infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Clarithromycin modulates Helicobacter pylori-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB through classical and alternative pathways in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yen-Chun; Ho, Shu-Peng; Shyu, Ching-Lin; Chang, Chi-Sen; Huang, Lan-Ru

    2014-02-01

    Infection of gastric epithelial cells by Helicobacter pylori stimulates the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the upregulation of interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression. Activation of NF-κB can occur through classical (p50/p65) and alternative (p52/RelB) pathways. The role of the bacterial cag pathogenicity island (PAI) in these events is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that the CagA protein is required for H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and upregulation of IL-8 expression, and for clarithromycin (CAM) to exert its molecular effects. Cultured KATO-III human gastric cancer cells were treated with extracts of H. pylori strains ATCC43504 (cag PAI(+)) and ATCC51932 (cag PAI(-)) for 24 h. NF-κB and phospho-IκB protein expression was then evaluated using western blotting. IL-8 mRNA expression was evaluated using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Following the separation of the proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, proteomes of the two bacterial extracts were compared using nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS) analysis. Although the protein profiles of the two extracts differed, both extracts induced IκBα phosphorylation, upregulation of IL-8 expression, and NF-κB activation through classical and alternative pathways. In cells treated with either of the bacterial extracts, CAM inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and upregulation of IL-8 expression. These results suggested that CagA is not required for H. pylori-induced activation of NF-κB and upregulation of IL-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori-induced NF-κB signaling can occur through classical and alternative activation pathways, and that CAM inhibits these two pathways.

  20. Down-regulated Th17 Responses Are Associated with Reduced Gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Cover, Timothy L.; Venegas, Alejandro; Salazar, Maria G.; Smythies, Lesley E.; Harris, Paul R.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori induces less gastric inflammation in children than adults. Here we investigated whether this reduced inflammation involves dysregulated Th17 responses. H. pylori-infected children and adults in Santiago, Chile had similar levels of H. pylori colonization, proportions of bacteria containing cagA and s1/s2 vacA markers of virulence and strain genotypes (predominantly hpEurope), but the children had significantly reduced levels of gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The reduced neutrophil accumulation in infected children was accompanied by significantly fewer gastric Th17 cells and significantly lower levels of IL-17-specific mRNA and protein compared to infected adults. The gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected children also contained higher numbers of IL-10+ cells and increased levels of both IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA compared to that of infected adults. Thus, reduced gastric inflammation, including diminished neutrophil accumulation, in H. pylori-infected children compared with infected adults is likely due to down-regulated gastric Th17/IL-17 responses as a consequence of enhanced mucosal regulatory T cell activity in the children. PMID:23299619

  1. [Frequency of Helicobacter pylori nitroreductase RdxA mutations for metronidazole activation in a population in the Cauca Department, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Claudia Patricia; Quiroga, Andrés Javier; Sierra, Carlos H; Trespalacios, Alba Alicia

    2017-06-01

    Resistance to metronidazole is a key factor associated with Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Even though resistance is mostly associated with RdxA nitroreductase mutations, studies of this H. pylori protein in Popayán (Colombia) are still incipient. To evaluate the frequency of mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase in a population of patients with H. pylori-positive gastrointestinal disease. We amplified the DNA of 170 gastric biopsies by PCR to detect mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase. An analysis of DNA sequences translated into amino acid sequences was done and then compared to the reference strain 26695. The frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in this study population was 78%. Its most frequent distribution was found in positions D59N (153 samples), R131K (101 samples), R90K (97 samples), A118T (42 samples), I160F (32 samples) and H97T (26 samples), and meaningful stop codons Q50*, D59*; E75*, C159* and I160* in five, one, three, ten and six samples, respectively. The most common virulence genotype was vacAs1/m1 cagA negative (48.6 %). The high frequency of RdxA nitroreductase mutations in H. pylori isolates in Popayán (Colombia) indicates that empirical therapy with metronidazole may not be a valid option for the eradication of H. pylori in patients of the studied population.

  2. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori is a determinant of gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    de Sablet, Thibaut; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Shaffer, Carrie L; Schneider, Barbara G; Asim, Mohammad; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Bravo, Luis E; Sicinschi, Liviu A; Delgado, Alberto G; Mera, Robertino M; Israel, Dawn A; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M; Cover, Timothy L; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T

    2011-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonises the stomach in half of all humans, and is the principal cause of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While gastric cancer rates correlate with H pylori prevalence in some areas, there are regions where infection is nearly universal, but rates of gastric cancer are low. In the case of Colombia, there is a 25-fold increase in gastric cancer rate in the Andean mountain (high risk) region compared to the coastal (low risk) re