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Sample records for pyrimidine dimer formation

  1. Formation of pyrimidine dimer radical anions in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Edtbauer, Achim; Russell, Katherine; Feketeová, Linda; Taubitz, Jörg; Mitterdorfer, Christian; Denifl, Stephan; O'Hair, Richard A J; Märk, Tilmann D; Scheier, Paul; Wille, Uta

    2009-12-21

    Crossed-beam experiments revealed that attachment of a free electron to the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers c,s-DMT<>DMT and c,a-DMT<>DMT leads to the formation of dimer radical anions with the lifetime of at least 80 micros, thus showing that the latter are much more stable than previously believed.

  2. Blocking cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation by steric hindrance.

    PubMed

    Vendrell-Criado, Victoria; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Yamaji, Minoru; Cuquerella, M Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-26

    The efficiency of thymine (Thy) and uracil (Ura) to form cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in solution, upon UV irradiation differs by one order of magnitude. This could to be partially related to the steric hindrance induced by the methyl at C5 in thymine. The aim of the present work is to establish the influence of a bulky moiety at this position on the photoreactivity of pyrimidines. With this purpose, photosensitization with benzophenone and acetone of a 5-tert-butyl uracil derivative () and the equivalent Thy () has been compared. Introduction of the tert-butyl group completely blocks CPD formation. Moreover, the mechanistic insight obtained by laser flash photolysis is in accordance with the observed photoreactivity.

  3. Pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Harber, L.C.; Kochevar, I.E.

    1980-09-01

    Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers have been detected in the DNA of human skin following in vivo irradiation with suberythermal doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from FS-20 sun lamp fluorescent tubes. Dimers were assayed by treatment of extracted DNA with Micrococus luteus UV-specific endonuclease, alkaline agarose electrophoresis, and ethidum bromide staining. This technique, in contrast to conventional dimer assays, can be used with nonradioactive DNA and is optimal at low UV light doses. These data suggest that some dimer disappearance by excision repair occurs within 20 min of UV irradiation and that photoreactivation of dimers can make a contribution to the total repair process.

  4. Pyrimidine dimer formation by UVA radiation: Implications for photoreactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Hacham, H.; Sutherland, J.C. ); Gange, R.W. . Dept. of Dermatology)

    1991-01-01

    The duality of biological and biochemical effects mediated by UVA radiation complicates evaluation of its biological role. On the one hand, UVA can drive photoreactivation and prevent inactivation of a UV-irradiated organism; on the other hand, UVA clearly kills cells. We have investigated the ability of UVA to induce pyrimidine dimers in human skin in situ. Results of these studies indicate that UVA induces easily quantifiable levels of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of human skin exposed in situ; and significant levels of dimers are induced in skin exposed to biologically relevant UVA doses (0--1 minimal erythemal dose (MED)). Also, UVA doses appropriate for photorepair may induce sufficient dimer frequencies to mask photoreactivation in biological systems, including human skin. Therefore, careful design of photoreactivation experiments is essential. The UV lamp used must not reverse or convert photodamage, nor induce additional lesions in the DNA. 29 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Mechanisms of Inhibition of Pyrimidine Dimer Formation in Deoxyribonucleic Acid by Acridine Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, B. M.; Sutherland, J. C.

    1969-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV)-induced formation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in Escherichia coli deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in vitro has been investigated in terms of the mechanism of inhibition by acridine dyes, the effect on dimer yield of specific singlet and triplet quenchers, and the mechanism of dimer formation. Our results indicate that (a) energy transfer is important in dimer reduction by acridines, (b) this transfer occurs from the singlet (S1) of DNA, and (c) at room temperature triplet quenchers do not reduce dimer yield in DNA. PMID:4888976

  6. Efficiency of pyrimidine dimer formation in Escherichia coli across UV wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Eischeid, A C; Linden, K G

    2007-11-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli as a function of ultraviolet (UV) wavelength was investigated by using the endonuclease-sensitive site (ESS) assay to quantify pyrimidine dimer formation. Ultraviolet dose-response curves were determined based on both log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) and endonuclease-sensitive sites per kb DNA (ESS/kb) for monochromatic 254-nm low-pressure (LP) UV, polychromatic medium-pressure (MP) UV, 228 and 289-nm UV irradiation. UV irradiation from LP and MP UV sources were approx. equal in both CFU reduction and pyrimidine dimer formation at all UV doses studied; 228-nm irradiation was less effective than LP or MP, and 289-nm irradiation was the least effective in both CFU reduction and pyrimidine dimer formation. These results are in qualitative agreement with the absorption spectrum of pyrimidine bases in DNA. Results indicated an approx. linear relationship between ESS/kb and log CFU reduction. Formation of pyrimidine dimers in genomic DNA is primarily responsible for UV inactivation of E. coli. This work contributed to fundamental understanding of UV disinfection and aids in UV reactor design.

  7. The phototumorigenic fluoroquinolone lomefloxacin photosensitizes pyrimidine dimer formation in human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Traynor, N J; Gibbs, N K

    1999-12-01

    The fluoroquinolone antibiotic lomefloxacin is phototoxic, photogenotoxic, photomutagenic and photosensitizes tumorigenesis in mouse skin. We have used T4 endonuclease V to demonstrate that lomefloxacin photosensitizes pyrimidine dimer formation in a human keratinocyte line (HaCaT). A possible mechanism for this effect would be triplet-triplet energy transfer. However, there is indirect evidence that the lomefloxacin triplet yield is very low, making this reaction less likely. The finding that lomefloxacin photosensitizes production of highly mutagenic pyrimidine dimers correlates with its ability to initiate skin tumor formation in mice. Until the potential of other fluoroquinolones to photosensitize dimer formation is explored it may be unadvisable to prescribe these antibiotics to patients with defective DNA repair capacity (e.g. xeroderma pigmentosum).

  8. Quantum Yield of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Formation Via the Triplet Channel Determined by Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhe; Pilles, Bert M; Gontcharov, Julia; Bucher, Dominik B; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2016-01-21

    UV-induced formation of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion is investigated by stationary and time-resolved photosensitization experiments. The photosensitizer 2'-methoxyacetophenone with high intersystem crossing efficiency and large absorption cross-section in the UV-A range was used. A diffusion controlled reaction model is presented. Time-resolved experiments confirmed the validity of the reaction model and provided information on the dynamics of the triplet sensitization process. With a series of concentration dependent stationary illumination experiments, we determined the quantum efficiency for CPD formation from the triplet state of the thymine dinucleotide TpT to be 4 ± 0.2%.

  9. Influence of C5-methylation of cytosine on the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2005-01-01

    The reaction pathways for thermal and photochemical formation of 5-methylcytosine (m 5C) pyrimidine dimers (CPD) are explored using density functional theory techniques. It is shown that the methylation of cytosine does not contribute to an increased yield of CPDs after UV irradiation due to an even lower excitation energy at the reactant complex of m 5C as compared to cytosine, a larger barrier to reach the decay channel corresponding to the transition state structure along the ground state reaction path, and a higher-lying decay channel.

  10. Quantitation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in double- and single-stranded DNA fragments of defined sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.K., Haseltine, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in defined sequences of ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA was determined. The results demonstrate that the extent of dimer formation at a potential dimer site as a function of the dose reaches a steady-state level for all dimers at doses above 2000/Jm/sup 2/. The steady-state level is primarily dependent upon the composition of the dimer, varying from a maximum of about 10% dimer formation at sites of adjacent thymines to less than 1% for sites of adjacent cytosines. The extent of dimer formation is also affected by the two bases that immediately flank the potential dimer site as well as by longer-range sequence effects. The rates of dimer formation and the steady-state levels at most dimers are similar in single- and double-stranded DNA. The dose rate of irradiation does not affect the distribution of pyrimidine dimers over the range of 1.8-7.5 J/m/sup 2//sec. The implications of these observations for understanding mutation rates at different sites within a gene are discussed.

  11. Stereoselective formation of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by using N4-acetyl protection of the cytosine base.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori

    2008-01-01

    The cytosine base in DNA undergoes hydrolytic deamination at a considerable rate when UV radiation induces formation of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) with an adjacent pyrimidine base. As a part of our study on the synthesis of CPD-containing oligonucleotides, we have prepared properly-protected thymidylyl-(3' 5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxycytidine, and the solution of this compound was UV-irradiated using acetophenone as a sensitizer. In this reaction, hydrolysis of the acetylamino group occurred, and a trans-syn cyclobutane thymine-uracil dimer with the syn-anti conformation around the glycosidic bonds was formed stereoselectively.

  12. Influence of cytosine methylation on ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Patrick J; Lacoste, Sandrine; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Bastien, Nathalie; Brash, Douglas E; Drouin, Régen

    2009-06-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is the main cause of skin cancer. More than 50% of all non-melanoma skin cancers and >90% of squamous cell carcinomas in the US carry a sunlight-induced mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. These mutations have a strong tendency to occur at methylated cytosines. Ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR) was used to compare at nucleotide resolution DNA photoproduct formation at dipyrimidine sites either containing or lacking a methylated cytosine. For this purpose, we exploited the fact that the X chromosome is methylated in females only on the inactive X chromosome, and that the FMR1 (fragile-X mental retardation 1) gene is methylated only in fragile-X syndrome male patients. Purified genomic DNA was irradiated with UVC (254nm), UVB (290-320nm) or monochromatic UVB (302 and 313nm) to determine the effect of different wavelengths on cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation along the X-linked PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1) and FMR1 genes. We show that constitutive methylation of cytosine increases the frequency of UVB-induced CPD formation by 1.7-fold, confirming that methylation per se is influencing the probability of damage formation. This was true for both UVB sources used, either broadband or monochromatic, but not for UVC. Our data prove unequivocally that following UVB exposure methylated cytosines are significantly more susceptible to CPD formation compared with unmethylated cytosines.

  13. Apigenin prevents ultraviolet-B radiation induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers formation in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Britto, S Mary; Shanthakumari, D; Agilan, B; Radhiga, T; Kanimozhi, G; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation leads to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). We investigated the protective effect of apigenin against UVB-induced CPDs formation in human dermal fibroblasts cells (HDFa). For this purpose, HDFa cells were treated with apigenin (15μM) prior to UVB irradiation (20mJ/cm(2)); DNA damage and subsequent molecular end points were observed. Exposure to UVB radiation increased significant CPDs formation in HDFa cells and the frequencies of CPDs were reduced by treatment with apigenin (15μM). UVB-induced CPDs downregulates the expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes such as xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C, B, G and F (XPC, XPB, XPG and XPF), transcription factor II human (TFIIH) and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in HDFa cells. Conversely, apigenin treatment restored UVB-induced loss of NER proteins in HDFa cells, which indicates its preventive effect against CPDs formation. Besides, single low dose UVB-exposure induced nuclear fragmentation, apoptotic frequency and apoptotic proteins expression (Bax and Caspase-3) have been prevented by the apigenin pretreatment. Furthermore, apigenin exhibits strong UV absorbance property and showed 10.08 SPF value. Thus, apigenin can protect skin cells against UVB-induced CPDs formation probably through its sunscreen effect. Hence, apigenin can be considered as an effective protective agent against UV induced skin damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation and repair of psoralen-DNA adducts and pyrimidine dimers in human DNA and chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Cleaver, J E; Killpack, S; Gruenert, D C

    1985-01-01

    DNA damage and repair in human cells exposed to ultraviolet light (254 nm) or to psoralen derivatives plus 360 nm light were compared by means of a variety of analytic techniques. The two kinds of damage show considerable structural similarity; both involve cyclobutyl bonds to 5,6 positions of pyrimidines as major products and have various minor products. In purified DNA, pyrimidine dimers, but not psoralen adducts, cause structural distortions that are substances for digestion with single-strand-specific nucleases. Whereas pyrimidine dimers are randomly produced in chromatin, psoralen adducts, are concentrated approximately 2- to 4-fold in linker regions of chromatin at doses that are not highly lethal. Chromatin shows considerable mobility; assignment of DNA to linker or core regions is not permanent, and psoralen adducts initially concentrated in linker regions become randomized after 10 hr. Pyrimidine dimers and psoralen adducts are excised by normal cells but not by repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum cells. This repair process requires DNA polymerase alpha, but its rate in ultraviolet-damaged cells is twice that in psoralen-damaged cells. Conversion of monoadducts to DNA-DNA crosslinks reduces the rate of repair because of the increased complexity of the damaged site. PMID:3002774

  15. Photosensitized [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-acetylated cytosine affords stereoselective formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Manabe, Koichiro; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori

    2011-02-01

    Photocycloaddition between two adjacent bases in DNA produces a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which is one of the major UV-induced DNA lesions, with either the cis-syn or trans-syn structure. In this study, we investigated the photosensitized intramolecular cycloaddition of partially-protected thymidylyl-(3'→5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxy-5-methylcytidine, to clarify the effect of the base modification on the cycloaddition reaction. The reaction resulted in the stereoselective formation of the trans-syn CPD, followed by hydrolysis of the acetylamino group. The same result was obtained for the photocycloaddition of thymidylyl-(3'→5')-N(4)-acetyl-2'-deoxycytidine, whereas both the cis-syn and trans-syn CPDs were formed from thymidylyl-(3'→5')-thymidine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the activation energy of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is comparable to that reported for the thymine-cytosine CPD. These findings provided a new strategy for the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the trans-syn CPD. Using the synthesized oligonucleotide, translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase η was analyzed.

  16. Photosensitized [2 + 2] cycloaddition of N-acetylated cytosine affords stereoselective formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Nishiguchi, Kosuke; Manabe, Koichiro; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori

    2011-01-01

    Photocycloaddition between two adjacent bases in DNA produces a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which is one of the major UV-induced DNA lesions, with either the cis-syn or trans-syn structure. In this study, we investigated the photosensitized intramolecular cycloaddition of partially-protected thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-N4-acetyl-2′-deoxy-5-methylcytidine, to clarify the effect of the base modification on the cycloaddition reaction. The reaction resulted in the stereoselective formation of the trans-syn CPD, followed by hydrolysis of the acetylamino group. The same result was obtained for the photocycloaddition of thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-N4-acetyl-2′-deoxycytidine, whereas both the cis-syn and trans-syn CPDs were formed from thymidylyl-(3′→5′)-thymidine. Kinetic analyses revealed that the activation energy of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is comparable to that reported for the thymine-cytosine CPD. These findings provided a new strategy for the synthesis of oligonucleotides containing the trans-syn CPD. Using the synthesized oligonucleotide, translesion synthesis by human DNA polymerase η was analyzed. PMID:20880992

  17. Cytosine containing dipyrimidine sites can be hotspots of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation after UVB exposure.

    PubMed

    Bastien, Nathalie; Therrien, Jean-Philippe; Drouin, Régen

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to the UV component of sunlight is the principal factor leading to skin cancer development. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) are considered to be the most important pre-mutagenic type of DNA damage involved in skin carcinogenesis. To better understand the biological mechanisms of UV carcinogenesis, it is critical to understand the CPD distribution between the four types of dipyrimidine sites. Most of our knowledge regarding CPD distribution comes from in vitro studies or from investigations using UVC, even though we are not naturally exposed to these UV wavelengths. We exposed normal human fibroblasts and purified DNA to UVB. Using ligation-mediated PCR, we quantified the CPD formation at 952 dipyrimidine sites among the PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), JUN, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS and TP53 genes. In cellulo, we found a CPD distribution of 27 : 27 : 25 : 21 for TT : CC : TC : CT. This distribution is similar to that observed in vitro. In the analysed genes, we observed some extremely frequently damaged dipyrimidine sites and many of these occurred at potentially frequently mutated sites, i.e. at dipyrimidine sites containing cytosine. Also, most of the frequently damaged dipyrimidine sites in cellulo that are not frequently damaged in vitro are found on TP53 and NRAS. This indicates that many of the frequently damaged dipyrimidine sites in cellulo are on genes frequently mutated in skin cancer. All these results support the view that CPD are the main UVB-induced mutagenic photoproducts and provide evidence of the importance of CPD formation at sites containing cytosine.

  18. Photoprotection by Cichorum endivia extracts: prevention of UVB-induced erythema, pyrimidine dimer formation and IL-6 expression.

    PubMed

    Enk, C D; Hochberg, M; Torres, A; Lev, O; Dor, I; Srebnik, M; Dembitsky, V M

    2004-01-01

    In the gradual process of evolution, plants have developed natural sun protecting substances that enable continuous survival under direct and intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As part of our studies of plant-derived pigments that might constitute an alternative to conventional sunscreens, we have tested the ethanolic extracts of roots, stalks, and inflorescences of populations of wild Cichorum endivia subsp. Divaricatum (Asteraceae) in terms of protection against sunburn, and in prevention of UVB-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and IL-6 mRNA expression in the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Using ELISA technique for detection of pyrimidine dimers and RT-PCR for detection of IL-6, we found that the ethanolic extract of C. endivia roots absorbs radiation in the UVB spectrum and partially prevents induction of pyrimidine dimers and IL-6 expression. Application of the root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Our findings suggest that C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them useful as sunscreens. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Repair of DNA-containing pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.; Caron, P.R.; Mazur, S.J.; Oh, E.Y.

    1988-08-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA are recognized and repaired by a number of unique cellular surveillance systems. The most direct biochemical mechanism responding to this kind of genotoxicity involves direct photoreversal by flavin enzymes that specifically monomerize pyrimidine:pyrimidine dimers monophotonically in the presence of visible light. Incision reactions are catalyzed by a combined pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase:apyrimidinic endonuclease found in some highly UV-resistant organisms. At a higher level of complexity, Escherichia coli has a uvr DNA repair system comprising the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC proteins responsible for incision. There are several preincision steps governed by this pathway, which includes an ATP-dependent UvrA dimerization reaction required for UvrAB nucleoprotein formation. This complex formation driven by ATP binding is associated with localized topological unwinding of DNA. This same protein complex can catalyze an ATPase-dependent 5'----3'-directed strand displacement of D-loop DNA or short single strands annealed to a single-stranded circular or linear DNA. This putative translocational process is arrested when damaged sites are encountered. The complex is now primed for dual incision catalyzed by UvrC. The remainder of the repair process involves UvrD (helicase II) and DNA polymerase I for a coordinately controlled excision-resynthesis step accompanied by UvrABC turnover. Furthermore, it is proposed that levels of repair proteins can be regulated by proteolysis. UvrB is converted to truncated UvrB* by a stress-induced protease that also acts at similar sites on the E. coli Ada protein. Although UvrB* can bind with UvrA to DNA, it cannot participate in helicase or incision reactions. It is also a DNA-dependent ATPase.21 references.

  20. Role of antioxidants in prevention of pyrimidine dimer formation in UVB irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Malka; Kohen, Ron; Enk, Claes D

    2006-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to study the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in UVB induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation in human keratinocytes, and to examine the modulating activity of low molecular weight antioxidants. To demonstrate the involvement of ROS, we examined the protective capacity of alpha-tocopherol, tempamine, and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on CPD formation in intact cells and naked DNA. HaCaT cells and naked DNA in water solution were irradiated with UVB in the presence of the antioxidants and CPD was determined by ELISA. We found that all three antioxidants provided protection against UVB induced CPD formation. The protection was observed in intact cells only and not in naked DNA. Since some of the tested antioxidants do not possess UV absorbing qualities, our findings suggest that in a cellular environment ROS play a role in CPD formation.

  1. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation and p53 production in human skin after repeated UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G; Zmudzka, Barbara Z; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z; Hearing, Vincent J; Miller, Sharon A

    2008-11-01

    Substantial differences in DNA damage caused by a single UV irradiation were found in our previous study on skin with different levels of constitutive pigmentation. In this study, we assessed whether facultative pigmentation induced by repeated UV irradiation is photoprotective. Three sites on the backs of 21 healthy subjects with type II-III skin were irradiated at 100-600 J/m(2) every 2-7 days over a 4- to 5-week period. The three sites received different cumulative doses of UV (1900, 2900 or 4200 J/m(2)) and were biopsied 1 day after the last irradiation. Biomarkers examined included pigment content assessed by Fontana-Masson staining, melanocyte function by expression of melanocyte-specific markers, DNA damage as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), nuclear accumulation of p53, apoptosis determined by TUNEL assay, and levels of p21 and Ser46-phosphorylated p53. Increases in melanocyte function and density, and in levels of apoptosis were similar among the 3 study sites irradiated with different cumulative UV doses. Levels of CPD decreased while the number of p53-positive cells increased as the cumulative dose of UV increased. These results suggest that pigmentation induced in skin by repeated UV irradiation protects against subsequent UV-induced DNA damage but not as effectively as constitutive pigmentation.

  2. Wavelength dependence of pyrimidine dimer formation in DNA of human skin irradiated in situ with ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.E.; Hacham, H.; Gange, R.W.; Maytum, D.J.; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M. )

    1989-07-01

    The UV components of sunlight are believed to be a major cause of human skin caner, and DNA is though to be the principal molecular target. Alterations of the intensity and wavelength distribution of solar UV radiation reaching the surface of the earth, for example by depletion of stratospheric ozone, will change the effectiveness of solar radiation in damaging DNA in human skin. Evaluation of the magnitude of such effects requires knowledge of the altered sunlight spectrum and of the action spectrum for damaging DNA in human skin. The authors have determined an action spectrum for the frequency of pyrimidine dimer formation induced in the DNA of human skin per unit dose of UV incident on the skin surface. The peak of this action spectrum is near 300 nm and decreases rapidly at both longer and shorter wavelengths. The decrease in the action spectrum for wavelengths <300 nm is attributed to the absorption of the upper layers of the skin. Convolution of the dimer action spectrum with the solar spectra corresponding to a solar angle of 40{degree} under current levels of stratospheric ozone and those for 50% ozone depletion, indicate about a 2.5-fold increase in dimer formation. If the action spectrum for DNA damage that results in skin cancer resembles that for dimer induction in skin, these results suggest that a 50% decrease in stratospheric ozone would increase the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancers among white males in Seattle, Washington, by 7.5- to 8-fold, to a higher incidence than is presently seen in the corresponding population of Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  3. Indications of 5' to 3' Interbase Electron Transfer as the First Step of Pyrimidine Dimer Formation Probed by a Dinucleotide Analog.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yajun; Maximowitsch, Egle; Liu, Degang; Adhikari, Surya; Li, Lei; Domratcheva, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Pyrimidine dimers are the most common DNA lesions generated under UV radiation. To reveal the molecular mechanisms behind their formation, it is of significance to reveal the roles of each pyrimidine residue. We thus replaced the 5'-pyrimidine residue with a photochemically inert xylene moiety (X). The electron-rich X can be readily oxidized but not reduced, defining the direction of interbase electron transfer (ET). Irradiation of the XpT dinucleotide under 254 nm UV light generates two major photoproducts: a pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone analog (6-4PP) and an analog of the so-called spore photoproduct (SP). Both products are formed by reaction at C4=O of the photo-excited 3'-thymidine (T), which indicates that excitation of a single "driver" residue is sufficient to trigger pyrimidine dimerization. Our quantum-chemical calculations demonstrated that photo-excited 3'-T accepts an electron from 5'-X. The resulting charge-separated radical pair lowers its energy upon formation of interbase covalent bonds, eventually yielding 6-4PP and SP. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effect of sequence and metal ions on UVB-induced anti cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in human telomeric DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jillian E; Lu, Chen; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Irradiation of G-quadruplex forming human telomeric DNA with ultraviolet B (UVB) light results in the formation of anti cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) between loop 1 and loop 3 in the presence of potassium ions but not sodium ions. This was unexpected because the sequences involved favor the nonphotoreactive hybrid conformations in K(+) solution, whereas a potentially photoreactive basket conformation is favored in Na(+) solution. To account for these contradictory results, it was proposed that the loops are too far apart in the basket conformation in Na(+) solution but close enough in a two G-tetrad basket-like form 3 conformation that can form in K(+) solution. In the current study, Na(+) was still found to inhibit anti CPD formation in sequences designed to stabilize the form 3 conformation. Furthermore, anti CPD formation in K(+) solution was slower for the sequence previously shown to exist primarily in the proposed photoreactive form 3 conformation than the sequence shown to exist primarily in a nonphotoreactive hybrid conformation. These results suggest that the form 3 conformation is not the principal photoreactive conformation, and that G-quadruplexes in K(+) solution are dynamic and able to access photoreactive conformations more easily than in Na(+) solution.

  5. Modulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation in a positioned nucleosome containing poly(dA.dT) tracts.

    PubMed

    Schieferstein, U; Thoma, F

    1996-06-18

    We have used a defined-sequence nucleosome to concomitantly investigate the generation and location of DNA lesions in nucleosomes and their influence on nucleosome positioning (translational and rotational setting). A 134 bp HISAT sequence from the yeast DED1 promoter, containing a polypyrimidine region (40 bp) with a T6-tract, two T5-tracts, and a T9-tract, was reconstituted in nucleosomes with a defined rotational setting. T-tracts adopt unusually rigid DNA structures in solution ("T-tract structure") and are hot spots of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation by UV light (254 nm). DNA was irradiated with UV light before or after reconstitution. The CPD yields and distribution were analyzed by cleavage with T4 endonuclease V. The rotational setting of nucleosomal DNA was characterized by DNase I digestion. With the exception of one T5-tract (1T5), the T6-, the 2T5-, and the T9-tracts formed T-tract structure in solution. T-tract structure was lost upon folding in nucleosomes, demonstrating a dominant constraint of DNA folding in nucleosomes over that of T-tract structure. CPD formation was strongly modulated by the nucleosome structure, but the CPD distribution differed from that reported for mixed-sequence DNA. CPD formation in the nucleosome had no effect on the rotational setting of nucleosomal DNA, but the rotational setting was affected when nucleosomes were assembled on damaged DNA. The toleration of DNA distortions imposed by CPDs in nucleosomes may have important implications for the recognition and repair of these damages in chromatin.

  6. UV-induced formation of pyrimidine dimers in nucleosome core DNA is strongly modulated with a period of 10. 3 bases

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.M.; Nissen, K.A.; Smerdon, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    We have determined the distribution of the major UV-induced photoproducts in nucleosome core DNA using the 3'----5' exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase, which has been shown to stop digestion immediately 3' to UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. This assay is extremely sensitive since all DNA fragments without photoproducts (background) are reduced to small oligonucleotides, which can be separated from those fragments containing photoproducts. The results show that the distribution of UV-induced photoproducts (primarily cyclobutane dipyrimidines) is not uniform throughout core DNA but displays a striking 10.3 (+/- 0.1) base periodicity. Furthermore, this characteristic distribution of photoproducts was obtained regardless of whether nucleosome core DNA was isolated from UV-irradiated intact chromatin fibers, histone H1-depleted chromatin fibers, isolated mononucleosomes, or cells in culture. The yield of pyrimidine dimers along the DNA seems to be modulated in a manner that reflects structural features of the nucleosome unit, possibly core histone-DNA interactions, since this pattern was not obtained for UV-irradiated core DNA either free in solution or bound tightly to calcium phosphate crystals. Based on their location relative to DNase I cutting sites, the sites of maximum pyrimidine dimer formation in core DNA mapped to positions where the phosphate backbone is farthest from the core histone surface. These results indicate that within the core region of nucleosomes, histone-DNA interactions significantly alter the quantum yield of cyclobutane dipyrimidines, possibly by restraining conformational changes in the DNA helix required for formation of these photoproducts.

  7. Ultraviolet light action spectra for neoplastic transformation and lethality of Syrian hamster embryo cells correlate with spectrum for pyrimidine dimer formation in cellular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Doniger, J; Jacobson, E D; Krell, K; DiPaolo, J A

    1981-01-01

    Action spectra were determined for neoplastic transformation, production of pyrimidine dimers, and lethality in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Of wavelengths between 240 and 313 nm, the most effective were 265 and 270. The relative sensitivities per quantum for transformation, pyrimidine dimer production, and lethality were essentially the same at each of the wavelengths tested. This action spectrum for transformation, which is relevant to carcinogenesis, is similar to spectra obtained previously by measuring other cellular responses in either microbial or mammalian systems. Because the action spectra for cytotoxicity and transformation are the same as the spectrum for dimer production, DNA is suggested as the target for all these processes. PMID:6941297

  8. Supersonic Molecular Jet Studies of the Pyrazine and Pyrimidine Dimers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    the pyrazine and pyrimidine dimers. Computer simulations , based on a reasonable symmetric top algorithm, predict a resolution of at least 0.005 cm- I...Figure 9 Simulated rotational spectra of the pyrazine and pyrimidine origins. Figure 10 Two-color TOFMS rotational spectrum of the pyrazine dimer origin...top) and conDuter simulated rotational spectrum of the pyrazine dimer origin (bottom). The origin is at 30,849.5 cm- (-26.5 -1 -1 cm origin in figure

  9. Demonstration of pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity in vivo: bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli as a model system

    SciTech Connect

    Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to the detection of pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity in living cells is presented. Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in uvr functions required for incision of UV-irradiated DNA were infected with phage T4 denV+ or denV- (defective in the T4 pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity). In the former case the denV gene product catalyzed the incision of UV-irradiated host DNA, facilitating the subsequent excision of thymine-containing pyrimidine dimers. Isolation of these dimers from the acid-soluble fraction of infected cells was achieved by a multistep thin-layer chromatographic system. Exposure of the dimers to irradiation that monomerizes pyrimidine dimers (direct photoreversal) resulted in the stoichiometric formation of free thymine. Thus, in vivo incision of UV-irradiated DNA dependent on a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase can be demonstrated.

  10. Demonstration of pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity in vivo: Bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli as a model system

    SciTech Connect

    Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to the detection of pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity in living cells is presented. Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in uvr functions required for incision of UV-irradiated DNA were infected with phage T4 denV/sup +/ or den V/sup -/ (defective in the T4 pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity). In the former case the denV gene product catalyzed the incision of UV-irradiated host DNA, facilitating the subsequent excision of thymine-containing pyrimidine dimers. Isolation of these dimers from the acid-soluble fraction of infected cells was achieved by a multistep thin-layer chromatographic system. Exposure of the dimers to irradiation that monomerizes pyrimidine dimers (direct photoreversal) resulted in the stoichiometric formation of free thymine. Thus, in vivo incision of UV-irradiated DNA dependent on a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase can be demonstrated.

  11. Excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in human skin in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, S.M.; Slazinski, L.; Whetstone, J.W.; Lowney, E.

    1981-09-01

    The induction and loss of pyrimidine dimers in human skin in vivo was determined using UV endonuclease, alkaline sucrose sedimentations, and the fluorescent detection of nonradiolabeled DNA. The number of dimers induced following exposure of the skin to radiation emitted from a Burdick UV-800 sunlamp was quantitated by reacting the extracted DNA with Micrococcus luteus endonuclease specific for pyrimidine dimers. Exposure to 15 and 30 seconds of radiation emitted from this lamp produced the formation of 12.8 and 23.6 dimers per 10(8) daltons DNA, respectively. Approximately 50% of the dimers induced were lost 58 min after irradiation. Only a small percentage (less than 10) remained 24 hr postirradiation. These data partially characterize the process by which pyrimidine dimers are excised from human skin DNA in vivo.

  12. Synergistic modulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photoproduct formation and deamination at a TmCG site over a full helical DNA turn in a nucleosome core particle.

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Cannistraro, Vincent J; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Sunlight-induced C to T mutation hotspots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The C or 5-methyl-C in CPDs are not stable and deaminate to U and T, respectively, which leads to the insertion of A by DNA polymerase η and defines a probable mechanism for the origin of UV-induced C to T mutations. We have now determined the photoproduct formation and deamination rates for 10 consecutive T=(m)CG CPDs over a full helical turn at the dyad axis of a nucleosome and find that whereas photoproduct formation and deamination is greatly inhibited for the CPDs closest to the histone surface, it is greatly enhanced for the outermost CPDs. Replacing the G in a T=(m)CG CPD with A greatly decreased the deamination rate. These results show that rotational position and flanking sequence in a nucleosome can significantly and synergistically modulate CPD formation and deamination that contribute to C to T mutations associated with skin cancer induction and may have influenced the evolution of the human genome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V.

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation is a molecular trigger for solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of memory immunity in humans.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, Johanna M; Barnetson, Ross St C; Halliday, Gary M

    2005-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that DNA is a target for solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (ssUVR)-induced suppression of the reactivation of memory immunity in humans. T4N5 liposomes contain the DNA repair enzyme T4 endonuclease V. This cleaves DNA at the site of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), initiating DNA repair. It has previously been used to show that CPDs are a key molecular trigger for UVR-induced immunosuppression in mice. To determine whether CPD formation is involved in UVR immunosuppression in humans, nickel-allergic volunteers were irradiated with a range of doses of ssUVR. T4N5 or empty liposomes were then applied after irradiation. Nickel-induced recall immunity was assessed by reflectance spectrometry. T4N5 liposomes inhibited immunosuppression and prevented ssUVR from reducing the number of epidermal dendritic cells. T4N5 liposomes also reduced macrophage infiltration into irradiated epidermis. These studies show that enhanced removal of CPDs from human skin protects from immunosuppression, hence demonstrating that these photolesions are an important molecular event in ssUVR-induced immunosuppression in humans. CPDs also triggered loss of dendritic cells and infiltration by macrophages. It is possible that these changes to antigen presenting cells contribute to ssUVR induced suppression of recall immunity to nickel in humans.

  15. UVA Generates Pyrimidine Dimers in DNA Directly

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong; Rabbi, Mahir; Kim, Minkyu; Ke, Changhong; Lee, Whasil; Clark, Robert L.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Marszalek, Piotr E.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that UVA radiation, which makes up ∼95% of the solar UV light reaching the Earth's surface and is also commonly used for cosmetic purposes, is genotoxic. However, in contrast to UVC and UVB, the mechanisms by which UVA produces various DNA lesions are still unclear. In addition, the relative amounts of various types of UVA lesions and their mutagenic significance are also a subject of debate. Here, we exploit atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of individual DNA molecules, alone and in complexes with a suite of DNA repair enzymes and antibodies, to directly quantify UVA damage and reexamine its basic mechanisms at a single-molecule level. By combining the activity of endonuclease IV and T4 endonuclease V on highly purified and UVA-irradiated pUC18 plasmids, we show by direct AFM imaging that UVA produces a significant amount of abasic sites and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). However, we find that only ∼60% of the T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites, which are commonly counted as CPDs, are true CPDs; the other 40% are abasic sites. Most importantly, our results obtained by AFM imaging of highly purified native and synthetic DNA using T4 endonuclease V, photolyase, and anti-CPD antibodies strongly suggest that CPDs are produced by UVA directly. Thus, our observations contradict the predominant view that as-yet-unidentified photosensitizers are required to transfer the energy of UVA to DNA to produce CPDs. Our results may help to resolve the long-standing controversy about the origin of UVA-produced CPDs in DNA. PMID:19186150

  16. Narrow-band UVB induces more carcinogenic skin tumors than broad-band UVB through the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Kunisada, Makoto; Kumimoto, Hiroshi; Ishizaki, Kanji; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Nishigori, Chikako

    2007-12-01

    Phototherapy with narrow-band UVB (NB-UVB), with a peak exclusively at 311 nm wavelength, has been found to be more effective in treating a variety of skin diseases than conventional broad-band UVB (BB-UVB). To assess the difference in carcinogenic activity between NB-UVB and BB-UVB, we investigated skin tumor formation by irradiating albino hairless, Ogg1 knockout mice and C57BL/6J wild counterparts with these two UV sources. We found that the ratio of malignant skin tumors induced by NB-UVB was significantly higher than that induced by BB-UVB. There was no significant difference in carcinogenicity of skin tumor induced by NB-UVB between Ogg1 knockout and wild-type mice. To investigate the possible cause of different carcinogenic activity by the different UV sources, we examined three types of DNA damage: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), (6-4) photoproduct, and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) induced by each UV source. We found that CPD formation following a minimum erythema dose (MED) by NB-UVB was significantly higher than that following 1 MED by BB-UVB, whereas the formation of (6-4) photoproducts and 8-oxoG following BB-UVB was significantly higher than those following NB-UVB exposure. These results suggest that CPD formation is closely related to the higher carcinogenic characteristics of NB-UVB. JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers and open discussion about this article please go to http://network.nature.com/.

  17. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimer contents of nonradioactive deoxyribonucleic acid by electrophoresis in alkaline agarose gels

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, B.M.; Shih, A.G.

    1983-02-15

    We have developed a method of quantitating the pyrimidine dimer content of nonradioactive DNAs. DNA samples are treated with the UV-endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus and then separated according to molecular weight by electrophoresis on alkaline agarose gels. From their migration relative to known molecular weight standards, their median molecular weight and thus the number of dimers per DNA molecule in each sample can be calculated. Results of action spectra for dimer formation in T7 bacteriophage measured by this method agree well with action spectra for T7 killing. In addition, the method gives dimer yields in good agreement with those obtained by others using alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation.

  18. Crystal structure of T4 endonuclease V: An excision repair enzyme for a pyrimidine dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, K.; Ariyoshi, M.; Vassylyev, D.

    1994-12-31

    Ultraviolet (UV) light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers, which are the most prevalent DNA lesion. In bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli, T4 endonuclease V (T4 endV), encoded by the denV gene of bacteriophage T4, is responsible for the first step of the excision repair pathway. Although T4 endV is a very small protein, consisting of 138 amino acids, it catalyzes two distinct reactions, at least in vitro: the cleavage of the glycosyl bond of the 5{prime}-pyrimidine of the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (pyrimidine dimer glycosylase) and the incision of the phosphodiester bond at the resulting abasic site, producing an {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde and a 5{prime}-terminal phosphomonoester. This enzyme is also known to cleave the 3{prime}-phosphodiester bond at an abasic site by {beta}-elimination. It has been also suggested from the salt concentration dependence of the catalytic activity in vitro that the excision-repair involves two distinct steps, in terms of the interaction between the enzyme and DNA. Prior to making specific interaction with a pyrimidine dimer, T4 endV can be nonspecifically bound to DNA duplexes by electrostatic forces and slides on them. Once the enzyme has been specifically bound to a pyrimidine dimer, the glycosylation occurs at the 5{prime}-glycosyl bond in the dimer. It still remains obscure whether or not the same enzyme subsequently acts on the scission of the phosphodiester bond. In this report, we describe the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the T4 endV determined at atomic resolution by x-ray crystallography, and discuss the functional implications of the enzyme. The examination of structural features, including atomic resolution crystal structures of three different mutants, allows the identification of residues that participate in the substrate binding and the catalytic reaction of glycosylase.

  19. Computational reference data for the photochemistry of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers.

    PubMed

    Barbatti, Mario

    2014-10-20

    The cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer is one of the major classes of carcinogenic UV-induced DNA photoproducts. In this work, diverse high-level quantum-chemical methods were used to determine the spectroscopic properties of neutral (singlet and triplet) and charged (cation and anion) species of thymine dimers. Maps of potential energy, charge distribution, electron affinity, and ionization potential of the thymidine dimers were computed along the two dimerization coordinates for neutral and charged species, as well as for the singlet excited state. This set of data aims at providing consistent results computed with the same methods as for photodamage and repair. Based on these results, several different photo-, heat-, and charge-induced mechanisms of dimerization and repair are characterized and discussed. Additionally, a new stable dimer with methylmethylidene-hexahydropyrimidine structure was found in the S0 state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Justin D; Rochette, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Sunlight exposure of the eye leads to pathologies including photokeratitis, cortical cataracts, pterygium, actinic conjunctivitis and age-related macular degeneration. It is well established that exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiations leads to DNA damage, mainly cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). CPD formation is the principal factor involved in skin cancer. However, the exact mechanism by which sunlight induces ocular pathologies is not well understood. To shed light on this issue, we quantified the CPD formation onto DNA of rabbit ocular cells following UVB exposure. We found that CPDs were induced only in the structures of the ocular anterior chamber (cornea, iris and lens) and were more concentrated in the corneal epithelium. Residual UVB that pass through the cornea are completely absorbed by the anterior layers of the iris. CPDs were also detected in the central portion of the lens that is not protected by the iris (pupil). By determining the UV-induced DNA damage formation in eyes, we showed that anterior ocular structures are a reliable physical barrier that protects the subjacent structures from the toxic effects of UV. Although the corneal epithelium is the structure where most of the CPDs were detected, no cancer is related to solar exposure. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Ananthaswamy, H N; Fisher, M S

    1981-05-01

    The numbers of ultraviolet light (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of neonatal BALB/c mouse skin were measured by assessing the sensitivity of the DNA to Micrococcus luteus UV endonuclease. Irradiation of neonatal BALB/c mice with FS40 sunlamps caused a dose-dependent induction of endonuclease-sensitive sites (pyrimidine dimers) in DNA extracted from back skin. Exposure of these UV-irradiated neonatal mice to photoreactivating (PR) light ("cool white" fluorescent lamp and incandescent lamp) caused a reduction in the number of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA, as revealed by a shift in low-molecular-weight DNA to high-molecular-weight DNA. In contrast, DNA profiles of the skin of either UV-irradiated mice or UV-irradiated mice kept in the dark for the same duration as those exposed to PR light did not show a loss of UV-induced endonuclease-sensitive sites. Furthermore, reversing the order of treatment, i.e., administering PR light first and then UV, did not produce a reduction in pyrimidine dimers. These results demonstrate that PR or UV-induced pyrimidine dimers occurs in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin. The optimal wavelength range for in vivo PR appears to be in the visible region of the spectrum (greater than 400 nm). Although dimer formation could be detected in both dermis and epidermis, PR occurred only in the dermis. Furthermore, the PR phenomenon could not be detected in the skin of adult mice from the same inbred strain.

  2. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthaswamy, H.N.; Fisher, M.S.

    1981-05-01

    The numbers of ultraviolet light (uv)-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of neonatal BALB/c mouse skin were measured by assessing the sensitivity of the DNA to Micrococcus luteus uv endonuclease. Irradiation of neonatal BALB/c mice with FS40 sunlamps caused a dose-dependent induction of endonuclease-sensitive sites (pyrimidine dimers) in DNA extracted from back skin. Exposure of these uv-irradiated neonatal mice to photoreactivating (PR) light (cool white fluorescent lamp and incandescent lamp) caused a reduction in the number of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA, as revealed by a shift in low-molecular-weight DNA to high-molecular-weight DNA. In contrast, DNA profiles of the skin of either uv-irradiated mice or uv-irradiated mice kept in the dark for the same duration as those exposed to PR light did not show a loss of uv-induced endonuclease-sensitive sites. Furthermore, reversing the order of treatment, i.e., administering PR light first and then uv, did not produce a reduction in pyrimidine dimers. These results demonstrate that PR or uv-induced pyrimidine dimers occurs in neonatal BALB/c mouse skin. The optimal wavelength range for in vivo PR appears to be in the visible region of the spectrum (greater than 400 nm). Although dimer formation could be detected in both dermis and epidermis, PR occurred only in the dermis. Furthermore, the PR phenomenon could not be detected in the skin of adult mice from the same inbred strain.

  3. Pyrimidine dimer dependent cleavage of single-stranded DNA by T4 UV endonuclease

    SciTech Connect

    Sauerbier, W.

    1986-11-26

    T4 UV endonuclease cleaves double- and single-stranded DNA with equal specificity for photo-pyrimidine dimers. Thus, the enzyme can be used for mapping and quantifying pyrimidine dimers in single-stranded DNA as well as in double-stranded DNA. Mapping of pyrimidine dimers shows that rates of UV-dimerization are not only affected by 5', 3' adjacent bases, but also by position within pyrimidine tracts. Di-pyrimidines at 3' ends of tracts are more photoreactive than those at 5' ends.

  4. Octyl Methoxycinnamate Modulates Gene Expression and Prevents Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Formation but not Oxidative DNA Damage in UV-Exposed Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Duale, Nur; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Christensen, Terje; Butt, Shamas T.; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used sunscreen ingredients. To analyze biological effects of OMC, an in vitro approach was used implying ultraviolet (UV) exposure of two human cell lines, a primary skin fibroblast (GM00498) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. End points include cell viability assessment, assay of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and oxidated DNA lesions using alkaline elution and lesion-specific enzymes, and gene expression analysis of a panel of 17 DNA damage–responsive genes. We observed that OMC provided protection against CPDs, and the degree of protection correlated with the OMC-mediated reduction in UV dose. No such protection was found with respect to oxidative DNA lesions. Upon UV exposure in the presence of OMC, the gene expression studies showed significant differential changes in some of the genes studied and the expression of p53 protein was also changed. For some genes, the change in expression seemed to be delayed in time by OMC. The experimental approach applied in this study, using a panel of 17 genes in an in vitro cellular system together with genotoxicity assays, may be useful in the initial screening of active ingredients in sunscreens. PMID:20071424

  5. Octyl methoxycinnamate modulates gene expression and prevents cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation but not oxidative DNA damage in UV-exposed human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Duale, Nur; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Christensen, Terje; Butt, Shamas T; Brunborg, Gunnar

    2010-04-01

    Octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) is one of the most widely used sunscreen ingredients. To analyze biological effects of OMC, an in vitro approach was used implying ultraviolet (UV) exposure of two human cell lines, a primary skin fibroblast (GM00498) and a breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. End points include cell viability assessment, assay of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and oxidated DNA lesions using alkaline elution and lesion-specific enzymes, and gene expression analysis of a panel of 17 DNA damage-responsive genes. We observed that OMC provided protection against CPDs, and the degree of protection correlated with the OMC-mediated reduction in UV dose. No such protection was found with respect to oxidative DNA lesions. Upon UV exposure in the presence of OMC, the gene expression studies showed significant differential changes in some of the genes studied and the expression of p53 protein was also changed. For some genes, the change in expression seemed to be delayed in time by OMC. The experimental approach applied in this study, using a panel of 17 genes in an in vitro cellular system together with genotoxicity assays, may be useful in the initial screening of active ingredients in sunscreens.

  6. Quantitation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA from UVB-irradiated alfalfa (@ L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Quaite, F.E.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Depletion of stratospheric ozone will increase the solar ultraviolet radiation in the range from 290-320 nm (UVB) that reaches the surface of the earth, placing an increased UV burden on exposed organisms. One consequence of increased UVB may be decreased productivity of crop plants. A principal lesion caused by UV in DNA is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer. We have adapted a method for measuring these dimers in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNA for use in UV-irradiated plants. We find that biologically relevant doses of broad band UVB radiation induce easily detectable frequencies of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of irradiated alfalfa sprout leaves and that the dose response for dimer formation is linear up to doses of at least 690 J/m{sup 2}. We also find easily measurable frequencies of dimers in the leaves of seedlings grown in glass filtered sunlight but not exposed to additional UVB, suggesting that significant number of dimers are formed in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms in the Repair of the Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanali, Ali A.; Zhong, Dongping; Singer, Sherwin J.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to far UV radiation induces DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Cyclobutane dimer lesions can be repaired by the enzyme photolyase, in which the absorption of a blue light photon initiates a sequence of photochemical events leading to the injection of an electron at the site of the CPD lesion in DNA. The electron catalyzes the repair of the cyclobutane dimer, splitting the CPD to is original pyrimidine units, and is subsequently recaptured by the photolyase protein. In this work we investigate the molecular mechanism of the repair of the cyclobutane dimer radical anion in aqueous solution using ab initio MD simulations. Umbrella sampling is used to determine a two-dimensional free energy surface as a function of the C5-C5-4 and C6-C6-4 distances. The neutral dimer is unable to surmount a large free energy barrier for repair. Upon addition of an electron, the splitting of the C5-C5-4 coordinate is virtually barrier less. Transition state theory predicts that the splitting of the C6-C6-4 bond is complete on a picosecond timescale. The free energy surface suggests that the splitting of the two bonds is asynchronously concerted. Our work is the first to explicitly include the electronic degrees of freedom for both the cyclobutane dimer and the surrounding water pocket. The ab initio simulations show that at least 30% of the electron density is delocalized onto the surrounding solvent during the splitting process. Simulations on the neutral surface show that back electron transfer from the dimer is critical for the completion of splitting: splitting of the C5-C5' and C6-C6' bonds can be reversed or enhanced depending on when electron return occurs. To maximize splitting yield, the back electron transfer should occur beyond the transition state along the splitting coordinate. Non-equilibrium trajectories are also conducted that begin with the electron added to a neutral unrepaired solvated CPD. Our results indicate that there are two

  8. Induction of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of hairless mice by UVB: an action spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.; Peak, M.J.; Lyon, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    An action spectrum for the induction of pyrimidine dimers in the epidermis of hairless mice was determined between 288 and 307 nm. The presence of pyrimidine dimers in tritium-labeled DNA extracted from exposed SKH:hairless-1 mouse skin was determined using dimer-specific nucleases from Micrococcus luteus in conjunction with sedimentation of the irradiated DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients. The rate of induction of pyrimidine dimers was maximal at 293 nm. These values were used to propose a UVB transmission curve for mouse epidermis.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of pyrimidine dimer excision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: excision of dimers in cell extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.J.; Love, J.D.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-08-01

    Cell-free extracts prepared from rad1-19, rad2-2, rad3-1, rad4-3, rad7-1, rad10-1, rad14-1, rad16-1, and cycl-1 (rad7) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae all catalyze the preferential excision of thymine-containing pyrimidine dimers from ultraviolet-irradiated DNA specifically incised with M. luteus ultraviolet deoxyribonucleic acid incising activity.

  10. Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B-induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Julian O; Wang, Yongyin; Stebbins, William G; Gao, Dayuan; Zhou, Xueyan; Phelps, Robert; Lebwohl, Mark; Wei, Huachen

    2006-08-01

    Genistein, the most abundant isoflavone of the soy derived phytoestrogen compounds, is a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of tyrosine kinase. We previously reported the antiphotocarcinogenic effects of genistein in SKH-1 murine skin, including its capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibiting photodynamic DNA damage and downregulating UVB(ultra violet B)-induced signal transduction cascades in carcinogenesis. In this study we elucidate genistein's photoprotective efficacy within the context of full thickness human reconstituted skin relative to acute challenges with ultraviolet-B irradiation. Skin samples were pre-treated with three concentrations of genistein (10, 20 and 50 microM) 1 h prior to UVB radiation at 20 and 60 mJ/cm2. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and pyrimidine dimer (PD) expression profiles were localized using immunohistochemical analysis on paraffin embedded samples 6 and 12 h post UVB exposure. Genistein dose dependently preserved cutaneous proliferation and repair mechanics at 20 and 60 mJ/cm2, as evidenced by the preservation of proliferating cell populations with increasing genistein concentrations and noticeable paucity in PCNA immunoreactivity in the absence of genistein. Genistein inhibited UV-induced DNA damage, evaluated with PD immunohistochemical expression profiles, demonstrated an inverse relationship with increasing topical genistein concentrations. Irradiation at 20 and 60 mJ/cm2 substantially induced PD formation in the absence of genistein, and a dose dependent inhibition of UVB-induced PD formation was observed relative to increasing genistein concentrations. Collectively all genistein pre-treated samples demonstrated appreciable histologic architectural preservation when compared with untreated specimens. These findings represent a critical link between our animal and cell culture studies with those of human skin and represent the first characterization of the dynamic alterations of UV-induced DNA damage

  11. Determination of pyrimidine dimers in DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography/gas chromatography and electron capture detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, R.S.; Ho, C. )

    1989-11-01

    Exposure of DNA to uv radiation results in the formation of a number of photoproducts including the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers. At low uv fluences the concentrations of these dimeric compounds are only a small fraction of the corresponding DNA pyrimidine concentration (e.g., as low as 0.02% or less of the total thymine content). Sensitive methods of analysis are therefore required for accurate determinations. Analytical methodology based upon HPLC fractionation and electrophore labeling followed by GC/electron capture detection (ECD) has been developed to quantitate these species. Separation of thymine-thymine, thymine-uracil, and uracil-uracil from the monomeric bases and from other constituents present in acid-hydrolyzed DNA is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. Isolation of the dimeric fractions is followed by off-line derivatization to form pentafluorobenzyl products for analysis by GC/ECD. All active hydrogens are alkylated, yielding products with high response factors and detection limits in the low femtomole range. The overall analytical scheme for the determination of pyrimidine dimers in DNA is presented.

  12. Uncoupling of nucleotide flipping and DNA bending by the t4 pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Walker, Randall K; McCullough, Amanda K; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2006-11-28

    Bacteriophage T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-Pdg) is a base excision repair protein that incises DNA at cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers that are formed as a consequence of exposure to ultraviolet light. Cocrystallization of T4-Pdg with substrate DNA has shown that the adenosine opposite the 5'-thymine of a thymine-thymine (TT) dimer is flipped into an extrahelical conformation and that the DNA backbone is kinked 60 degrees in the enzyme-substrate (ES) complex. To examine the kinetic details of the precatalytic events in the T4-Pdg reaction mechanism, investigations were designed to separately assess nucleotide flipping and DNA bending. The fluorescent adenine base analogue, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), placed opposite an abasic site analogue, tetrahydrofuran, exhibited a 2.8-fold increase in emission intensity when flipped in the ES complex. Using the 2-AP fluorescence signal for nucleotide flipping, kon and koff pre-steady-state kinetic measurements were determined. DNA bending was assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer using fluorescent donor-acceptor pairs located at the 5'-ends of oligonucleotides in duplex DNA. The fluorescence intensity of the donor fluorophore was quenched by 15% in the ES complex as a result of an increased efficiency of energy transfer between the labeled ends of the DNA in the bent conformation. Kinetic analyses of the bending signal revealed an off rate that was 2.5-fold faster than the off rate for nucleotide flipping. These results demonstrate that the nucleotide flipping step can be uncoupled from the bending of DNA in the formation of an ES complex.

  13. Preparation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody with specific affinity for pyrimidine dimers in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared which shows specific affinity for pyrimidine dimers in RNA. The antibody meets three criteria for pyrimidine dimer-dependent affinity. (1) Antibody binding is dependent upon UV irradiation of nucleic acids. Irradiation both at 313 nm in the presence of a sensitizer and at 270 nm without sensitizer promotes antibody binding to RNA and polyribonucleotides. (2) Antibody binding is dependent upon the presence of adjacent pyrimidine nucleotides. Irradiated polyuridylic acid and polycytidylic acid are bound while irradiated polyadenylic acid and polyguanidylic acid are not bound. An alternating polymer of adenylic and uridylic acids is not bound regardless of irradiation. (3) The antigenic determinants are reduced in number by exposure to UV radiation of short wavelength (240 nm). Antibody binding increases with increasing length of irradiated oligonucleotides. The antibody binds irradiated oligonucleotides which contain a single pair of pyrimidines surrounded by purines. An oligonucleotide with a terminal pyrimidine pair is bound to a much lower degree. I propose that the minimal determinant is a pyrimidine dimer with at least one adjacent nucleotide on either side.

  14. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    SciTech Connect

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-04-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin.

  15. UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in DNA: a direct photochemical mechanism?

    PubMed

    Mouret, Stéphane; Philippe, Coralie; Gracia-Chantegrel, Jocelyne; Banyasz, Akos; Karpati, Szilvia; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Douki, Thierry

    2010-04-07

    The carcinogenic action of UVA radiation is commonly attributed to DNA oxidation mediated by endogenous photosensitisers. Yet, it was recently shown that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), well known for their involvement in UVB genotoxicity, are produced in larger yield than oxidative lesions in UVA-irradiated cells and skin. In the present work, we gathered mechanistic information on this photoreaction by comparing formation of all possible bipyrimidine photoproducts upon UVA irradiation of cells, purified genomic DNA and dA(20):dT(20) oligonucleotide duplex. We observed that the distribution of photoproducts, characterized by the sole formation of CPD and the absence of (6-4) photoproducts was similar in the three types of samples. The CPD involving two thymines represented 90% of the amount of photoproducts. Moreover, the yields of formation of the DNA lesions were similar in cells and isolated DNA. In addition, the effect of the wavelength of the incident photons was found to be the same in isolated DNA and cells. This set of data shows that UVA-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are formed via a direct photochemical mechanism, without mediation of a cellular photosensitiser. This is possible because the double-stranded structure increases the capacity of DNA bases to absorb UVA photons, as evidenced in the case of the oligomer dA(20):dT(20). These results emphasize the need to consider UVA in the carcinogenic effects of sunlight. An efficient photoprotection is needed that can only be complete by completely blocking incident photons, rather than by systemic approaches such as antioxidant supplementation.

  16. Determination of pyrimidine dimers in Escherichia coli and Cryptosporidium parvum during UV light inactivation, photoreactivation, and dark repair.

    PubMed

    Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Mitani, H; Morita, S; Hirata, T; Ohgaki, S

    2001-10-01

    UV inactivation, photoreactivation, and dark repair of Escherichia coli and Cryptosporidium parvum were investigated with the endonuclease sensitive site (ESS) assay, which can determine UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the genomic DNA of microorganisms. In a 99.9% inactivation of E. coli, high correlation was observed between the dose of UV irradiation and the number of pyrimidine dimers induced in the DNA of E. coli. The colony-forming ability of E. coli also correlated highly with the number of pyrimidine dimers in the DNA, indicating that the ESS assay is comparable to the method conventionally used to measure colony-forming ability. When E. coli were exposed to fluorescent light after a 99.9% inactivation by UV irradiation, UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA were continuously repaired and the colony-forming ability recovered gradually. When kept in darkness after the UV inactivation, however, E. coli showed neither repair of pyrimidine dimers nor recovery of colony-forming ability. When C. parvum were exposed to fluorescent light after UV inactivation, UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the DNA were continuously repaired, while no recovery of animal infectivity was observed. When kept in darkness after UV inactivation, C. parvum also showed no recovery of infectivity in spite of the repair of pyrimidine dimers. It was suggested, therefore, that the infectivity of C. parvum would not recover either by photoreactivation or by dark repair even after the repair of pyrimidine dimers in the genomic DNA.

  17. Crystal structure of the nucleosome containing ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Naoki; Tachiwana, Hiroaki; Kagawa, Wataru; Osakabe, Akihisa; Matsumoto, Syota; Iwai, Shigenori; Sugasawa, Kaoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2016-02-26

    The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is induced in genomic DNA by ultraviolet (UV) light. In mammals, this photolesion is primarily induced within nucleosomal DNA, and repaired exclusively by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. However, the mechanism by which the CPD is accommodated within the nucleosome has remained unknown. We now report the crystal structure of a nucleosome containing CPDs. In the nucleosome, the CPD induces only limited local backbone distortion, and the affected bases are accommodated within the duplex. Interestingly, one of the affected thymine bases is located within 3.0 Å from the undamaged complementary adenine base, suggesting the formation of complementary hydrogen bonds in the nucleosome. We also found that UV-DDB, which binds the CPD at the initial stage of the NER pathway, also efficiently binds to the nucleosomal CPD. These results provide important structural and biochemical information for understanding how the CPD is accommodated and recognized in chromatin.

  18. Artificial and Solar UV Radiation Induces Strand Breaks and Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers in Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA

    PubMed Central

    Slieman, Tony A.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2000-01-01

    The loss of stratospheric ozone and the accompanying increase in solar UV flux have led to concerns regarding decreases in global microbial productivity. Central to understanding this process is determining the types and amounts of DNA damage in microbes caused by solar UV irradiation. While UV irradiation of dormant Bacillus subtilis endospores results mainly in formation of the “spore photoproduct” 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, genetic evidence indicates that an additional DNA photoproduct(s) may be formed in spores exposed to solar UV-B and UV-A radiation (Y. Xue and W. L. Nicholson, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:2221–2227, 1996). We examined the occurrence of double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, and apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in spore DNA under several UV irradiation conditions by using enzymatic probes and neutral or alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA from spores irradiated with artificial 254-nm UV-C radiation accumulated single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, while DNA from spores exposed to artificial UV-B radiation (wavelengths, 290 to 310 nm) accumulated only cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA from spores exposed to full-spectrum sunlight (UV-B and UV-A radiation) accumulated single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, whereas DNA from spores exposed to sunlight from which the UV-B component had been removed with a filter (“UV-A sunlight”) accumulated only single-strand breaks and double-strand breaks. Apurinic-apyrimidinic sites were not detected in spore DNA under any of the irradiation conditions used. Our data indicate that there is a complex spectrum of UV photoproducts in DNA of bacterial spores exposed to solar UV irradiation in the environment. PMID:10618224

  19. Monomerization of pyrimidine dimers in DNA by tryptophan-containing peptides: wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1980-09-01

    Tryptophan-containing peptides and proteins can sensitize the monomerization of pyrimidine dimers in ultraviolet-irradiated DNA; photoreactivating enzymes catalyze the light-induced monomerization of pyrimidine dimers in DNA. It has recently been proposed that a variety of tryptophan-containing proteins and peptides might be confused with true photoreactivating enzymes both in vivo and in vitro. We have thus characterized the wavelengths required for the tryptophan-sensitized dimer monomerization to determine if this process is distinguishable from true enzymatic photoreactivation. We find that 313-nm radiation can monomerize pyrimidine dimers in DNA in the presence of the peptide lysyl-tryptophyl-lysine; however, 334- 365-, and 405-nm radiation are ineffective for fluences up to 1 MJ/m/sup 2/. In contrast, each of these wavelengths is capable of monomerizing dimers in the presence of photoreactivating enzymes. Indeed, 334 and 365 nm are always more effective than 313-nm radiation in the case of true enzymatic photoreactivation. The inability of wavelengths other than those near 300 nm to drive the tryptophan-mediated reaction efficiently is consistent with recently reported spectroscopic experiments. The extreme differences in the wavelength specificities for true enzymatic photoreactivation and tryptophan-sensitized monomerization mean that it is easy to differentiate experimentally between the two phenomena. Consideration of the spectral distributions of conventional sources of photoreactivating light indicate that it is extremely unlikely that any of them could contain significant intensities of the wavelengths required for efficient tryptophan-sensitized monomerization of pyrimidine dimers. We thus conclude that tryptophan-sensitized monomerization cannot account for the disappearance of pyrimidine dimers from DNA in cells or cell extracts exposed to photoreactivating light.

  20. Role of exonuclease III and endonuclease IV in repair of pyrimidine dimers initiated by bacteriophage T4 pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Saporito, S.M.; Gedenk, M.; Cunningham, R.P.

    1989-05-01

    The role of exonuclease III and endonuclease IV in the repair of pyrimidine dimers in bacteriophage T4-infected Escherichia coli was examined. UV-irradiated T4 showed reduced survival when plated on an xth nfo double mutant but showed wild-type survival on either single mutant. T4 denV phage were equally sensitive when plated on wild-type E. coli or an xth nfo double mutant, suggesting that these endonucleases function in the same repair pathway as T4 pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. A uvrA mutant of E. coli in which the repair of pyrimidine dimers was dependent on the T4 denV gene carried on a plasmid was constructed. Neither an xth nor an nfo derivative of this strain was more sensitive than the parental strain to UV irradiation. We were unable to construct a uvrA xth nfo triple mutant. In addition, T4, which turns off the host UvrABC excision nuclease, showed reduced plating efficiency on an xth nfo double mutant.

  1. On the Pyrazine and Pyrazine-Pyrimidine Dimers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Lennard - Jones -hydrogen-bonding (LJ-HB) potential energy calculations. The pyrazine isotopic hetero- and homo-dimers possess nearly identical spectra with the exception that the perpendicular dimer features are displaced to the red by approx. 11 cm. Exchange or exciton interactions in this system are vanishingly small (less than 1/cm). The geometrics suggested by the isotopically substituted pyrazine dimer spectra are the same as those found for the pyrazine-h sub 4 homo-dimer: a parallel planar hydrogen bonded and a perpendicular dimer. The pyrazine-h sub 4 and pyrazine-h

  2. One pyrimidine dimer inactivates expression of a transfected gene in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    SciTech Connect

    Protic-Sabljic, M.; Kraemer, K.H.

    1985-10-01

    The authors have developed a host cell reactivation assay of DNA repair utilizing UV-treated plasmid vectors. The assay primarily reflects cellular repair of transcriptional activity of damaged DNA measured indirectly as enzyme activity of the transfected genes. They studied three plasmids (pSV2cat, 5020 base pairs; pSV2catSVgpt, 7268 base pairs; and pRSVcat, 5027 base pairs) with different sizes and promoters carrying the bacterial cat gene (CAT, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) in a construction that permits cat expression in human cells. All human simian virus 40-transformed cells studied expressed high levels of the transfected cat gene. UV treatment of the plasmids prior to transfection resulted in differential decrease in CAT activity in different cell lines. With pSV2catSVgpt, UV inactivation of CAT expression was greater in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A and D lines than in the other human cell lines tested. The D0 of the CAT inactivation curve was 50 J X m-2 for pSV2cat and for pRSVcat in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. The similarity of the D0 data in the xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells for three plasmids of different size and promoters implies they all have similar UV-inactivation target size. UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plasmids was quantified by assay of the number of UV-induced T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites. In the most sensitive xeroderma pigmentosum cells, with all three plasmids, one UV-induced pyrimidine dimer inactivates a target of about 2 kilobases, close to the size of the putative CAT mRNA.

  3. Quantitation of ultraviolet radiation-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA by video and photographic densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.E.; Thompson, B.D. )

    1990-05-01

    We have compared video and photographic methods for calculating the number of ultraviolet radiation (uv)-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA from the bacteriophage T7 exposed to uv (0 to 800 J/m2) from an FS40 sunlamp. DNA was incubated with a pyrimidine dimer-specific Micrococcus luteus uv endonuclease, subjected to alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, neutralized, and stained with ethidium bromide, and the DNA fluorescence was recorded either with a video camera or on photographic film. The slopes of the dose-response curves for the number of uv-endonuclease-sensitive sites per 10(3) bases (pyrimidine dimers) was 1.2 (+/- 0.1) X 10(-4) uv-endonuclease-sensitive sites per J/m2 for the video analysis and 1.3 (+/- 0.04) X 10(-4) uv-endonuclease-sensitive sites per J/m2 for the photographic analysis. Results for pyrimidine dimer determination by either method were statistically comparable.

  4. Competition between H-bonded and stacked dimers of pyrimidine: IR and theoretical ab-initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carthy, W. M.; Smets, J.; Plokhotnichenko, C. A. M.; Radchenko, E. D.; Sheina, G. G.; Adamowicz, L.; Stepanian, S. G.

    A combined matrix isolation Fourier transform infrared experimental and ab-initio theoretical approach has been used to examine the vibrational spectra of pyrimidine dimers. It was found that the presence of pyrimidine dimers resulted in experimentally observed frequencies shifted relative to those of the pyrimidine monomer. Four stable pyrimidine dimer conformers were found via ab-initio calculations. Two of these conformers namely a stacked geometry and a Hbonded geometry in which pyrimidine monomer dipole moments orient antiparallel, had the lowest but very similar energies. Ab-initio harmonic frequencies of these two dimers and their shifts relative to the monomer's values were determined. The effect of Basis Set Superposition error on these calculated frequency shifts was also investigated. The comparison of the abinitio predicted and experimentally observed frequency shifts and an accompanying potential energy distribution analysis suggest that the lowest-energy H-bonded configuration is responsible for the experimentally observed phenomena.

  5. Detection of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by near-infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Noriko; Bazar, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Zoltan; Kunisada, Makoto; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kizaki, Seiichiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Tsenkova, Roumiana; Nishigori, Chikako

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes cellular DNA damage, among which cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are responsible for a variety of genetic mutations. Although several approaches have been developed for detection of CPDs, conventional methods require time-consuming steps. Aquaphotomics, a new approach based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis that determines interactions between water and other components of the solution, has become an effective method for qualitative and quantitative parameters measurement in the solutions. NIR spectral patterns of UVC-irradiated and nonirradiated DNA solutions were evaluated using aquaphotomics for detection of UV-induced CPDs. Groups of UV-irradiated and nonirradiated DNA samples were classified (87.5% accuracy) by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). A precise regression model calculated from NIR water spectral patterns based on UVC doses (r Val = 0.9457) and the concentration of cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers (cis-syn T<>Ts; r Val = 0.9993) was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR), while taking advantage of water spectral patterns, particularly around 1400–1500 nm. Our results suggested that, in contrast to DNA, the formation of cis-syn T<>Ts increased the strongly hydrogen bonded water. Additionally, NIRS could qualitatively and quantitatively detect cis-syn T<>Ts in isolated DNA aqueous solutions upon UVC exposure. PMID:26133899

  6. Detection of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by near-infrared spectroscopy and aquaphotomics.

    PubMed

    Goto, Noriko; Bazar, Gyorgy; Kovacs, Zoltan; Kunisada, Makoto; Morita, Hiroyuki; Kizaki, Seiichiro; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Tsenkova, Roumiana; Nishigori, Chikako

    2015-07-02

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes cellular DNA damage, among which cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are responsible for a variety of genetic mutations. Although several approaches have been developed for detection of CPDs, conventional methods require time-consuming steps. Aquaphotomics, a new approach based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis that determines interactions between water and other components of the solution, has become an effective method for qualitative and quantitative parameters measurement in the solutions. NIR spectral patterns of UVC-irradiated and nonirradiated DNA solutions were evaluated using aquaphotomics for detection of UV-induced CPDs. Groups of UV-irradiated and nonirradiated DNA samples were classified (87.5% accuracy) by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). A precise regression model calculated from NIR water spectral patterns based on UVC doses (r Val = 0.9457) and the concentration of cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers (cis-syn T<>Ts; r Val = 0.9993) was developed using partial least squares regression (PLSR), while taking advantage of water spectral patterns, particularly around 1400-1500 nm. Our results suggested that, in contrast to DNA, the formation of cis-syn T<>Ts increased the strongly hydrogen bonded water. Additionally, NIRS could qualitatively and quantitatively detect cis-syn T<>Ts in isolated DNA aqueous solutions upon UVC exposure.

  7. Differences in pyrimidine dimer removal between rat skin cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Mullaart, E.; Lohman, P.H.; Vijg, J.

    1988-03-01

    Pyrimidine dimers, the most abundant type of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet light (UV), are rapidly repaired in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. In the same cell type from rats, however, there is hardly any removal of such dimers. To investigate whether this low capacity of rat skin cells to repair lesions in their DNA is an inherent characteristic of this species or an artifact due to cell culturing, we measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from rat epidermal keratinocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Epidermal keratinocytes in vitro were unable to remove any dimers over the first 3 h after UV-irradiation, while only about 20% was removed during a repair period of 24 h. In this respect, these cells were not different from cultured rat fibroblasts. In contrast to the results obtained with keratinocytes in vitro, we observed a rapid repair of pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated keratinocytes in vivo over the first 3 h; this rapid repair phase was followed by a much slower repair phase between 3 and 24 h. These results are discussed in terms of the possibility that mammalian cells are able to switch from one DNA repair pathway to another.

  8. Excision of pyrimidine dimers from nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid in ultraviolet-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Deering, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    A sensitive endonuclease assay was used to study the fate of pyrimidine dimers introduced by ultraviolet irradiation into the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid of the cellular slime mold Dictyostellium discoideum. Analysis of the frequency of T4 endonuclease V-induced single-strand breaks by alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation showed that strain NC4 (rad/sup +/) removed >98% of the dimers induced by irradiation at 40 J/m/sup 2/ (254 nm) within 215 min after irradiation. HPS104 (radC44), a mutant sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, removed 91% under these conditions, although at a significantly slower rate than NC4: only 8% were removed during the 10- to 15- min period immediately after irradiation, whereas NC4 excised 64% during this interval. HPS104 thus appears to be deficient in the activity(ies) responsible for rapidly incising ultraviolet-irradiated nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid at the sites of pyrimidine dimers.

  9. Ultraviolet B-sensitive rice cultivar deficient in cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer repair

    SciTech Connect

    Hidema, Jun; Kumagai, Tadashi; Sutherland, J.C.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA is essential in most organisms to prevent biological damage by ultraviolet (UV) light. In higher plants tested thus far, UV-sensitive strains had higher initial damage levels or deficient repair of nondimer DNA lesions but normal CPD repair. This suggested that CPDs might not be important for biological lesions. The photosynthetic apparatus has also been proposed as a critical target. We have analyzed CPD induction and repair in the UV-sensitive rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Norin 1 and its close relative UV-resistant Sasanishiki using alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis. Norin 1 is deficient in cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photoreactivation and excision; thus, UV sensitivity correlates with deficient dimer repair. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Control of pyrimidine nucleotide formation in Pseudomonas fulva.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2010-03-01

    Control of pyrimidine formation was examined in Pseudomonas fulva ATCC 31418. Pyrimidine supplementation lowered pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway enzyme activities in cells grown on glucose or succinate as a carbon source indicating possible repression of enzyme synthesis. Pyrimidine limitation experiments were conducted using an orotidine 50-monophosphate decarboxylase mutant strain isolated in this study. Compared to uracil-supplemented, glucose-grown mutant cells, pyrimidine limitation of this strain caused aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase activities to increase about 6-, 13-, 3-, 15-fold, respectively, which confirmed regulation of enzyme synthesis by pyrimidines. At the level of enzyme activity, transcarbamoylase activity in Ps. fulva was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, CTP, GTP and GDP under saturating substrate concentrations.

  11. Accommodation of pyrimidine dimers during replication of UV-damaged simian virus 40 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Stacks, P C; White, J H; Dixon, K

    1983-01-01

    UV irradiation of simian virus 40-infected cells at fluences between 20 and 60 J/m2, which yield one to three pyrimidine dimers per simian virus 40 genome, leads to a fluence-dependent progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA replication as assayed by incorporation of [3H]deoxyribosylthymine into viral DNA. We used a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques to show that this decrease is due to a block in the progression of replicative-intermediate molecules to completed form I molecules, with a concomitant decrease in the entry of molecules into the replicating pool. Despite this UV-induced inhibition of replication, some pyrimidine dimer-containing molecules become fully replicated after UV irradiation. The fraction of completed molecules containing dimers goes up with time such that by 3 h after a UV fluence of 40 J/m2, more than 50% of completed molecules contain pyrimidine dimers. We postulate that the cellular replication machinery can accommodate limited amounts of UV-induced damage and that the progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA synthesis after UV irradiation is due to the accumulation in the replication pool of blocked molecules containing levels of damage greater than that which can be tolerated. PMID:6621531

  12. Accommodation of pyrimidine dimers during replication of UV-damaged simian virus 40 DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stacks, P.C.; White, J.H.; Dixon, K.

    1983-08-01

    UV irradiation of simian virus 40-infected cells at fluences between 20 and 60 J/m2, which yield one to three pyrimidine dimers per simian virus 40 genome, leads to a fluence-dependent progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA replication as assayed by incorporation of (3H)deoxyribosylthymine into viral DNA. We used a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques to show that this decrease is due to a block in the progression of replicative-intermediate molecules to completed form I molecules, with a concomitant decrease in the entry of molecules into the replicating pool. Despite this UV-induced inhibition of replication, some pyrimidine dimer-containing molecules become fully replicated after UV irradiation. The fraction of completed molecules containing dimers goes up with time such that by 3 h after a UV fluence of 40 J/m2, more than 50% of completed molecules contain pyrimidine dimers. We postulate that the cellular replication machinery can accommodate limited amounts of UV-induced damage and that the progressive decrease in simian virus 40 DNA synthesis after UV irradiation is due to the accumulation in the replication pool of blocked molecules containing levels of damage greater than that which can be tolerated.

  13. UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are mutagenic in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Protic-Sabljic, M.; Tuteja, N.; Munson, P.J.; Hauser, J.; Kraemer, K.H.; Dixon, K.

    1986-10-01

    We used a simian virus 40-based shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, to determine the role of pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers in UV light-induced mutagenesis in monkey cells. The vector DNA was UV irradiated and then introduced into monkey cells by transfection. After replication, vector DNA was recovered from the cells and tested for mutations in its supF suppressor tRNA marker gene by transformation of Escherichia coli carrying a nonsense mutation in the beta-galactosidase gene. When the irradiated vector was treated with E. coli photolyase prior to transfection, pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers were removed selectively. Removal of approximately 90% of the pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers increased the biological activity of the vector by 75% and reduced its mutation frequency by 80%. Sequence analysis of 72 mutants recovered indicated that there were significantly fewer tandem double-base changes and G X C----A X T transitions (particularly at CC sites) after photoreactivation of the DNA. UV-induced photoproducts remained (although at greatly reduced levels) at all pyr-pyr sites after photoreactivation, but there was a relative increase in photoproducts at CC and TC sites and a relative decrease at TT and CT sites, presumably due to a persistence of (6-4) photoproducts at some CC and TC sites. These observations are consistent with the fact that mutations were found after photoreactivation at many sites at which only cyclobutane dimers would be expected to occur. From these results we conclude that UV-induced pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers are mutagenic in DNA replicated in monkey cells.

  14. Comparative removal of pyrimidine dimers from human epidermal keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Reusch, M.K.; Meager, K.; Leadon, S.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1988-10-01

    We have compared the kinetics for repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the DNA of keratinocytes in human skin and in cell culture. A small area of the buttocks of volunteers was exposed to UVB-irradiation and biopsies were taken at various time intervals. Epidermal keratinocytes in culture from the same subjects were exposed to UVC with doses chosen to elicit comparable yields of dimers in cellular DNA. The initial density of pyrimidine dimers and the kinetics of their removal were assessed utilizing the dimer-specific T4 endonuclease V and sedimentation of the unlabeled DNA through alkaline sucrose gradients. The position of DNA in the gradients was determined using a monoclonal antibody against random sequences of single-stranded DNA in a sensitive immunoassay. The initial dimer frequency was 3.9-6.7 per 10(8) daltons DNA. About 40% of the dimers were removed within 1 h, 70% in 6 h, and 90% in 24 h for both in vivo and in vitro samples. The early rapid removal phase may represent preferential repair of actively transcribed genes. Our findings reaffirm the usefulness and applicability of cell culture systems to model in vivo repair phenomena. The use of monoclonal antibodies to detect single-stranded DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients may be of value in a variety of studies involving human tissues in which it is not possible to use radioactive labeling of the DNA for the analysis.

  15. Thymine Dimer Formation probed by Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Wolfgang J.; Schrader, Tobias E.; Roller, Florian O.; Gilch, Peter; Zinth, Wolfgang; Kohler, Bern

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the major photoproducts formed when DNA is exposed to UV light. Femtosecond time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy reveals that thymine dimers are formed in thymidine oligonucleotides in an ultrafast photoreaction.

  16. Excision repair of pyrimidine dimers induced by simulated solar radiation in the skin of patients with basal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Alcalay, J.; Freeman, S.E.; Goldberg, L.H.; Wolf, J.E. )

    1990-11-01

    One prominent lesion induced in DNA by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer formed between adjacent pyrimidines on the same DNA strand. We investigated whether people who have developed basal cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin have an altered ability to repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Twenty-two patients with at least one basal cell carcinoma, aged 31-84 years, and 19 healthy volunteers, aged 25-61 years, took part in the study. Both groups were given one minimal erythema dose (MED) of simulated solar radiation on the lower back. DNA was extracted from the irradiated skin 0 to 6 h later, and the number of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers was determined using a dimer-specific endonuclease. At time 0, the average number of dimers per unit of DNA was similar in the two groups. After 6 h, an average of 22 +/- 4% of the dimers were removed in the group with basal cell carcinoma compared to 33 +/- 4% in the cancer-free group. In the basal cell carcinoma group, only 23% of the patients repaired more than 30% of the dimers after 6 h, compared with 53% of the cancer-free subjects (p less than 0.05). We conclude that patients who develop basal cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin may have a decreased ability to repair pyrimidine dimers induced in skin exposed to simulated solar radiation.

  17. Repair of pyrimidine dimer ultraviolet light photoproducts by human cell extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.D. )

    1989-10-17

    A newly developed method allows human cell extracts to carry out repair synthesis on ultraviolet light irradiated closed circular plasmid DNA. The identity of the photodamage that leads to this repair replication was investigated. Removal of stable pyrimidine hydrates from irradiated plasmid pAT153 did not significantly affect the amount of repair replication in the fluence range of 0-450 J/m2, because of the low yield of these products and their short DNA repair patch size. Photoreactivation of irradiated DNA using purified Escherichia coli DNA photolyase to remove more than 95% of the cyclobutane dimers from the DNA reduced the observed repair synthesis by 20-40%. The greater part of the repair synthesis is highly likely to be caused by (6-4) pyrimidine dimer photoproducts. This class of lesions is rapidly repaired by mammalian cells, and their removal is known to be important for cell survival after ultraviolet irradiation.

  18. A prebiotic role for 8-oxoguanosine as a flavin mimic in pyrimidine dimer photorepair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khiem Van; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-09-21

    Redox-active enzyme cofactors derived from ribonucleotides have been called "fossils of the RNA world," suggesting that early catalysts employed modified nucleobases to facilitate redox chemistry in primitive metabolism. Here, we show that the common oxidative damage product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), when incorporated into a DNA or RNA strand in proximity to a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, can mimic the function of a flavin in photorepair. The OG nucleotide acts catalytically in a mechanism consistent with that of photolyase in which the photoexcited state of the purine donates an electron to a pyrimidine dimer to initiate bond cleavage; subsequent back electron transfer regenerates OG. This unusual example of one form of DNA damage, oxidation, functioning to repair another, photodimerization, may provide insight into the origins of prebiotic redox processes.

  19. Discrimination of class I cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase from blue light photoreceptors by single methionine residue.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Yuji; Nishioka, Hirotaka; Yura, Kei; Yamato, Takahisa

    2008-03-15

    DNA photolyase recognizes ultraviolet-damaged DNA and breaks improperly formed covalent bonds within the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by a light-activated electron transfer reaction between the flavin adenine dinucleotide, the electron donor, and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, the electron acceptor. Theoretical analysis of the electron-tunneling pathways of the DNA photolyase derived from Anacystis nidulans can reveal the active role of the protein environment in the electron transfer reaction. Here, we report the unexpectedly important role of the single methionine residue, Met-353, where busy trafficking of electron-tunneling currents is observed. The amino acid conservation pattern of Met-353 in the homologous sequences perfectly correlates with experimentally verified annotation as photolyases. The bioinformatics sequence analysis also suggests that the residue plays a pivotal role in biological function. Consistent findings from different disciplines of computational biology strongly suggest the pivotal role of Met-353 in the biological function of DNA photolyase.

  20. Crystal structure of thermostable DNA photolyase: Pyrimidine-dimer recognition mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hirofumi; Masui, Ryoji; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Shibata, Takehiko; Inoue, Yorinao; Miki, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    DNA photolyase is a pyrimidine-dimer repair enzyme that uses visible light. Photolyase generally contains two chromophore cofactors. One is a catalytic cofactor directly contributing to the repair of a pyrimidine-dimer. The other is a light-harvesting cofactor, which absorbs visible light and transfers energy to the catalytic cofactor. Photolyases are classified according to their second cofactor into either a folate- or deazaflavin-type. The native structures of both types of photolyases have already been determined, but the mechanism of substrate recognition remains largely unclear because of the lack of structural information regarding the photolyase-substrate complex. Photolyase from Thermus thermophilus, the first thermostable class I photolyase found, is favorable for function analysis, but even the type of the second cofactor has not been identified. Here, we report the crystal structures of T. thermophilus photolyase in both forms of the native enzyme and the complex along with a part of its substrate, thymine. A structural comparison with other photolyases suggests that T. thermophilus photolyase has structural features allowing for thermostability and that its light-harvesting cofactor binding site bears a close resemblance to a deazaflavin-type photolyase. One thymine base is found at the hole, a putative substrate-binding site near the catalytic cofactor in the complex form. This structural data for the photolyase-thymine complex allow us to propose a detailed model for the pyrimidine-dimer recognition mechanism. PMID:11707580

  1. Crystal structure of thermostable DNA photolyase: pyrimidine-dimer recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Komori, H; Masui, R; Kuramitsu, S; Yokoyama, S; Shibata, T; Inoue, Y; Miki, K

    2001-11-20

    DNA photolyase is a pyrimidine-dimer repair enzyme that uses visible light. Photolyase generally contains two chromophore cofactors. One is a catalytic cofactor directly contributing to the repair of a pyrimidine-dimer. The other is a light-harvesting cofactor, which absorbs visible light and transfers energy to the catalytic cofactor. Photolyases are classified according to their second cofactor into either a folate- or deazaflavin-type. The native structures of both types of photolyases have already been determined, but the mechanism of substrate recognition remains largely unclear because of the lack of structural information regarding the photolyase-substrate complex. Photolyase from Thermus thermophilus, the first thermostable class I photolyase found, is favorable for function analysis, but even the type of the second cofactor has not been identified. Here, we report the crystal structures of T. thermophilus photolyase in both forms of the native enzyme and the complex along with a part of its substrate, thymine. A structural comparison with other photolyases suggests that T. thermophilus photolyase has structural features allowing for thermostability and that its light-harvesting cofactor binding site bears a close resemblance to a deazaflavin-type photolyase. One thymine base is found at the hole, a putative substrate-binding site near the catalytic cofactor in the complex form. This structural data for the photolyase-thymine complex allow us to propose a detailed model for the pyrimidine-dimer recognition mechanism.

  2. Mechanism of Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase Dimerization Inhibition by Novel Pyrimidine Imidazoles*

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Latika; Haque, Mohammad M.; Saha, Amit; Mukherjee, Nirmalya; Ghosh, Arnab; Ranu, Brindaban C.; Stuehr, Dennis J.; Panda, Koustubh

    2013-01-01

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) has been etiologically linked to several inflammatory, immunological, and neurodegenerative diseases. As dimerization of NOS is required for its activity, several dimerization inhibitors, including pyrimidine imidazoles, are being evaluated for therapeutic inhibition of iNOS. However, the precise mechanism of their action is still unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism of iNOS inhibition by a pyrimidine imidazole core compound and its derivative (PID), having low cellular toxicity and high affinity for iNOS, using rapid stopped-flow kinetic, gel filtration, and spectrophotometric analysis. PID bound to iNOS heme to generate an irreversible PID-iNOS monomer complex that could not be converted to active dimers by tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) and l-arginine (Arg). We utilized the iNOS oxygenase domain (iNOSoxy) and two monomeric mutants whose dimerization could be induced (K82AiNOSoxy) or not induced (D92AiNOSoxy) with H4B to elucidate the kinetics of PID binding to the iNOS monomer and dimer. We observed that the apparent PID affinity for the monomer was 11 times higher than the dimer. PID binding rate was also sensitive to H4B and Arg site occupancy. PID could also interact with nascent iNOS monomers in iNOS-synthesizing RAW cells, to prevent their post-translational dimerization, and it also caused irreversible monomerization of active iNOS dimers thereby accomplishing complete physiological inhibition of iNOS. Thus, our study establishes PID as a versatile iNOS inhibitor and therefore a potential in vivo tool for examining the causal role of iNOS in diseases associated with its overexpression as well as therapeutic control of such diseases. PMID:23696643

  3. Mechanism of inducible nitric-oxide synthase dimerization inhibition by novel pyrimidine imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Latika; Haque, Mohammad M; Saha, Amit; Mukherjee, Nirmalya; Ghosh, Arnab; Ranu, Brindaban C; Stuehr, Dennis J; Panda, Koustubh

    2013-07-05

    Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) has been etiologically linked to several inflammatory, immunological, and neurodegenerative diseases. As dimerization of NOS is required for its activity, several dimerization inhibitors, including pyrimidine imidazoles, are being evaluated for therapeutic inhibition of iNOS. However, the precise mechanism of their action is still unclear. Here, we examined the mechanism of iNOS inhibition by a pyrimidine imidazole core compound and its derivative (PID), having low cellular toxicity and high affinity for iNOS, using rapid stopped-flow kinetic, gel filtration, and spectrophotometric analysis. PID bound to iNOS heme to generate an irreversible PID-iNOS monomer complex that could not be converted to active dimers by tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B) and l-arginine (Arg). We utilized the iNOS oxygenase domain (iNOSoxy) and two monomeric mutants whose dimerization could be induced (K82AiNOSoxy) or not induced (D92AiNOSoxy) with H4B to elucidate the kinetics of PID binding to the iNOS monomer and dimer. We observed that the apparent PID affinity for the monomer was 11 times higher than the dimer. PID binding rate was also sensitive to H4B and Arg site occupancy. PID could also interact with nascent iNOS monomers in iNOS-synthesizing RAW cells, to prevent their post-translational dimerization, and it also caused irreversible monomerization of active iNOS dimers thereby accomplishing complete physiological inhibition of iNOS. Thus, our study establishes PID as a versatile iNOS inhibitor and therefore a potential in vivo tool for examining the causal role of iNOS in diseases associated with its overexpression as well as therapeutic control of such diseases.

  4. DENV gene of bacteriophage T4 codes for both pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase and apyrimidinic endonuclease activities

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, S.; Edenberg, H.J.; Radany, E.H.; Friedberg, R.C.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that purified preparations of phage T4 UV DNA-incising activity (T4 UV endonuclease or endonuclease V of phase T4) contain a pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity that catalyzes hydrolysis of the 5' glycosyl bond of dimerized pyrimidines in UV-irradiated DNA. Such enzyme preparations have also been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds in UV-irradiated DNA at a neutral pH, presumably reflecting the action of an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease at the apyrimidinic sites created by the pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase. In this study we found that preparations of T4 UV DNA-incising activity contained apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity that nicked depurinated form I simian virus 40 DNA. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity was also found in extracts of Escherichia coli infected with T4 denV/sup +/ phage. Extracts of cells infected with T4 denV mutants contained significantly lower levels of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity; these levels were no greater than the levels present in extracts of uninfected cells. Furthermore, the addition of DNA containing UV-irradiated DNA and T4 enzyme resulted in competition for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity against the UV-irradiated DNA. On the basis of these results, we concluded that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is encoded by the denV gene of phage T4, the same gene that codes for pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylase activity.

  5. Thermodynamics and kinetics for base pair opening in the DNA decamer duplexes containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer.

    PubMed

    Bang, Jongchul; Kang, Young-Min; Park, Chin-Ju; Lee, Joon-Hwa; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2009-06-18

    The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is one of the major classes of cytotoxic and carcinogenic DNA photoproducts induced by UV light. Hydrogen exchange rates of the imino protons were measured for various CPD-containing DNA duplexes to better understand the mechanism for CPD recognition by XPC-hHR23B. The results here revealed that double T.G mismatches in a CPD lesion significantly destabilized six consecutive base pairs compared to other DNA duplexes. This flexibility in a DNA duplex caused at the CPD lesions with double T.G mismatches might be the key factor for damage recognition by XPC-hHR23B.

  6. Comparison of the cleavage of pyrimidine dimers by the bacteriophage T4 and Micrococcus luteus uv-specific endonucleases

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.K.; Haseltine, W.A.

    1980-12-25

    A comparison was made of the activity of the uv-specific endonucleases of bacteriophage T4 (T4 endonuclease V) and of Micrococcus luteus on ultraviolet light-irradiated DNA substrates of defined sequence. The two enzyms cleave DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers with the same frequency. The products of the cleavage reaction are the same. The pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase activity of both enzymes is more active on double-stranded DNA than it is on single-stranded DNA.

  7. Eukaryotic class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals basis for improved ultraviolet tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, Kenichi; Arvai, Andrew S; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Chiharu; Teranishi, Mika; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwai, Shigenori; Tainer, John A; Hidema, Jun; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2012-04-06

    Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms.

  8. Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Density as a Predictive Biomarker of the Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation in Normal Human Fibroblast.

    PubMed

    Sproul, Christopher D; Mitchell, David L; Rao, Shangbang; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Kaufmann, William K; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila

    2014-01-01

    This study compared biological responses of normal human fibroblasts (NHF1) to three sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), emitting UVC wavelengths, UVB wavelengths, or a combination of UVA and UVB (solar simulator; emission spectrum, 94.3% UVA and 5.7% UVB). The endpoints measured were cytotoxicity, intra-S checkpoint activation, inhibition of DNA replication and mutagenicity. Results show that the magnitude of each response to the indicated radiation sources was best predicted by the density of DNA cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). The density of 6-4 pyrimidine-pyrimidone photoproducts was highest in DNA from UVC-irradiated cells (14% of CPD) as compared to those exposed to UVB (11%) or UVA-UVB (7%). The solar simulator source, under the experimental conditions described here, did not induce the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in NHF1 above background levels. Taken together, these results suggest that CPD play a dominant role in DNA damage responses and highlight the importance of using endogenous biomarkers to compare and report biological effects induced by different sources of UVR. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases in repair of pyrimidine dimers and other lesions in DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, H R; Demple, B F; Deutsch, W A; Kane, C M; Linn, S

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of the nicks (single-strand breaks) introduced into damaged DNA by Escherichia coli endonucleases III, IV, and VI and by phage T4 UV endonuclease have been investigated with E. coli DNA polymerase I (DNA nucleotidyltransferase). Nicks introduced into depurinated DNA by endonuclease IV or VI provide good primer termini for the polymerase, whereas nicks introduced into depurinated DNA by endonuclease III or into irradiated DNA by T4 UV endonuclease do not. This result suggests that endonuclease IV nicks depurinated DNA on the 5' side of the apurinic site, as does endonuclease VI, whereas endonuclease III has a different incision mechanism. T4 UV endonuclease also possesses apurinic endonuclease activity that generates nicks in depurinated DNA with low priming activity for the polymerase. The priming activity of DNA nicked with endonuclease III or T4 UV endonuclease can be enhanced by an additional incubation with endonuclease VI and, to a lesser extent, by incubation with endonuclease IV. These results indicate that endonuclease III and T4 UV endonuclease (acting upon depurinated and irradiated DNA, respectively) generate nicks containing apurinic/apyrimidinic sites at their 3' termini and that such sites are not rapidly excised by the 3' leads to 5' activity of DNA polymerase I. However, endonuclease IV or VI apparently can remove such terminal apurinic/apyrimidinic sites as well as cleave on the 5' side of the unnicked sites. These results suggest roles for endonucleases III, IV, and VI in the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites as well as pyrimidine dimer sites in DNA. Our results with T4 UV endonuclease suggest that the incision of irradiated DNA by T4 UV endonuclease involves both cleavage of the glycosylic bond at the 5' half of the pyrimidine dimer and cleavage of the phosphodiester bond originally linking the two nucleotides of the dimer. They also imply that the glycosylic bond is cleaved before the phosphodiester bond. PMID:6254032

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel human acidic nuclease/intra-cyclobutyl-pyrimidine-dimer-DNA phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed

    Famulski, K S; Liuzzi, M; Bashir, S; Mirzayans, R; Paterson, M C

    2000-02-01

    A novel N-glycosylated, mannose-rich protein has been purified approx. 4000-fold from human liver in a seven-step procedure including ion-exchange chromatography and fractionation on concanavalin A-Sepharose, Sephadex G-75 and oligo(dT)-cellulose matrices. The molecular mass of the protein is 46 kDa when measured by gel filtration (i.e. under non-denaturing conditions) and 60 kDa by SDS/PAGE (i.e. under denaturing conditions). The protein possesses two DNA backbone-incising activities, namely, the random introduction of single-strand breaks in native DNA and the rupture of the phosphodiester linkage internal to cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, the major class of DNA lesions induced by solar UV rays. Both activities are optimal at pH 5.0 in vitro, although the non-specific nuclease displays appreciable activity at neutral pH, depending on the buffer composition. The protein has been named acidic nuclease/intra-cyclobutyl-pyrimidine-dimer-DNA phosphodiesterase (AN/IDP). As a nuclease, the protein 'prefers' a linear DNA structure over a covalently closed circular molecule and is more proficient at digesting single-stranded than double-stranded DNA. The polynucleotide cleavage products of the nuclease contain 5'-OH and 3'-PO(4) termini, which are refractory to direct rejoining by DNA ligases. Depending on the substrate, the nuclease activity exhibits a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C or greater, and is neither stimulated by Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) nor inhibited by Zn(2+). AN/IDP is present in human liver and in cultured human cells of both fibroblastic and lymphocytic origins. Intracellularly, the protein can be readily detected in both the cytosolic and nuclear fractions, although much more (approx. 3-fold) is found in the latter fraction. We propose that this bifunctional enzyme may be involved in both apoptotic DNA digestion and metabolism of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated human cells.

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel human acidic nuclease/intra-cyclobutyl-pyrimidine-dimer-DNA phosphodiesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Famulski, K S; Liuzzi, M; Bashir, S; Mirzayans, R; Paterson, M C

    2000-01-01

    A novel N-glycosylated, mannose-rich protein has been purified approx. 4000-fold from human liver in a seven-step procedure including ion-exchange chromatography and fractionation on concanavalin A-Sepharose, Sephadex G-75 and oligo(dT)-cellulose matrices. The molecular mass of the protein is 46 kDa when measured by gel filtration (i.e. under non-denaturing conditions) and 60 kDa by SDS/PAGE (i.e. under denaturing conditions). The protein possesses two DNA backbone-incising activities, namely, the random introduction of single-strand breaks in native DNA and the rupture of the phosphodiester linkage internal to cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers, the major class of DNA lesions induced by solar UV rays. Both activities are optimal at pH 5.0 in vitro, although the non-specific nuclease displays appreciable activity at neutral pH, depending on the buffer composition. The protein has been named acidic nuclease/intra-cyclobutyl-pyrimidine-dimer-DNA phosphodiesterase (AN/IDP). As a nuclease, the protein 'prefers' a linear DNA structure over a covalently closed circular molecule and is more proficient at digesting single-stranded than double-stranded DNA. The polynucleotide cleavage products of the nuclease contain 5'-OH and 3'-PO(4) termini, which are refractory to direct rejoining by DNA ligases. Depending on the substrate, the nuclease activity exhibits a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C or greater, and is neither stimulated by Mg(2+) or Ca(2+) nor inhibited by Zn(2+). AN/IDP is present in human liver and in cultured human cells of both fibroblastic and lymphocytic origins. Intracellularly, the protein can be readily detected in both the cytosolic and nuclear fractions, although much more (approx. 3-fold) is found in the latter fraction. We propose that this bifunctional enzyme may be involved in both apoptotic DNA digestion and metabolism of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated human cells. PMID:10642517

  12. Defective Excision Repair of Pyrimidine Dimers in the Ultraviolet-Sensitive Escherichia coli ras− Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James R.

    1970-01-01

    The ras− mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 is sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light but only slightly sensitive to X-irradiation (1.5-fold increase). Other phenotypic properties include normal recombination ability and normal host cell reactivation ability but an abnormally high frequency of UV-induced mutation. The response of the ras− mutant to UV has been studied biochemically. After low doses of UV, the ras− mutant degraded excessive amounts of deoxyribonucleic acid, and long delays in resumption of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis occurred. Pyrimidine dimers were excised at the normal rate. Although the mutant had the capability of initiating repair replication, the process was not completed after the high UV dose required to allow detection of repair replication. The ras− mutant, after low UV doses, left three to four times as many single-strand breaks not rejoined as did the wild-type strain. PMID:4919983

  13. Very low energy electrons transform the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer into a highly reactive intermediate.

    PubMed

    Edtbauer, Achim; Denifl, Stephan; Vizcaino, Violaine; An der Lan, Lukas; Russell, Katherine; Taubitz, Jörg; Wille, Uta; Feketeova, Linda; O'Hair, Richard A J; Märk, Tilmann D; Illenberger, Eugen; Scheier, Paul

    2010-02-22

    Electrons with virtually no kinetic energy (close to 0 eV) trigger the decomposition of cytotoxic cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) into a surprisingly large variety of fragment ions plus their neutral counterparts. The response of CPD to low energy electrons is thus comparable to that of explosives like trinitrotoluene (TNT). The dominant unimolecular reaction is the splitting into two thymine like units, which can be considered as the essential molecular step in the photolyase of CPD. We find that CPD is significantly more sensitive towards low energy electrons than its thymine building blocks. It is proposed that electron attachment at very low energy proceeds via dipole bound states, supported by the large dipole moment of the molecule (6.2 D). These states act as effective doorways to dissociative electron attachment (DEA).

  14. Topical formulation engendered alteration in p53 and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer expression in chronic photodamaged patients.

    PubMed

    Spencer, James M; Morgan, Michael B; Trapp, Kara M; Moon, Summer D

    2013-03-01

    While the clinical attributes of photoaging are well characterized in the literature, the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie these changes are incompletely elucidated. At the molecular level, p53 tumor-suppressor gene product mediated excision repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage is a critical effector in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and potentially in conventional photoaging. We examined p53 activity and measured UV-induced DNA damage via cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) quantitatively in 20 volunteers before and after an 8-week, open-label prospective topical application of a proprietary DNA recovery serum (Celfix). There was a statistically significant decrease in immunohistochemically determined p53 and CPD levels. While these data are preliminary, the findings lend support to the theoretical possibility of a topical agent reversing the effects of photodamage at the molecular level and, potentially, an ameliorative outcome clinically.

  15. Baculovirus cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases show a close relationship with lepidopteran host homologues.

    PubMed

    Biernat, M A; Ros, V I D; Vlak, J M; van Oers, M M

    2011-08-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases repair ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage using blue light. To get insight in the origin of baculovirus CPD photolyase (phr) genes, homologues in the lepidopteran insects Chrysodeixis chalcites, Spodoptera exigua and Trichoplusia ni were identified and characterized. Lepidopteran and baculovirus phr genes each form a monophyletic group, and together form a well-supported clade within the insect photolyases. This suggests that baculoviruses obtained their phr genes from an ancestral lepidopteran insect host. A likely evolutionary scenario is that a granulovirus, Spodoptera litura GV or a direct ancestor, obtained a phr gene. Subsequently, it was horizontally transferred from this granulovirus to several group II nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), including those that infect noctuids of the Plusiinae subfamily. © 2011 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Blockage of RNA polymerase II at a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and 6-4 photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Mei Kwei, Joan Seah; Kuraoka, Isao; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ubukata, Manabu; Kobatake, Eiry; Iwai, Shigenori; Handa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2004-08-06

    The blockage of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II) at a DNA damage site on the transcribed strand triggers a transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR), which rapidly removes DNA damage on the transcribed strand of the expressed gene and allows the resumption of transcription. To analyze the effect of UV-induced DNA damage on transcription elongation, an in vitro transcription elongation system using pol II and oligo(dC)-tailed templates containing a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) or 6-4 photoproduct (6-4PP) at a specific site was employed. The results showed that pol II incorporated nucleotides opposite the CPD and 6-4PP and then stalled. Pol II formed a stable ternary complex consisting of pol II, the DNA damage template, and the nascent transcript. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that pol II stalled at the damaged region. These findings may provide the basis for analysis of the initiation step of TCR.

  17. Hesperidin promotes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in UVB-exposed mice epidermis.

    PubMed

    Jin, S; Zhou, B; Luo, D

    2011-09-01

    To investigate whether topical application of hesperin affords protection to Balb/C mice epidermis from UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). A DNA damage model of UVB irradiation-induced mice epidermis was established. The immunohistochemical staining and southwestern dot blotting were used for CPDs detection; western blotting was used for P53 detection. Topical application of hesperidin on Balb/C mice skin significantly decreased the amount of epidermal CPDs 24 and 48 h after 180 mJ/cm(2) of UVB irradiation as compared to untreated mice. UVB-induced p53 expression was more pronounced in hesperidin-treated mice epidermis compared to that of untreated mice. Taken together, these results suggest that topical hesperidin application promotes DNA photo-damage repair. Hesperidin is therefore a promising protective substance against UVB radiation.

  18. Modulation of the processive abasic site lyase activity of a pyrimidine dimer glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Ryabinina, Olga P; Minko, Irina G; Lasarev, Michael R; McCullough, Amanda K; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2011-10-10

    The repair of cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) can be initiated via the base excision repair (BER) pathway, utilizing pyrimidine dimer-specific DNA glycosylase/lyase enzymes (pdgs). However, prior to incision at lesion sites, these enzymes bind to non-damaged DNAs through charge-charge interactions. Following initial binding to DNA containing multiple lesions, the enzyme incises at most of these sites prior to dissociation. If a subset of these lesions are in close proximity, clustered breaks may be produced that could lead to decreased cell viability or increased mutagenesis. Based on the co-crystal structures of bacteriophage T4-pdg and homology modeling of a related enzyme from Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1, the structure-function basis for the processive incision activity for both enzymes was investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. An assay was developed that quantitatively measured the rates of incision by these enzymes at clustered apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. Mathematical modeling of random (distributive) versus processive incisions predicted major differences in the rate and extent of the accumulation of singly nicked DNAs between these two mechanisms. Comparisons of these models with biochemical nicking data revealed significant changes in the damage search mechanisms between wild-type pdgs and most of the mutant enzymes. Several conserved arginine residues were shown to be critical for the processivity of the incision activity, without interfering with catalysis at AP sites. Comparable results were measured for incision at clustered CPD sites in plasmid DNAs. These data reveal that pdgs can be rationally engineered to retain full catalytic activity, while dramatically altering mechanisms of target site location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Excision repair of pyrimidine dimers from simian virus 40 minichromosomes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.H.; Linn, S.

    1984-08-25

    The ability of DNA repair enzymes to carry out excision repair of pyrimidine dimers in SV40 minichromosomes irradiated with UV light was examined. Half of the dimers were substrate for the DNA glycosylase activity of phage T4 UV endonuclease immediately after irradiation, but this limit decreased to 27% after 2 h at 0/sup 0/C. The apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity of the enzyme did not incise all of the AP sites created by glycosylase, although all AP sites were substrate for HeLa AP endonuclease II. After incision by the T4 enzyme, excision was mediated by HeLa DNase V (acting with an exonuclease present in the chromatin preparation). Under physiological salt conditions, excision did not proceed beyond the damaged nucleotides in DNA or chromatin. With chromatin, 70% of the accessible dimers were removed, but at a rate slower than for DNA. Finally, HeLa DNA polymerase ..beta.. was able to fill the short gaps created after dimer excision, and these patches were sealed by T4 DNA ligase. Overall, roughly 30% of the sites incised by the endonuclease were ultimately sealed by the ligase. The resistance of some sites was due to interference with the ligase by the chromatin structure, as only 30-40% of the nicks created in chromatin by pancreatic DNase could be sealed by T4 or HeLa DNA ligases. The overall excision repair process did not disrupt the chromatin structure, since the repair label was recovered in Form I DNA present in 75 S condensed minichromosomes. Although other factors might affect the rate, it appears that the enzymes utilized could carry out excision repair of chromatin to a limit near that observed in mammalian cells in vivo.

  20. Structure of T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase in a reduced imine covalent complex with abasic site-containing DNA.

    PubMed

    Golan, Gali; Zharkov, Dmitry O; Grollman, Arthur P; Dodson, M L; McCullough, Amanda K; Lloyd, R Stephen; Shoham, Gil

    2006-09-15

    The base excision repair (BER) pathway for ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is initiated by DNA glycosylases that also possess abasic (AP) site lyase activity. The prototypical enzyme known to catalyze these reactions is the T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (T4-Pdg). The fundamental chemical reactions and the critical amino acids that lead to both glycosyl and phosphodiester bond scission are known. Catalysis proceeds via a protonated imine covalent intermediate between the alpha-amino group of the N-terminal threonine residue and the C1' of the deoxyribose sugar of the 5' pyrimidine at the dimer site. This covalent complex can be trapped as an irreversible, reduced cross-linked DNA-protein complex by incubation with a strong reducing agent. This active site trapping reaction is equally efficient on DNA substrates containing pyrimidine dimers or AP sites. Herein, we report the co-crystal structure of T4-Pdg as a reduced covalent complex with an AP site-containing duplex oligodeoxynucleotide. This high-resolution structure reveals essential precatalytic and catalytic features, including flipping of the nucleotide opposite the AP site, a sharp kink (approximately 66 degrees ) in the DNA at the dimer site and the covalent bond linking the enzyme to the DNA. Superposition of this structure with a previously published co-crystal structure of a catalytically incompetent mutant of T4-Pdg with cyclobutane dimer-containing DNA reveals new insights into the structural requirements and the mechanisms involved in DNA bending, nucleotide flipping and catalytic reaction.

  1. Comparison of DNA damage responses following equimutagenic doses of UVA and UVB: a less effective cell cycle arrest with UVA may render UVA-induced pyrimidine dimers more mutagenic than UVB-induced ones.

    PubMed

    Rünger, Thomas M; Farahvash, Benyamin; Hatvani, Zsofia; Rees, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of UVA-mutagenesis remain a matter of debate. Earlier described higher rates of mutation formation per pyrimidine dimer with UVA than with UVB and other evidence suggested that a non-pyrimidine dimer-type of DNA damage contributes more to UVA- than to UVB-mutagenesis. However, more recently published data on the spectra of UVA-induced mutations in primary human skin cells and in mice suggest that pyrimidine dimers are the most common type of DNA damage-inducing mutations not only with UVB, but also with UVA. As this rebuts a prominent role of non-dimer type of DNA damage in UVA-mutagenesis, we hypothesized that the higher mutation rate at UVA-induced pyrimidine dimers, as compared to UVB-induced ones, is caused by differences in the way UVA- and UVB-exposed cells process DNA damage. Therefore, we here compared cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, and apoptosis in primary human fibroblasts following UVB- and UVA-irradiation, using the same physiologic and roughly equimutagenic doses (100-300 J m(-2) UVB, 100-300 kJ m(-2) UVA) we have used previously for mutagenesis experiments with the same type of cells. ELISAs for the detection of pyrimidine dimers confirmed that much fewer dimers were formed with these doses of UVA, as compared to UVB. We found that cell cycle arrests (intra-S, G1/S, G2/M), mediated at least in part by activation of p53 and p95, are much more prominent and long-lasting with UVB than with UVA. In contrast, no prominent differences were found between UVA and UVB for other anti-mutagenic cellular responses (DNA repair, apoptosis). Our data suggest that less effective anti-mutagenic cellular responses, in particular different and shorter-lived cell cycle arrests, render pyrimidine dimers induced by UVA more mutagenic than pyrimidine dimers induced by UVB. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies 2012

  2. UV Radiation–Sensitive Norin 1 Rice Contains Defective Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyase

    PubMed Central

    Hidema, Jun; Kumagai, Tadashi; Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2000-01-01

    Norin 1, a progenitor of many economically important Japanese rice strains, is highly sensitive to the damaging effects of UVB radiation (wavelengths 290 to 320 nm). Norin 1 seedlings are deficient in photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. However, the molecular origin of this deficiency was not known and, because rice photolyase genes have not been cloned and sequenced, could not be determined by examining photolyase structural genes or upstream regulatory elements for mutations. We therefore used a photoflash approach, which showed that the deficiency in photorepair in vivo resulted from a functionally altered photolyase. These results were confirmed by studies with extracts, which showed that the Norin 1 photolyase–dimer complex was highly thermolabile relative to the wild-type Sasanishiki photolyase. This deficiency results from a structure/function alteration of photolyase rather than of nonspecific repair, photolytic, or regulatory elements. Thus, the molecular origin of this plant DNA repair deficiency, resulting from a spontaneously occurring mutation to UV radiation sensitivity, is defective photolyase. PMID:11006332

  3. Molecular mechanisms of pyrimidine dimer excision in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: incision of ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.J.; Friedberg, E.C.

    1981-05-01

    A group of genetically related ultraviolet (uv)-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been examined in terms of their survival after exposure to uv radiation, their ability to carry out excision repair or pyrimidine dimers as measured by the loss of sites (pyrimidine dimers) sensitive to a dimer-specific enzyme probe, and in terms of their ability to effect incision of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) during post-uv incubation in vivo (as measured by the detection of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA). In addition to a haploid RAD/sup +/ strain (S288C), 11 different mutants representing six RAD loci (RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4, RAD14, and RAD18) were examined. Quantitative analysis of excision repair capacity, as determined by the loss of sites in DNA sensitive to an enzyme preparation from M. luteus which is specific for pyrimidine dimers, revealed a profound defect in this parameter in all but three of the strains examined. The rad14-1 mutant showed reduced but significant residual capacity to remove enzyme-sensitive sites as did the rad2-4 mutant. The latter was the only one of three different rad2 alleles examined which was leaky in this respect. The uv-sensitive strain carrying the mutant allele rad18-1 exhibited normal loss of enzyme-sensitive sites consistent with its assignment to the RAD6 rather than the RAD3 epistatic group. All strains having mutant alleles of the RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4, and RAD14 loci showed no detectable incubation-dependent strand breaks in nuclear DNA after exposure to uv radiation. These experiments suggest that the RAD1, RAD2, RAD3, RAD4 (and probably RAD14) genes are all required for the incision of uv-irradiated DNA during pyrimidine dimer excision in vivo.

  4. Dimer formation during UV photolysis of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Keen, Olya S; Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G

    2013-11-01

    Dimer formation was observed during ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac, and confirmed with mass spectrometry, NMR and fluorescence analysis. The dimers were combinations of the two parent molecules or of the parent and the product of photolysis, and had visible color. Radical formation during UV exposure and dissolved oxygen photosensitized reactions played a role in dimer formation. Singlet oxygen formed via photosensitization by photolysis products of diclofenac. It reacted with diclofenac to form an epoxide which is an intermediate in some dimer formation pathways. Quantum yield of photolysis for diclofenac was 0.21±0.02 and 0.19±0.02 for UV irradiation from medium pressure and low pressure mercury vapor lamps, respectively. Band pass filter experiments revealed that the quantum yield is constant at wavelengths >200 nm. The same dimers formed in laboratory grade water when either of the two UV sources was used. Dimers did not form in wastewater effluent matrix, and diclofenac epoxide molecules may have formed bonds with organic matter rather than each other Implications for the importance of dimer formation in NOM are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of pyrimidine dimers and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured mouse epithelial cells exposed to 254-nm- and u. v. -B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yotti, L.P.; Ley, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The induction and fate of pyrimidine dimers and unscheduled DNA synthesis were measured in u.v.-irradiated primary, newborn SENCAR mouse epithelial cells. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced in a dose responsive manner by two u.v. sources, a germicidal lamp (254 nm) and an FS40 sunlamp (280--400 nm). Using the endonuclease-sensitive site assay to detect pyrimidine dimer production and excision, we examined the response of the newborn mouse cells to both u.v. sources. We were unable to detect the removal of pyrimidine dimers with either of the two sources of u.v. The speculation is made that primary, newborn mouse epidermal cells excise u.v.-induced pyrimidine dimers to an extent below the level of detection of the endonuclease-sensitive site assay but to an extent sufficient to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  6. Influence of a cis,syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer damage on DNA conformation studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Knips, Alexander; Zacharias, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The photo-induced formation of cis-syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) is a highly mutagenic and cancerogenic DNA lesion. In bacteria photolyases can efficiently reverse the dimer formation employing a light-driven reaction after looping out the CPD damaged bases into the enzyme active site. The exact mechanism how the repair enzyme identifies a damaged site within a large surplus of undamaged DNA is not fully understood. The CPD damage may alter the DNA structure and dynamics already in the absence of the repair enzyme which can facilitate the initial binding of a photolyase repair enzyme. To characterize the effect of a CPD damage, extensive comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on duplex DNA with central regular or CPD damaged nucleotides were performed supplemented with simulations of the DNA-photolyase complex. Although no spontaneous flipping out transitions of the damaged bases were observed, the simulations showed significant differences in the conformational states of regular and CPD damage DNA. The isolated damaged DNA adopted transient conformations which resembled the global shape of the repair enzyme bound conformation more closely compared to regular B-DNA. In particular, these conformational changes were observed in most of helical and structural parameters where the protein bound DNA differs drastically from regular B-DNA. It is likely that the transient overlap of isolated DNA with the enzyme bound DNA conformation plays a decisive role for the specific and rapid initial recognition by the repair enzyme prior to the looping out process of the damaged DNA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Electron Tunneling Pathways and Role of Adenine in Repair of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer by DNA Photolyase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheyun; Guo, Xunmin; Tan, Chuang; Li, Jiang; Kao, Ya-Ting; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunneling pathways in enzymes are critical to their catalytic efficiency. Through electron tunneling, photolyase, a photoenzyme, splits UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer into two normal bases. Here, we report our systematic characterization and analyses of photo-initiated three electron transfer processes and cyclobutane ring splitting by following the entire dynamical evolution during enzymatic repair with femtosecond resolution. We observed the complete dynamics of the reactants, all intermediates and final products, and determined their reaction time scales. Using (deoxy)uracil and thymine as dimer substrates, we unambiguously determined the electron tunneling pathways for the forward electron transfer to initiate repair and for the final electron return to restore the active cofactor and complete the catalytic photocycle. Significantly, we found that the adenine moiety of the unusual bent flavin cofactor is essential to mediating all electron-transfer dynamics through a super-exchange mechanism, leading to a delicate balance of time scales. The cyclobutane ring splitting takes tens of picoseconds while electron-transfer dynamics all occur on a longer time scale. The active-site structural integrity, unique electron tunneling pathways and the critical role of adenine assure the synergy of these elementary steps in this complex photorepair machinery to achieve maximum repair efficiency which is close to unity. Finally, we used the Marcus electron-transfer theory to evaluate all three electron transfer processes and thus obtained their reaction driving forces (free energies), reorganization energies, and electronic coupling constants, concluding the forward and futile back electron transfer in the normal region and that the final electron return of the catalytic cycle is in the inverted region. PMID:22533849

  8. Electron tunneling pathways and role of adenine in repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by DNA photolyase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheyun; Guo, Xunmin; Tan, Chuang; Li, Jiang; Kao, Ya-Ting; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2012-05-16

    Electron tunneling pathways in enzymes are critical to their catalytic efficiency. Through electron tunneling, photolyase, a photoenzyme, splits UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer into two normal bases. Here, we report our systematic characterization and analyses of photoinitiated three electron transfer processes and cyclobutane ring splitting by following the entire dynamical evolution during enzymatic repair with femtosecond resolution. We observed the complete dynamics of the reactants, all intermediates and final products, and determined their reaction time scales. Using (deoxy)uracil and thymine as dimer substrates, we unambiguously determined the electron tunneling pathways for the forward electron transfer to initiate repair and for the final electron return to restore the active cofactor and complete the catalytic photocycle. Significantly, we found that the adenine moiety of the unusual bent flavin cofactor is essential to mediating all electron-transfer dynamics through a superexchange mechanism, leading to a delicate balance of time scales. The cyclobutane ring splitting takes tens of picoseconds, while electron-transfer dynamics all occur on a longer time scale. The active-site structural integrity, unique electron tunneling pathways, and the critical role of adenine ensure the synergy of these elementary steps in this complex photorepair machinery to achieve maximum repair efficiency which is close to unity. Finally, we used the Marcus electron-transfer theory to evaluate all three electron-transfer processes and thus obtained their reaction driving forces (free energies), reorganization energies, and electronic coupling constants, concluding that the forward and futile back-electron transfer is in the normal region and that the final electron return of the catalytic cycle is in the inverted region.

  9. Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Density as a Predictive Biomarker of the Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation in Normal Human Fibroblast

    PubMed Central

    Sproul, Christopher D.; Mitchell, David L.; Rao, Shangbang; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Kaufmann, William K.; Cordeiro-Stone, Marila

    2015-01-01

    This study compared biological responses of normal human fibroblasts (NHF1) to three sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), emitting UVC wavelengths, UVB wavelengths, or a combination of UVA and UVB (solar simulator; emission spectrum, 94.3% UVA and 5.7% UVB). The endpoints measured were cytotoxicity, intra-S checkpoint activation, inhibition of DNA replication and mutagenicity. Results show that the magnitude of each response to the indicated radiation sources was best predicted by the density of DNA cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). The density of 6-4 pyrimidine–pyrimidone photoproducts was highest in DNA from UVC-irradiated cells (14% of CPD) as compared to those exposed to UVB (11%) or UVA–UVB (7%). The solar simulator source, under the experimental conditions described here, did not induce the formation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine in NHF1 above background levels. Taken together, these results suggest that CPD play a dominant role in DNA damage responses and highlight the importance of using endogenous biomarkers to compare and report biological effects induced by different sources of UVR. PMID:24148148

  10. Transcript cleavage by RNA polymerase II arrested by a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in the DNA template.

    PubMed

    Donahue, B A; Yin, S; Taylor, J S; Reines, D; Hanawalt, P C

    1994-08-30

    A current model for transcription-coupled DNA repair is that RNA polymerase, arrested at a DNA lesion, directs the repair machinery to the transcribed strand of an active gene. To help elucidate this role of RNA polymerase, we constructed DNA templates containing the major late promoter of adenovirus and a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) at a specific site. CPDs, the predominant DNA lesions formed by ultraviolet radiation, are good substrates for transcription-coupled repair. A CPD located on the transcribed strand of the template was a strong block to polymerase movement, whereas a CPD located on the nontranscribed strand had no effect on transcription. Furthermore, the arrested polymerase shielded the CPD from recognition by photolyase, a bacterial DNA repair protein. Transcription elongation factor SII (also called TFIIS) facilitates read-through of a variety of transcriptional pause sites by a process in which RNA polymerase II cleaves the nascent transcript before elongation resumes. We show that SII induces nascent transcript cleavage by RNA polymerase II stalled at a CPD. However, this cleavage does not remove the arrested polymerase from the site of the DNA lesion, nor does it facilitate translesional bypass by the polymerase. The arrested ternary complex is stable and competent to resume elongation, demonstrating that neither the polymerase nor the RNA product dissociates from the DNA template.

  11. Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from a UV-irradiated shuttle vector introduced into human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganesan, A.K.; Hanawalt, P.C. )

    1994-05-01

    A shuttle vector (pZH-1) carrying the E. Coli lacZ gene under control of the SV40 early promoter was irradiated with UV and introduced into repair-proficient or repair-deficient human cell lines. The expression of irradiated lacZ compared to unirradiated lacZ was greater in repair-proficient cells (HT-1080) than in repair-deficient cells (XP12RO-SV40) belonging to xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A. To ascertain whether the expression of lacZ in the repair-proficient cells was correlated with the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the authors purified DNA from the recipient cells and used the CPD-specific enzyme T4 endonuclease V to measure the frequency of CPDs remaining in the plasmid as a whole and in two restriction fragments derived from it. They found that removal of CPDs occurred in both fragments in the repair-proficient cells but not in the repair-deficient cells. The results provide the first direct evidence for the removal of CPDs from UV irradiated plasmids introduced into human cells and support the notion that expression of the UV-damaged lacZ gene in repair-proficient human cells reflects the removal of transcription blocking lesions from the gene.

  12. Dynamics and mechanism of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair by DNA photolyase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheyun; Tan, Chuang; Guo, Xunmin; Kao, Ya-Ting; Li, Jiang; Wang, Lijuan; Sancar, Aziz; Zhong, Dongping

    2011-09-06

    Photolyase uses blue light to restore the major ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), to two normal bases by splitting the cyclobutane ring. Our earlier studies showed that the overall repair is completed in 700 ps through a cyclic electron-transfer radical mechanism. However, the two fundamental processes, electron-tunneling pathways and cyclobutane ring splitting, were not resolved. Here, we use ultrafast UV absorption spectroscopy to show that the CPD splits in two sequential steps within 90 ps and the electron tunnels between the cofactor and substrate through a remarkable route with an intervening adenine. Site-directed mutagenesis reveals that the active-site residues are critical to achieving high repair efficiency, a unique electrostatic environment to optimize the redox potentials and local flexibility, and thus balance all catalytic reactions to maximize enzyme activity. These key findings reveal the complete spatio-temporal molecular picture of CPD repair by photolyase and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism of the enzyme's high repair efficiency.

  13. Identification of a phosphorylation site in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase of rice.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Mika; Nakamura, Kentaro; Furukawa, Haruya; Hidema, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase monomerises ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced CPDs present in DNA, using energy from UVA and visible light. In plants, CPD photolyase activity is a crucial factor for determining UVB sensitivity. We previously demonstrated that native rice CPD photolyase is phosphorylated. To determine the phosphorylation site(s), the phosphorylation status of CPD photolyase was analyzed in rice varieties that have amino acid alterations at the potential phosphorylation sites. In wild-rice species, CPD photolyase was phosphorylated. In Poaceae species, CPD photolyase was phosphorylated in wheat but not in maize. Mutant CPD photolyase proteins, in which these putative phosphorylated residues were replaced with alanine residues, were synthesized using an insect cell-free translation system. A slow-migrating band disappeared when the serine residue at position 7 was mutated. A phospho-specific antibody was generated to determine whether this residue is phosphorylated in CPD photolyase. Only the slow-migrating band of native rice CPD photolyase was detected using this antibody, indicating that the serine residue at position 7 is a phosphorylation site in native rice CPD photolyase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase DNA recognition mechanism by NMR analyses.

    PubMed

    Torizawa, Takuya; Ueda, Takumi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Hitomi, Kenichi; Todo, Takeshi; Iwai, Shigenori; Morikawa, Kosuke; Shimada, Ichio

    2004-07-30

    The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is one of the major forms of DNA damage caused by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light. CPD photolyases recognize and repair UV-damaged DNA. The DNA recognition mechanism of the CPD photolyase has remained obscure because of a lack of structural information about DNA-CPD photolyase complexes. In order to elucidate the CPD photolyase DNA binding mode, we performed NMR analyses of the DNA-CPD photolyase complex. Based upon results from (31)P NMR measurements, in combination with site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated the orientation of CPD-containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) on the CPD photolyase. In addition, chemical shift perturbation analyses, using stable isotope-labeled DNA, revealed that the CPD is buried in a cavity within CPD photolyase. Finally, NMR analyses of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-CPD photolyase complex indicated that the CPD is flipped out of the dsDNA by the enzyme, to gain access to the active site.

  15. Polydeoxyribonucleotide promotes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in UVB-exposed dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Belletti, Silvana; Uggeri, Jacopo; Gatti, Rita; Govoni, Paolo; Guizzardi, Stefano

    2007-12-01

    DNA is the main cellular chromophore for ultraviolet B (UVB). Its absorption leads to the generation of typical photoproducts. The most frequent types (about 80%) are cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Several studies have suggested that treatment with deoxyribonucleosides can protect some cell types from DNA damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of the polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) to protect human dermal fibroblasts from UVB-induced DNA damage. Human dermal fibroblasts were irradiated with 600 mJ/cm(2) of UVB radiation. Cells were analyzed at increasing time points from irradiation to study the recovery from UVB-induced DNA photodamage. Damage repair was subsequently assessed by immunocytochemical analysis of CPDs levels and by measurement of p53 protein expression. The extracellular addition of 100 microg/ml PDRN immediately after irradiation caused a strong activation of p53 protein in the first 24 h. This signal was accompanied by an increase in CPDs repair rates at early time points of recovery. The addition of PDRN to the culture medium supports CPDs repair probably providing a faster supply of precursors for the deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates pool necessary to UVB-damaged cells. This condition could promote the action of the salvage pathway, thereby accelerating DNA repair, but other inducible responses linked to increased p53 expression could be involved.

  16. Rotational position of a 5-methylcytosine-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in a nucleosome greatly affects its deamination rate.

    PubMed

    Song, Qian; Cannistraro, Vincent J; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2011-02-25

    C to T mutation hotspots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. These mutations are proposed to arise from the insertion of A by DNA polymerase η opposite the T that results from deamination of the methylC ((m)C) within the CPD. Although the frequency of CPD formation and repair is modestly modulated by its rotational position within a nucleosome, the effect of position on the rate of (m)C deamination in a CPD has not been previously studied. We now report that deamination of a T(m)C CPD whose sugar phosphate backbone is positioned against the histone core surface decreases by a factor of 4.7, whereas that of a T(m)C CPD positioned away from the surface increases by a factor of 8.9 when compared with unbound DNA. Because the (m)Cs undergoing deamination are in similar steric environments, the difference in rate appears to be a consequence of a difference in the flexibility and compression of the two sites due to DNA bending. Considering that formation of the CPD positioned away from the surface is also enhanced by a factor of two, a T(m)CG site in this position might be expected to have up to an 84-fold higher probability of resulting in a UV-induced (m)C to T mutation than one positioned against the surface. These results indicate that rotational position may play an important role in the formation of UV-induced C to T mutation hotspots, as well as in the mutagenic mechanism of other DNA lesions.

  17. Do photolyases need to provide considerable activation energy for the splitting of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer radical anions?

    PubMed

    Song, Qin-Hua; Tang, Wen-Jian; Ji, Xue-Bao; Wang, Hong-Bo; Guo, Qing-Xiang

    2007-01-01

    cis-syn Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, major UV-induced DNA lesions, are efficiently repaired by DNA photolyases. The key step of the repair reaction is a light-driven electron transfer from the FADH(-) cofactor to the dimer; the resulting radical anion splits spontaneously. Whether the splitting reaction requires considerable activation energy is still under dispute. Recent reports show that the splitting reaction of a dimer radical anion has a significant activation barrier (0.45 eV), and so photolyases have to provide considerable energy. However, these results contradict observations that cis-syn dimer radical anions split into monomers at -196 degrees C, and that the full process of DNA photoreactivation was fast (1.5-2 ns). To investigate the activation energies of dimer radical anions, three model compounds 1-3 were prepared. These include a covalently linked cyclobutane thymine dimer and a tryptophan residue (1) or a flavin unit (3), and the covalently linked uracil dimer and tryptophan (2). Their properties of photosensitised splitting of the dimer units by tryptophan or flavin unit were investigated over a large temperature range, -196 to 70 degrees C. The activation energies were obtained from the temperature dependency of splitting reactions for 1 and 2, 1.9 kJ mol(-1) and 0.9 kJ mol(-1) for the thymine and uracil dimer radical anions, respectively. These values are much lower than that obtained for E. coli photolyase (0.45 eV), and are surmountable at -196 degrees C. The activation energies provide support for previous observations that repair efficiencies for uracil dimers are higher than thymine dimers, both in enzymatic and model systems. The mechanisms of highly efficient enzymatic DNA repair are discussed.

  18. Physical association of pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease essential for repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabeppu, Y.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1981-05-01

    T4 endonuclease, which is involved in repair of uv-damaged DNA, has been purified to apparent physical homogeneity. Incubation of uv-irradiated poly(dA).poly(dT) with the purified enzyme preparations resulted in production of alkali-labile apyrimidinic sites, followed by formation of nicks in the polymer. By performing a limited reaction with T4 endonuclease V at pH 8.5, irradiated polymer was converted to an intermediate form that carried a large number of alkali-labile sites but only a few nicks. The intermediate was used as substrate for the assay of apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease activity. The two activities, a pyrimidine dimer DNA glycosylase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease, were copurified and found in enzyme preparations that contained only a 16,000-dalton polypeptide. These results strongly suggested that a DNA glycosylase specific for pyrimidine dimers and an apurinic/apyrimidinic DNA endonuclease reside in a single polypeptide chain coded by the denV gene of bacteriophage T4.

  19. Rapid deamination of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photoproducts at TCG sites in a translationally and rotationally positioned nucleosome in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cannistraro, Vincent J; Pondugula, Santhi; Song, Qian; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2015-10-30

    Sunlight-induced C to T mutation hot spots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The C and 5-methyl-C in CPDs are not stable and deaminate to U and T, respectively, which leads to the insertion of A by the DNA damage bypass polymerase η, thereby defining a probable mechanism for the origin of UV-induced C to T mutations. Deamination rates for T(m)CG CPDs have been found to vary 12-fold with rotational position in a nucleosome in vitro. To determine the influence of nucleosome structure on deamination rates in vivo, we determined the deamination rates of CPDs at TCG sites in a stably positioned nucleosome within the FOS promoter in HeLa cells. A procedure for in vivo hydroxyl radical footprinting with Fe-EDTA was developed, and, together with results from a cytosine methylation protection assay, we determined the translational and rotational positions of the TCG sites. Consistent with the in vitro observations, deamination was slower for one CPD located at an intermediate rotational position compared with two other sites located at outside positions, and all were much faster than for CPDs at non-TCG sites. Photoproduct formation was also highly suppressed at one site, possibly due to its interaction with a histone tail. Thus, it was shown that CPDs of TCG sites deaminate the fastest in vivo and that nucleosomes can modulate both their formation and deamination, which could contribute to the UV mutation hot spots and cold spots.

  20. Rapid Deamination of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photoproducts at TCG Sites in a Translationally and Rotationally Positioned Nucleosome in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Cannistraro, Vincent J.; Pondugula, Santhi; Song, Qian; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Sunlight-induced C to T mutation hot spots in skin cancers occur primarily at methylated CpG sites that coincide with sites of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation. The C and 5-methyl-C in CPDs are not stable and deaminate to U and T, respectively, which leads to the insertion of A by the DNA damage bypass polymerase η, thereby defining a probable mechanism for the origin of UV-induced C to T mutations. Deamination rates for TmCG CPDs have been found to vary 12-fold with rotational position in a nucleosome in vitro. To determine the influence of nucleosome structure on deamination rates in vivo, we determined the deamination rates of CPDs at TCG sites in a stably positioned nucleosome within the FOS promoter in HeLa cells. A procedure for in vivo hydroxyl radical footprinting with Fe-EDTA was developed, and, together with results from a cytosine methylation protection assay, we determined the translational and rotational positions of the TCG sites. Consistent with the in vitro observations, deamination was slower for one CPD located at an intermediate rotational position compared with two other sites located at outside positions, and all were much faster than for CPDs at non-TCG sites. Photoproduct formation was also highly suppressed at one site, possibly due to its interaction with a histone tail. Thus, it was shown that CPDs of TCG sites deaminate the fastest in vivo and that nucleosomes can modulate both their formation and deamination, which could contribute to the UV mutation hot spots and cold spots. PMID:26354431

  1. Formation of Cystine Slipknots in Dimeric Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sikora, Mateusz; Cieplak, Marek

    2013-01-01

    We consider mechanical stability of dimeric and monomeric proteins with the cystine knot motif. A structure based dynamical model is used to demonstrate that all dimeric and some monomeric proteins of this kind should have considerable resistance to stretching that is significantly larger than that of titin. The mechanisms of the large mechanostability are elucidated. In most cases, it originates from the induced formation of one or two cystine slipknots. Since there are four termini in a dimer, there are several ways of selecting two of them to pull by. We show that in the cystine knot systems, there is strong anisotropy in mechanostability and force patterns related to the selection. We show that the thermodynamic stability of the dimers is enhanced compared to the constituting monomers whereas machanostability is either lower or higher. PMID:23520470

  2. Purification, cDNA cloning, and expression profiles of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Hiroaki; Tahara, Eiji; Mochizuki, Miwa; Yamane, Yukiko; Ryoji, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    Photolyase is a light-dependent enzyme that repairs pyrimidine dimers in DNA. Two types of photolyases have been found in frog Xenopus laevis, one for repairing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD photolyase) and the other for pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4)photoproduct [(6-4)photolyase]. However, little is known about the former type of the Xenopus photolyases. To characterize this enzyme and its expression profiles, we isolated the entire coding region of a putative CPD photolyase cDNA by extending an EST (expressed sequence tag) sequence obtained from the Xenopus database. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed a protein of 557 amino acids with close similarity to CPD photolyase of rat kangaroo. The identity of this cDNA was further established by the molecular mass (65 kDa) and the partial amino acid sequences of the major CPD photolyase that we purified from Xenopus ovaries. The gene of this enzyme is expressed in various tissues of Xenopus. Even internal organs like heart express relatively high levels of mRNA. A much smaller amount was found in skin, although UV damage is thought to occur most frequently in this tissue. Such expression profiles suggest that CPD photolyase may have roles in addition to the photorepair function.

  3. Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases.

    PubMed

    Okafuji, Asako; Biskup, Till; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kaiser, Gebhard; Batschauer, Alfred; Bacher, Adelbert; Hidema, Jun; Teranishi, Mika; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Schleicher, Erik; Weber, Stefan

    2010-05-04

    Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa has been examined by UV/Vis and pulsed Davies-type electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and the results compared with structure-known class I enzymes, CPD photolyase and (6-4) photolyase. By ENDOR spectroscopy, the local environment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor is probed by virtue of proton hyperfine couplings that report on the electron-spin density at the positions of magnetic nuclei. Despite the amino-acid sequence dissimilarity as compared to class I enzymes, the results indicate similar binding motifs for FAD in the class II photolyases. Furthermore, the photoreduction kinetics starting from the FAD cofactor in the fully oxidized redox state, FAD(ox), have been probed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In Escherichia coli (class I) CPD photolyase, light-induced generation of FADH from FAD(ox), and subsequently FADH(-) from FADH, proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues. These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases, but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences. Nevertheless, class II photolyases show photoreduction kinetics similar to those of the class I enzymes. We propose that a different, but also effective, electron-transfer cascade is conserved among the class II photolyases. The existence of such electron transfer pathways is supported by the observation that the catalytically active fully reduced flavin state obtained by photoreduction is maintained even under oxidative conditions in all three classes of enzymes studied in this contribution. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flavin adenine dinucleotide chromophore charge controls the conformation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase α-helices.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, I M Mahaputra; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Kenichi; Iwai, Shigenori; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kennis, John T M; Mathes, Tilo; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-09-23

    Observations of light-receptive enzyme complexes are usually complicated by simultaneous overlapping signals from the chromophore, apoprotein, and substrate, so that only the initial, ultrafast, photon-chromophore reaction and the final, slow, protein conformational change provide separate, nonoverlapping signals. Each provides its own advantages, whereas sometimes the overlapping signals from the intervening time scales still cannot be fully deconvoluted. We overcome the problem by using a novel method to selectively isotope-label the apoprotein but not the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. This allowed the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) signals to be separated from the apoprotein, FAD cofactor, and DNA substrate. Consequently, a comprehensive structure-function study by FTIR spectroscopy of the Escherichia coli cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase (CPD-PHR) DNA repair enzyme was possible. FTIR signals could be identified and assigned upon FAD photoactivation and DNA repair, which revealed protein dynamics for both processes beyond simple one-electron reduction and ejection, respectively. The FTIR data suggest that the synergistic cofactor-protein partnership in CPD-PHR linked to changes in the shape of FAD upon one-electron reduction may be coordinated with conformational changes in the apoprotein, allowing it to fit the DNA substrate. Activation of the CPD-PHR chromophore primes the apoprotein for subsequent DNA repair, suggesting that CPD-PHR is not simply an electron-ejecting structure. When FAD is activated, changes in its structure may trigger coordinated conformational changes in the apoprotein and thymine carbonyl of the substrate, highlighting the role of Glu275. In contrast, during DNA repair and release processes, primary conformational changes occur in the enzyme and DNA substrate, with little contribution from the FAD cofactor and surrounding amino acid residues.

  5. Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimer formation and induction of ornithine decarboxylase in human skin fibroblasts after UV irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Niggli, H.J.; Roethlisberger, R.

    1988-12-01

    Cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers as well as the induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) may serve as biochemical markers of the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of ultraviolet light (UV). For this reason, it is important to compare the formation of pyrimidine dimers with the induction of ODC in human skin fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC (200-290 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm). In our studies we determined cytosine-thymine (C-T) as well as thymine-thymine dimer yields (T-T) by high-pressure liquid chromatography in cultures of neonatal normal human foreskin-derived fibroblasts after irradiation with UVC and UVB light. It was found that the yield of dimerization and the ratio of T-T/C-T decreased from the UVC to the UVB region. Time-course studies of ODC-induction in the same cells indicated that the maximal activity after UVB irradiation was retarded compared to UVC exposure. For the UV-induced ODC-levels, however, no significant difference in maximal induction could be measured after UVC and UVB irradiation at fluences where comparable yields of thymine dimerization are produced. Similar ODC-maxima were obtained with strains from children, while cells from adults showed significantly less pronounced ODC induction, indicating that ODC-response decreases with age and may therefore be used as a marker of aging.

  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells remove pyrimidine dimers selectively from the transcribed strand of active genes.

    PubMed Central

    Venema, J; van Hoffen, A; Karcagi, V; Natarajan, A T; van Zeeland, A A; Mullenders, L H

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA fragments of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes in primary normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells. Using strand-specific probes, we show that in normal cells, preferential repair of the 5' part of the ADA gene is due to the rapid and efficient repair of the transcribed strand. Within 8 h after irradiation with UV at 10 J m-2, 70% of the pyrimidine dimers in this strand are removed. The nontranscribed strand is repaired at a much slower rate, with 30% dimers removed after 8 h. Repair of the transcribed strand in XP-C cells occurs at a rate indistinguishable from that in normal cells, but the nontranscribed strand is not repaired significantly in these cells. Similar results were obtained for the DHFR gene. In the 3' part of the ADA gene, however, both normal and XP-C cells perform fast and efficient repair of either strand, which is likely to be caused by the presence of transcription units on both strands. The factor defective in XP-C cells is apparently involved in the processing of DNA damage in inactive parts of the genome, including nontranscribed strands of active genes. These findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of UV-induced excision repair and mutagenesis in mammalian cells. Images PMID:1649389

  7. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C cells remove pyrimidine dimers selectively from the transcribed strand of active genes

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, J.; van Hoffen, A.; Karcagi, V.; Natarajan, A.T.; van Zeeland, A.A.; Mullenders, L.H. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors have measured the removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from DNA fragments of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes in primary normal human and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells. Using strand-specific probes, we show that in normal cells, preferential repair of the 5{prime} part of the ADA gene is due to the rapid and efficient repair of the transcribed strand. Within 8 h after irradiation with UV at 10 J m-2, 70% of the pyrimidine dimers in this strand are removed. The nontranscribed strand is repaired at a much slower rate, with 30% dimers removed after 8 h. Repair of the transcribed strand in XP-C cells occurs at a rate indistinguishable from that in normal cells, but the nontranscribed strand is not repaired significantly in these cells. Similar results were obtained for the DHFR gene. In the 3{prime} part of the ADA gene, however, both normal and XP-C cells perform fast and efficient repair of either strand, which is likely to be caused by the presence of transcription units on both strands. The factor defective in XP-C cells is apparently involved in the processing of DNA damage in inactive parts of the genome, including nontranscribed strands of active genes. These findings have important implications for the understanding of the mechanism of UV-induced excision repair and mutagenesis in mammalian cells.

  8. Repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in the individual genes Gart, Notch and white from Drosophila melanogaster cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    de Cock, J G; Klink, E C; Ferro, W; Lohman, P H; Eeken, J C

    1991-01-01

    The excision repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers was investigated in three genes: Gart, Notch and white in a permanent Drosophila cell line Kc, derived from wild type Drosophila melanogaster embryonic cells. In this cell line Gart and Notch are actively transcribed, whereas white is not expressed. In all three genes UV-induced pyrimidine dimers were removed with the same rate and to the same extent: 60% removal within 16 hours, up to 80-100% in 24 hours after irradiation with 10 or 15 J/m2 UV. These kinetics are similar to the time course of dimer removal measured in the genome overall. No difference in repair of the inactive white locus compared to the active Gart and Notch genes was found. Similar results were obtained using a different wild type cell line, SL2, although repair appeared to be somewhat slower in this cell line. The results are discussed with respect to the data found for gene specific repair in other eukaryotic systems. Images PMID:1648203

  9. Respective roles of pyrimidine dimer and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts in UV mutagenesis of simian virus 40 DNA in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bourre, F.; Benoit, A.; Sarasin, A. )

    1989-11-01

    UV light induces DNA lesions which are mutagenic in mammalian cells. We used simian virus 40 tsB201 (unable to produce viral capsid at the restrictive temperature of 41{degree}C because of a point mutation in the VP1 gene) to analyze the mutagenic potency of the two major UV-induced lesions, pyrimidine dimers (Py-Py) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidones (Py(6-4)Py), which are formed on the same nucleotide sites. The mutagenesis criterion was the reversion toward a wild-type growth phenotype. After UV irradiation (mainly at 254 nm), part of the DNA was treated with the photoreactivating enzyme of Escherichia coli, which monomerizes Py-Py but does not modify the Py(6-4)Py photoproduct. Higher survival and lower mutation frequency rates for the photoreactivated DNA indicated that the two lesions were lethal and mutagenic. The VP1 gene of some mutants was entirely sequenced. The mutation spectra showed that the two lesions did not induce the same mutation hot spots, although some sites were common to both. The induced mutation hot spots were not only correlated with lesion hot spots but seemed partially directed by local DNA structures.

  10. Synthesis of monomeric and dimeric steroids containing [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Arenas-González, Ailed; Mendez-Delgado, Luis Antonio; Merino-Montiel, Penélope; Padrón, José M; Montiel-Smith, Sara; Vega-Báez, José Luis; Meza-Reyes, Socorro

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of several monomeric and dimeric steroidal [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines (TPs) derived from steroids are described. These derivatives were prepared from α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds through a Claisen Schmidt condensation and rearrangement of the spiro moiety followed by a cycloaddition with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. The antiproliferative activity of compounds 7, 13-15 was tested against human cancer cells; several IG50 values were below 10μM.

  11. As(III) inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers repair via generation of nitric oxide in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wei; Hudson, Laurie G.; Sun, Xi; Feng, Changjian; Liu, Ke Jian

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic enhances skin tumor formation when combined with other carcinogens including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The inhibition of DNA damage repair by arsenic has been hypothesized to contribute to the co-carcinogenic activities of arsenic observed in vivo. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are an important mutagenic UVR photoproduct and implicated in the genesis of non-melanoma skin cancer. The current study demonstrates that low concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) inhibit UVR-induced CPDs repair in a human keratinocyte cell line via nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following As(III) treatment, NO production and iNOS expression are elevated. Little is known about regulation of iNOS by As(III) and further investigations indicated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and NF-κB are required for As(III) induction of iNOS expression. This As(III)-stimulated signaling cascade was involved in inhibition of UVR-induced CPDs repair as disruption of p38 MAPK activity and NF-κB nuclear translocation counteracted the effects of As(III) on CPD repair. Selective inhibition of iNOS ameliorated As(III) inhibition of CPDs repair thereby suggesting that iNOS is a downstream mediator of As(III) activity. These findings provide evidence that an As(III) stimulated signal transduction cascade culminating in elevated iNOS expression and NO generation is an underlying mechanism for inhibition of UVR-induced DNA damage repair by arsenic. PMID:18621123

  12. As(III) inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair via generation of nitric oxide in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wei; Hudson, Laurie G; Sun, Xi; Feng, Changjian; Liu, Ke Jian

    2008-10-15

    Inorganic arsenic enhances skin tumor formation when combined with other carcinogens including ultraviolet radiation (UVR). The inhibition of DNA damage repair by arsenic has been hypothesized to contribute to the cocarcinogenic activities of arsenic observed in vivo. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are an important mutagenic UVR photoproduct and implicated in the genesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The current study demonstrates that low concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) inhibit UVR-induced CPD repair in a human keratinocyte cell line via nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following As(III) treatment, NO production and iNOS expression are elevated. Little is known about regulation of iNOS by As(III) and further investigations indicated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and NF-kappaB are required for As(III) induction of iNOS expression. This As(III)-stimulated signaling cascade was involved in inhibition of UVR-induced CPD repair as disruption of p38 MAPK activity and NF-kappaB nuclear translocation counteracted the effects of As(III) on CPD repair. Selective inhibition of iNOS ameliorated As(III) inhibition of CPD repair, thereby suggesting that iNOS is a downstream mediator of As(III) activity. These findings provide evidence that an As(III)-stimulated signal transduction cascade culminating in elevated iNOS expression and NO generation is an underlying mechanism for inhibition of UVR-induced DNA damage repair by arsenic.

  13. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase repairs ultraviolet-B-induced CPDs in rice chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Teranishi, Mika; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Junji; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Masao; Makino, Amane; Hidema, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Plants use sunlight as energy for photosynthesis; however, plant DNA is exposed to the harmful effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) in the process. UV-B radiation damages nuclear, chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), which are the primary UV-B-induced DNA lesions, and are a principal cause of UV-B-induced growth inhibition in plants. Repair of CPDs is therefore essential for plant survival while exposed to UV-B-containing sunlight. Nuclear repair of the UV-B-induced CPDs involves the photoreversal of CPDs, photoreactivation, which is mediated by CPD photolyase that monomerizes the CPDs in DNA by using the energy of near-UV and visible light (300-500 nm). To date, the CPD repair processes in plant chloroplasts and mitochondria remain poorly understood. Here, we report the photoreactivation of CPDs in chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in rice. Biochemical and subcellular localization analyses using rice strains with different levels of CPD photolyase activity and transgenic rice strains showed that full-length CPD photolyase is encoded by a single gene, not a splice variant, and is expressed and targeted not only to nuclei but also to chloroplasts and mitochondria. The results indicate that rice may have evolved a CPD photolyase that functions in chloroplasts, mitochondria and nuclei, and that contains DNA to protect cells from the harmful effects of UV-B radiation. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Pyrimidine dimer induction and repair in cultured human skin keratinocytes or melanocytes after irradiation with monochromatic ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schothorst, A.A.; Evers, L.M.; Noz, K.C.; Filon, R.; van Zeeland, A.A. )

    1991-06-01

    We compared the susceptibilities of cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes to dimer induction in DNA by monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Keratinocytes as well as melanocytes were derived from human foreskin, grown as a monolayer in petri dishes, covered with phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.1% glucose, and irradiated. UV irradiation was carried out at 254, 297, and 302 nm as well as with a light source emitting predominantly 312 nm. The induction of pyrmidine dimers was assessed by determination of the number of T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites (ESS). We found a slightly higher response for dimer induction in melanocytes at 254, 297, and 302 nm; this difference was only significant at the 297-nm wavelength. Action spectra for pyrimidine dimer induction were derived from the exposure-response data obtained. The action spectra mimic to a large degree the action spectra for dimer induction in other cultured mammalian cells. The repair rate during a post-irradiation period lasting up to 24 h was substantially the same for the two cell types. The percentage of T4 endonuclease V-sensitive sites (ESS) remaining 9 and 24 h after irradiation was 45% and 30%, respectively.

  15. Induction of pyrimidine dimers and unscheduled DNA synthesis in cultured mouse epithelial cells exposed to 254-nm- and u. v. -B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yotti, L.P.; Ley, R.D. )

    1983-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced in a dose responsive manner by two u.v. sources, a germicidal lamp (254nm) and an FS40 sunlamp (280-400nm). Using the endonuclease-sensitive site assay to detect pyrimidine dimer production and excision, the response of the newborn mouse cells to both u.v. sources was examined. The removal of pyrimidine dimers was not detected with either of the two sources of u.v. The speculation is made that primary, newborn mouse epidermal cells excise u.v.-induced pyrimidine dimers to an extent below the level of detection of the endonuclease-sensitive site assay but to an extent sufficient to induce unscheduled DNA synthesis.

  16. 2'-Methoxyacetophenone: An Efficient Photosensitizer for Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lizhe; Pilles, Bert M; Reiner, Anne M; Gontcharov, Julia; Zinth, Wolfgang

    2015-11-16

    Stationary and time-resolved experiments show that 2'-methoxyacetophenone (2-M) is an interesting compound for the investigation of triplet states in thymine samples. Time-resolved emission experiments show that the fluorescence lifetime of 2-M is 660 ps. A similar time constant of 680 ps is found in transient IR experiments. The data indicate efficient intersystem crossing (≈97%) from the fluorescent singlet state to the triplet state. The lifetime of the triplet state of 2-M dissolved in D2O at room temperature and ambient oxygen concentration is 400 ns. 2-M has a strong absorption in the UV-A range and can photosensitize the triplet state of a thymidine dinucleotide with light at a wavelength of 320 nm. The experiments show that 2-M is well-suited for time-resolved experiments on the triplet-sensitizing process. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Class III Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyase Structure Reveals a New Antenna Chromophore Binding Site and Alternative Photoreduction Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Scheerer, Patrick; Zhang, Fan; Kalms, Jacqueline; von Stetten, David; Krauß, Norbert; Oberpichler, Inga; Lamparter, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Photolyases are proteins with an FAD chromophore that repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers on the DNA in a light-dependent manner. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer class III photolyases are structurally unknown but closely related to plant cryptochromes, which serve as blue-light photoreceptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a class III photolyase termed photolyase-related protein A (PhrA) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.67-Å resolution. PhrA contains 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as an antenna chromophore with a unique binding site and mode. Two Trp residues play pivotal roles for stabilizing MTHF by a double π-stacking sandwich. Plant cryptochrome I forms a pocket at the same site that could accommodate MTHF or a similar molecule. The PhrA structure and mutant studies showed that electrons flow during FAD photoreduction proceeds via two Trp triads. The structural studies on PhrA give a clearer picture on the evolutionary transition from photolyase to photoreceptor. PMID:25784552

  18. The class III cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals a new antenna chromophore binding site and alternative photoreduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Patrick; Zhang, Fan; Kalms, Jacqueline; von Stetten, David; Krauß, Norbert; Oberpichler, Inga; Lamparter, Tilman

    2015-05-01

    Photolyases are proteins with an FAD chromophore that repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers on the DNA in a light-dependent manner. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer class III photolyases are structurally unknown but closely related to plant cryptochromes, which serve as blue-light photoreceptors. Here we present the crystal structure of a class III photolyase termed photolyase-related protein A (PhrA) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens at 1.67-Å resolution. PhrA contains 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) as an antenna chromophore with a unique binding site and mode. Two Trp residues play pivotal roles for stabilizing MTHF by a double π-stacking sandwich. Plant cryptochrome I forms a pocket at the same site that could accommodate MTHF or a similar molecule. The PhrA structure and mutant studies showed that electrons flow during FAD photoreduction proceeds via two Trp triads. The structural studies on PhrA give a clearer picture on the evolutionary transition from photolyase to photoreceptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Specificity of mutation by UV light and delayed photoreversal in umuC-defective Escherichia coli K-12: a targeting intermediate at pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Bockrath, R.; Ruiz-Rubio, M.; Bridges, B.A.

    1987-04-01

    Prototrophic mutants produced by UV light in Escherichia coli K-12 strains with argE3(Oc) and hisG4(Oc) defects are distinguished as backmutations and specific nonsense suppressor mutations. In strains carrying a umuC defect, mutants are not produced unless irradiated cells are incubated and then exposed to photoreversing light (delayed photoreversal mutagenesis). The mutants thus produced are found to be specifically suppressor mutations and not backmutations. The suppressor mutations are primarily glutamine tRNA ochre suppressor mutations, which have been attributed previously to mutation targeted at T = C pyrimidine dimers. In a lexA51 recA441 strain, where the SOS mutagenesis functions are constitutive, targeting at dimers is confirmed by demonstrating that the induction of glutamine tRNA suppressor mutations is susceptible to photoreversal. In the same strain induction of backmutations is not susceptible to photoreversal. Thus delayed photoreversal mutagenesis produces suppressor mutations that can be targeted at pyrimidine dimers and does not produce backmutations that are not targeted at pyrimidine dimers. This correlation supports the idea that delayed photoreversal mutagenesis in umuC defective cells reflects a mutation process arrested at a targeting pyrimidine dimer photoproduct, which is the immediate cause of both the alteration in DNA sequence and the obstruction (unless repaired) to mutation fixation and ultimate expression.

  20. Origin of solvent dependence of photosensitized splitting of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by a covalently linked chromophore.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Jian; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Song, Qin-Hua

    2009-05-21

    In model studies involving the mechanisms of DNA photolyases, two reverse solvent effects on the quantum yield of photosensitized splitting of a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) by a covalently linked chromophore have been reported. One is an increase in the splitting efficiency in lower polarity solvents for model compounds with a short linker between the dimer and the chromophore. Another is more efficient splitting in higher polarity solvents for model compounds with a flexible and long linker. To unravel mechanisms of two opposite solvent effects, five covalently linked indole-dimer compounds with different-length linkers were prepared. Two solvent effects as described above were observed through measuring quantum yields of dimer splitting of these model compounds in four solvents. According to Marcus theory, back electron transfer in the splitting reaction was analyzed quantitatively in light of relative data of a model compound in four solvents. It was demonstrated that the dependence of the quantum yield on solvent polarity for the flexible long-linker system would derive from the change in the distance between a dimer unit (acceptor) and an indole moiety (electron donor) in different solvents. With increasing solvent polarity, a U-shaped conformation of the model compound would become a preferred conformation because of the hydrophobic interaction between indole and dimer moiety, and their distances would become closer. On the basis of Marcus theory, calculated results reveal that the rate of back electron transfer would be slowed down with increasing solvent polarity and the distance reduced, giving a more efficient splitting. Meanwhile, some new insights into mechanisms of DNA photoreactivation mediated by photolyases were gained.

  1. Replication of UV-irradiated DNA in human cell extracts: Evidence for mutagenic bypass of pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.C.; Kunkel, T.A. )

    1993-08-15

    The authors have examined the efficiency and fidelity of simian virus 40-origin-dependent replication of UV-irradiated double-stranded DNA in extracts of human cells. Using as a mutational target the [alpha]-complementation domain of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene in bacteriophage M13mp2DNA, replication of undamaged DNA in HeLa cell extracts was highly accurate, whereas replication of DNA irradiated with UV light (280-320 nm) was both less efficient and less accurate. Replication was inhibited by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Nonetheless, covalently closed, monomer-length circular products were generated that were resistant to digestion by Dpn I, showing that they resulted from semiconservative replication. These products were incised by T4 endonuclease V, whereas the undamaged replication products were not, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers were bypassed during replication. When replicated, UV-irradiated DNA was used to transfect an E. coli [alpha]-complementation host strain to score mutant M13mp2 plaques, the mutant plaque frequency was substantially higher than that obtained with either unirradiated, replicated DNA, or unreplicated, UV-irradiated DNA. Both the increased mutagenicity and the inhibition of replication associated with UV irradiation were reversed by treatment of the irradiated DNA with photolyase before replication. Sequence analysis of mutants resulting from replication of UV-irradiated DNA demonstrated that most mutants contained C [yields] T transition errors at dipyrimidine sites. A few mutants contained 1-nt frameshift errors or tandem double CC [yields] TT substitutions. The data are consistent with the interpretation that pyrimidine dimers are bypassed during replication by the multiprotein replication apparatus in human cell extracts and that this bypass is mutagenic primarily via misincorporation of dAMP opposite a cytosine (or uracil) in the dimer. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  3. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 - 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 - 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  4. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  5. Decreased UV light resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair and small, acid-soluble spore proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1988-05-01

    Loss of small, acid-soluble spore protein alpha reduced spore UV resistance 30- to 50-fold in Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair, but gave only a 5- to 8-fold reduction in UV resistance in repair-proficient strains. However, both repair-proficient and -deficient spores lacking this protein had identical heat and gamma-radiation resistance.

  6. Enzymatic analysis of isomeric trithymidylates containing ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. II. Phosphorylation by phage T4 polynucleotide kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Liuzzi, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1989-04-15

    Phage T4 polynucleotide kinase proved incapable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of thymidylyl-(3'----5')-thymidine containing either a cis-syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (d-T less than p greater than T) or a 6-4'-(pyrimidin-2'-one)pyrimidine photoproduct (d-T(p)-T), and similarly the UV-modified compounds of (dT)3 bearing either photoproduct at their 5'-end (d-T less than p greater than TpT and d-T(p)TpT). In contrast, the 3'-structural isomers of these trinucleotides (d-TpT less than p greater than T and d-TpT(p)T) were phosphorylated at the same rate as the parent compound. These phosphorylatable lesion-containing oligonucleotides are quantitatively released from UV-irradiated poly(dA):poly(dT) by enzymatic hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphatase. By combining this digestion regimen with phosphorylation by polynucleotide kinase and (gamma-/sup 32/P)ATP, pyrimidine dimers were quantitated at the fmol level following exposure of poly(dA):poly(dT) and herring sperm DNA to biologically relevant UV fluences. The rate of dimer induction in the synthetic polymer, approximately 10 dimers/10(6) nucleotides/Jm-2, was in close agreement with that obtained by conventional methods. Dimers were induced at one-fourth of this rate in the natural DNA. Further treatment of the phosphorylated oligonucleotides derived from irradiated herring sperm DNA with nuclease P1 released the labeled 5'-nucleotide, thus permitting analysis of the nearest-neighbor bases 5' to the lesions. We observed a ratio for pyrimidine-to-purine bases of almost 6:1, implicating tripyrimidine stretches as hotspots for UV-induced DNA damage.

  7. Major Roles for Pyrimidine Dimers, Nucleotide Excision Repair, and ATR in the Alternative Splicing Response to UV Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Manuel J; Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Dujardin, Gwendal; Bastianello, Giulia; Lavore, Stefania; Torres-Méndez, Antonio; Menck, Carlos F M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Irimia, Manuel; Foiani, Marco; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2017-03-21

    We have previously found that UV irradiation promotes RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) hyperphosphorylation and subsequent changes in alternative splicing (AS). We show now that UV-induced DNA damage is not only necessary but sufficient to trigger the AS response and that photolyase-mediated removal of the most abundant class of pyrimidine dimers (PDs) abrogates the global response to UV. We demonstrate that, in keratinocytes, RNAPII is the target, but not a sensor, of the signaling cascade initiated by PDs. The UV effect is enhanced by inhibition of gap-filling DNA synthesis, the last step in the nucleotide excision repair pathway (NER), and reduced by the absence of XPE, the main NER sensor of PDs. The mechanism involves activation of the protein kinase ATR that mediates the UV-induced RNAPII hyperphosphorylation. Our results define the sequence UV-PDs-NER-ATR-RNAPII-AS as a pathway linking DNA damage repair to the control of both RNAPII phosphorylation and AS regulation.

  8. Inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis in ICR 2A frog cells by pyrimidine dimers and nondimer photoproducts induced by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.S.

    1984-11-01

    DNA synthesis was examined in ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated ICR 2A frog cells in which either pyrimidine dimers or nondimer photoproducts represented the major class of DNA lesions. In addition, cells were exposed to /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays. The cultures were pulse-labeled and the size distribution of the DNA synthesized was estimated using both sucrose gradient sedimentation and alkaline step elution. Using either of these techniques, it was found that the presence of dimers resulted in a reduction principally in the synthesis of high molecular weight (MW) DNA. In contrast, nondimer photoproducts caused a strong inhibition in the synthesis of low MW DNA, as was also observed in ..gamma..-irradiated cells. Hence the induction of pyrimidine dimers in DNA mainly affected the elongation of replicons, whereas nondimer lesions primarily caused an inhibition of replicon initiation.

  9. Wavelength dependence of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage as determined by laser irradiation suggests that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the principal DNA lesions produced by terrestrial sunlight

    PubMed Central

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Yoon, Jae-in; Schroeder, Christi; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Cockburn, Myles; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the involvement of specific ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in solar mutagenesis, we used a laser system to investigate the induction of DNA damage, both in the overall genome and at the nucleotide resolution level, in the genomic DNA of transgenic Big Blue mouse fibroblasts irradiated with a series of UV wavelengths, inclusive of UVC (λ<280 nm), UVB (λ=280–320 nm), and UVA (λ>320 nm). Subsequently, we sought correlation between the locations of UV-induced DNA lesions in the cII transgene of irradiated DNA samples and the frequency distribution and codon position of the induced cII mutations in counterpart mouse cells irradiated with simulated sunlight. Using a combination of enzymatic digestion assays coupled with gel electrophoresis, immunodot blot assays, and DNA footprinting assays, we demonstrated a unique wavelength-dependent formation of photodimeric lesions, i.e., cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6–4) photoproducts [(6–4)PPs], based on direct UV absorption of DNA, in irradiated mouse genomic DNA, which could partially explain the induction of mutations in mouse cells irradiated with simulated sunlight. Most notably, there was a divergence of CPD and (6–4)PP formation at an irradiation wavelength of 296 nm in mouse genomic DNA. Whereas substantial formation of (6–4)PPs was detectable in samples irradiated at this wavelength, which intensified as the irradiation wavelength decreased, only small quantities of these lesions were found in samples irradiated at wavelengths of 300–305 nm, with no detectable level of (6–4)PPs in samples irradiated with longer wavelengths. Although CPD formation followed the same pattern of increase with decreasing wavelengths of irradiation, there were substantial levels of CPDs in samples irradiated with UVB wavelengths borderlined with UVA, and small but detectable levels of these lesions in samples irradiated with longer wavelengths. Because the terrestrial sunlight spectrum rolls off sharply

  10. QM/MM studies reveal pathways leading to the quenching of the formation of thymine dimer photoproduct by flanking bases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2015-04-21

    It is known that the formation of the photochemical product of thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (TT-CPD) formed upon UV excitation in DNA is significantly affected by the nature of the flanking bases, and that the oxidation potential of the flanking base correlates with the quenching of TT-CPD formation. However, the electronic details of this correlation have remained controversial. The quenching of thymine dimer formation exerted by flanking bases was suggested to be driven by both conformational and electronic effects. In the present study, we examine both of these effects using umbrella sampling and a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for selected model systems. Our results demonstrate that a charge transfer (CT) state between the flanking base and the adjacent thymine base can provide a decay pathway for the population to escape from dimer formation, which eventually leads to the formation of an exciplex. The QM/MM vertical excitation energies also reveal that the oxidation potential of flanking bases correlates with the energy level of the CT state, thereby determining whether the CT state intersects with the state that can lead to dimer formation. The consistency between these results and experimentally obtained dimer formation rates implies that the quenching of dimer formation is mainly attributed to the decay pathway via the CT state. The present results further underline the importance of the electronic effects in quenching.

  11. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    DOE PAGES

    Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimentalmore » and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.« less

  12. Site-directed mutagenesis of the T4 endonuclease V gene: role of tyrosine-129 and -131 in pyrimidine dimer-specific binding

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, D.G.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1988-03-22

    T4 endonuclease V incises DNA at the sites of pyrimidine dimers through a two-step mechanism. These breakage reactions are preceded by the scanning of nontarget DNA and binding to pyrimidine dimers. In analogy to the synthetic tripeptides Lys-Trp-Lys and Lys-Tyr-Lys, which have been shown to be capable of producing single-strand scissions in DNA containing apurinic sites, endonuclease V has the amino acid sequence Trp-Tyr-Lys-Tyr-Tyr (128-132). Site-directed mutagenesis of the endonuclease V gene, denV, was performed at the Tyr-129 and at the Tyr-129 and Tyr-131 positions in order to convert the Tyr residues to nonaromatic amino acids to test their role in dimer-specific binding. The UV survival of repair-deficient (uvrA recA) Escherichia coli cells harboring the denV N-129 construction was dramatically reduced relative to wild-type denV+ cells. The survival of denV N-129,131 cells was indistinguishable from that of the parental strain lacking the denV gene. The mutant endonuclease V proteins were then characterized with regard to (1) dimer-specific nicking activity, (2) apurinic nicking activity, and (3) binding affinity to UV-irradiated DNA. Dimer-specific nicking activity and dimer-specific binding for both denV N-129 and N-129,131 were abolished, while apurinic-specific nicking was substantially retained in denV N-129,131 but was abolished in denV N-129. These results indicate that Tyr-129 and Tyr-131 positions of endonuclease V are at least important in pyrimidine dimer-specific binding and possibly nicking activity.

  13. Faster DNA Repair of Ultraviolet-Induced Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers and Lower Sensitivity to Apoptosis in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells than in Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mallet, Justin D.; Bastien, Nathalie; Gendron, Sébastien P.; Rochette, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of UV rays by DNA generates the formation of mutagenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP). These damages are the major cause of skin cancer because in turn, they can lead to signature UV mutations. The eye is exposed to UV light, but the cornea is orders of magnitude less prone to UV-induced cancer. In an attempt to shed light on this paradox, we compared cells of the corneal epithelium and the epidermis for UVB-induced DNA damage frequency, repair and cell death sensitivity. We found similar CPD levels but a 4-time faster UVB-induced CPD, but not 6-4PP, repair and lower UV-induced apoptosis sensitivity in corneal epithelial cells than epidermal. We then investigated levels of DDB2, a UV-induced DNA damage recognition protein mostly impacting CPD repair, XPC, essential for the repair of both CPD and 6-4PP and p53 a protein upstream of the genotoxic stress response. We found more DDB2, XPC and p53 in corneal epithelial cells than in epidermal cells. According to our results analyzing the protein stability of DDB2 and XPC, the higher level of DDB2 and XPC in corneal epithelial cells is most likely due to an increased stability of the protein. Taken together, our results show that corneal epithelial cells have a better efficiency to repair UV-induced mutagenic CPD. On the other hand, they are less prone to UV-induced apoptosis, which could be related to the fact that since the repair is more efficient in the HCEC, the need to eliminate highly damaged cells by apoptosis is reduced. PMID:27611318

  14. In Vivo Spectrum of UVC-induced Mutation in Mouse Skin Epidermis May Reflect the Cytosine Deamination Propensity of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    Although ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has a genotoxicity for inducing skin cancers, the skin may tolerate UVC component because the epidermal layer prevents this short wavelength range from passing through. Here, UVC genotoxicity for mouse skin was evaluated in terms of DNA damage formation and mutagenicity. UVC induced UVR photolesions and mutations remarkably in the epidermis but poorly in the dermis, confirming the barrier ability of the epidermis against shorter UVR wavelengths. Moreover, the epidermis itself responded to UVC mutagenicity with mutation induction suppression, which suppressed the mutant frequencies to a remarkably low, constant level regardless of UVC dose. The mutation spectrum observed in UVC-exposed epidermis showed a predominance of UV-signature mutation, which occurred frequently in 5'-TCG-3', 5'-TCA-3' and 5'-CCA-3' contexts. Especially, for the former two contexts, the mutations recurred at several sites with more remarkable recurrences at the 5'-TCG-3' sites. Comparison of the UVC mutation spectrum with those observed in longer UVR wavelength ranges led us to a mechanism that explains why the sequence context preference of UV-signature mutation changes according to the wavelength, which is based on the difference in the mCpG preference of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation among UVR ranges and the sequence context-dependent cytosine deamination propensity of CPD. © 2015 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Photochemistry of Pyrimidine in Astrophysical Ices: Formation of Nucleobases and Other Prebiotic Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Sandford, Scott A.; Materese, Christopher K.; Milam, Stefanie N.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleobases are N-heterocycles that are the informational subunits of DNA and RNA. They are divided into two molecular groups: pyrimidine bases (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Nucleobases have been detected in meteorites, and their extraterrestrial origin confirmed by isotopic measurements. Although no N-heterocycles have ever been observed in the ISM, the positions of the 6.2- m interstellar emission features suggest a population of such molecules is likely to be present. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in ices of astrophysical relevance such as H2O, NH3, CH3OH, CH4, CO, or combinations of these at low temperature (less than or equal to 20 K) leads to the formation of several pyrimidine derivatives including the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as precursors such as 4(3H)-pyrimidone and 4-aminopyrimidine. Quantum calculations on the formation of 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil from the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ices are in agreement with their experimental formation pathways.10 In those residues, other species of prebiotic interest such as urea as well as the amino acids glycine and alanine could also be identified. However, only very small amounts of pyrimidine derivatives containing CH3 groups could be detected, suggesting that the addition of methyl groups to pyrimidine is not an efficient process. For this reason, the nucleobase thymine was not observed in any of the samples. In this work, we study the formation of nucleobases and other photo-products of prebiotic interest from the UV irradiation of pyrimidine in ices containing H2O, NH3, CH3OH, and CO, mixed in astrophysical proportions.

  16. Detection of distinct α-helical rearrangements of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase upon substrate binding by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, I M Mahaputra; Zhang, Yu; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Kenichi; Iwai, Shigenori; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kandori, Hideki

    2013-02-12

    Photolyases (PHRs) utilize near-ultraviolet (UV)-blue light to specifically repair the major photoproducts (PPs) of UV-induced damaged DNA. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer PHR (CPD-PHR) from Escherichia coli binds flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate as a light-harvesting pigment and specifically repairs CPD lesions. By comparison, a second photolyase known as (6-4) PHR, present in a range of higher organisms, uniquely repairs (6-4) PPs. To understand the repair mechanism and the substrate specificity that distinguish CPD-PHR from (6-4) PHR, we applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to bacterial CPD-PHR in the presence or absence of a well-defined DNA substrate, as we have studied previously for vertebrate (6-4) PHR. PHRs show light-induced reduction of FAD, and photorepair by CPD-PHR involves the transfer of an electron from the photoexcited reduced FAD to the damaged DNA for cleaving the dimers to maintain the DNA's integrity. Here, we measured and analyzed difference FTIR spectra for the photoactivation and DNA photorepair processes of CPD-PHR. We identified light-dependent signals only in the presence of substrate. The signals, presumably arising from a protonated carboxylic acid or the DNA substrate, implicate conformational rearrangements of the protein and substrate during the repair process. Deuterium exchange FTIR measurements of CPD-PHR highlight potential differences in the photoactivation and photorepair mechanisms in comparison to those of (6-4) PHR. Although CPD-PHR and (6-4) PHR appear to exhibit similar overall structures, our studies indicate that distinct conformational rearrangements, especially in the α-helices, are initiated within these enzymes upon binding of their respective DNA substrates.

  17. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein acts to regulate the repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers on rice DNA

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Changxun; Chen, Weisi; Li, Chengxun; Jian, Xin; Li, Yingzhe; Lin, Hongmei; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    UVB radiation causes cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) to form on the DNA of living organisms. This study found that overexpression of the silicon absorbance gene Lsi1 reduced the accumulation of CPDs in rice, which profited from the reactivation by photolyase. The transcript abundance of deoxyribodipyrimidine photolyase (Os10g0167600) was generally correlated with the silicon content of the rice, and the up-regulation of Os10g0167600 was found to be highest in the UVB-treated Lsi1-overexpressed (Lsi1-OX) rice. A trans-acting factor, methyl-CpG binding domain protein (OsMeCP), was found to interact with the cis-element of Os10g0167600. The nucleic location of OsMeCP effectively enabled the transcriptional regulation. Compared with the WT, the level of OsMeCP was lower in the Lsi1-OX rice but higher in the Lsi1-RNAi line. Rice cultured in a high silicate-concentration solution also exhibited less OsMeCP abundance. Overexpression of OsMeCP led to lower Os10g0167600 transcript levels and a higher CPD content than in the WT, but the reverse was true in the OsMeCP-RNAi line. These findings indicate that OsMeCP acts as a negative regulator of silicon, and can mediate the repression of the transcription from Os10g0167600, which inhibits the photoreactivation of the photolyase involved in the repair of CPDs. PMID:27694845

  18. An unidentified ultraviolet-B-specific photoreceptor mediates transcriptional activation of the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase gene in plants.

    PubMed

    Ioki, Motohide; Takahashi, Shinya; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Fujikura, Kohei; Tamaoki, Masanori; Saji, Hikaru; Kubo, Akihiro; Aono, Mitsuko; Kanna, Machi; Ogawa, Daisuke; Fukazawa, Jutarou; Oda, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Seiji; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kondo, Noriaki

    2008-12-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) constitute a majority of DNA lesions caused by ultraviolet-B (UVB). CPD photolyase, which rapidly repairs CPDs, is essential for plant survival under sunlight containing UVB. Our earlier results that the transcription of the cucumber CPD photolyase gene (CsPHR) was activated by light have prompted us to propose that this light-driven transcriptional activation would allow plants to meet the need of the photolyase activity upon challenges of UVB from sunlight. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the light-dependent transcriptional activation of CsPHR were unknown. In order to understand spectroscopic aspects of the plant response, we investigated the wavelength-dependence (action spectra) of the light-dependent transcriptional activation of CsPHR. In both cucumber seedlings and transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing reporter genes under the control of the CsPHR promoter, the action spectra exhibited the most predominant peak in the long-wavelength UVB waveband (around 310 nm). In addition, a 95-bp cis-acting region in the CsPHR promoter was identified to be essential for the UVB-driven transcriptional activation of CsPHR. Thus, we concluded that the photoperception of long-wavelength UVB by UVB photoreceptor(s) led to the induction of the CsPHR transcription via a conserved cis-acting element.

  19. Little or No Repair of Cyclobutyl Pyrimidine Dimers Is Observed in the Organellar Genomes of the Young Arabidopsis Seedling.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J. J.; Jiang, C. Z.; Britt, A. B.

    1996-01-01

    A Southern-blot-based, site-specific assay for ultraviolet (UV)-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), employing the CPD-specific enzyme T4 endonuclease V, was used to follow the repair of this lesion in particular DNA sequences in 5- to 6-d-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. CPDs, measured as enzyme-sensitive sites, in nuclear sequences were removed rapidly in the light but were repaired slowly, if at all, in the dark. This result was identical to that obtained in prior analyses of CPDs in total cellular DNA. Assay of representative chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences in the same DNA preparations revealed that, in contrast to nuclear sequences, enzyme-sensitive sites are inefficiently eliminated in both the presence and absence of visible light. These observations suggest that Arabidopsis seedlings possess little or no capacity for the repair of CPDs in the organellar genomes. Given the fact that the UV dose employed only marginally affected the growth of the seedlings, we suggest that Arabidopsis seedlings must possess very efficient mechanism(s) for the tolerance of UV-induced DNA damage. PMID:12226273

  20. Selective inhibition by methoxyamine of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity associated with pyrimidine dimer-DNA glycosylases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4

    SciTech Connect

    Liuzzi, M.; Weinfeld, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1987-06-16

    The UV endonucleases from Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4 possess two catalytic activities specific for the site of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated DNA: a DNA glycosylase that cleaves the 5'-glycosyl bond of the dimerized pyrimidines and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease that thereupon incises the phosphodiester bond 3' to the resulting apyrimidinic site. The authors have explored the potential use of methoxyamine, a chemical that reacts at neutral pH with AP sites in DNA, as a selective inhibitor of the AP endonuclease activities residing in the M. luteus and T4 enzymes. The presence of 50 mM methoxyamine during incubation of UV-treated, (/sup 3/H)thymine-labeled poly(dA) x poly(dT) with either enzyme preparation was found to protect completely the irradiated copolymer from endonucleolytic attack at dimer sites, as assayed by yield of acid-soluble radioactivity. In contrast, the dimer-DNA glycosylase activity of each enzyme remained fully functional, as monitored retrospectively by release of free thymine after either photochemical-(5 kJ/m/sup 2/, 254 nm) or photoenzymic- (Escherichia coli photolyase plus visible light) induced reversal of pyrimidine dimers in the UV-damaged substrate. The data demonstrate that the inhibition of the strand-incision reaction arises because of chemical modification of the AP sites and is not due to inactivation of the enzyme by methoxyamine. The results, combined with earlier findings for 5'-acting AP endonucleases, strongly suggest that methoxyamine is a highly specific inhibitor of virtually all AP endonucleases, irrespective of their modes of action, and may therefore prove useful in a wide variety of DNA repair studies.

  1. Chemical modification of the third strand: differential effects on purine and pyrimidine triple helix formation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Martin; Arimondo, Paola B; Lacroix, Laurent; Garestier, Thérèse; Klump, Horst; Mergny, Jean-Louis

    2002-01-08

    DNA triple helices offer exciting perspectives toward oligonucleotide-directed control of gene expression. Oligonucleotide analogues are routinely used with modifications in either the backbone or the bases to form more stable triple-helical structures or to prevent their degradation in cells. In this article, different chemical modifications are tested in a model system, which sets up a competition between the purine and pyrimidine motifs. For most modifications, the DeltaH degrees of purine triplex formation is close to zero, implying a nearly temperature-independent affinity constant. In contrast, the pyrimidine triplex is strongly favored at lower temperatures. The stabilization induced by modifications previously known to be favorable to the pyrimidine motif was quantified. Interestingly, modifications favorable to the GT motif (propynyl-U and dU replacing T) were also discovered. In a system where two third strands compete for triplex formation, replacement of the GA or GT strand by a pyrimidine strand may be observed at neutral pH upon lowering the temperature. This purine-to-pyrimidine triplex conversion depends on the chemical nature of the triplex-forming strands and the stability of the corresponding triplexes.

  2. Inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated normal human fibroblasts is correlated with pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproduct formation.

    PubMed

    Petit Frère, C; Clingen, P H; Arlett, C F; Green, M H

    1996-07-05

    UV-irradiation of living cells results in an inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific photoproducts or the total combined yield of lesions were responsible for these effects. Asynchronously dividing human fibroblasts from normal donors were irradiated with UVC (254 nm), broad spectrum UVB (290-320 + nm, Westinghouse FS20 lamp) or narrow spectrum UVB (310-315 nm, Philips TL01 lamp) at fluences which induce known yields of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts or Dewar isomers. DNA synthesis was approximately 3-4 times more sensitive to both UVC and UVB irradiation than RNA synthesis. The immediate inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis was correlated with (6-4) rather than overall photoproduct formation suggesting that the (6-4) photoproduct is the mediator of these inhibitory effects. In support of this suggestion we found that photoreactivation of cells cultured from the marsupial, mouse Sminthopsis crassicaudata, resulted in removal of 70% of pyrimidine dimers from the overall genome, but had only a slight effect on the recovery of RNA synthesis.

  3. A deoxyribozyme, Sero1C, uses light and serotonin to repair diverse pyrimidine dimers in DNA.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Rebecca E; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Sekhon, Gurpreet S; Sen, Dipankar

    2009-04-24

    An in vitro selection search for DNAs capable of catalyzing photochemistry yielded two distinctive deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes) with photolyase activity: UV1C, which repaired thymine dimers within DNA using a UV light of >300 nm wavelength and no extraneous cofactor, and Sero1C, which required the tryptophan metabolite serotonin as cofactor in addition to the UV light. Catalysis by Sero1C conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and analysis of the action spectrum of Sero1C confirmed that serotonin did indeed serve as a catalytic cofactor rather than as a structural cofactor. Sero1C and UV1C showed strikingly distinct wavelength optima for their respective photoreactivation catalyses. Although the rate enhancements characteristic of the two DNAzymes were similar, the cofactor-requiring Sero1C repaired a substantially broader range of substrates compared to UV1C, including thymine, uracil, and a range of chimeric deoxypyrimidine and ribopyrimidine dimers. Similarities and differences in the properties of these two photolyase DNAzymes suggest, first, that the harnessing of less damaging UV light for the repair of photolesions may have been a primordial catalytic activity of nucleic acids, and, second, the broader substrate range of Sero1C may highlight an evolutionary advantage to coopting amino-acid-like cofactors by functionality-poor nucleic acid enzymes.

  4. Incision and postincision steps of pyrimidine dimer removal in excision-defective mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, D.R.; Prakash, L.

    1981-11-01

    cdc9, a temperature-sensitive mutant defective in polynucleotide deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ligase activity, accumulates low-molecular-weight DNA fragments (as measured by sedimentation of DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients) at the nonpermissive temperature after irradiation with ultraviolet light. This phenotype of cdc9 is a sensitive indicator of successful incision during excision repair of dimers. In strains containing excision-defective mutations in any of nine genes in combination with the cdc9 mutation, the absence of low-molecular-weight DNA at the nonpermissive temperature after ultraviolet treatment suggests that these mutants are incision defective, whereas the presence of low-molecular-weight DNA indicates that the mutants are defective in a step after incision. With rad1, rad2, rad3, rad4, and rad10 mutants, the molecular weight of the DNA remained unchanged after ultraviolet irradiation and incubation at the restrictive temperature, despite the presence of the cdc9 mutation; these mutants are therefore incision defective. Low-molecular-weight DNA was observed in rad14 cdc9 and rad16 cdc9 strains. With the rad16 strain, the accumulation of low-molecular-weight DNA correlated with the amount of excision taking place, whereas in the rad14 mutant strain, no evidence of dimer removal was obtained. Therefore, rad14 is likely to be defective in a step after incision.

  5. The radical cationic repair pathway of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer: the effect of sugar-phosphate backbone.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Habibi-Khorassani, Mostafa; Shahraki, Asiyeh

    2013-01-01

    Radical cationic repair process of cis-syn thymine dimer has been investigated when (1) sugar-phosphate backbones were substituted by hydrogen atoms, (2) phosphate group was substituted by two hydrogen atoms each on a sugar ring and (3) sugar-phosphate backbone was taken into account. The effect of the interactions between N1 and N1' lone pairs and the C6-C6' antibonding orbital are the most important evidences for the cleavage of the C6-C6' bond in the first step of radical cationic repair mechanism in the absence of the sugar-phosphate backbone. The impact of the N1 and N1' lone pairs on the C6-C6' bond cleavage decreases and the energy barrier of the cleavage of that bond significantly increases in the presence of the deoxynucleoside sugars and the sugar-phosphate backbone. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. Formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers photosensitized by pyridopsoralens: Quantitative and qualitative distribution within DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Moysan, A.; Viari, A.; Vigny, P. ); Voituriez, L.; Cadet J. ); Moustacchi, E.; Sage, E. )

    1991-07-23

    As after irradiation with 254-nm UV light, exposure of thymidine and three isomeric pyridopsoralen derivatives to UVA radiation, in the dry state, leads to the formation of the six diastereomers of cyclobutadithymidine as the predominant reaction. This unexpected photosensitized reaction, which also gives rise to both 5R* and 5S* diastereomers of 5,6-dihydro-5-({alpha}-thymidylyl)thymidine (or spore photoproduct), is selective since (2+2) dimerization of 2{prime}-deoxycytidine was not detected under the same experimental conditions. The cis-syn isomer of cyclobutadithymine was also found to be produced within isolated DNA following UVA irradiation in aqueous solutions containing 7-methylpyrido (3,4-c)psoralen. Quantitatively, this photoproduct represents about one-fifth of the overall yield of the furan-side pyridopsoralen (2+2) photocycloadducts the thymine. DNA sequencing methodology was used to demonstrate that pyridopsoralen-photosensitized DNA is a substrate for T4 endonuclease V and Escherichia coli photoreactivating enzyme, two enzymes acting specifically on cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. The formation of cyclobutane thymine dimers concomitant to that of thymine-furocoumarin photoadducts and their eventual implication in the photobiological effects of the pyridopsoralens are discussed.

  7. Assessment of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by digital photography in human skin.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Onno; van Velsen, Sara G A; Giovannone, Barbara; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla A F M; Knol, Edward F; Guikers, Kees; van Weelden, Huib

    2011-10-28

    UV-mediated DNA damage and repair are important mechanisms in research on UV-induced carcinogenesis. UV-induced DNA-damage and repair can be determined by immunohistochemical staining of photoproduct positive nuclei of keratinocytes in the epidermis. We developed a new method of analysing and quantifying thymine dimer (TT-CPD) positive cells in the epidermis. Normal skin of healthy controls was exposed to UVB ex vivo and in vivo. Skin samples were immunohistochemically stained for TT-CPDs. Digital images of the epidermis were quantified for TT-CPDs both visually and digitally. There was a UVB-dose dependent induction of TT-CPDs present in the ex vivo UVB-irradiated skin samples. The linear measurement range of the digital quantification was increased compared to the manual counting. The average 24-hour repair rate of the initiated TT-CPDs elicited by the UVB irradiation at T=0 of the 8 HCs showed a 34% decrease of TT-CPD photoproducts by the manual counting method and a 51% decrease determined by digital counting. The digital quantification method improves immunohistochemical quantification of DNA photo damage. It is more sensitive in measuring the extent of DNA-damage per nucleus.

  8. Stability and Formation of Isobutylene Dimers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1983-01-01

    Isobutylene is an important bulk chemical for the petroleum industry. Dimerization and hydrogenation reactions produce the standard fuel octane rating comparison. This classic chemistry is often misrepresented in modern texts, however, and this paper attempts to correlate the physical organic principles that apply. (Author)

  9. Quantitation of radiation-, chemical-, or enzyme-induced single strand breaks in nonradioactive DNA by alkaline gel electrophoresis: application to pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.E.; Blackett, A.D.; Monteleone, D.C.; Setlow, R.B.; Sutherland, B.M.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have developed an alkaline agarose gel method for quantitating single strand breaks in nanogram quantities of nonradioactive DNA. After electrophoresis together with molecular length standards, the DNA is neutralized, stained with ethidium bromide, photographed, and the density profiles recorded with a computer controller scanner. The medium lengths, number average molecular lengths, and length average molecular lengths of the DNAs can be computed by using the mobilities of the molecular length standards. The frequency of single strand breaks can then be determined by comparison of the corresponding average molecular lengths of DNAs treated and not treated with single stand break-inducing agents (radiation, chemicals, or lesion-specific endonuclease). Single stand break yields (induced at pyrimidine dimer sites in uv-irradiated human fibroblasts DNA by the dimer-specific endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus) from our method agree with values obtained for the same DNAs from alkaline sucrose gradient analysis. The method has been used to determined pyrimidine dimer yields in DNA from biopsies of human skin irradiated in situ. It will be especially useful in determining the frequency of single strand breaks (or lesions convertible to single stand breaks by specific cleaving reagents or enzymes) in small quantities of DNA from cells or tissues not amendable to radioactive labeling.

  10. The efficiency of photolyase and indole complexes to repair DNA containing dimers of pyrimidine: A theoretical analysis of the electron transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcov, Flávia; Goldman, Carla

    2004-02-01

    We analyze the effects of competing reactions to the efficiency of enzymatic splitting of pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA by the incidence of ultraviolet radiation. This is accomplished with the aid of a formula that expresses the efficiency of the repair in terms of parameters that regulate the reaction rates for primary and for back long-range electron transfers taking place in the process. Comparison of experimental data with estimations on account of this formula supports early conjectures in the literature that attribute the relative high performance of the enzymatic complexes of photolyase to its ability to suppress the back reaction.

  11. Formation of Nucleobases from the UV Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Nuevo, Michel; Materese, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleobases are the informational subunits of DNA and RNA. They consist of Nheterocycles that belong to either the pyrimidine-base group (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) or the purinebase group (adenine and guanine). Several nucleobases, mostly purine bases, have been detected in meteorites [1-3], with isotopic signatures consistent with an extraterrestrial origin [4]. Uracil is the only pyrimidine-base compound formally reported in meteorites [2], though the presence of cytosine cannot be ruled out [5,6]. However, the actual process by which the uracil was made and the reasons for the non-detection of thymine in meteorites have yet to be fully explained. Although no N-heterocycles have ever been observed in the ISM [7,8], the positions of the 6.2-µm interstellar emission features suggest a population of such molecules is likely to be present [9]. In this work we study the formation of pyrimidine-based molecules, including the three nucleobases uracil, cytosine, and thymine from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in ices consisting of several combinations of H(sub2)O, NH(sub3), CH(sub3)OH, and CH(sub4) at low temperature, in order to simulate the astrophysical conditions under which prebiotic species may be formed in the interstellar medium, in the protosolar nebula, and on icy bodies of the Solar System.

  12. Self-assembling of cytosine nucleoside into triply-bound dimers in acid media. A comprehensive evaluation of proton-bound pyrimidine nucleosides by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, X-rays diffractometry, and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Di Donna, Leonardo; Sindona, Giovanni; Giorgi, Gianluca; Salvini, Laura; Napoli, Anna

    2004-02-01

    Electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is used to evaluate the assembling of cytosine and thymine nucleosides in the gas phase, through the formation of hydrogen bonded supermolecules. Mixtures of cytidine analogues and homologues deliver in the gas phase proton-bound heterodimers stabilized by multiple interactions, as proven by the kinetics of their dissociation into the corresponding protonated monomers. Theoretical calculations, performed on initial structures of methylcytosine homodimers available in the literature, converged to a minimized structure whereby the two pyrimidine rings interact through the formation of three hydrogen bonds of similar energy. The crystallographic data here reported show the equivalency of the two interacting pyrimidines which is attributable to the presence of an inversion center. Thymine and uracil pyrimidyl nucleosides form, by ESI, gaseous proton-bound dimers. The kinetic of their dissociation into the related protonated monomers shows that the nucleobases are weekly interacting through a single hydrogen bond. The minimized structure of the protonated heterodimer formed by thymine and N-1-methylthymine confirmed the existence of mainly one hydrogen bond which links the two nucleobases through the O4 oxygens. No crystallographic data exists on thymine proton-bound species, nor have we been able to obtain these aggregates in the solid phase. The gaseous phase, under high vacuum conditions, seems therefore a suitable environment where vanishing structures produced by ESI can be studied with a good degree of approximation.

  13. DNA repair after ultraviolet irradiation of ICR 2A frog cells: pyrimidine dimers are long acting blocks to nascent DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.S.; Setlow, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    The ability of ICR 2A frog cells to repair DNA damage induced by ultraviolet irradiation was examined. These cells are capable of photoreactivation but are nearly totally deficient in excision repair. They have the ability to convert the small molecular weight DNA made after irradiation into large molecules but do not show an enhancement in this process when the UV dose is delivered in two separate exposures separated by a 3- or 24-h incubation. Total DNA synthesis is depressed and low molecular weight DNA continues to be synthesized during pulse-labeling as long as 48 h after irradiation. The effects of pyrimidine dimer removal through exposure of UV irradiated cells to photoreactivating light indicate that dimers act as the critical lesions blocking DNA synthesis.

  14. The Photochemistry of Pyrimidine in Pure H2O Ice Subjected to Different Radiation Environments and the Formation of Uracil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Materese. C. K..; Hu, W.-J.; Qiu, J.-M.; Wu, S.-R.; Fung, H.-S.; Sandford, S. A.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Nucleobases are N-heterocycles which are the informational subunits of DNA and RNA. They include pyrimidine bases (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Nucleobases have been detected in several meteorites, although no Nheterocycles have been observed in space to data. Laboratory experiments showed that the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ice at low temperature (<=20 K) leads to the formation of pyrimidine derivatives including the nucleobase uracil and its precursor 4(3H)-pyrimidone. These results were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations. When pyrimidine is mixed with combinations of H2O, NH3, CH3OH, and CH4 ices under similar conditions, uracil and cytosine are formed. In the present work we study the formation of 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil from the irradiation of pyrimidine in H2O ice with high-energy UV photons (Lyman , He I, and He II lines) provided by a synchrotron source. The photo-destruction of pyrimidine in these H2O ices as well as the formation yields for 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil are compared with our previous results in order to study the photo-stability of pyrimidine and the production efficiency of uracil as a function of the photon energy.

  15. Wavelength dependence of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage as determined by laser irradiation suggests that cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers are the principal DNA lesions produced by terrestrial sunlight.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Yoon, Jae-In; Schroeder, Christi; Bradforth, Stephen E; Cockburn, Myles; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2011-09-01

    To elucidate the involvement of specific ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in solar mutagenesis, we used a laser system to investigate the induction of DNA damage, both in the overall genome and at the nucleotide resolution level, in the genomic DNA of transgenic Big Blue mouse fibroblasts irradiated with a series of UV wavelengths, inclusive of UVC (λ<280 nm), UVB (λ=280-320 nm), and UVA (λ>320 nm). Subsequently, we sought correlation between the locations of UV-induced DNA lesions in the cII transgene of irradiated DNA samples and the frequency distribution and codon position of the induced cII mutations in counterpart mouse cells irradiated with simulated sunlight. Using a combination of enzymatic digestion assays coupled with gel electrophoresis, immunodot blot assays, and DNA footprinting assays, we demonstrated a unique wavelength-dependent formation of photodimeric lesions, i.e., cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs], based on direct UV absorption of DNA, in irradiated mouse genomic DNA, which could partially explain the induction of mutations in mouse cells irradiated with simulated sunlight. Most notably, there was a divergence of CPD and (6-4)PP formation at an irradiation wavelength of 296 nm in mouse genomic DNA. Whereas substantial formation of (6-4)PPs was detectable in samples irradiated at this wavelength, which intensified as the irradiation wavelength decreased, only small quantities of these lesions were found in samples irradiated at wavelengths of 300-305 nm, with no detectable level of (6-4)PPs in samples irradiated with longer wavelengths. Although CPD formation followed the same pattern of increase with decreasing wavelengths of irradiation, there were substantial levels of CPDs in samples irradiated with UVB wavelengths borderlined with UVA, and small but detectable levels of these lesions in samples irradiated with longer wavelengths. Because the terrestrial sunlight spectrum rolls off sharply at wavelengths

  16. DLTS study of the oxygen dimer formation kinetics in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarykin, Nikolai; Weber, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    The introduction rates of radiation defects, in particular the X- and M-centers for which the oxygen dimer is a precursor, are investigated as a function of duration of the pre-irradiation heat treatment at 480∘ C in Czochralski-grown silicon both of n- and p-types. The characteristic annealing time to grow the X-center concentration in the n-type crystal is found to be about 1 h in accordance with the model which implies no significant barrier for the dimer formation. The M-center concentration in the p-type crystal is found to be nearly independent of duration of the pre-irradiation annealing after a few minutes transient period. This behavior is ascribed to the stabilization of dimer concentration due to an effective dimer trapping in these samples.

  17. The Role of Pyrimidine Dimers as Premutagenic Lesions: A Study of Targeted VS. Untargeted Mutagenesis in the lacI Gene of ESCHERICHIA COLI

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Bernard A.; Glickman, Barry W.

    1984-01-01

    We have employed conjugal transfer of an F' lac episome to examine targeted and untargeted mutagenesis in the lacI gene of Escherichia coli and to determine the relative importance of pyrimidine dimers as premutational UV lesions compared to (6-4) photoproducts that also may have a mutational role. This conjugal system allowed us to assess the premutagenic role of UV lesions independently from any role as inducers of SOS functions. F' DNA was transferred to an SOS-induced recipient strain from: unirradiated donor cells, UV-treated donor cells or donor cells that were irradiated and then exposed to photoreactivating light. The results indicate that SOS-related, untargeted events may account for as much as one-third of the nonsense mutations (i.e., base substitutions) recovered after undamaged F' DNA is transferred to UV-irradiated recipients. When the donor strain also is irradiated, in excess of 90% of the mutations detected following conjugation appear to be targeted. Photoreactivation of the UV-treated donor cells, prior to F' transfer to the SOS-induced recipient strain, demonstrated that in this experimental system virtually all recovered UV-induced mutations are targeted by photoreactivable lesions. We presume that these lesions are pyrimidine dimers because (6-4) photoproducts are not photoreactivable. PMID:6368314

  18. Fully functional global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts and compromised transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in condensed mitotic chromatin.

    PubMed

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Ono, Tetsuya

    2012-03-10

    During mitosis, chromatin is highly condensed, and activities such as transcription and semiconservative replication do not occur. Consequently, the condensed condition of mitotic chromatin is assumed to inhibit DNA metabolism by impeding the access of DNA-transacting proteins. However, about 40 years ago, several researchers observed unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated mitotic chromosomes, suggesting the presence of excision repair. We re-examined this subject by directly measuring the removal of UV-induced DNA lesions by an ELISA and by a Southern-based technique in HeLa cells arrested at mitosis. We observed that the removal of (6-4) photoproducts from the overall genome in mitotic cells was as efficient as in interphase cells. This suggests that global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully functional during mitosis, and that the DNA in mitotic chromatin is accessible to proteins involved in this mode of DNA repair. Nevertheless, not all modes of DNA repair seem fully functional during mitosis. We also observed that the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the dihydrofolate reductase and c-MYC genes in mitotic cells was very slow. This suggests that transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is compromised or non-functional during mitosis, which is probably the consequence of mitotic transcriptional repression.

  19. Are isomers of the vinyl cyanide ion missing links for interstellar pyrimidine formation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Partha P.; Lee, Timothy J.; Schaefer, Henry F. III

    2009-08-21

    In the interstellar medium (ISM) there are many regions where the formation of molecules is kinetically driven rather than thermochemically, which can lead to the formation of many isomers even though some may be fairly higher in energy relative to the molecular global minimum. Recent laboratory experiments where noble gas cations are reacted with pyrimidine favored the formation of C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +}, but the molecular structure(s) of this fragment was not determined. Microscopic reversibility means that pyrimidine could form under interstellar conditions should the required C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} reactant be detected in the ISM. Hence C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} could be a strong candidate for involvement in the formation of heterocyclic biomolecules such as pyrimidine in the ISM. In this study, we have investigated the low energy isomers of the acrylonitrile ion (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +}) using density functional theory as well as high levels of ab initio theory, namely, the singles and doubles coupled-cluster theory that includes a perturbational correction for connected triple excitations, denoted as CCSD(T). An automated stochastic search procedure, Kick, has been employed to find isomers on the ground state doublet potential energy surface. Several new structures, along with all the previously reported minima, have been found. The global minimum H{sub 2}CCCNH{sup +} is energetically much lower than either H{sub 2}CC(H)CN{sup +}, the acrylonitrile ion, or HCC(H)NCH{sup +}, the most likely intermediate of the reaction between HCCH{sup +} and HCN. These isomers are connected to the global minimum via several transition states and intermediates. The results indicate that not only the global minimum but also several higher energy isomers of the C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sup +} ion could be important in interstellar pyrimidine formation. The isomeric molecules have the necessary CCNC backbone needed for the reaction with HCN to form the cyclic pyrimidine framework

  20. Formation of Nucleobases from the UV Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Nuevo, Michel; Sandford, Scott A.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous laboratory simulations showed that complex molecules, including prebiotic compounds/can be formed under interstellar conditions from the vacuum UV irradiation of interstellar ice analogs containing H2O, CO, NH3 etc. Although some complex prebiotic species have not been confirmed In the interstellar medium, they are known to be present in meteorites. Nucleobases, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, have also been detected in meteorites. Here, we present a study of the formation of pyrimidine-based compounds from the UV irradiation of pyrimidine in H2O- and/or NH3-ices at 20-30 K, Our results show that various derivatives, induding the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, are formed under these conditions.

  1. Formation of Nucleobases from the UV Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Nuevo, Michel; Sandford, Scott A.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous laboratory simulations showed that complex molecules, including prebiotic compounds/can be formed under interstellar conditions from the vacuum UV irradiation of interstellar ice analogs containing H2O, CO, NH3 etc. Although some complex prebiotic species have not been confirmed In the interstellar medium, they are known to be present in meteorites. Nucleobases, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, have also been detected in meteorites. Here, we present a study of the formation of pyrimidine-based compounds from the UV irradiation of pyrimidine in H2O- and/or NH3-ices at 20-30 K, Our results show that various derivatives, induding the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, are formed under these conditions.

  2. Hydrogen bonding in 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine, 2-benzylamino-4,6-bis(benzyloxy)pyrimidine and 2-amino-4,6-bis(N-pyrrolidino)pyrimidine: chains of fused rings and a centrosymmetric dimer.

    PubMed

    Low, John N; Quesada, Antonio; Marchal, Antonio; Melguizo, Manuel; Nogueras, Manuel; Glidewell, Christopher

    2002-05-01

    Molecules of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine, C(6)H(9)N(3)O(2), (I), are linked by two N-H.N hydrogen bonds [H.N 2.23 and 2.50 A, N.N 3.106 (2) and 3.261 (2) A, and N-H.N 171 and 145 degrees ] into a chain of fused rings, where alternate rings are generated by centres of inversion and twofold rotation axes. Adjacent chains are linked by aromatic pi-pi-stacking interactions to form a three-dimensional framework. In 2-benzylamino-4,6-bis(benzyloxy)pyrimidine, C(25)H(23)N(3)O(2), (II), the molecules are linked into centrosymmetric R(2)(2)(8) dimers by paired N-H.N hydrogen bonds [H.N 2.13 A, N.N 2.997 (2) A and N-H.N 170 degrees ]. Molecules of 2-amino-4,6-bis(N-pyrrolidino)pyrimidine, C(12)H(19)N(5), (III), are linked by two N-H.N hydrogen bonds [H.N 2.34 and 2.38 A, N.N 3.186 (2) and 3.254 (2) A, and N-H.N 163 and 170 degrees ] into a chain of fused rings similar to that in (I).

  3. Photoreversal-dependent release of thymidine and thymidine monophosphate from pyrimidine dimer-containing DNA excision fragments isolated from ultraviolet-damaged human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Gentner, N.E.; Johnson, L.D.; Paterson, M.C.

    1986-05-06

    To elucidate the enzymatic excision-repair process operative on cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers in human dermal fibroblasts, we have examined excised dimer-containing material recovered in the trichloroacetic acid soluble fraction from far-ultraviolet-irradiated (254 nm, 40 J m-2) and incubated (24 h) cell cultures. The excised DNA photoproducts were found in oligonucleotide fragments with an estimated mean chain length of approximately 3.7 bases. Exposure of these isolated excision fragments, labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine (dT), to a secondary, dimer-photoreversing fluence of far-UV (5.5 kJ m-2) resulted in the release of free dT and thymidine monophosphate (TMP). Photorelease of these two radioactive species was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, with TMP being detected as the increase in dT following bacterial alkaline phosphatase treatment. These data imply that the photoliberated dT and TMP moieties were attached to the excision fragments solely by the cyclobutane ring of the dimer. No evidence was obtained for the photoliberation of free thymine, thus corroborating a conclusion reached by others that the excision of dimers in human cells is not initiated by scission of an intradimer N-glycosyl bond. The sum of the tritium label recovered in dT plus TMP corresponded to approximately 40% of that disappearing from thymine-containing dimers on photoreversal, suggesting that in about 80% of the isolated excision fragments the dimer is located at one end of the oligonucleotide and contains a break in its internal phosphodiester bond.

  4. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  5. Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase excises ultraviolet radiation- and hydroxyl radical-induced products 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine from DNA.

    PubMed

    Jaruga, Pawel; Jabil, Ritche; McCullough, Amanda K; Rodriguez, Henry; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2002-02-01

    A DNA glycosylase specific for UV radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers has been identified from the Chlorella virus Paramecium Bursaria Chlorella virus-1. This enzyme (Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase [cv-pdg]) exhibits a 41% amino acid identity with endonuclease V from bacteriophage T4 (T4 pyrimidine dimer glycosylase [T4-pdg]), which is also specific for pyrimidine dimers. However, cv-pdg possesses a higher catalytic efficiency and broader substrate specificity than T4-pdg. The latter excises 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyAde), a UV radiation- and hydroxyl radical-induced monomeric product of adenine in DNA. Using gas chromatography-isotope-dilution mass spectrometry and y-irradiated DNA, we show in this work that cv-pdg also displays a catalytic activity for excision of FapyAde and, in addition, it excises 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyGua). Kinetic data show that FapyAde is a better substrate for cv-pdg than FapyGua. On the other hand, cv-pdg possesses a greater efficiency for the extension of FapyAde than T4-pdg. These two enzymes exhibit different substrate specificities despite substantial structural similarities.

  6. Dimer monomer transition and dimer re-formation play important role for ATM cellular function during DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Fengxia; Zhang, Minjie; Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Caiyun; Meng, Hao; Wang, Dong; Chang, Shuang; Xu, Ye; Price, Brendan; Sun, Yingli

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • ATM phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. • The PETPVFRLT box of ATM plays a key role in its dimer dissociation in DNA repair. • The dephosphorylation of ATM is critical for dimer re-formation after DNA repair. - Abstract: The ATM protein kinase, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks, mediates responses to ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Here we show that ATM is held inactive in unirradiated cells as a dimer and phosphorylates the opposite strand of the dimer in response to DNA damage. Cellular irradiation induces rapid intermolecular autophosphorylation of serine 1981 that causes dimer dissociation and initiates cellular ATM kinase activity. ATM cannot phosphorylate the substrates when it could not undergo dimer monomer transition. After DNA repair, the active monomer will undergo dephosphorylation to form dimer again and dephosphorylation is critical for dimer re-formation. Our work reveals novel function of ATM dimer monomer transition and explains why ATM dimer monomer transition plays such important role for ATM cellular activity during DNA repair.

  7. DNA synthesis past a 5-methylC-containing cis-syn-cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer by yeast pol eta is highly nonmutagenic.

    PubMed

    Vu, Bich; Cannistraro, Vincent J; Sun, Liping; Taylor, John Stephen

    2006-08-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are responsible for a considerable fraction of sunlight-induced C to T and 5-methycytosine (mC) to T mutations in mammalian cells, though the precise mechanism is unknown. One possibility is that the C or mC of a CPD is not mutagenic and must first deaminate to U or T, respectively, for A to be inserted by a DNA polymerase. Alternatively, A might be directly inserted opposite the C or mC prior to deamination via an E-imino tautomer of the C or mC or by a nontemplated mechanism in which the photoproduct is sterically excluded from the active site. We have taken advantage of the retarding effect of C5 methylation on the deamination rate of cis-syn-cyclobutane dimers to prepare a template containing the cis-syn-cyclobutane dimer of mCT. Through the use of single-hit and multiple-hit competition assays, the catalytic core of pol eta was found to insert dGMP opposite the mC of the CPD with about a 120:1 selectivity relative to dAMP. No significant insertion of dTTP or dCMP was detected. The high fidelity of nonmutagenic insertion opposite the mC of the CPD provides strong support for the deamination-bypass mechanism for the origin of sunlight induced C --> T mutations.

  8. Inhibition of antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells resulting from UV irradiation of murine skin is restored by in vitro photorepair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, A.A.; Roza, L.; Moodycliffe, A.M.; Shreedhar, V.

    1997-05-13

    Exposing skin to UVB (280-320 nm) radiation suppresses contact hypersensitivity by a mechanism that involves an alteration in the activity of cutaneous antigen-presenting cells (APC). UV-induced DNA damage appears to be an important molecular trigger for this effect. The specific target cells in the skin that sustain DNA damage relevant to the immunosuppressive effect have yet to be identified. We tested the hypothesis that UV-induced DNA damage in the cutaneous APC was responsible for their impaired ability to present antigen after in vivo UV irradiation. Cutaneous APC were collected from the draining lymph nodes of UVB-irradiated, hapten-sensitized mice and incubated in vitro with liposomes containing a photolyase, which, upon absorption of photoreactivating light, splits UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Photosome treatment followed by photoreactivating light reduced the number of dimer-containing APC, restored the in vivo antigen-presenting activity of the draining lymph node cells, and blocked the induction of suppressor T cells. Neither Photosomes nor photoreactivating light alone, nor photoreactivating light given before Photosomes, restored APC activity, and Photosomes treatment did not reverse the impairment of APC function when isopsoralen plus UVA (320-400 nm) radiation was used instead of UVB. These controls indicate that the restoration of APC function matched the requirements of Photosome-mediated DNA repair for dimers and post-treatment photoreactivating light. These results provide compelling evidence that it is UV-induced DNA damage in cutaneous APC that leads to reduced immune function.

  9. Comprehensive investigation of the energetics of pyrimidine nucleoside formation in a model prebiotic reaction.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yinghong; Bean, Heather D; Mamajanov, Irena; Hud, Nicholas V; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2009-11-11

    The problem of beta-nucleoside formation under prebiotic conditions represents one of the most significant challenges to the "RNA world" hypothesis. The possibility exists that alternative bases may have come before the contemporary bases (i.e., A, G, C, and U), including bases that more readily form nucleosides. We previously reported the first successful synthesis of a pyrimidine nucleoside from a free base and a nonactivated sugar in a plausible prebiotic reaction. Here we present a detailed computational study on the reaction at the density functional theory (DFT) level. The catalytic role of a Mg(2+) ion on the reaction mechanism is also investigated. Our calculations demonstrate that a Mg(2+) ion, serving as a Lewis acid, can afford the necessary stabilization to the base and leaving water molecule during glycoside bond formation. The solvent effect is considered by the Onsager solvation model and also by an extended model with the addition of explicit water molecules within the SCRF solvation model. In addition, predictions regarding the formation of nucleosides from other pyrimidine bases are also addressed, providing valuable insights into what chemical features of the bases facilitate glycoside formation in drying-heating reactions.

  10. A novel [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine-based phenyl-linked steroid dimer: synthesis and its cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Fang, Yuan; Zhang, En; Yu, De-Quan; Liu, Hong-Min

    2013-11-01

    A novel [1,2,4] triazolo [1,5-a] pyrimidine-based phenyl-linked steroid dimer was designed, synthesized and evaluated for its cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines and the cytotoxicity against human normal liver cell L-02. Compound 3 showed excellent cytotoxic activity and good selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Further mechanistic studies revealed that treatment of EC109 cells with compound 3 caused an obvious G2/M arrest in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis probably through the mitochondrial pathway accompanied with the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential, activations of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of MDM2 as well as up-regulation of the expressions of p53 and Bax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase and Escherichia coli endonucleases IV and V have incision activity on 2,2,4-triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone.

    PubMed

    Kino, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Masayo; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Iwai, Shigenori; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    2,2,4-Triamino-5(2H)-oxazolone (Oz) in a DNA strand is an oxidation product of guanine and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanine, and such a lesion can cause G-to-C transversions. Previously, Fpg/Nei and Nth were shown to have incision activity on Oz. We investigated the activities of chlorella virus pyrimidine dimer glycosylase (cvPDG) and Escherichia coli endonucleases IV (Nfo) and V (Nfi) on Oz. Although the three enzymes have different repair mechanisms from Fpg/Nei and Nth, they still had incision activity on Oz. Given the incision activities of cvPDG, Nfo and Nfi on Oz in addition to Fpg/Nei and Nth, Oz is DNA damage that can be repaired by diverse enzymes.

  12. Fully functional global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts and compromised transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in condensed mitotic chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ikehata, Hironobu; Mori, Toshio; Ono, Tetsuya

    2012-03-10

    During mitosis, chromatin is highly condensed, and activities such as transcription and semiconservative replication do not occur. Consequently, the condensed condition of mitotic chromatin is assumed to inhibit DNA metabolism by impeding the access of DNA-transacting proteins. However, about 40 years ago, several researchers observed unscheduled DNA synthesis in UV-irradiated mitotic chromosomes, suggesting the presence of excision repair. We re-examined this subject by directly measuring the removal of UV-induced DNA lesions by an ELISA and by a Southern-based technique in HeLa cells arrested at mitosis. We observed that the removal of (6-4) photoproducts from the overall genome in mitotic cells was as efficient as in interphase cells. This suggests that global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully functional during mitosis, and that the DNA in mitotic chromatin is accessible to proteins involved in this mode of DNA repair. Nevertheless, not all modes of DNA repair seem fully functional during mitosis. We also observed that the removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers from the dihydrofolate reductase and c-MYC genes in mitotic cells was very slow. This suggests that transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is compromised or non-functional during mitosis, which is probably the consequence of mitotic transcriptional repression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Global genome repair of (6-4) photoproducts is fully active in mitotic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA in condensed mitotic chromatin does not seem inaccessible or inert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mitotic transcriptional repression may impair transcription-coupled repair.

  13. DDB1-DDB2 (xeroderma pigmentosum group E) protein complex recognizes a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, mismatches, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, and compound lesions in DNA.

    PubMed

    Wittschieben, Birgitte Ø; Iwai, Shigenori; Wood, Richard D

    2005-12-02

    The DDB protein complex, comprising the subunits DDB1 and DDB2, binds tightly to UV light-irradiated DNA. Mutations in DDB2 are responsible for xeroderma pigmentosum group E, a disorder with defects in nucleotide excision repair of DNA. Both subunits are also components of a complex involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Cellular defects in DDB2 disable repair of the major UV radiation photoproduct in DNA, a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, but no significant direct binding of DDB to this photoproduct in DNA has ever been demonstrated. Thus, it has been uncertain how DDB could play a specific role in DNA repair of such damage. We investigated DDB function using highly purified proteins. Co-purified DDB1-DDB2 or DDB reconstituted with individual DDB1 and DDB2 subunits binds to damaged DNA as a ternary complex. We found that DDB can indeed recognize a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer in DNA with an affinity (K(app)a) 6-fold higher than that of nondamaged DNA. The DDB1-DDB2 complex also bound with high specificity to a UV radiation-induced (6-4) photoproduct and to an apurinic site in DNA. Unexpectedly, DDB also bound avidly to DNA containing a 2- or 3-bp mismatch (and does not bind well to DNA containing larger mismatches). These data indicate that DDB does not detect lesions per se. It instead recognizes other structural features of damaged DNA, acting as a sensor that probes DNA for a subset of conformational changes. Lesions recognized may include those arising when translesion polymerases such as POLH incorporate bases across from DNA lesions caused by UV radiation.

  14. Enzymatic analysis of isomeric trithymidylates containing ultraviolet light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. I. Nuclease P1-mediated hydrolysis of the intradimer phosphodiester linkage

    SciTech Connect

    Liuzzi, M.; Weinfeld, M.; Paterson, M.C.

    1989-04-15

    Our recent findings suggest that enzymatic hydrolysis of the intradimer phosphodiester bond may constitute the initial step in the repair of UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in human cells. To examine the susceptibility of this phosphodiester linkage to enzyme-mediated hydrolysis, the trinucleotide d-Tp-TpT was UV-irradiated and the two isomeric compounds containing a cis-syn-cyclobutane dimer were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography and treated with various deoxyribonucleases. Snake venom phosphodiesterase hydrolyzed only the 3'-phosphodiester group in the 5'-isomer (d-T less than p greater than TpT) but was totally inactive toward the 3'-isomer (d-TpT less than p greater than T). In contrast, calf spleen phosphodiesterase only operated on the 3'-isomer by cleaving the 5'-internucleotide bond. Kinetic analysis revealed that (i) the activity of snake venom phosphodiesterase was unaffected by a dimer 5' to a phosphodiester linkage, (ii) the action of calf spleen phosphodiesterase was partially inhibited by a dimer 3' to a phosphodiester bond, and (iii) Escherichia coli phr B-encoded DNA photolyase reacted twice as fast with d-T less than p greater than TpT as with d-TpT less than p greater than T. Mung bean nuclease, nuclease S1, and nuclease P1 all cleaved the 5'-internucleotide linkage, but not the intradimer phosphodiester bond, in d-TpT less than p greater than T. Both phosphate groups in d-T less than p greater than TpT were refractory to mung bean nuclease or nuclease S1. Incubation of d-T less than p greater than TpT with nuclease P1, however, generated the novel compound dT less than greater than d-pTpT containing a severed intradimer phosphodiester linkage. Accordingly, nuclease P1 represents the first purified enzyme known to hydrolyze an intradimer phosphodiester linkage.

  15. Resistance of the genome of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes to irradiation evaluated by the induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 6-4 photoproducts using gamma and UV-C radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma and UV-C irradiation on the production of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts (6-4 PPs) in DNA was investigated to compare the natural resistance of the genome of a Gram-positive bacterium and a Gram-negative bacterium against irradiation. Solution of pure DNA and bacterial strains Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were irradiated using gamma and UV-C rays. Extracted DNA from bacteria and pure DNA samples were then analysed by ELISA using anti-CPDs and anti-6-4 PPs monoclonal antibodies. The results show that gamma rays, as well as UV-C rays, induce the formation of CPDs and 6-4 PPs in DNA. During UV-C irradiation, the three samples showed a difference in their sensitivity against formation of CPDs (P≤0.05). Pure DNA was the most sensitive while the genome of L. monocytogenes was the most resistant. Also during UV-C irradiation, the genome of L. monocytogenes was the only one to show a significant resistance against formation of 6-4 PPs (P≤0.05). During gamma irradiation, for both types of lesion, pure DNA and the genome of E. coli did not show significant difference in their sensitivity (P>0.05) while the genome of L. monocytogenes showed a resistance against formation of CPDs and 6-4 PPs.

  16. Glycolaldehyde Formation via the Dimerization of the Formyl Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Paul M.; Slater, Ben; Raza, Zamaan; Viti, Serena; Brown, Wendy A.; Burke, Daren J.

    2013-11-01

    Glycolaldehyde, the simplest monosaccharide sugar, has recently been detected in low- and high-mass star-forming cores. Following our previous investigation into glycolaldehyde formation, we now consider a further mechanism for the formation of glycolaldehyde that involves the dimerization of the formyl radical, HCO. Quantum mechanical investigation of the HCO dimerization process upon an ice surface is predicted to be barrierless and therefore fast. In an astrophysical context, we show that this mechanism can be very efficient in star-forming cores. It is limited by the availability of the formyl radical, but models suggest that only very small amounts of CO are required to be converted to HCO to meet the observational constraints.

  17. Excited State Pathways Leading to Formation of Adenine Dimers.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Akos; Martinez-Fernandez, Lara; Ketola, Tiia-Maaria; Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; Esposito, Luciana; Markovitsi, Dimitra; Improta, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    The reaction intermediate in the path leading to UV-induced formation of adenine dimers A═A and AA* is identified for the first time quantum mechanically, using PCM/TD-DFT calculations on (dA)2 (dA: 2'deoxyadenosine). In parallel, its fingerprint is detected in the absorption spectra recorded on the millisecond time-scale for the single strand (dA)20 (dA: 2'deoxyadenosine).

  18. Formation of Nucleobases from the UV Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, S. N.; Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Astrochemistry laboratory simulations have shown that complex organic molecules including compounds of astrobiological interest can be formed under interstellarl/circumstellar conditions from the vacuum UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs containing H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH13, etc. Of all prebiotic compounds, the formation of amino acids under such experimental conditions has been the most extensively studied. Although the presence of amino acids in the interstellar medium (ISM) has yet to be confirmed, they have been detected in meteorites, indicating that biomolecules and/or their precursors can be formed under extraterrestrial, abiotic conditions. Nucleobases, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, as well as other 1V-heterocycles, have also been detected in meteorites, but like amino acids, they have yet to be observed in the ISM. In this work, we present an experimental study of the formation of pyrimidine-based compounds from the UV photo-irradiation of pyrimidine in ice mixtures containing H2O, NH3, and/or CH3OH at low temperature and pressure.

  19. A Cyclic Disilylated Stannylene: Synthesis, Dimerization, and Adduct Formation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Reaction of 1,4-dipotassio-1,1,4,4-tetrakis(trimethylsilyl)tetramethyltetrasilane with [(Me3Si)2N]2Sn led to the formation of an endocyclic distannene via the dimerization of a transient stannylene. In the presence of strong donor molecules such as PEt3, the stannylene could be trapped as adduct. Reaction of the PEt3 derivative with B(C6F5)3 gave rise to the formation of the stannylene B(C6F5)3 adduct. PMID:21438553

  20. Highly error-free role of DNA polymerase η in the replicative bypass of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) constitute the most frequent UV-induced DNA photoproduct. However, it has remained unclear how human and other mammalian cells mitigate the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of CPDs emanating from their replicative bypass. Here, we examine in human cells the roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) in the replicative bypass of a cis-syn TT dimer carried on the leading or the lagging strand DNA template in a plasmid system we have designed, and we determine in mouse cells the frequencies and mutational spectra generated from TLS occurring specifically opposite CPDs formed at TT, TC, and CC dipyrimidine sites. From these studies we draw the following conclusions: (i) TLS makes a very prominent contribution to CPD bypass on both the DNA strands during replication; (ii) Pols η, κ, and ζ provide alternate pathways for TLS opposite CPDs wherein Pols κ and ζ promote mutagenic TLS opposite CPDs; and (iii) the absence of mutagenic TLS events opposite a cis-syn TT dimer in human cells and opposite CPDs formed at TT, TC, and CC sites in mouse cells that we observe upon the simultaneous knockdown of Pols κ and ζ implicates a highly error-free role of Polη in TLS opposite CPDs in mammalian cells. Such a remarkably high in vivo fidelity of Polη could not have been anticipated in view of its low intrinsic fidelity. These observations have important bearing on how mammalian cells have adapted to avoid the mutagenic and carcinogenic consequences of exposure to sunlight. PMID:19822754

  1. Dimer formation in bis(toluene) chromium fulleride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Mehring, M.; Hönnerscheid, A.; van Wüllen, L.; Jansen, M.

    2001-11-01

    Bis(toluene)chromium fulleride is a member of a new group of fullerides which in contrast to the well-known alkali fullerides incorporate transition metals. Upon formation, a charge-transfer between the reactants Cr(C7H8)2 and C60 occurs, yielding a cubic CsCl-type room-temperature phase in which each component carries charge and spin. Cooling the fulleride below 250 K leads to a phase transition into a stable (C60)22- dimer phase. This scenario is validated by X-ray diffraction, SQUID measurements, ESR at standard and high fields, and 13C NMR results.

  2. Dimer of 2,7-diamino-1,8-naphthyridine for the detection of mismatches formed by pyrimidine nucleotide bases.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Akio; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2008-12-15

    Discrimination of base mismatches from normal Watson-Crick base pairs in duplex DNA constitutes a key approach to the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We have developed a sensor for a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay system to detect G-G, A-A, and C-C mismatch duplexes by employing a surface upon which mismatch-binding ligands (MBLs) are immobilized. We synthesized a new MBL consisting of 2,7-diamino-1,8-naphthyridine (damND) and immobilized it onto a CM5 sensor chip to carry out the SPR assay of DNA duplexes containing a single-base mismatch. The SPR sensor with damND revealed strong responses to all C-C mismatches, and sequence-dependent C-T and T-T mismatches. Compared to ND- and naphthyridine-azaquinolone hybrid (NA)-immobilized sensor surfaces, with affinity to mismatches composed of purine nucleotide bases, the damND-immobilized surface was useful for the detection of the mismatches composed of pyrimidine nucleotide bases.

  3. Immunological detection of UV induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts in DNA from reference bacteria and natural aquatic populations.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Stephanie; Stephanie, Kraft; Obst, Ursula; Ursula, Obst; Schwartz, Thomas; Thomas, Schwartz

    2011-03-01

    UV light-caused DNA damage is a widespread field of study. As UV light has the biological effect of inactivating or killing bacteria, it is used for water disinfection. Due to this application, it is important to study the DNA damage efficiencies and regeneration capacities in bacteria after UV irradiation. Two monoclonal antibodies, anti-CPD and anti-(6-4) PP, were applied for an immunoassay of UV-induced DNA modifications. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and 6-4 photoproduct (6-4 PP) were detected in the reference bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium, and in natural water communities. The antibody-mediated detection signals increased with the UV doses from 100-400J/m(2). Here, the CPD-specific signals were stronger than the (6-4) PP-specific signals. These immunological results were in accordance with parallel cultivation experiments. All UV-irradiated bacteria showed a reduction of their growth rate depending on UV application by several orders of magnitudes. The immunoassay was also applied to three types of natural aquatic habitats with different cell densities. Besides artificial UV irradiation, it was possible to visualize natural sunlight effects on these natural bacterial communities. Light-dependent and dark repair processes were distinguished using the established immunological assays. The antibody-mediated analyses presented are fast methods to detect UV-induced DNA lesions and repair capacities in selected bacterial species as well as in entire natural mixed populations.

  4. Identification of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer-Responsive Genes Using UVB-Irradiated Human Keratinocytes Transfected with In Vitro-Synthesized Photolyase mRNA.

    PubMed

    Boros, Gábor; Miko, Edit; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Weissman, Drew; Emri, Eszter; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Szegedi, Andrea; Horkay, Irén; Emri, Gabriella; Karikó, Katalin; Remenyik, Éva

    2015-01-01

    Major biological effects of UVB are attributed to cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), the most common photolesions formed on DNA. To investigate the contribution of CPDs to UVB-induced changes of gene expression, a model system was established by transfecting keratinocytes with pseudouridine-modified mRNA (Ψ-mRNA) encoding CPD-photolyase. Microarray analyses of this model system demonstrated that more than 50% of the gene expression altered by UVB was mediated by CPD photolesions. Functional classification of the gene targets revealed strong effects of CPDs on the regulation of the cell cycle and transcriptional machineries. To confirm the microarray data, cell cycle-regulatory genes, CCNE1 and CDKN2B that were induced exclusively by CPDs were selected for further investigation. Following UVB irradiation, expression of these genes increased significantly at both mRNA and protein levels, but not in cells transfected with CPD-photolyase Ψ-mRNA and exposed to photoreactivating light. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) blocked the UVB-dependent upregulation of both genes suggesting a role for JNK in relaying the signal of UVB-induced CPDs into transcriptional responses. Thus, photolyase mRNA-based experimental platform demonstrates CPD-dependent and -independent events of UVB-induced cellular responses, and, as such, has the potential to identify novel molecular targets for treatment of UVB-mediated skin diseases.

  5. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Review of Spectroscopic and Biophysical-Chemical Studies of the Complex of Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyase and Cryptochrome DASH with Substrate DNA.

    PubMed

    Schelvis, Johannes P M; Gindt, Yvonne M

    2017-01-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase (PL) is a structure-specific DNA repair enzyme that uses blue light to repair CPD on DNA. Cryptochrome (CRY) DASH enzymes use blue light for the repair of CPD lesions on single-stranded (ss) DNA, although some may also repair these lesions on double-stranded (ds) DNA. In addition, CRY DASH may be involved in blue light signaling, similar to cryptochromes. The focus of this review is on spectroscopic and biophysical-chemical experiments of the enzyme-substrate complex that have contributed to a more detailed understanding of all the aspects of the CPD repair mechanism of CPD photolyase and CRY DASH. This will be performed in the backdrop of the available X-ray crystal structures of these enzymes bound to a CPD-like lesion. These structures helped to confirm conclusions that were drawn earlier from spectroscopic and biophysical-chemical experiments, and they have a critical function as a framework to design new experiments and to interpret new experimental data. This review will show the important synergy between X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic/biophysical-chemical investigations that is essential to obtain a sufficiently detailed picture of the overall mechanism of CPD photolyases and CRY DASH proteins. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Cell cycle-independent removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the promoter and the transcription initiation domain of the human CDC2 gene.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, S; Oxyzoglou, A B; Pfeifer, G P

    2000-10-15

    To assess whether removal of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) occurs with equal efficiency at different stages of the cell cycle in a cell cycle-regulated gene, we have analyzed repair of CPDs, following a single dose of UV, in normal human fibroblasts that were synchronized in either G(0) or S phase. Based on a single nucleotide resolution analysis, we established a detailed map of DNA repair rates along the promoter region and the transcription initiation area of the human CDC2 gene. The promoter of this gene is covered by an array of sequence-specific transcription factors located between nt -280 and -9 relative to the major transcription start site. In both quiescent and S phase-synchronized fibroblasts the majority of these sequences were poorly repaired even after 24 h, probably as a result of the constitutive binding of transcription factors throughout the cell cycle. A domain of fast repair was found at sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site and continuing downstream for approximately 80 nt. CPD removal from this domain was preferential in both quiescent and proliferating fibroblasts, despite lower levels of global genome repair and a lack of CDC2 transcription in quiescent cells. We suggest that sequences involved in transcription initiation may be book-marked for efficient repair throughout the cell cycle, even when the gene is temporarily not expressed.

  8. Cell cycle-independent removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the promoter and the transcription initiation domain of the human CDC2 gene

    PubMed Central

    Tommasi, Stella; Oxyzoglou, Alexandros B.; Pfeifer, Gerd P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess whether removal of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) occurs with equal efficiency at different stages of the cell cycle in a cell cycle-regulated gene, we have analyzed repair of CPDs, following a single dose of UV, in normal human fibroblasts that were synchronized in either G0 or S phase. Based on a single nucleotide resolution analysis, we established a detailed map of DNA repair rates along the promoter region and the transcription initiation area of the human CDC2 gene. The promoter of this gene is covered by an array of sequence-specific transcription factors located between nt –280 and –9 relative to the major transcription start site. In both quiescent and S phase-synchronized fibroblasts the majority of these sequences were poorly repaired even after 24 h, probably as a result of the constitutive binding of transcription factors throughout the cell cycle. A domain of fast repair was found at sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site and continuing downstream for ∼80 nt. CPD removal from this domain was preferential in both quiescent and proliferating fibroblasts, despite lower levels of global genome repair and a lack of CDC2 transcription in quiescent cells. We suggest that sequences involved in transcription initiation may be book-marked for efficient repair throughout the cell cycle, even when the gene is temporarily not expressed. PMID:11024179

  9. Stacking of the mutagenic base analogue 5-bromouracil: energy landscapes of pyrimidine dimers in gas phase and water.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Leo F; van Mourik, Tanja

    2015-11-11

    The potential energy surfaces of stacked base pairs consisting of cytosine (C), thymine (T), uracil (U) and the mutagenic thymine analogue 5-bromouracil (BrU) have been searched to obtain all possible minima. Minima and transition states were optimised at the counterpoise-corrected M06-2X/6-31+G(d) level, both in the gas phase and in water, modelled by the polarizable continuum model. The stacked dimers studied are BrU/BrU, C/BrU, C/C, C/T, C/U, T/BrU and T/U. Both face-to-back and face-to-face structures were considered. Free energies were calculated at 298.15 K. Together with U/U, T/T and BrU/U results from previous work, these results complete the family consisting of every stacked dimer combination consisting of C, T, U and BrU. The results were used to assess the hypothesis suggested in the literature that BrU stacks stronger than T, which could stabilise the mispair formed by BrU and guanine. In the gas phase, structures of C/BrU, T/BrU and U/BrU with greater zero-point-corrected binding energies than C/T, T/T and U/T, respectively, were found, with differences in favour of BrU of 3.1 kcal mol(-1), 1.7 kcal mol(-1) and 0.5 kcal mol(-1), respectively. However, the structure of these dimers differed considerably from anything encountered in DNA. When only the dimers with the most "DNA-like" twist (±36°) were considered, C/BrU and T/BrU were still more strongly bound than C/T and T/T, by 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and 1.7 kcal mol(-1), respectively. However, when enthalpic and/or solvent contributions were taken into account, the stacking advantage of BrU was reversed in the gas phase and mostly nullified in water. Enhanced stacking therefore does not seem a plausible mechanism for the considerably greater ability of BrU-G mispairs over T-G mispairs to escape enzymatic repair.

  10. Anti-parallel dimer and tetramer formation of propylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Ayana; Numata, Tomoko; Shikata, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    Raman scattering and infrared (IR) absorption spectra of enantiopure (R)-propylene carbonate ((R)PC) and racemic propylene carbonate (PC) were recorded at room temperature, 25 °C, in benzene (Bz) solution and in the pure liquid state to investigate the presence of dimers and other higher order intermolecular associations. (R)PC and PC both demonstrated a strong C=O stretching vibrational band. The band exhibited changes in its shape and resonance wavenumber highly dependent on the concentrations of PCs, whereas a difference between the chirality of (R)PC and PC had little influence. In an extremely dilute condition, doubly split bands were observed at 1807 and 1820 cm-1 in both Raman and IR spectra, which are assigned to the characteristic bands of isolated monomeric PCs. An additional band appeared at 1795 cm-1 in a dilute to concentrated regime, and its magnitude strengthened with increasing concentrations accompanied with slight increasing in the magnitude of 1807 cm-1 band in Raman spectra, while an increase in the magnitude of 1807 cm-1 band was clearly greater than that of 1795 cm-1 band in IR spectra. The spectrum changes at 1795 and 1807 cm-1 were attributed to characteristics of anti-parallel dimer formation of PCs caused by strong dipole-dipole interactions between C=O groups. Moreover, another additional signal was clearly observed at 1780-1790 cm-1 in a concentrated regime, and became the primary signal in the pure liquid state with slight increasing in the intensity of 1795 cm-1 band in Raman spectra. On the other hand, in IR spectra the observed increasing of 1780-1790 cm-1 band was much less than that of 1795 cm-1 band. These newly found spectrum changes in the concentrated regime are attributed to the formation of anti-parallel tetramers of PCs based on the characteristics of band selection rule found in Raman and IR spectra. Equilibrium constants for the anti-parallel dimer (KD) and tetramer formation (KT) of PCs in Bz solution and in the pure

  11. Conformational Heterogeneity of Bax Helix 9 Dimer for Apoptotic Pore Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chenyi; Zhang, Zhi; Kale, Justin; Andrews, David W.; Lin, Jialing; Li, Jianing

    2016-07-01

    Helix α9 of Bax protein can dimerize in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and lead to apoptotic pores. However, it remains unclear how different conformations of the dimer contribute to the pore formation on the molecular level. Thus we have investigated various conformational states of the α9 dimer in a MOM model — using computer simulations supplemented with site-specific mutagenesis and crosslinking of the α9 helices. Our data not only confirmed the critical membrane environment for the α9 stability and dimerization, but also revealed the distinct lipid-binding preference of the dimer in different conformational states. In our proposed pathway, a crucial iso-parallel dimer that mediates the conformational transition was discovered computationally and validated experimentally. The corroborating evidence from simulations and experiments suggests that, helix α9 assists Bax activation via the dimer heterogeneity and interactions with specific MOM lipids, which eventually facilitate proteolipidic pore formation in apoptosis regulation.

  12. Lithium-mediated zincation of pyrazine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, and quinoxaline.

    PubMed

    Seggio, Anne; Chevallier, Floris; Vaultier, Michel; Mongin, Florence

    2007-08-17

    Deprotonation of pyrazine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, and quinoxaline using an in situ mixture of ZnCl2.TMEDA (0.5 equiv) and LiTMP (1.5 equiv) was studied. Pyrazine and pyrimidine were deprotonated in THF at room temperature, a result evidenced by trapping with I2. The competitive formation of dimer observed in net hexane was reduced by using cosolvents (TMEDA or THF). Starting from quinoxaline, the dimer formation took place in THF also, and mixtures of mono- and diiodides were obtained whatever the solvent and conditions used. A similar competitive formation of a diiodide was noted with pyridazine; the use of THF at reflux temperature nevertheless afforded the 3-iodo derivative in good yield.

  13. Transport of rice cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase into mitochondria relies on a targeting sequence located in its C-terminal internal region.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sayaka; Teranishi, Mika; Izumi, Masanori; Takahashi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Fumio; Hidema, Jun

    2014-09-01

    The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), which represents a major type of DNA damage induced by ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation, is a principal cause of UVB-induced growth inhibition in plants. CPD photolyase is the primary enzyme for repairing CPDs and is crucial for determining the sensitivity of Oryza sativa (rice) to UVB radiation. CPD photolyase is widely distributed among species ranging from eubacteria to eukaryotes, and is classified into class I or II based on its primary structure. We previously demonstrated that rice CPD photolyase (OsPHR), which belongs to class II and is encoded by a single-copy gene, is a unique nuclear/mitochondrial/chloroplast triple-targeting protein; however, the location and nature of the organellar targeting information contained within OsPHR are unknown. Here, the nuclear and mitochondrial targeting signal sequences of OsPHR were identified by systematic deletion analysis. The nuclear and mitochondrial targeting sequences are harbored within residues 487-489 and 391-401 in the C-terminal region of OsPHR (506 amino acid residues), respectively. The mitochondrial targeting signal represents a distinct topogenic sequence that differs structurally and functionally from classical N-terminal pre-sequences, and this region, in addition to its role in localization to the mitochondria, is essential for the proper functioning of the CPD photolyase. Furthermore, the mitochondrial targeting sequence, which is characteristic of class-II CPD photolyases, was acquired before the divergence of class-II CPD photolyases in eukaryotes. These results indicate that rice plants have evolved a CPD photolyase that functions in mitochondria to protect cells from the harmful effects of UVB radiation. © 2014 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Probing mechanism of α-formylketene dithioacetal towards the facile formation of functionalized pyrimidines: A structural approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Monu; Adeniyi, Adebayo A.; Mathews, Annie; Mathew, Bijo; Prasanth, S.; Soliman, Mohmoud E. S.; Malayan, Jalaja J.; Anabha, E. R.

    2017-01-01

    α-Formylketene dithioacetal is an active precursor for the synthesis of a variety of organic compounds including pyrimidines and its functionalized materials. The present study deals with the structural versatility of a solid representative compound from the family of α-formylketene dithioacetal to the formation of functionalized pyrimidines derivatives through experimental as well as theoretical methods. 2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-3,3-bis(methylsulfanyl)prop-2-enal, the representative compound was synthesized with a reported protocol and characterized through spectral methods. The complete three dimensional solid state structural studies were carried out utilizing single crystal X-ray crystallographic technique along with theoretical methods like classical and accelerated molecular dynamics simulation. Various quantum chemical parameters were also discussed to reveals the complete molecular geometry and reactivity of designated compound.

  15. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Interstellar Ice Analogs: Formation and Photo-Stability of Nucleobases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Milam, Stefanie N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Astrochemistry laboratory experiments recently showed that molecules of prebiotic interest can potentially form in space, as supported by the detection of amino acids in organic residues formed by the UV photolysis of ices simulating interstellar and cometary environments (H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, NH3, etc.). Although the presence of amino acids in the interstellar medium (ISM) is still under debate, experiments and the detection of amino acids in meteorites both support a scenario in which prebiotic molecules could be of extraterrestrial origin, before they are delivered to planets by comets, asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles. Nucleobases, the informational subunits of DNA and RNA, have also been detected in meteorites, although they have not yet been observed in the ISM. Thus, these molecules constitute another family of prebiotic compounds that can possibly form via abiotical processes in astrophysical environments. Nucleobases are nitrogen-bearing cyclic aromatic species with various functional groups attached, which are divided into two classes: pyrimidines (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purines (adenine and guanine). In this work, we study how UV irradiation affects pyrimidine mixed in interstellar ice analogs (H2O, NH3, CH3OH). In particular, we show that the UV irradiation of H2O:pyrimidine mixtures leads to the production of oxidized compounds including uracil, and show that both uracil and cytosine are formed upon irradiation of H2O:NH3:pyrimidine mixtures. We also study the photostability of pyrimidine and its photoproducts formed during these experiments.

  16. Reduced efficiency and increased mutagenicity of translesion DNA synthesis across a TT cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, but not a TT 6-4 photoproduct, in human cells lacking DNA polymerase eta.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Ayal; Ziv, Omer; Gueranger, Quentin; Geacintov, Nicholas; Livneh, Zvi

    2008-10-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients carry germ-line mutations in DNA polymerase eta (poleta), a major translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) polymerase, and exhibit severe sunlight sensitivity and high predisposition to skin cancer. Using a quantitative TLS assay system based on gapped plasmids we analyzed TLS across a site-specific TT CPD (thymine-thymine cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer) or TT 6-4 PP (thymine-thymine 6-4 photoproduct) in three pairs of poleta-proficient and deficient human cells. TLS across the TT CPD lesion was reduced by 2.6-4.4-fold in cells lacking poleta, and exhibited a strong 6-17-fold increase in mutation frequency at the TT CPD. All targeted mutations (74%) in poleta-deficient cells were opposite the 3'T of the CPD, however, a significant fraction (23%) were semi-targeted to the nearest nucleotides flanking the CPD. Deletions and insertions were observed at a low frequency, which increased in the absence of poleta, consistent with the formation of double strand breaks due to defective TLS. TLS across TT 6-4 PP was about twofold lower than across CPD, and was marginally reduced in poleta-deficient cells. TLS across TT 6-4 PP was highly mutagenic (27-63%), with multiple mutations types, and no significant difference between cells with or without poleta. Approximately 50% of the mutations formed were semi-targeted, of which 84-93% were due to the insertion of an A opposite the template G 5' to the 6-4 PP. These results, which are consistent with the UV hyper-mutability of XPV cells, highlight the critical role of poleta in error-free TLS across CPD in human cells, and suggest a potential involvement, although minor, of poleta in TLS across 6-4 PP under some conditions.

  17. Reactivity of Damaged Pyrimidines: DNA Cleavage via Hemiaminal Formation at the C4 Positions of the Saturated Thymine of Spore Photoproduct and Dihydrouridine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Described here are mechanistic details of the chemical reactivities of two modified/saturated pyrimidine residues that represent naturally occurring forms of DNA damage: 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, commonly referred to as the “spore photoproduct” (SP), and 5,6-dihydro-2′-deoxyuridine (dHdU), formed via ionizing radiation damage to cytosine under anoxic conditions and also serving as a general model of saturated pyrimidine residues. It is shown that due to the loss of the pyrimidine C5–C6 double bond and consequent loss of ring aromaticity, the C4 position of both these saturated pyrimidines is prone to the formation of a hemiaminal intermediate via water addition. Water addition is facilitated by basic conditions; however, it also occurs at physiological pH at a slower rate. The hemiaminal species so-formed subsequently converts to a ring-opened hydrolysis product through cleavage of the pyrimidine N3–C4 bond. Further decomposition of this ring-opened product above physiological pH leads to DNA strand break formation. Taken together, these results suggest that once the aromaticity of a pyrimidine residue is lost, the C4 position becomes a “hot spot” for the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate, the decay of which triggers a cascade of elimination reactions that can under certain conditions convert a simple nucleobase modification into a DNA strand break. PMID:25127075

  18. Quantitative experimental determination of primer-dimer formation risk by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Desmarais, Samantha M; Leitner, Thomas; Barron, Annelise E

    2012-02-01

    DNA barcodes are short, unique ssDNA primers that "mark" individual biomolecules. To gain better understanding of biophysical parameters constraining primer-dimer formation between primers that incorporate barcode sequences, we have developed a capillary electrophoresis method that utilizes drag-tag-DNA conjugates to quantify dimerization risk between primer-barcode pairs. Results obtained with this unique free-solution conjugate electrophoresis approach are useful as quantitatively precise input data to parameterize computation models of dimerization risk. A set of fluorescently labeled, model primer-barcode conjugates were designed with complementary regions of differing lengths to quantify heterodimerization as a function of temperature. Primer-dimer cases comprised two 30-mer primers, one of which was covalently conjugated to a lab-made, chemically synthesized poly-N-methoxyethylglycine drag-tag, which reduced electrophoretic mobility of ssDNA to distinguish it from ds primer-dimers. The drag-tags also provided a shift in mobility for the dsDNA species, which allowed us to quantitate primer-dimer formation. In the experimental studies, pairs of oligonucleotide primer barcodes with fully or partially complementary sequences were annealed, and then separated by free-solution conjugate CE at different temperatures, to assess effects on primer-dimer formation. When less than 30 out of 30 base-pairs were bonded, dimerization was inversely correlated to temperature. Dimerization occurred when more than 15 consecutive base-pairs formed, yet non-consecutive base-pairs did not create stable dimers even when 20 out of 30 possible base-pairs bonded. The use of free-solution electrophoresis in combination with a peptoid drag-tag and different fluorophores enabled precise separation of short DNA fragments to establish a new mobility shift assay for detection of primer-dimer formation.

  19. The reaction of the acrylonitrile ion CH 2dbnd CH-C tbnd N rad + with HCN: Proton-transport catalysis vs formation of ionized pyrimidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervasti, Henri K.; Jobst, Karl J.; Gerbaux, Pascal; Burgers, Peter C.; Ruttink, Paul J. A.; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2009-11-01

    The CBS-QB3 model chemistry predicts that the title ion-molecule reaction, of potential interest in astrochemistry, yields a stable head-to-tail dimer, [HC dbnd N-CH 2C(H)C tbnd N] rad + ( D1). Cyclization of D1 into ionized pyrimidine seems possible, but the initiating 1,2-H shift is close in energy to back-dissociation into CH 2dbnd C(H)CN rad + ( AN) + HCN. Less energy demanding is formation of the H-bridged isomers [CH 2dbnd C(CN)H--N tbnd CH] rad + and [HC tbnd N--HC(H) dbnd C(H)CN] rad +, whose HCN component may catalyze isomerization of AN into CH 2dbnd C dbnd C dbnd NH rad + ( AN1) and CH dbnd C(H)C dbnd NH rad + ( AN2) respectively. Tandem mass spectrometry based experiments using 15N/ 13C labelling show that cyclization of D1 does not occur and that AN1 is the predominant reaction product instead.

  20. Ultraviolet Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Interstellar Ice Analogs: Formation and Stability of Nucleobases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, Stefanie; Nuevo, Michel; Sandford, Scott; Elsila, Jamie; Dworkin, Jason

    The detection of amino acids in organic residues formed by the UV photolysis of 10 K ices representative of interstellar and cometary environments (H2 O, CO, CO2 , CH3 OH, NH3 , etc.) show that molecules of prebiotic interest could potentially form in space. The detection of amino acids in meteorites supports a scenario where the organic molecules required for life are of extraterrestrial origin. Nucleobases, the informational units of RNA and DNA, have also been detected in meteorites and constitute another family of prebiotic compounds that can possibly form in interstellar environments. These molecules are functionalized heterocyclic aromatic species. There are two classes of nucleobases: pyrimidines (e.g. thymine, uracil, and cytosine) and purines (e.g. adenine and guanine). The functionalization of PAHs from UV photolysis in mixed molecular ices has been proven effective in the laboratory. This work aims at studying how UV irradiation affects pyrimidine in interstellar ice analogs. In particular, we show how H2 O/ pyrimidine mixtures lead to the production of oxidized compounds and study their photostability.

  1. Hydration of the pyrimidine radical cation and stepwise solvation of protonated pyrimidine with water, methanol, and acetonitrile.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Ahmed M; Sharma, Pramod; El-Shall, M Samy; Hilal, Rifaat; Elroby, Shaaban; Aziz, Saadullah G; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O

    2013-08-28

    Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using an ion mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding energies and entropy changes associated with the stepwise hydration of the biologically significant ions pyrimidine radical cation and protonated pyrimidine. The binding energy of the hydrated pyrimidine radical cation is weaker than that of the proton-bound dimer pyrimidineH(+)(H2O) consistent with the formation of a weak carbon-based CH(δ+)··OH2 hydrogen bond (11.9 kcal/mol) and a stronger NH(+)··OH2 hydrogen bond (15.6 kcal/mol), respectively. Other proton-bound dimers such as pyrimidineH(+)(CH3OH) and pyrimidineH(+)(CH3CN) exhibit higher binding energies (18.2 kcal/mol and 22.8 kcal/mol, respectively) due to the higher proton affinities and dipole moments of acetonitrile and methanol as compared to water. The measured collisional cross sections of the proton-bound dimers provide experimental-based support for the DFT calculated structures at the M06-2x/6-311++G (d,p) level. The calculations show that the hydrated pyrimidine radical cation clusters form internally solvated structures in which the water molecules are bonded to the C4N2H4(●+) ion by weak CH(δ+)··OH2 hydrogen bonds. The hydrated protonated pyrimidine clusters form externally solvated structures where the water molecules are bonded to each other and the ion is external to the water cluster. Dissociative proton transfer reactions C4N2H4(●+)(H2O)(n-1) + H2O → C4N2H3(●) + (H2O)(n)H(+) and C4N2H5(+)(H2O)(n-1) + H2O → C4N2H4 + (H2O)(n)H(+) are observed for n ≥ 4 where the reactions become thermoneutral or exothermic. The absence of the dissociative proton transfer reaction within the C4N2H5(+)(CH3CN)n clusters results from the inability of acetonitrile molecules to form extended hydrogen bonding structures such as those formed by water and methanol due to the presence of the methyl groups which block the extension of hydrogen bonding networks.

  2. Hydration of the pyrimidine radical cation and stepwise solvation of protonated pyrimidine with water, methanol, and acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Ahmed M.; Sharma, Pramod; Samy El-Shall, M.; Hilal, Rifaat; Elroby, Shaaban; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O.

    2013-08-01

    Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using an ion mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding energies and entropy changes associated with the stepwise hydration of the biologically significant ions pyrimidine radical cation and protonated pyrimidine. The binding energy of the hydrated pyrimidine radical cation is weaker than that of the proton-bound dimer pyrimidineH+(H2O) consistent with the formation of a weak carbon-based CHδ+..OH2 hydrogen bond (11.9 kcal/mol) and a stronger NH+..OH2 hydrogen bond (15.6 kcal/mol), respectively. Other proton-bound dimers such as pyrimidineH+(CH3OH) and pyrimidineH+(CH3CN) exhibit higher binding energies (18.2 kcal/mol and 22.8 kcal/mol, respectively) due to the higher proton affinities and dipole moments of acetonitrile and methanol as compared to water. The measured collisional cross sections of the proton-bound dimers provide experimental-based support for the DFT calculated structures at the M06-2x/6-311++G (d,p) level. The calculations show that the hydrated pyrimidine radical cation clusters form internally solvated structures in which the water molecules are bonded to the C4N2H4•+ ion by weak CHδ+..OH2 hydrogen bonds. The hydrated protonated pyrimidine clusters form externally solvated structures where the water molecules are bonded to each other and the ion is external to the water cluster. Dissociative proton transfer reactions C4N2H4•+(H2O)n-1 + H2O → C4N2H3• + (H2O)nH+ and C4N2H5+(H2O)n-1 + H2O → C4N2H4 + (H2O)nH+ are observed for n ≥ 4 where the reactions become thermoneutral or exothermic. The absence of the dissociative proton transfer reaction within the C4N2H5+(CH3CN)n clusters results from the inability of acetonitrile molecules to form extended hydrogen bonding structures such as those formed by water and methanol due to the presence of the methyl groups which block the extension of hydrogen bonding networks.

  3. Formation and properties of dimeric recombinant horseradish peroxidase in a system of reversed micelles.

    PubMed

    Gazaryan, I G; Klyachko, N L; Dulkis, Y K; Ouporov, I V; Levashov, A V

    1997-12-01

    Wild-type recombinant horseradish peroxidase purified and refolded from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies has been studied in the system of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate sodium salt (Aerosol OT)-reversed micelles in octane. In contrast with native horseradish peroxidase the wild-type recombinant enzyme forms dimeric structures as judged by sedimentation analysis. Peroxidase substrates affect the equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric enzyme forms. The dependence of the catalytic activity of recombinant peroxidase on the degree of hydration of the surfactant exhibits two maxima with pyrogallol, o-phenylene- diamine, guaiacol and o-dianisidine, with different ratios of activities for the first and second maxima. The differences in activities of monomeric and dimeric forms of the recombinant horseradish peroxidase provide evidence for active-site screening in dimeric forms. This has been used to model a dimeric structure of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with the screened entrance to the active site. In the model structure obtained, three of eight glycosylation sites were screened. This might explain the absence of dimeric structures in native enzyme peroxidase. The system of reversed micelles provides, for the first time, evidence for the formation of dimeric structures by recombinant plant peroxidase with an altered substrate specificity compared with the native enzyme. Thus one can assume that haem-containing peroxidases in general are able to form dimeric structures.

  4. Formation and properties of dimeric recombinant horseradish peroxidase in a system of reversed micelles.

    PubMed Central

    Gazaryan, I G; Klyachko, N L; Dulkis, Y K; Ouporov, I V; Levashov, A V

    1997-01-01

    Wild-type recombinant horseradish peroxidase purified and refolded from Escherichia coli inclusion bodies has been studied in the system of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulphosuccinate sodium salt (Aerosol OT)-reversed micelles in octane. In contrast with native horseradish peroxidase the wild-type recombinant enzyme forms dimeric structures as judged by sedimentation analysis. Peroxidase substrates affect the equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric enzyme forms. The dependence of the catalytic activity of recombinant peroxidase on the degree of hydration of the surfactant exhibits two maxima with pyrogallol, o-phenylene- diamine, guaiacol and o-dianisidine, with different ratios of activities for the first and second maxima. The differences in activities of monomeric and dimeric forms of the recombinant horseradish peroxidase provide evidence for active-site screening in dimeric forms. This has been used to model a dimeric structure of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with the screened entrance to the active site. In the model structure obtained, three of eight glycosylation sites were screened. This might explain the absence of dimeric structures in native enzyme peroxidase. The system of reversed micelles provides, for the first time, evidence for the formation of dimeric structures by recombinant plant peroxidase with an altered substrate specificity compared with the native enzyme. Thus one can assume that haem-containing peroxidases in general are able to form dimeric structures. PMID:9371726

  5. Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-12-01

    Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule.

  6. Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-01-01

    Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule. PMID:26621558

  7. Formation of Enhanced Uniform Chiral Fields in Symmetric Dimer Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaorui; Fang, Yurui; Sun, Mengtao

    2015-12-01

    Chiral fields with large optical chirality are very important in chiral molecules analysis, sensing and other measurements. Plasmonic nanostructures have been proposed to realize such super chiral fields for enhancing weak chiral signals. However, most of them cannot provide uniform chiral near-fields close to the structures, which makes these nanostructures not so efficient for applications. Plasmonic helical nanostructures and blocked squares have been proved to provide uniform chiral near-fields, but structure fabrication is a challenge. In this paper, we show that very simple plasmonic dimer structures can provide uniform chiral fields in the gaps with large enhancement of both near electric fields and chiral fields under linearly polarized light illumination with polarization off the dimer axis at dipole resonance. An analytical dipole model is utilized to explain this behavior theoretically. 30 times of volume averaged chiral field enhancement is gotten in the whole gap. Chiral fields with opposite handedness can be obtained simply by changing the polarization to the other side of the dimer axis. It is especially useful in Raman optical activity measurement and chiral sensing of small quantity of chiral molecule.

  8. Dimer-dimer interaction of the bacterial selenocysteine synthase SelA promotes functional active-site formation and catalytic specificity.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuzuru; Bröcker, Markus J; Sekine, Shun-ichi; Söll, Dieter; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-04-17

    The 21st amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is incorporated translationally into proteins and is synthesized on its specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)). In Bacteria, the selenocysteine synthase SelA converts Ser-tRNA(Sec), formed by seryl-tRNA synthetase, to Sec-tRNA(Sec). SelA, a member of the fold-type-I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme superfamily, has an exceptional homodecameric quaternary structure with a molecular mass of about 500kDa. Our previously determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus SelA complexed with tRNA(Sec) revealed that the ring-shaped decamer is composed of pentamerized SelA dimers, with two SelA dimers arranged to collaboratively interact with one Ser-tRNA(Sec). The SelA catalytic site is close to the dimer-dimer interface, but the significance of the dimer pentamerization in the catalytic site formation remained elusive. In the present study, we examined the quaternary interactions and demonstrated their importance for SelA activity by systematic mutagenesis. Furthermore, we determined the crystal structures of "depentamerized" SelA variants with mutations at the dimer-dimer interface that prevent pentamerization. These dimeric SelA variants formed a distorted and inactivated catalytic site and confirmed that the pentamer interactions are essential for productive catalytic site formation. Intriguingly, the conformation of the non-functional active site of dimeric SelA shares structural features with other fold-type-I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes with native dimer or tetramer (dimer-of-dimers) quaternary structures. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Aggregation of Kanamycin A: dimer formation with physiological cations.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Johannes M; Gerstel, Ulrich; Schröder, Jens-Michael; Hartke, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    Global cluster geometry optimization has focused so far on clusters of atoms or of compact molecules. We are demonstrating here that present-day techniques also allow to globally optimize clusters of extended, flexible molecules, and that such studies have immediate relevance to experiment. For example, recent experimental findings point to production of larger clusters of an aminoglycoside closely related to Kanamycin A (KA), together with certain preferred physiological cations, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The present study provides first theoretical support for KA clustering, with a close examination of the monomer, the bare dimer, and dimers with sodium and potassium cations, employing global cluster structure optimization, in conjunction with force fields, semiempirical methods, DFT and ab-initio approaches. Interestingly, already at this stage the theoretical findings support the experimental observation that sodium cations are preferred over potassium cations in KA clusters, due to fundamentally different cationic embedding. Theoretically predicted NMR and IR spectra for these species indicate that it should be possible to experimentally detect the aggregation state and even the cationic embedding mode in such clusters.

  10. Dimerization and its role in GMP formation by human guanylate binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nazish; Balakumari, Meena; Sau, Apurba Kumar

    2010-10-06

    The mechanism of oligomerization and its role in the regulation of activity in large GTPases are not clearly understood. Human guanylate binding proteins (hGBP-1 and 2) belonging to large GTPases have the unique feature of hydrolyzing GTP to a mixture of GDP and GMP with unequal ratios. Using a series of truncated and mutant proteins of hGBP-1, we identified a hydrophobic helix in the connecting region between the two domains that plays a critical role in dimerization and regulation of the GTPase activity. The fluorescence with 1-8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonate and circular dichroism measurements together suggest that in the absence of the substrate analog, the helix is masked inside the protein but becomes exposed through a substrate-induced conformational switch, and thus mediates dimerization. This is further supported by the intrinsic fluorescence experiment, where Leu(298) of this helix is replaced by a tryptophan. Remarkably, the enzyme exhibits differential GTPase activities depending on dimerization; a monomer produces only GDP, but a dimer gives both GDP and GMP with stimulation of the activity. An absolute dependence of GMP formation with dimerization demonstrates a cross talk between the monomers during the second hydrolysis. Similar to hGBP-1, hGBP-2 showed dimerization-related GTPase activity for GMP formation, indicating that this family of proteins follows a broadly similar mechanism for GTP hydrolysis.

  11. Dimerization Interface of 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Tunes the Formation of Its Catalytic Intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ying-Hua; Fan, Jun; Sun, Fei

    2014-01-01

    3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35) is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD) that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A) with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60–80) that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects. PMID:24763278

  12. A Strategy for Complex Dimer Formation When Biomimicry Fails: Total Synthesis of Ten Coccinellid Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature’s presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class. PMID:24959981

  13. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-09

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  14. Formation of covalent di-tyrosine dimers in recombinant α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    van Maarschalkerweerd, A; Pedersen, MN; Peterson, H; Nilsson, M; Nguyen, TTT; Skamris, T; Rand, K; Vetri, V; Langkilde, AE; Vestergaard, B

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is associated with fibril deposition in the diseased brain. Misfolding events of the intrinsically disordered synaptic protein α-synuclein are suggested to lead to the formation of transient oligomeric and cytotoxic species. The etiology of Parkinson's disease is further associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and formation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress causes chemical modification of native α-synuclein, plausibly further influencing misfolding events. Here, we present evidence for the spontaneous formation of covalent di-tyrosine α-synuclein dimers in standard recombinant protein preparations, induced without extrinsic oxidative or nitrative agents. The dimers exhibit no secondary structure but advanced SAXS studies reveal an increased structural definition, resulting in a more hydrophobic micro-environment than the highly disordered monomer. Accordingly, monomers and dimers follow distinct fibrillation pathways. PMID:28232892

  15. A new quadruple hydrogen-bonding module with a DDAA array: formation of a stable homodimer without competition from undesired hydrogen-bonded dimers.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Shirai, Naohiro; Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Odashima, Kazunori

    2009-10-01

    A new DDAA hydrogen-bonding module (UImp-2), based on a ureidoimidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine structure, forms a highly stable homodimer (K(dim) > 1.1 x 10(5) M(-1) in CDCl(3)) without competition from undesired hydrogen-bonded dimers.

  16. Observation of covalent and electrostatic bonds in nitrogen-containing polycyclic ions formed by gas phase reactions of the benzene radical cation with pyrimidine.

    PubMed

    Attah, Isaac Kwame; Soliman, Abdel-Rahman; Platt, Sean P; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; Aziz, Saaudallah G; Samy El-Shall, M

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclics (PANHs) are present in ionizing environments, including interstellar clouds and solar nebulae, where their ions can interact with neutral PAH and PANH molecules leading to the formation of a variety of complex organics including large N-containing ions. Herein, we report on the formation of a covalently-bonded (benzene·pyrimidine) radical cation dimer by the gas phase reaction of pyrimidine with the benzene radical cation at room temperature using the mass-selected ion mobility technique. No ligand exchange reactions with benzene and pyrimidine are observed indicating that the binding energy of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) adduct is significantly higher than both the benzene dimer cation and the proton-bound pyrimidine dimer. The (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) adduct shows thermal stability up to 541 K. Thermal dissociation of the (C6D6·C4H4N2)˙(+) adduct at temperatures higher than 500 K produces C4H4N2D(+) (m/z 82) suggesting the transfer of a D atom from the C6D6 moiety to the C4H4N2 moiety before the dissociation of the adduct. Mass-selected ion mobility of the (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) dimer reveals the presence of two families of isomers formed by electron impact ionization of the neutral (benzene·pyrimidine) dimer. The slower mobility peak corresponds to a non-covalent family of isomers with larger collision cross sections (76.0 ± 1.8 Å(2)) and the faster peak is consistent with a family of covalent isomers with more compact structures and smaller collision cross sections (67.7 ± 2.2 Å(2)). The mobility measurements at 509 K show only one peak corresponding to the family of stable covalently bonded isomers characterized by smaller collision cross sections (66.9 ± 1.9 Å(2) at 509 K). DFT calculations at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level show that the most stable (benzene·pyrimidine)˙(+) isomer forms a covalent C-N bond with a binding energy of 49.7 kcal mol(-1) and a

  17. Computational investigations on covalent dimerization/oligomerization of polyacenes: is it relevant to soot formation?

    PubMed

    Koley, D; Arunan, E; Ramakrishnan, S

    2012-08-05

    We have postulated a novel pathway that could assist in the nucleation of soot particles through covalent dimerization and oligomerizations of a variety of PAHs. DFT calculations were performed with the objective of obtaining the relative thermal stabilities and formation probabilities of oligomeric species that exploit the facile dimerization that is known to occur in linear oligoacenes. We propose that the presence of small stretches of linear oligoacence (tetracene or longer) in extended PAH, either embedded or tethered, would be adequate for enabling the formation of such dimeric and oligomeric adducts; these could then serve as nuclei for the growth of soot particles. Our studies also reveal the importance of π-stacking interactions between extended aromatic frameworks in governing the relative stabilities of the oligomeric species that are formed.

  18. Formation of oxidative and non-oxidative dimers in metallothioneins: Implications for charge state analysis for structural determination.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gordon W; Heinlein, Lina; Renaud, Justin B; Sumarah, Mark W; Stillman, Martin J

    2017-10-07

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a class of dynamic proteins that have been investigated extensively using mass spectrometric methods due to their amenability to ionization. Here we detect the formation of oxidative and non-oxidative MT dimers using high resolution mass spectrometry which has previously been overlooked with lower resolution techniques. Recombinant human MT1a and its isolated domain fragments were analyzed by high-resolution Thermo Q-Exactive and Bruker-TOF MS. Covalent Cys modification was performed using N-ethylmalemide to probe the effect of Cys oxidation on dimer formation. Dimerization was detected in the analysis of select charge states of Zn7 MT and apo-βMT. Specifically, high resolution (140k) revealed the +6 dimer peaks overlapping with the +3 charge state, but not with the other charge states (+4, +5, +6). The proteins with covalently modified Cys did not show dimer formation in any of their charge states. Apo-α and apo-βαMT also did not form dimers under the conditions tested. Dimerization of MT was detected for zinc metalated and certain apo-MT forms with high resolution mass spectrometry, which was not seen with lower resolution techniques. These dimers appear overlapped only with certain charge states, confounding their analysis for structural characterization of MTs. The Zn-MT dimers appeared to be non-oxidative, however, the formation of dimers in the apo-protein is likely dependent on Cys oxidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. The mechanism of excimer formation: an experimental and theoretical study on the pyrene dimer.

    PubMed

    Hoche, Joscha; Schmitt, Hans-Christian; Humeniuk, Alexander; Fischer, Ingo; Mitrić, Roland; Röhr, Merle I S

    2017-09-06

    The understanding of excimer formation in organic materials is of fundamental importance, since excimers profoundly influence their functional performance in applications such as light-harvesting, photovoltaics or organic electronics. We present a joint experimental and theoretical study of the ultrafast dynamics of excimer formation in the pyrene dimer in a supersonic jet, which is the archetype of an excimer forming system. We perform simulations of the nonadiabatic photodynamics in the frame of TDDFT that reveal two distinct excimer formation pathways in the gas-phase dimer. The first pathway involves local excited state relaxation close to the initial Franck-Condon geometry that is characterized by a strong excitation of the stacking coordinate exhibiting damped oscillations with a period of 350 fs that persist for several picoseconds. The second excimer forming pathway involves large amplitude oscillations along the parallel shift coordinate with a period of ≈900 fs that after intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution leads to the formation of a perfectly stacked dimer. The electronic relaxation within the excitonic manifold is mediated by the presence of intermolecular conical intersections formed between fully delocalized excitonic states. Such conical intersections may generally arise in stacked π-conjugated aggregates due to the interplay between the long-range and short-range electronic coupling. The simulations are supported by picosecond photoionization experiments in a supersonic jet that provide a time-constant for the excimer formation of around 6-7 ps, in good agreement with theory. Finally, in order to explore how the crystal environment influences the excimer formation dynamics we perform large scale QM/MM nonadiabatic dynamics simulations on a pyrene crystal in the framework of the long-range corrected tight-binding TDDFT. In contrast to the isolated dimer, the excimer formation in the crystal follows a single reaction pathway in which

  20. Mechanisms of carbon dimer formation in colliding laser-produced carbon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Oliver, John; Diwakar, Prasoon K.

    2017-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that the hot stagnation region formed during the collision of laser-produced carbon plasmas is rich with carbon dimers which have been shown to be synthesized into large carbon macromolecules such as carbon fullerene onions and nanotubes. In this study, we developed and integrated experimental and multidimensional modeling techniques to access the temporal and spatial resolution of colliding plasma characteristics that elucidated the mechanism for early carbon dimer formation. Plume evolution imaging, monochromatic imaging, and optical emission spectroscopy of graphite-produced, carbon plasmas were performed. Experimental results were compared with the results of the 3D comprehensive modeling using our HEIGHTS simulation package. The results are explained based on a fundamental analysis of plasma evolution, colliding layer formation, stagnation, and expansion. The precise mechanisms of the plasma collision, plume propagation, and particle formation are discussed based on the experimental and modeling results.

  1. Mutations that affect coenzyme binding and dimer formation of fungal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Brunskole, Mojca; Kristan, Katja; Stojan, Jure; Rizner, Tea Lanisnik

    2009-03-25

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl) is an NADPH-dependent member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, and it functions as a dimer that is composed of two identical subunits. By constructing the appropriate mutants, we have examined the M204 residue that is situated in the coenzyme binding pocket, for its role in the binding of the coenzyme NADP(H). We have also studied the importance of hydrophobic interactions through F124, F132, F133 and F177 for 17beta-HSDcl dimer formation. The M204G substitution decreased the catalytic efficiency of 17beta-HSDcl, suggesting that M204 sterically coerces the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme into the appropriate position for further hydride transfer. Phenylalanine substitutions introduced at the dimer interface produced inactive aggregates and oligomers with high molecular masses, suggesting that these hydrophobic interactions have important roles in the formation of the active dimer.

  2. Homochiral Selectivity in RNA Synthesis: Montmorillonite-catalyzed Quaternary Reactions of D, L-Purine with D, L- Pyrimidine Nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Aldersley, Michael F.; Ferris, James P.

    2011-06-01

    Selective adsorption of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on the platelets of montmorillonite demonstrates an important reaction pathway for the origin of homochirality in RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies have shown that the individual reactions of D, L-ImpA or D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite catalyst produced oligomers which were only partially inhibited by the incorporation of both D- and L-enantiomers. Homochirality in these reactions was largely due to the formation of cyclic dimers that cannot elongate. We investigated the quaternary reactions of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite. The chain length of these oligomers increased from 9-mer to 11-mer as observed by HPLC, with a concominant increase in the yield of linear dimers and higher oligomers in the reactions involving D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU as compared to the similar reactions carried out with D-enantiomers only. The formation of cyclic dimers of U was completely inhibited in the quaternary reactions. The yield of cyclic dimers of A was reduced from 60% to 10% within the dimer fraction. 12 linear dimers and 3 cyclic dimers were isolated and characterized from the quaternary reaction. The homochirality and regioselectivity of dimers were 64.1% and 71.7%, respectively. Their sequence selectivity was shown by the formation of purine-pyrimidine (54-59%) linkages, followed by purine-purine (29-32%) linkages and pyrimidine-pyrimidine (9-13%) linkages. Of the 16 trimers detected, 10 were homochiral with an overall homochirality of 73-76%. In view of the greater homochirality, sequence- and regio- selectivity, the quaternary reactions on montmorillonite demonstrate an unexpectedly favorable route for the prebiotic synthesis of homochiral RNA compared with the separate reactions of enantiomeric activated mononucleotides.

  3. The RAD7 and RAD16 genes, which are essential for pyrimidine dimer removal from the silent mating type loci, are also required for repair of the nontranscribed strand of an active gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Verhage, R; Zeeman, A M; de Groot, N; Gleig, F; Bang, D D; van de Putte, P; Brouwer, J

    1994-01-01

    The rad16 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was previously shown to be impaired in removal of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers from the silent mating-type loci (D. D. Bang, R. A. Verhage, N. Goosen, J. Brouwer, and P. van de Putte, Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3925-3931, 1992). Here we show that rad7 as well as rad7 rad16 double mutants have the same repair phenotype, indicating that the RAD7 and RAD16 gene products might operate in the same nucleotide excision repair subpathway. Dimer removal from the genome overall is essentially incomplete in these mutants, leaving about 20 to 30% of the DNA unrepaired. Repair analysis of the transcribed RPB2 gene shows that the nontranscribed strand is not repaired at all in rad7 and rad16 mutants, whereas the transcribed strand is repaired in these mutants at a fast rate similar to that in RAD+ cells. When the results obtained with the RPB2 gene can be generalized, the RAD7 and RAD16 proteins not only are essential for repair of silenced regions but also function in repair of nontranscribed strands of active genes in S. cerevisiae. The phenotype of rad7 and rad16 mutants closely resembles that of human xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XP-C) cells, suggesting that RAD7 and RAD16 in S. cerevisiae function in the same pathway as the XPC gene in human cells. RAD4, which on the basis of sequence homology has been proposed to be the yeast XPC counterpart, seems to be involved in repair of both inactive and active yeast DNA, challenging the hypothesis that RAD4 and XPC are functional homologs. Images PMID:8065346

  4. Peptide modification results in the formation of a dimer with a 60-fold enhanced antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Thamri, Amal; Létourneau, Myriam; Djoboulian, Alex; Chatenet, David; Déziel, Eric; Perreault, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) occur naturally in numerous organisms and are considered as a class of antibiotics with promising potential against multi-resistant bacteria. Herein, we report a strategy that can lead to the discovery of novel small CAMPs with greatly enhanced antimicrobial activity and retained antibiofilm potential. We geared our efforts towards i) the N-terminal cysteine functionalization of a previously reported small synthetic cationic peptide (peptide 1037, KRFRIRVRV-NH2), ii) its dimerization through a disulfide bond, and iii) a preliminary antimicrobial activity assessment of the newly prepared dimer against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia, pathogens responsible for the formation of biofilms in lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. This dimer is of high interest as it does not only show greatly enhanced bacterial growth inhibition properties compared to its pep1037 precursor (up to 60 times), but importantly, also displays antibiofilm potential at sub-MICs. Our results suggest that the reported dimer holds promise for its use in future adjunctive therapy, in combination with clinically-relevant antibiotics. PMID:28296935

  5. Formation and occurrence of dimer esters of pinene oxidation products in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, K.; Enggrob, K. L.; King, S. M.; Worton, D. R.; Platt, S. M.; Mortensen, R.; Rosenoern, T.; Surratt, J. D.; Bilde, M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Glasius, M.

    2013-04-01

    The formation of carboxylic acids and dimer esters from α-pinene oxidation was investigated in a smog chamber and in ambient aerosol samples collected during the Biosphere Effects on Aerosols and Photochemistry Experiment (BEARPEX). Chamber experiments of α-pinene ozonolysis in dry air and at low NOx concentrations demonstrated formation of two dimer esters, pinyl-diaterpenyl (MW 358) and pinonyl-pinyl dimer ester (MW 368), under both low- and high-temperature conditions. Concentration levels of the pinyl-diaterpenyl dimer ester were lower than the assumed first-generation oxidation products cis-pinic and terpenylic acids, but similar to the second-generation oxidation products 3-methyl-1,2,3-butane tricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA). Dimer esters were observed within the first 30 min, indicating rapid production simultaneous to their structural precursors. However, the sampling time resolution precluded conclusive evidence regarding formation from gas- or particle-phase processes. CCN activities of the particles formed in the smog chamber displayed a modest variation during the course of experiments, with κ values in the range 0.06-0.09 (derived at a supersaturation of 0.19%). The pinyl-diaterpenyl dimer ester was also observed in ambient aerosol samples collected above a ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California during two seasonally distinct field campaigns in September 2007 and July 2009. The pinonyl-pinyl ester was observed for the first time in ambient air during the 2009 campaign, and although present at much lower concentrations, it was correlated with the abundance of the pinyl-diaterpenyl ester, suggesting similarities in their formation. The maximum concentration of the pinyl-diaterpenyl ester was almost 10 times higher during the warmer 2009 campaign relative to 2007, while the concentration of cis-pinic acid was approximately the same during both periods, and lack of correlation with levels of

  6. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-09-15

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail.

  7. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-09-01

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail.

  8. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail. PMID:27630059

  9. Tyrosine residues mediate fibril formation in a dynamic light chain dimer interface.

    PubMed

    DiCostanzo, Ara Celi; Thompson, James R; Peterson, Francis C; Volkman, Brian F; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2012-08-10

    Light chain amyloidosis is an incurable protein misfolding disease where monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains misfold and deposit as amyloid fibrils, causing organ failure and death. Previously, we determined that amyloidogenic light chains AL-09 and AL-103 do not form fibrils at pH 10 (tyrosine pK(a)). There are three tyrosine residues (32, 91, and 96) clustered in the dimer interface, interacting differently in the two light chain proteins due to their two different dimer conformations. These tyrosines may be ionized at pH 10, causing repulsion and inhibiting fibril formation. Here, we characterize single and double Tyr-to-Phe mutations in AL-09 and AL-103. All AL-09 Tyr-to-Phe mutants form fibrils at pH 10, whereas none of the AL-103 mutants form fibrils at pH 10. NMR studies suggest that although both AL-09 and AL-103 present conformational heterogeneity, only AL-09 favors dimer conformations where tyrosine residues mediate crucial interactions for amyloid formation.

  10. Site and bond selective H- formation in methylated pyrimidine bases driven by potassium molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Martins, G.; Nunes, Y.; Garcia, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2012-11-01

    In this study we present for the first time site (N1-H / N3-H) and bond (N-H / C-H) selectivity of H- formation in 1-methylthymine, 3-methyluracil and deuterated thymine (C positions) triggered by potassium molecule collisions. By comparing the H loss of these molecules with H loss in thymine and uracil and setting the energy one can predict site and bond selectivity in these set of molecules.

  11. Structural diversity of Alzheimer’s disease Aβ dimers and their role in oligomerization and fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Tsigelny, Igor F.; Sharikov, Yuriy; Kouznetsova, Valentina L.; Greenberg, Jerry P.; Wrasidlo, Wolfgang; Gonzalez, Tania; Desplats, Paula; Michael, Sarah E.; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Overk, Cassia R.; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with the formation of toxic Aβ42 oligomers and recent evidence supports a role for Aβ dimers as building blocks for oligomers. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies have identified clans for the dominant conformations of Aβ42 forming dimers; however, it is unclear if a larger spectrum of dimers is involved and which set(s) of dimers might evolve to oligomers verse fibrils. Therefore, for this study we generated multiple structural conformations of Aβ42, using explicit all-atom MD, and then clustering the different structures based on key conformational similarities. Those matching a selection threshold were then used to model a process of oligomerization. Remarkably, we showed a greater diversity in Aβ dimers than previously described. Depending on the clan family, different types of Aβ dimers were obtained. While some had the tendency to evolve into oligomeric rings, others formed fibrils of diverse characteristics. Then we selected the dimers that would evolve to membranephilic annular oligomers. Nearly one third of the 28 evaluated annular oligomers had the dimer interfaces between the neighboring Aβ42 monomers with possible salt bridges between the residue K28 from one side and either residue E22 or D23 on the other. Based on these results, key amino acids were identified for point mutations that either enhanced or suppressed the formation and toxicity of oligomer rings. Our studies suggest a greater diversity of Aβ dimers. Understanding the structure of Aβ dimers might be important for the rationale design of small molecules that block formation of toxic oligomers. PMID:24240640

  12. Ambient observations of dimers from terpene oxidation in the gas phase: Implications for new particle formation and growth: Ambient Observations of Gas-Phase Dimers

    DOE PAGES

    Mohr, Claudia; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Yli-Juuti, Taina; ...

    2017-03-28

    Here, we present ambient observations of dimeric monoterpene oxidation products (C16–20HyO6–9) in gas and particle phases in the boreal forest in Finland in spring 2013 and 2014, detected with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols employing acetate and iodide as reagent ions. These are among the first online dual-phase observations of such dimers in the atmosphere. Estimated saturation concentrations of 10-15 to 10-6 µg m-3 (based on observed thermal desorptions and group-contribution methods) and measured gas-phase concentrations of 10-3 to 10-2 µg m-3 (~106–107 molecules cm-3) corroborate a gas-phase formation mechanism. Regular newmore » particle formation (NPF) events allowed insights into the potential role dimers may play for atmospheric NPF and growth. The observationally constrained Model for Acid-Base chemistry in NAnoparticle Growth indicates a contribution of ~5% to early stage particle growth from the ~60 gaseous dimer compounds.« less

  13. Sites of preferential induction of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in the nontranscribed strand of lacI correspond with sites of UV-induced mutation in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, D.R.; Awadallah, S.S.; Glickman, B.W. )

    1991-06-25

    An approach utilizing fluorescence-activated DNA sequencing technology was used to study the position and frequency of UV-induced lesions in the lacI gene of Escherichia coli. The spectrum of sites of UV damage in the NC+ region of the gene was compared with a published spectrum of UV-induced mutation in lacI . On average, the frequency of UV-induced lesions in the nontranscribed strand was higher than that in the transcribed strand in the region analyzed. A large fraction of mutations occurs at sites of UV-induced lesions in the nontranscribed strand, but not in the transcribed strand. This bias is reduced in an excision repair deficient (UvrB-) strain. In addition, mutations occur overwhelmingly at sites where a dipyrimidine sequence is present in the nontranscribed strand. This bias is also markedly reduced in the UvrB- strain. In light of recent work Mellon and Hanawalt describing the preferential removal of cyclobutane dimers from the transcribed strand of the expressed lacZ gene in E. coli, our data suggest that preferential strand repair may have a significant effect on mutagenesis.

  14. Electrophilicity of pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, pyrimidine-2-carbonitrile, and pyridine-carbonitrile derivatives: a chemical model to describe the formation of thiazoline derivatives in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sarmistha; Ahire, Deepak; Wagh, Santosh; Mullick, Dibakar; Sistla, Ramesh; Selvakumar, Kumaravel; Cortes, Janet Caceres; Putlur, Siva Prasad; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Johnson, Benjamin M

    2014-12-15

    Certain aromatic nitriles are well-known inhibitors of cysteine proteases. The mode of action of these compounds involves the formation of a reversible or irreversible covalent bond between the nitrile and a thiol group in the active site of the enzyme. However, the reactivity of these aromatic nitrile-substituted heterocycles may lead inadvertently to nonspecific interactions with DNA, protein, glutathione, and other endogenous components, resulting in toxicity and complicating the use of these compounds as therapeutic agents. In the present study, the intrinsic reactivity and associated structure-property relationships of cathepsin K inhibitors featuring substituted pyridazines [6-phenylpyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridazine-3-carbonitrile, 6-p-tolylpyridazine-3-carbonitrile], pyrimidines [5-p-tolylpyrimidine-2-carbonitrile, 5-(4-fluorophenyl)pyrimidine-2-carbonitrile], and pyridines [5-p-tolylpicolinonitrile and 5-(4-fluorophenyl)picolinonitrile] were evaluated using a combination of computational and analytical approaches to establish correlations between electrophilicity and levels of metabolites that were formed in glutathione- and N-acetylcysteine-supplemented human liver microsomes. Metabolites that were characterized in this study featured substituted thiazolines that were formed following rearrangements of transient glutathione and N-acetylcysteine conjugates. Peptidases including γ-glutamyltranspeptidase were shown to catalyze the formation of these products, which were formed to lesser extents in the presence of the selective γ-glutamyltranspeptidase inhibitor acivicin and the nonspecific peptidase inhibitors phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and aprotinin. Of the chemical series mentioned above, the pyrimidine series was the most susceptible to metabolism to thiazoline-containing products, followed, in order, by the pyridazine and pyridine series. This trend was in keeping with the

  15. TNF-alpha impairs the S-G2/M cell cycle checkpoint and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in premalignant skin cells: role of the PI3K-Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Faurschou, Annesofie; Gniadecki, Robert; Calay, Damien; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2008-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is induced by UVB radiation and has been implicated in the early stages of skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that in normal keratinocytes and the transformed keratinocyte cell lines, HaCaT and A431, TNF-alpha stimulates protein kinase B/Akt, which results in activation of the survival complex mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) and inhibition of the proapoptotic proteins Bad and FoxO3a. In UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells (10-20 mJ cm(-2)), TNF-alpha increased the proportion of cycling cells and enhanced the rate of apoptosis. A significantly higher proportion of UVB-treated HaCaT cells containing unrepaired cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) escaped the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint in the presence of TNF-alpha (9.5+/-3.3 vs 4.8+/-2.2%). After treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, only 1.2+/-0.7% of CPD-containing HaCaT cells were actively cycling. TNF-alpha enhanced apoptosis less potently and did not increase the level of CPD or stimulate cell cycle progression in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha overrides the G2/M checkpoint in premalignant skin cells and allows for some cells containing unrepaired CPD to enter the cell cycle. The effect of TNF-alpha seems to be dependent on Akt activation and may constitute a relevant mechanism enhancing mutagenesis and tumor development.

  16. Similarities and differences between cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase and (6-4) photolyase as revealed by resonance Raman spectroscopy: Electron transfer from the FAD cofactor to ultraviolet-damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Uchida, Takeshi; Todo, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Teizo

    2006-09-01

    The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and (6-4) photoproduct, two major types of DNA damage caused by UV light, are repaired under illumination with near UV-visible light by CPD and (6-4) photolyases, respectively. To understand the mechanism of DNA repair, we examined the resonance Raman spectra of complexes between damaged DNA and the neutral semiquinoid and oxidized forms of (6-4) and CPD photolyases. The marker band for a neutral semiquinoid flavin and band I of the oxidized flavin, which are derived from the vibrations of the benzene ring of FAD, were shifted to lower frequencies upon binding of damaged DNA by CPD photolyase but not by (6-4) photolyase, indicating that CPD interacts with the benzene ring of FAD directly but that the (6-4) photoproduct does not. Bands II and VII of the oxidized flavin and the 1398/1391 cm(-1) bands of the neutral semiquinoid flavin, which may reflect the bending of U-shaped FAD, were altered upon substrate binding, suggesting that CPD and the (6-4) photoproduct interact with the adenine ring of FAD. When substrate was bound, there was an upshifted 1528 cm(-1) band of the neutral semiquinoid flavin in CPD photolyase, indicating a weakened hydrogen bond at N5-H of FAD, and band X seemed to be downshifted in (6-4) photolyase, indicating a weakened hydrogen bond at N3-H of FAD. These Raman spectra led us to conclude that the two photolyases have different electron transfer mechanisms as well as different hydrogen bonding environments, which account for the higher redox potential of CPD photolyase.

  17. Synthesis, Properties, and π-Dimer Formation of Oligothiophenes Partially Bearing Orthogonally Fused Fluorene Units.

    PubMed

    Ie, Yutaka; Okamoto, Yuji; Tone, Saori; Aso, Yoshio

    2015-11-09

    A series of oligothiophenes that incorporate cyclopenta[c]thiophene-based units bearing spiro-substituted dialkylfluorene was synthesized. Photophysical measurements indicated that there was no interruption in the conjugation along the oligothiophene backbones, irrespective of the number or position of this unit. Electrochemical measurements showed that the thiophene 7-mers and 11-mer exhibit reversible multi-oxidation waves. The formation of cationic species was clearly observed from UV/Vis/NIR measurements. Furthermore, the UV/Vis/NIR spectra at 223 K under one-electron oxidation conditions revealed that the unsubstituted thiophene or bithiophene units remained in the absence of intermolecular π-π interactions, whereas the formation of π-dimeric species was observed for the thiophene 7-mer containing an unsubstituted terthiophene (U3 ) unit. Theoretical calculations indicated that the combination of the U3 unit and the all-trans conformation decreased the intermolecular steric repulsion between the fused cyclopentene ring and its facing thiophene, which may contribute to the formation of the dimeric structure. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Structural determination of the ultraviolet light-induced thymine-cytosine pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, W A; Doetsch, P W; Haseltine, W A

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet light induces damage to DNA, with the majority of the damage expressed as the formation of cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts. The (6-4) photoproducts have been implicated as important UV light-induced premutagenic DNA lesions. The most abundant of the (6-4) products is the thymine-cytosine pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproduct, or TC (6-4) product. The structure of the TC (6-4) product was deduced by proton NMR, IR, and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy, and the product was found to differ from the previously described photoadduct, Thy(6-4)Pyo, by the presence of an amino group at the 5 position of the 5' pyrimidine. The implications of this structure on DNA base pairing and the induction of ultraviolet light-induced mutations are discussed. PMID:4022781

  19. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, N

    1982-09-01

    The pathways of purine biosynthesis and degradation have been elucidated during the last 30 years; the regulation of the mechanisms involved is not yet fully understood, particularly with respect to quantitative aspects. Research into inborn errors of purine metabolism has provided valuable insights into purine synthesis and salvage pathways. Nutrition experiments using purine-free formula diets and supplements with defined purine sources permit precise descriptions of the influence of various dietary purines on uric acid formation. Supplements of dietary purines produce dose-proportional increases in plasma uric acid concentrations, uric acid pool size and renal uric acid excretion. The magnitude of these increases depends on the type of purine compound administered, which may limit the value of food tables for human dietetics. Purine content of food must be related not only to weight but also to energy and to protein, particularly if new foodstuffs or a vegetarian diet are ingested. Dietary purines appear to influence the biosynthesis of pyrimidines. In contrast to dietary purines, pyrimidines in the diet, if administered as nucleosides or nucleotides, are utilized in animals for the synthesis of nucleic acids. Much further work is necessary for a better understanding of the inter-relationships of purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

  20. Thymine dimer formation as a probe of the path of DNA in and between nucleosomes in intact chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Pehrson, J.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Photo-induced thymine dimer formation was used to probe nucleosome structure in nuclei. The distribution of thymine dimers in the nucleosome and recent studies of the structure of thymine dimer-containing DNA suggest that the rate of thymine dimer formation is affected by the direction and degree of DNA bending. This premise was used to construct a model of the path of DNA in the nucleosome, which has the following features. (i) There are four regions of sharp bending, two which have been seen previously by x-ray crystallography of the core particle. (ii) The DNA in H1-containing nucleosomes deviates from its superhelical path near the midpoint; this is not seen with H1-stripped chromatin. (iii) The internucleosomal (linker) DNA appears to be relatively straight.

  1. Effects of NaCl stress on changes in the ultraviolet-B radiation-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer and ultraviolet absorbing compound contents in mung bean.

    PubMed

    He, Jun-Min; Hu, Jie; Shi, Xiao-Ping

    2007-10-01

    In two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. 'Qindou-20' and 'Zhonglv-1') with different sensitivities to UV-B grown in growth chamber under supplemental or no supplemental UV-B radiation (0.4 W/m(2)) with or without 0.4% NaCl, the effects of NaCl stress on UV-B-induced DNA damage and repair were studied. The results showed that, under NaCl stress, (i) CPD accumulation was lower in the tolerant cultivar 'Zhonglv-1' but was the same in the sensitive cultivar 'Qindou-20', (ii) CPD formation in both cultivars was weakened, (iii) the photorepair and dark repair capacity were higher in the tolerant cultivar and (iv) the photorepair was weakened and dark repair capacity did not change in the sensitive cultivar. There was a negative correlation between susceptibility of CPD formation and levels of UV-absorbing compounds. These results demonstrate that NaCl stress can affect not only the susceptibility to CPD formation, but also the capacities for photorepair and dark repair of DNA, which together result in the change in UV-B-induced CPD accumulation and thereby that in sensitivity of plant to UV-B. The results also suggest that the differences in susceptibilities to CPD formation are due to the differences in levels of UV-absorbing compounds.

  2. Synthesis and antiviral activity of 2,4-diamino-5-cyano-6-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethoxy]pyrimidine and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Masojídková, Milena; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; De Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan

    2004-06-15

    Synthesis of 2,4-diamino-5-cyano-6-[[(diisopropoxyphosphoryl)methoxy]ethoxy]pyrimidine was based on the formation of the pyrimidine ring by cyclization followed by modification of the side chain by alkylation. The 5-cyano group was also transformed to a 5-formyl and 5-hydroxymethyl group by reduction. As a side product an unexpected dimer was formed. Resulting compounds were converted to the free phosphonic acids by treatment with bromotrimethylsilane followed by hydrolysis. The 5-cyano and 5-formyl derivatives showed pronounced antiretroviral activity, comparable to that of the reference drugs adefovir and tenofovir.

  3. Triplet excited fluoroquinolones as mediators for thymine cyclobutane dimer formation in DNA.

    PubMed

    Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Cuquerella, M Consuelo; Castell, Jose V; Bosca, Francisco; Miranda, Miguel A

    2007-06-28

    A series of fluoroquinolones (FQs), including enoxacin (ENX), pefloxacin (PFX), norfloxacin (NFX), its N(4')-acetyl derivative (ANFX), ofloxacin (OFX), and rufloxacin (RFX) have been investigated to determine their potential as DNA photosensitizers via thymine cyclobutane dimer (T<>T) formation in DNA. At fluoroquinolone concentrations and light doses insufficient to produce direct single strand breaks, ENX, PFX, and NFX were able to produce T<>T dimers in DNA, revealed by enzymatic treatment with T4 endonuclease V. By contrast, ANFX, OFX, and RFX were inefficient in this assay. The absolute values of the triplet energies of ENX, PFX, NFX, ANFX, OFX, and RFX were estimated by means of laser flash photolysis, using flurbiprofen, 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid, and naproxen as energy acceptors. They were found to be 273, 269, 269, 265, 262, and 253 kJ/mol, respectively. Other triplet excited state properties of the FQs, including quantum yields and lifetimes, were also studied. All the results indicate that the threshold ET value required for a given compound to become a potential DNA photosensitizer via T<>T formation is in the range defined by the triplet energies of NFX and ANFX (265-269 kJ/mol). This provides the basis for an alert rule: any chemical (drugs, cosmetics, pesticides, etc.) with higher ET has to be considered with regard to its potential photogenotoxicity.

  4. Formation of Olefins by Eliminative Dimerization and Eliminative Cross-Coupling of Carbenoids: A Stereochemical Exercise.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, Paul R; Hoffmann, Reinhard W

    2017-08-22

    Two carbenoids combine to generate an olefin by a mechanism involving ate-complex formation, 1,2-metallate rearrangement, and beta-elimination. Because each stage of this eliminative coupling is stereospecific, the overall stereochemical outcome can be understood, and in principle fully controlled, providing that the absolute stereochemical configurations of the reacting carbenoid species are defined. By contrast to traditional alkene syntheses, the eliminative cross-coupling of carbenoids offers a connective approach to olefins capable of precisely targeting a given isomer regardless of the nature of the features distinguishing isomers. The formation of olefins by eliminative dimerization and eliminative cross-coupling of carbenoids is reviewed for a range of illustrative examples, including the reactions of lithiated -haloalkanes, -epoxides, and -carbamates. An emphasis is placed on stereochemical analysis and methods to generate sp3-hybridized carbenoids in stereodefined form are surveyed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Small RNA Library Preparation Method for Next-Generation Sequencing Using Chemical Modifications to Prevent Adapter Dimer Formation.

    PubMed

    Shore, Sabrina; Henderson, Jordana M; Lebedev, Alexandre; Salcedo, Michelle P; Zon, Gerald; McCaffrey, Anton P; Paul, Natasha; Hogrefe, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    For most sample types, the automation of RNA and DNA sample preparation workflows enables high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. Greater adoption of small RNA (sRNA) sequencing has been hindered by high sample input requirements and inherent ligation side products formed during library preparation. These side products, known as adapter dimer, are very similar in size to the tagged library. Most sRNA library preparation strategies thus employ a gel purification step to isolate tagged library from adapter dimer contaminants. At very low sample inputs, adapter dimer side products dominate the reaction and limit the sensitivity of this technique. Here we address the need for improved specificity of sRNA library preparation workflows with a novel library preparation approach that uses modified adapters to suppress adapter dimer formation. This workflow allows for lower sample inputs and elimination of the gel purification step, which in turn allows for an automatable sRNA library preparation protocol.

  6. Double dative bond configuration: pyrimidine on Ge(100).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Young; Jung, Soon Jung; Hong, Suklyun; Kim, Sehun

    2005-01-13

    The adsorption of pyrimidine onto Ge(100) surfaces has been investigated using real-time scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. Our results show that the adsorbed pyrimidine molecules are tilted about 40 degrees with respect to the Ge surface, and through a Lewis acid-base reaction form bridges between the down-Ge atoms of neighboring Ge dimer rows by double Ge-N dative bonding without loss of aromaticity. For coverages of pyrimidine up to 0.25 ML, a well-ordered c(4x2) structure results from states that appear in STM micrographs as oval-shaped protrusions, which correspond to pyrimidine molecules datively adsorbed on every other dimer. However, above 0.25 ML, the oval-shaped protrusions gradually change into brighter zigzag lines. At 0.50 ML, a p(2x2) structure results from the states that appear in STM as zigzag lines. The zigzag lines are formed by the attachment of pyrimidine molecules to the down-Ge atoms of every Ge dimer. However, the unstable p(2x2) structure eventually reconstructs into a c(4x2) structure due to steric hindrance between the adsorbed pyrimidine molecules after stopping the exposure of pyrimidine to the surface.

  7. All-trans-retinal dimer formation alleviates the cytotoxicity of all-trans-retinal in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Yanli; Cai, Xianhui; Xia, Qingqing; Chen, Jingmeng; Liao, Yi; Liu, Zuguo; Wu, Yalin

    2016-09-14

    Effective clearance of all-trans-retinal (atRAL) from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is important for avoiding its cytotoxicity. However, the metabolism of atRAL in RPE cells is poorly clarified. The present study was designed to analyze metabolic products of atRAL and to compare the cytotoxicity of atRAL versus its derivative all-trans-retinal dimer (atRAL-dimer) in human RPE cells. We found that all-trans-retinol (atROL) and a mixture of atRAL condensation metabolites including atRAL-dimer and A2E were generated after incubating RPE cells with atRAL for 6h, and the amount of atRAL-dimer was significantly higher than that of A2E. In the eyes of Rdh8(-/-) Abca4(-/-) mice, a mouse model with defects in retinoid cycle that displays some symbolic characteristics of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the level of atRAL-dimer was increased compared to wild-type mice, and was even much greater than that of A2E & isomers. The cytotoxicity of atRAL-dimer was reduced compared with its precursor atRAL. The latter could provoke intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, increase the mRNA expression of several oxidative stress related genes (Nrf2, HO-1, and γ-GCSh), and induce ΔΨm loss in RPE cells. By contrast, the abilities of atRAL-dimer to induce intracellular ROS and oxidative stress were much weaker versus that of concentration-matched atRAL, and atRAL-dimer exhibited no toxic effect on mitochondrial function at higher concentrations. In conclusion, the formation of atRAL-dimer during atRAL metabolic process ameliorates the cytotoxicity of atRAL by reducing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Excited-state double-proton transfer of pyrimidines mediated by hydrogen-bonded complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kemary, M. A.; El-Gezawy, H. S.; El-Baradie, H. Y.; Issa, R. M.

    2001-04-01

    The spectroscopy and dynamics of the excited-state double-proton transfer (ESDPT) in 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ADMP) and 2-amino-4-methoxy-6-methyl pyrimidine (AMMP) have been studied by means of steady-state and time-resolved measurements. The thermodynamic data indicating that dual hydrogen-bonding formation for ADMP/acid and AMMP/acid complexes are stronger than those obtained from ADMP and AMMP self-association. The fluorescence from the ADMP dimer in cyclohexane decays with rate ( kf) of (1.1±0.1)×10 9 s -1 (0.9 ns), where the fluorescence from its tautomeric excited state formed by the proton transfer reaction decays with rate of (8.26±0.2)×10 8 s -1 (1.21 ns). However, the obtained kf (1.7±0.1)×10 9 s -1 for ADMP/acid tautomer of (0.58 ns) in cyclohexane is higher than that of the dimer. The results show that ˜89% molecules form dimers in the ground state and ˜86% of the excited molecules are present as dimers while the rest are present as monomers in 1×10 -2 M cyclohexane solution.

  9. p53 mutant human glioma cells are sensitive to UV-C-induced apoptosis due to impaired cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer removal.

    PubMed

    Batista, Luis F Z; Roos, Wynand P; Kaina, Bernd; Menck, Carlos F M

    2009-02-01

    The p53 protein is a key regulator of cell responses to DNA damage, and it has been shown that it sensitizes glioma cells to the alkylating agent temozolomide by up-regulating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, whereas it increases the resistance to chloroethylating agents, such as ACNU and BCNU, probably by enhancing the efficiency of DNA repair. However, because these agents induce a wide variety of distinct DNA lesions, the direct importance of DNA repair is hard to access. Here, it is shown that the induction of photoproducts by UV light (UV-C) significantly induces apoptosis in a p53-mutated glioma background. This is caused by a reduced level of photoproduct repair, resulting in the persistence of DNA lesions in p53-mutated glioma cells. UV-C-induced apoptosis in p53 mutant glioma cells is preceded by strong transcription and replication inhibition due to blockage by unrepaired photolesions. Moreover, the results indicate that UV-C-induced apoptosis of p53 mutant glioma cells is executed through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, with Bcl-2 degradation and sustained Bax and Bak up-regulation. Collectively, the data indicate that unrepaired DNA lesions induce apoptosis in p53 mutant gliomas despite the resistance of these gliomas to temozolomide, suggesting that efficiency of treatment of p53 mutant gliomas might be higher with agents that induce the formation of DNA lesions whose global genomic repair is dependent on p53.

  10. Host cell reactivation of gene expression for an adenovirus-encoded reporter gene reflects the repair of UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and methylene blue plus visible light-induced 8-oxoguanine

    PubMed Central

    Rainbow, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have reported the use of a recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-based host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to examine nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UVC-induced DNA lesions in several mammalian cell types. The recombinant non-replicating Ad expresses the Escherichia coli β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer region. We have also used methylene blue plus visible light (MB + VL) to induce the major oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the recombinant Ad-encoded reporter gene in order to study base excision repair (BER). The reported variability regarding 8-oxoG’s potential to block transcription by RNA polymerase II and data demonstrating that a number of factors play a role in transcriptional bypass of the lesion led us to examine the repair of 8-oxoG in the Ad reporter and its relationship to HCR for expression of the reporter gene. We have used Southern blotting to examine removal of UVC- and MB + VL-induced DNA damage by loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites from the Ad-encoded β-gal reporter gene in human and rodent cells. We show that repair of MB + VL-induced 8-oxoG via BER and UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) via NER is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. We also show that HCR for expression of the MB + VL-damaged and the UVC-damaged reporter gene is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. The difference between the human and rodent cells in the removal of both 8-oxoG and CPDs from the damaged reporter gene was comparable to the difference in HCR for expression of the damaged reporter gene. These results suggest that the major factor for HCR of the MB + VL-treated reporter gene in mammalian cells is DNA repair in the Ad rather than lesion bypass. PMID:23793457

  11. Host cell reactivation of gene expression for an adenovirus-encoded reporter gene reflects the repair of UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and methylene blue plus visible light-induced 8-oxoguanine.

    PubMed

    Leach, Derrik M; Zacal, Natalie J; Rainbow, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the use of a recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-based host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to examine nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UVC-induced DNA lesions in several mammalian cell types. The recombinant non-replicating Ad expresses the Escherichia coli β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene under control of the cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer region. We have also used methylene blue plus visible light (MB + VL) to induce the major oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in the recombinant Ad-encoded reporter gene in order to study base excision repair (BER). The reported variability regarding 8-oxoG's potential to block transcription by RNA polymerase II and data demonstrating that a number of factors play a role in transcriptional bypass of the lesion led us to examine the repair of 8-oxoG in the Ad reporter and its relationship to HCR for expression of the reporter gene. We have used Southern blotting to examine removal of UVC- and MB + VL-induced DNA damage by loss of endonuclease-sensitive sites from the Ad-encoded β-gal reporter gene in human and rodent cells. We show that repair of MB + VL-induced 8-oxoG via BER and UVC-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) via NER is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. We also show that HCR for expression of the MB + VL-damaged and the UVC-damaged reporter gene is substantially greater in human SV40-transformed GM637F skin fibroblasts compared to hamster CHO-AA8 cells. The difference between the human and rodent cells in the removal of both 8-oxoG and CPDs from the damaged reporter gene was comparable to the difference in HCR for expression of the damaged reporter gene. These results suggest that the major factor for HCR of the MB + VL-treated reporter gene in mammalian cells is DNA repair in the Ad rather than lesion bypass.

  12. Reactivity of damaged pyrimidines: formation of a Schiff base intermediate at the glycosidic bond of saturated dihydrouridine.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yajun; Lin, Gengjie; Chomicz, Lidia; Li, Lei

    2015-03-11

    DNA glycosylases catalyze the first step of the base excision repair (BER) pathway. The chemistry used by these enzymes for deglycosylation has been largely considered as the chemistry of the oxocarbenium ion, e.g., direct rupture of the C1'-N1 bond resulting in an oxocarbenium ion intermediate. Here we present mechanistic studies revealing the 2'-deoxyribose isomerization and subsequent deglycosylation processes in two pyrimidine lesions: 5,6-dihydro-2'-deoxyuridine (dHdU) and 5,6-dihydrothymidine (dHT), formed via ionizing radiation damage to 2'-deoxycytidine and thymidine, respectively, under anoxic conditions. Acid or heat treatment of these two lesions leads to the production of two pairs of C1' epimers containing a pyranose and a furanose, respectively, indicating that both lesions favor the rupture of the C1'-O4' bond, resulting in a Schiff base intermediate at the N-glycosidic bond. Such a Schiff base intermediate was trapped and characterized by either Pd-catalyzed hydrogenation or thiol-mediated addition reaction. In contrast, in undamaged 2'-deoxyuridine and thymidine, reactions at elevated temperatures lead to the release of nucleobases most likely via the traditional oxocarbenium ion pathway. DFT calculations further support the experimental findings, suggesting that the oxocarbenium ion intermediate is responsible for the deglycosylation process if the integrity of the pyrimidine ring is maintained, while the Schiff base intermediate is preferred if the C5═C6 bond is saturated. Currently, the oxocarbenium ion pathway is indicated to be solely responsible for the deglycosylation in BER enzymes, however our results suggest an alternative Schiff base mechanism which may be responsible for the repair of saturated pyrimidine damages.

  13. Formation of albumin dimers induced by exposure to peroxides in human plasma: a possible biomarker for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Yuki; Namai, Tomoyuki; Togawa, Tadayasu; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2006-02-10

    Human serum albumin (HSA) has one free thiol residue at Cys-34 that is likely oxidized by various reactive oxygen species (ROS). We attempted to identify the oxidation product of Cys-34 of HSA following exposure of plasma to ROS. Oxidation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) of this free cysteine residue in HSA was observed in detail. Analysis of oxidized albumin in a partially purified fraction obtained by affinity column chromatography clearly revealed the formation of albumin disulfide dimers following t-BuOOH exposure. Albumin disulfide dimer formation was observed in normal plasma following treatment with various peroxides, as well as in untreated plasma from patients on hemodialysis using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The present results indicate that albumin dimers are oxidative products derived from peroxides, and that their presence in plasma might be a marker of oxidative stress as secondary metabolites of peroxidation.

  14. Ion pair formation in the NeAr dimer irradiated by monochromatic soft X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, T.; Stumpf, V.; Miteva, T.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sakai, K.; Liu, X.-J.; Mazza, T.; Schöffler, M.; Iwayama, H.; Nagaya, K.; Tamenori, Y.; Saito, N.; Kuleff, A. I.; Gokhberg, K.; Ueda, K.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated Ne+-Ar+ ion-pair formation which follows irradiation of the NeAr dimer by monochromatic soft X-rays. Using momentum-resolved electron-ion multicoincidence spectroscopy, we could unambiguously identify that the formation of the ion pair at photon energy of 200.5 eV proceeds via interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) of the Ne+(2s-1)Ar inner-valence ionized and NeAr+(3p-25d) ionization satellite states. Photoabsorption at higher photon energies of 268.2 eV and 888.7 eV leads to the emission of core electrons of Ar and Ne respectively, and to the subsequent local Auger decay process. We demonstrate that at these energies the ion pair formation originating in the doubly ionized Ar L-MM and Ne K-LL Auger final states proceeds mostly via radiative charge transfer and charge transfer driven by non-adiabatic coupling mechanisms.

  15. Site-specific effect of thymine dimer formation of dA sub n ter dot dT sub n tract bending and its biological implications

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.I.; Taylor, J.S. )

    1991-10-15

    dA{sub n}{center dot}dT{sub n} sequences, otherwise known as A tracts, are hotspots for cis-syn thymine dimer formation and deletion mutations induced by UV light. Such A tracts are also known to bend DNA, suggesting that some biological effects of UV light might be related to the distinctive structure and properties of cis-syn dimer-containing A tracts. To investigate the effect of thymine dimer formation on A-tract bending multimers of all possible dimer monoadducts of a dA{sub 6}{center dot}dT{sub 6}-containing decamer known to bend DNA were prepared along with multimers of a dimer-containing 21-mer of heterogeneous sequence. The characteristic anomalous electrophoretic behavior of the phased A-tract multimers was essentially abolished by dimer formation at the center of the A tract and was only slightly reduced by dimer formation at the ends. These effects are attributed to disruption of the A-tract structure at the site of the dimer, resulting in intact A tracts of reduced length and, hence, reduced bending. This model was suggested by the ability to formulate the estimated bend angles of the dimer-containing A tracts as approximately equal to the sum of the bend angels induced by the dimer and the remaining intact portion of the A tract. Contrary to a previous experimental study that concluded that the thymine dimer bends DNA by {approx} 30{degree}, the dimer was determined to bend DNA by only {approx} 7{degree}. Reduction of the bending of a DNA sequence by dimer formation may have a number of unpredicted and important biological consequences.

  16. Vibrational analysis of carbonyl modes in different stages of light-induced cyclopyrimidine dimer repair reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Tavan, Paul; Nonella, Marco

    2001-11-01

    The formation of cyclopyrimidine dimers is a DNA defect, which is repaired by the enzyme DNA photolyase in a light-induced reaction. Radical anions of the dimers have been suggested to occur as short-lived intermediates during repair. For their identification time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy will be a method of choice. To support and guide such spectroscopic studies we have calculated the vibrational spectra of various pyrimidine compounds using density functional methods. Our results suggest that the carbonyl vibrations of these molecules can serve as marker modes to identify and distinguish intermediates of the repair reaction.

  17. A molecular beam mass spectrometric study of the formation and photolysis of C(lc)lO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Frank T.; Robaugh, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the chlorine oxides present at temperatures and pressures typical of the Antarctic stratosphere was carried out. A series of low temperature flow reactors was constructed and used in conjunction with molecular beam mass spectrometric techniques to identify species and characterize their kinetic behavior at temperatures of -20 to -70 C and pressures of from 30 to 130 Torr. It was found that the gas phase chlorine-oxygen system was quite complex at low temperatures. ClO dimer was identified and found to be thermodynamically very stable under stratospheric conditions. It was also found that any system which contained ClO also contained a larger oxide. The oxide was identified as Cl2O3. A survey of possible higher oxides, which have been postulated as possible chlorine sinks in the stratosphere, was also carried out. The rate of formation of ClO dimer was measured as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements were made of both the decay of ClO and the formation of the dimer. By comparing these rates it was determined that virtually all of the ClO was converted to the dimer under stratospheric conditions, and that the other ClO reactions were not important under these conditions.

  18. Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Pujals, Daniel Codorniu; Mikosch, Hans

    2014-07-28

    Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO{sub 2} gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage.

  19. Irreversible denaturation mapping of a pyrimidine-rich domain of a complex satellite DNA

    SciTech Connect

    LaMarca, M.E.; Allison, D.P.; Skinner, D.M.

    1981-06-25

    The highly complex G + C-rich satellite DNA of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis has been studied by denaturation mapping. Following digestion of the satellite with EndoR.Eco RI, the major 2.07-kilo-base pair (kbp) basic repeating unit and a minor 4.14-kbp fragment were exposed to 254 nm light in the presence of silver ions, conditions which resulted in essentially irreversible denaturation of regions rich in adjacent pyrimidines by the formation of pyrimidine dimers. The positions and sizes of the denatured regions were determined in electron micrographs of partially denatured 2.07-kbp and 4.14-kbp fragments spread in the presence of formamide. The positions of the denaturation bubbles in the 4.14-kbp fragments support restriction enzyme mapping evidence that it is a dimer of the 2.07-kbp fragment arranged head to tail. Sequencing data show that the predominant sequence of a 0.29-kbp region centered aroung 0.64 kbp in the basic repeat unit is 49% A + T and that 42% of the bases are adjacent TTs and CTs capable of dimerization under the conditions used.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide reduces RAGE toxicity through inhibition of its dimer formation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Ding, Lei; Wu, Zhiyuan; Cao, Xu; Zhang, Qichun; Lin, Li; Bian, Jin-Song

    2017-03-01

    RAGE is important in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, an endogenous gaseous mediator) on the cytotoxicity caused by RAGE activation during the chronic oxidative stress. Aβ1-42 decreased cell viability and induced cell senescence in SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced cell injury in HEK293 cells stably expressing RAGE (HEK293-RAGE) and stimulated inflammatory responses in SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with an H2S donor, NaHS, significantly attenuated the above harmful effects caused by Aβ1-42 or AGEs. Western blotting analysis shows that oxidative stress enhanced RAGE protein expression which was attenuated by either NaHS or over-expression of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), a critical enzyme for producing H2S in brain cells. Both Western blots and split GFP complementation analysis demonstrate that NaHS reduced H2O2-enhanced RAGE dimerization. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that H2O2 up-regulated the membrane expression of wild-type RAGE. However, H2O2-enhanced expression of the RAGE harboring C259S/C310S double mutation (DM-RAGE) was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Treatment with NaHS attenuated the effects of H2O2 on the protein expression of WT-RAGE, but not that of DM-RAGE. Cycloheximide chase and ubiquitination assays show that NaHS reduced the half-life of WT-RAGE to a similar level of DM-RAGE. S-sulfhydration assay with the tag-switch technique demonstrate that H2S may directly S-sulfhydrate the C259/C301 residues. Our data suggest that H2S reduces RAGE dimer formation and impairs its membrane stability. The lowered plasma membrane abundance of RAGE therefore helps to protect cells against various RAGE mediated pathological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 complex facilitates MCM2-7 dimerization during prereplicative complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Evrin, Cecile; Fernández-Cid, Alejandra; Riera, Alberto; Zech, Juergen; Clarke, Pippa; Herrera, M. Carmen; Tognetti, Silvia; Lurz, Rudi; Speck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The replicative mini-chromosome-maintenance 2–7 (MCM2-7) helicase is loaded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes as a head-to-head double-hexamer around origin DNA. At first, ORC/Cdc6 recruits with the help of Cdt1 a single MCM2-7 hexamer to form an ‘initial’ ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex. Then, on ATP hydrolysis and Cdt1 release, the ‘initial’ complex is transformed into an ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex. However, it remains unclear how the OCM is subsequently converted into a MCM2-7 double-hexamer. Through analysis of MCM2-7 hexamer-interface mutants we discovered a complex competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. We demonstrate that these MCM2-7 mutants arrest during prereplicative complex (pre-RC) assembly after OCM formation, but before MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Remarkably, only the OCM complex, but not the ‘initial’ ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex, is competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. The MCM2-7 dimer, in contrast to the MCM2-7 double-hexamer, interacts with ORC/Cdc6 and is salt-sensitive, classifying the arrested complex as a helicase-loading intermediate. Accordingly, we found that overexpression of the mutants cause cell-cycle arrest and dominant lethality. Our work identifies the OCM complex as competent for MCM2-7 dimerization, reveals MCM2-7 dimerization as a limiting step during pre-RC formation and defines critical mechanisms that explain how origins are licensed. PMID:24234446

  2. The ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 complex facilitates MCM2-7 dimerization during prereplicative complex formation.

    PubMed

    Evrin, Cecile; Fernández-Cid, Alejandra; Riera, Alberto; Zech, Juergen; Clarke, Pippa; Herrera, M Carmen; Tognetti, Silvia; Lurz, Rudi; Speck, Christian

    2014-02-01

    The replicative mini-chromosome-maintenance 2-7 (MCM2-7) helicase is loaded in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes as a head-to-head double-hexamer around origin DNA. At first, ORC/Cdc6 recruits with the help of Cdt1 a single MCM2-7 hexamer to form an 'initial' ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex. Then, on ATP hydrolysis and Cdt1 release, the 'initial' complex is transformed into an ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex. However, it remains unclear how the OCM is subsequently converted into a MCM2-7 double-hexamer. Through analysis of MCM2-7 hexamer-interface mutants we discovered a complex competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. We demonstrate that these MCM2-7 mutants arrest during prereplicative complex (pre-RC) assembly after OCM formation, but before MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Remarkably, only the OCM complex, but not the 'initial' ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1/MCM2-7 complex, is competent for MCM2-7 dimerization. The MCM2-7 dimer, in contrast to the MCM2-7 double-hexamer, interacts with ORC/Cdc6 and is salt-sensitive, classifying the arrested complex as a helicase-loading intermediate. Accordingly, we found that overexpression of the mutants cause cell-cycle arrest and dominant lethality. Our work identifies the OCM complex as competent for MCM2-7 dimerization, reveals MCM2-7 dimerization as a limiting step during pre-RC formation and defines critical mechanisms that explain how origins are licensed.

  3. Occurrence and formation kinetics of pyranomalvidin-procyanidin dimer pigment in Merlot red wine: impact of acidity and oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pechamat, Laurent; Zeng, Liming; Jourdes, Michael; Ghidossi, Rémy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2014-02-19

    Once released from red grape skins, anthocyanins undergo various chemical reactions leading to the formation of more stable pigments such as pyranoanthocyanin, as well as other derivatives. Among these pigments, pyranoanthocyanins linked directly to flavanol dimers have been detected and identified in aged Port wine but not in dry red wine. These pigments are very important with regard to the wine color evolution since they are involved in wine color evolution and stabilization. During this investigation, the occurrence in dry red wine of two pyranomalvidin-procyanidin dimer has been established by low and high resolution HPLC-UV-MS analysis. Moreover, the impact of acidity and oxygen levels on their formation in red wine has been estimated. After four months of evolution, the results showed that, for the same pH, the quantity of this pigment was correlated with oxygen concentrations. Moreover, for the same quantity of oxygen, the concentration of this pigment was related to the acidity level.

  4. Thymine-containing dimers as well as spore photoproducts are found in ultraviolet-irradiated Bacillus subtilis spores that lack small acid-soluble proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1987-01-01

    Dormant spores of a Bacillus subtilis mutant that lacks two major small, acid-soluble spore proteins are very sensitive to UV irradiation, which in spores generates about half the amount of thymine-containing dimers formed by comparable irradiation of vegetative cells. Irradiation of mutant spores also produces spore photoproducts, but again only about one-half the amount formed in comparably irradiated wild-type spores. These findings suggest that the high UV sensitivity of the mutant spores is due to the production of pyrimidine dimers, which are not found in UV-irradiated wild-type spores, and that the high level of small, acid-soluble proteins found in wild-type spores is directly involved in spore UV resistance by facilitating a conformational change in spore DNA, preventing pyrimidine dimer formation.

  5. C...H...N Hydrogen Bond Formation in Trimethylamine Dimer upon One-Photon Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yuichiro; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Asuka

    2011-06-01

    Structures of trimethylamine dimer cluster cations which are generated by the vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization are investigated by a combination of infrared spectroscopic methods and theoretical reaction-pass calculations. In the trimethylamine dimer cluster cation, a proton of a methyl group is shared with the N atom of the other trimethylamine moiety. This is evidence that the methyl group acts as a proton donor in the cation state.

  6. Small RNA Library Preparation Method for Next-Generation Sequencing Using Chemical Modifications to Prevent Adapter Dimer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jordana M.; Lebedev, Alexandre; Salcedo, Michelle P.; Zon, Gerald; McCaffrey, Anton P.; Paul, Natasha; Hogrefe, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    For most sample types, the automation of RNA and DNA sample preparation workflows enables high throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation. Greater adoption of small RNA (sRNA) sequencing has been hindered by high sample input requirements and inherent ligation side products formed during library preparation. These side products, known as adapter dimer, are very similar in size to the tagged library. Most sRNA library preparation strategies thus employ a gel purification step to isolate tagged library from adapter dimer contaminants. At very low sample inputs, adapter dimer side products dominate the reaction and limit the sensitivity of this technique. Here we address the need for improved specificity of sRNA library preparation workflows with a novel library preparation approach that uses modified adapters to suppress adapter dimer formation. This workflow allows for lower sample inputs and elimination of the gel purification step, which in turn allows for an automatable sRNA library preparation protocol. PMID:27875576

  7. Distribution of ions around thymine dimer containing DNA: A possible recognition element for endonuclease V

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, R.; Luo, N.; Miaskiewicz, K.; Miller, J.

    1995-10-01

    The molecular link between sunlight exposure and skin cancer can be traced to the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers together with (6-4) photoadducts of pyrimidines in DNA upon exposure to UV radiation. The mutagenicity of these lesions is frequently explained by miscoding during DNA replication due to perturbations of base-pairing interactions. However the mutagenicity of UV photoproducts depends of their sequence context, suggesting that more global structural changes in DNA contribute to mutation induction. One of the most effective protections against the deleterious effects of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers is the wide range of repair of this lesion by different enzymatic pathways. This paper presents the results of a 200 ps molecular dynamics simulation on the dodecarner d(CGCGAATTCGCG){sub 2} containing a cis, syn-cyclobutane thymine dimer, explicit water and counterions. The averaged structure calculated from the simulation shows good agreement with the available NMR data. The distribution of counterions around the damaged DNA is different from that around a non damaged DNA and suggests a possible mechanism of damage recognition by the enzyme.

  8. Adsorption of pyrimidine molecules on Pd(110) observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo-Tae; Kawai, Tomoji; Yoshinobu, Jun; Kawai, Maki

    1996-07-01

    Adsorbed states of pyrimidine molecules on Pd(110) have been studied by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The pyrimidine molecules are preferentially adsorbed on terraces, not at steps. The isolated pyrimidine molecule shows a 0.6 nm × 0.6 nm rectangular shape with two parts of elongated protrusions. Two adsorption sites are observed: on-top site of the Pd[11¯0] row and the midway between two [11¯0] rows. Pyrimidine molecules show a strong tendency to form dimers even at a low coverage (0.01 ML), indicating that there is an attractive interaction between two adsorbed molecules.

  9. Base pairing enhances fluorescence and favors cyclobutane dimer formation induced upon absorption of UVA radiation by DNA.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Akos; Vayá, Ignacio; Changenet-Barret, Pascale; Gustavsson, Thomas; Douki, Thierry; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2011-04-13

    The photochemical properties of the DNA duplex (dA)(20)·(dT)(20) are compared with those of the parent single strands. It is shown that base pairing increases the probability of absorbing UVA photons, probably due to the formation of charge-transfer states. UVA excitation induces fluorescence peaking at ∼420 nm and decaying on the nanosecond time scale. The fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime, and the quantum yield for cyclobutane dimer formation increase upon base pairing. Such behavior contrasts with that of the UVC-induced processes.

  10. Formation of H-type liquid crystal dimer at air-water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Karthik, C. Gupta, Adbhut Joshi, Aditya Manjuladevi, V. Gupta, Raj Kumar; Varia, Mahesh C.; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-04-24

    We have formed the Langmuir monolayer of H-shaped Azo linked liquid crystal dimer molecule at the air-water interface. Isocycles of the molecule showed hysteresis suggesting the ir-reversible nature of the monolayer formed. The thin film deposited on the silicon wafer was characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The images showed uniform domains of the dimer molecule. We propose that these molecules tend to take book shelf configuration in the liquid phase.

  11. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir–Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram. PMID:26776664

  12. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-18

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir(4+) in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir-Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  13. Influence of cyclic dimer formation on the phase behavior of carboxylic acids. II. Cross-associating systems.

    PubMed

    Janeček, Jiří; Paricaud, Patrice

    2013-08-15

    The doubly bonded dimer association scheme (DBD) proposed by Sear and Jackson is extended to mixtures exhibiting both self- and cross-associations. The PC-SAFT equation of state is combined with the new DBD association contribution to describe the vapor-liquid equilibria of binary mixtures of carboxylic acids + associating compounds (water, alcohols, and carboxylic acids). The effect of doubly bonded dimers on the phase behavior in such systems is less important than in mixtures of carboxylic acids with nonassociating compounds, due to the cross-associations that compete with the formation of DBDs. Nevertheless, a clear improvement in the description of vapor-liquid coexistence curves is achieved over the classical 2B association model, particularly for the dew point curves.

  14. Strongly frustrated triangular spin lattice emerging from triplet dimer formation in honeycomb Li2IrO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Satoshi; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Yushankhai, Viktor; Stoll, Hermann; Rößler, Ulrich K.; Hozoi, Liviu; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Iridium oxides with a honeycomb lattice have been identified as platforms for the much anticipated Kitaev topological spin liquid: the spin-orbit entangled states of Ir4+ in principle generate precisely the required type of anisotropic exchange. However, other magnetic couplings can drive the system away from the spin-liquid phase. With this in mind, here we disentangle the different magnetic interactions in Li2IrO3, a honeycomb iridate with two crystallographically inequivalent sets of adjacent Ir sites. Our ab initio many-body calculations show that, while both Heisenberg and Kitaev nearest-neighbour couplings are present, on one set of Ir-Ir bonds the former dominates, resulting in the formation of spin-triplet dimers. The triplet dimers frame a strongly frustrated triangular lattice and by exact cluster diagonalization we show that they remain protected in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  15. Cross-link dimer formation of the acetaldehyde-derived cyclic 1,N(2)-Propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct using electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Hiroya; Esaka, Yukihiro; Uno, Bunji

    2009-12-01

    The electrochemically oxidative lesion of the acetaldehyde-derived cyclic propano adduct 2 of 2'-deoxyguanosine 1 was identified as the cross-linked dimer 4 of adduct 2. Cross-link formation is explained by the nucleophilic preference of the exocyclic amino group in 2 to the carbocation 3 electrogenerated by 1-proton and 2-electron transfers. Dimer formation was also detected in duplex DNA during exposure to acetaldehyde followed by electrochemical oxidation. The dimer has been deduced to be an intrastrand cross-link generated specifically in the G-G sequence in duplex DNA, which is expected to contribute to acetaldehyde-mediated genotoxicity.

  16. New strategies for the synthesis of pyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew D; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in pyrimidine synthesis are described. Modification of conventional strategies involving N-C-N fragment condensation with 1,3-dicarbonyl derivatives remains a common theme in current literature. Other methods, including N-C fragment condensation strategies, provide reactive intermediates capable of intramolecular cyclization and formation of pyrimidine derivatives. These recently developed methodologies offer a valuable addendum to azaheterocycle synthesis.

  17. Driving the formation of the RbCs dimer by a laser pulse: A nonlinear-dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandre, C.; Mahecha, Jorge; Salas, J. Pablo

    2017-03-01

    We study the formation of the RbCs molecule by an intense laser pulse using nonlinear dynamics. Under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the system is modeled by a two-degree-of-freedom rovibrational Hamiltonian, which includes the ground electronic potential energy curve of the diatomic molecule and the interaction of the molecular polarizability with the electric field of the laser. As the laser intensity increases, we observe that the formation probability first increases and then decreases after reaching a maximum. We show that the analysis can be simplified to the investigation of the long-range interaction between the two atoms. We conclude that the formation is due to a very small change in the radial momentum of the dimer induced by the laser pulse. From this observation, we build a reduced one-dimensional model which allows us to derive an approximate expression of the formation probability as a function of the laser intensity.

  18. Electronic excited states responsible for dimer formation upon UV absorption directly by thymine strands: joint experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Banyasz, Akos; Douki, Thierry; Improta, Roberto; Gustavsson, Thomas; Onidas, Delphine; Vayá, Ignacio; Perron, Marion; Markovitsi, Dimitra

    2012-09-12

    The study addresses interconnected issues related to two major types of cycloadditions between adjacent thymines in DNA leading to cyclobutane dimers (T<>Ts) and (6-4) adducts. Experimental results are obtained for the single strand (dT)(20) by steady-state and time-resolved optical spectroscopy, as well as by HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. Calculations are carried out for the dinucleoside monophosphate in water using the TD-M052X method and including the polarizable continuum model; the reliability of TD-M052X is checked against CASPT2 calculations regarding the behavior of two stacked thymines in the gas phase. It is shown that irradiation at the main absorption band leads to cyclobutane dimers (T<>Ts) and (6-4) adducts via different electronic excited states. T<>Ts are formed via (1)ππ* excitons; [2 + 2] dimerization proceeds along a barrierless path, in line with the constant quantum yield (0.05) with the irradiation wavelength, the contribution of the (3)ππ* state to this reaction being less than 10%. The formation of oxetane, the reaction intermediate leading to (6-4) adducts, occurs via charge transfer excited states involving two stacked thymines, whose fingerprint is detected in the fluorescence spectra; it involves an energy barrier explaining the important decrease in the quantum yield of (6-4) adducts with the irradiation wavelength.

  19. Indolizines and pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines decorated with a pyrimidine and a pyridine unit respectively.

    PubMed

    Popa, Marcel Mirel; Georgescu, Emilian; Caira, Mino R; Georgescu, Florentina; Draghici, Constantin; Stan, Raluca; Deleanu, Calin; Dumitrascu, Florea

    2015-01-01

    The three possible structural isomers of 4-(pyridyl)pyrimidine were employed for the synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and new indolizines, by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of their corresponding N-ylides generated in situ from their corresponding cycloimmonium bromides. In the case of 4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine the quaternization reactions occur as expected at the pyridine nitrogen atom leading to pyridinium bromides and consequently to new indolizines via the corresponding pyridinium N-ylides. However, in the case of 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine the steric hindrance directs the reaction to the pyrimidinium N-ylides and, subsequently, to the formation of the pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines. The new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and the new indolizines were structurally characterized through NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of two of the starting materials, 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine, are also reported.

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Dimer with Superagonist In Vitro Activity Improves Granulation Tissue Formation During Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Caitlin G.; Wang, Yu; Paluck, Samantha J.; Shen, Lu; Loo, Joseph A.; Levine, Alex J.; Miller, Lloyd S.; Maynard, Heather D.

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific chemical dimerization of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) with the optimal linker length resulted in a FGF2 homodimer with improved granulation tissue formation and blood vessel formation at exceptionally low concentrations. Homodimers of FGF2 were synthesized through site-specific linkages to both ends of different molecular weight poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs). The optimal linker length was determined by screening dimer-induced metabolic activity of human dermal fibroblasts and found to be that closest to the inter-cysteine distance, 70 Å, corresponding to 2 kDa PEG. A straightforward analysis of the kinetics of second ligand binding as a function of tether length showed that, as the polymerization index (the number of monomer repeat units in the polymer, N) of the tether decreases, the mean time for second ligand capture decreases as ~N3/2, leading to an enhancement of the number of doubly bound ligands in steady-state for a given (tethered) ligand concentration. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 induced greater fibroblast metabolic activity than FGF2 alone, all other dimers, and all monoconjugates, at each concentration tested, with the greatest difference observed at low (0.1 ng/mL) concentration. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 further exhibited superior activity compared to FGF2 for both metabolic activity and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as improved angiogenesis in a coculture model in vitro. Efficacy in an in vivo wound healing model was assessed in diabetic mice. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 increased granulation tissue and blood vessel density in the wound bed compared to FGF2. The results suggest that this rationally designed construct may be useful for improving the fibroblast matrix formation and angiogenesis in chronic wound healing. PMID:26731578

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 2 dimer with superagonist in vitro activity improves granulation tissue formation during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Decker, Caitlin G; Wang, Yu; Paluck, Samantha J; Shen, Lu; Loo, Joseph A; Levine, Alex J; Miller, Lloyd S; Maynard, Heather D

    2016-03-01

    Site-specific chemical dimerization of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) with the optimal linker length resulted in a FGF2 homodimer with improved granulation tissue formation and blood vessel formation at exceptionally low concentrations. Homodimers of FGF2 were synthesized through site-specific linkages to both ends of different molecular weight poly(ethylene glycols) (PEGs). The optimal linker length was determined by screening dimer-induced metabolic activity of human dermal fibroblasts and found to be that closest to the inter-cysteine distance, 70 Å, corresponding to 2 kDa PEG. A straightforward analysis of the kinetics of second ligand binding as a function of tether length showed that, as the polymerization index (the number of monomer repeat units in the polymer, N) of the tether decreases, the mean time for second ligand capture decreases as ∼N(3/2), leading to an enhancement of the number of doubly bound ligands in steady-state for a given (tethered) ligand concentration. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 induced greater fibroblast metabolic activity than FGF2 alone, all other dimers, and all monoconjugates, at each concentration tested, with the greatest difference observed at low (0.1 ng/mL) concentration. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 further exhibited superior activity compared to FGF2 for both metabolic activity and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as improved angiogenesis in a coculture model in vitro. Efficacy in an in vivo wound healing model was assessed in diabetic mice. FGF2-PEG2k-FGF2 increased granulation tissue and blood vessel density in the wound bed compared to FGF2. The results suggest that this rationally designed construct may be useful for improving the fibroblast matrix formation and angiogenesis in chronic wound healing.

  2. Nitrobenzene anti-parallel dimer formation in non-polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikata, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Yuji; Watanabe, Junji

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the dielectric and depolarized Rayleigh scattering behaviors of nitrobenzene (NO2-Bz), which is a benzene mono-substituted with a planar molecular frame bearing the large electric dipole moment 4.0 D, in non-polar solvents solutions, such as tetrachloromethane and benzene, at up to 3 THz for the dielectric measurements and 8 THz for the scattering experiments at 20 °C. The dielectric relaxation strength of the system was substantially smaller than the proportionality to the concentration in a concentrated regime and showed a Kirkwood correlation factor markedly lower than unity; gK ˜ 0.65. This observation revealed that NO2-Bz has a tendency to form dimers, (NO2-Bz)2, in anti-parallel configurations for the dipole moment with increasing concentration of the two solvents. Both the dielectric and scattering data exhibited fast and slow Debye-type relaxation modes with the characteristic time constants ˜7 and ˜50 ps in a concentrated regime (˜15 and ˜30 ps in a dilute regime), respectively. The fast mode was simply attributed to the rotational motion of the (monomeric) NO2-Bz. However, the magnitude of the slow mode was proportional to the square of the concentration in the dilute regime; thus, the mode was assigned to the anti-parallel dimer, (NO2-Bz)2, dissociation process, and the slow relaxation time was attributed to the anti-parallel dimer lifetime. The concentration dependencies of both the dielectric and scattering data show that the NO2-Bz molecular processes are controlled through a chemical equilibrium between monomers and anti-parallel dimers, 2NO2-Bz ↔ (NO2-Bz)2, due to a strong dipole-dipole interaction between nitro groups.

  3. Dimer formation and conformational flexibility ensure cytoplasmic stability and nuclear accumulation of Elk-1

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emma L.; Saxton, Janice; Shelton, Samuel J.; Begitt, Andreas; Holliday, Nicholas D.; Hipskind, Robert A.; Shaw, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The ETS (E26) protein Elk-1 serves as a paradigm for mitogen-responsive transcription factors. It is multiply phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which it recruits into pre-initiation complexes on target gene promoters. However, events preparatory to Elk-1 phosphorylation are less well understood. Here, we identify two novel, functional elements in Elk-1 that determine its stability and nuclear accumulation. One element corresponds to a dimerization interface in the ETS domain and the second is a cryptic degron adjacent to the serum response factor (SRF)-interaction domain that marks dimerization-defective Elk-1 for rapid degradation by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Dimerization appears to be crucial for Elk-1 stability only in the cytoplasm, as latent Elk-1 accumulates in the nucleus and interacts dynamically with DNA as a monomer. These findings define a novel role for the ETS domain of Elk-1 and demonstrate that nuclear accumulation of Elk-1 involves conformational flexibility prior to its phosphorylation by MAPKs. PMID:21543455

  4. Dimer formation and conformational flexibility ensure cytoplasmic stability and nuclear accumulation of Elk-1.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emma L; Saxton, Janice; Shelton, Samuel J; Begitt, Andreas; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hipskind, Robert A; Shaw, Peter E

    2011-08-01

    The ETS (E26) protein Elk-1 serves as a paradigm for mitogen-responsive transcription factors. It is multiply phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which it recruits into pre-initiation complexes on target gene promoters. However, events preparatory to Elk-1 phosphorylation are less well understood. Here, we identify two novel, functional elements in Elk-1 that determine its stability and nuclear accumulation. One element corresponds to a dimerization interface in the ETS domain and the second is a cryptic degron adjacent to the serum response factor (SRF)-interaction domain that marks dimerization-defective Elk-1 for rapid degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Dimerization appears to be crucial for Elk-1 stability only in the cytoplasm, as latent Elk-1 accumulates in the nucleus and interacts dynamically with DNA as a monomer. These findings define a novel role for the ETS domain of Elk-1 and demonstrate that nuclear accumulation of Elk-1 involves conformational flexibility prior to its phosphorylation by MAPKs.

  5. Site- and bond-selective H- formation in methylated pyrimidine bases driven by potassium-molecule collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Garcia, G.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2012-11-01

    Electron transfer in alkali-molecule collisions to gas phase thymine and uracil yielding H- formation is selectively controlled in the energy range between 5 and 65 eV. By tuning the collision energy, electron transfer from the alkali to methylated thymine (at the N1 position), methylated uracil (at the N3 position) and partly deuterated thymine, enables H-formation. Such process proceeds not only through the breaking of the (C-H) against (N-H) bonds but also through N1 against N3 sites. Such selectivity, as far as bond and site are concerned, is here reported for the first time in collision induced dissociation experiments by alkali-molecule interactions.

  6. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    SciTech Connect

    Amand, Helene L.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from

  7. A short sequence motif in the 5' leader of the HIV-1 genome modulates extended RNA dimer formation and virus replication.

    PubMed

    van Bel, Nikki; Das, Atze T; Cornelissen, Marion; Abbink, Truus E M; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-12-19

    The 5' leader of the HIV-1 RNA genome encodes signals that control various steps in the replication cycle, including the dimerization initiation signal (DIS) that triggers RNA dimerization. The DIS folds a hairpin structure with a palindromic sequence in the loop that allows RNA dimerization via intermolecular kissing loop (KL) base pairing. The KL dimer can be stabilized by including the DIS stem nucleotides in the intermolecular base pairing, forming an extended dimer (ED). The role of the ED RNA dimer in HIV-1 replication has hardly been addressed because of technical challenges. We analyzed a set of leader mutants with a stabilized DIS hairpin for in vitro RNA dimerization and virus replication in T cells. In agreement with previous observations, DIS hairpin stability modulated KL and ED dimerization. An unexpected previous finding was that mutation of three nucleotides immediately upstream of the DIS hairpin significantly reduced in vitro ED formation. In this study, we tested such mutants in vivo for the importance of the ED in HIV-1 biology. Mutants with a stabilized DIS hairpin replicated less efficiently than WT HIV-1. This defect was most severe when the upstream sequence motif was altered. Virus evolution experiments with the defective mutants yielded fast replicating HIV-1 variants with second site mutations that (partially) restored the WT hairpin stability. Characterization of the mutant and revertant RNA molecules and the corresponding viruses confirmed the correlation between in vitro ED RNA dimer formation and efficient virus replication, thus indicating that the ED structure is important for HIV-1 replication.

  8. Sequential pH-driven dimerization and stabilization of the N-terminal domain enables rapid spider silk formation.

    PubMed

    Kronqvist, Nina; Otikovs, Martins; Chmyrov, Volodymyr; Chen, Gefei; Andersson, Marlene; Nordling, Kerstin; Landreh, Michael; Sarr, Médoune; Jörnvall, Hans; Wennmalm, Stefan; Widengren, Jerker; Meng, Qing; Rising, Anna; Otzen, Daniel; Knight, Stefan D; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Johansson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling the conversion of spider silk proteins into insoluble fibres, which happens in a fraction of a second and in a defined region of the silk glands, are still unresolved. The N-terminal domain changes conformation and forms a homodimer when pH is lowered from 7 to 6; however, the molecular details still remain to be determined. Here we investigate site-directed mutants of the N-terminal domain from Euprosthenops australis major ampullate spidroin 1 and find that the charged residues D40, R60 and K65 mediate intersubunit electrostatic interactions. Protonation of E79 and E119 is required for structural conversions of the subunits into a dimer conformation, and subsequent protonation of E84 around pH 5.7 leads to the formation of a fully stable dimer. These residues are highly conserved, indicating that the now proposed three-step mechanism prevents premature aggregation of spidroins and enables fast formation of spider silk fibres in general.

  9. Localized dimerization and nucleoid binding drive gradient formation by the bacterial cell division inhibitor MipZ.

    PubMed

    Kiekebusch, Daniela; Michie, Katharine A; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Löwe, Jan; Thanbichler, Martin

    2012-05-11

    Protein gradients play a central role in the spatial organization of cells, but the mechanisms of their formation are incompletely understood. This study analyzes the determinants responsible for establishing bipolar gradients of the ATPase MipZ, a key regulator of division site placement in Caulobacter crescentus. We have solved the crystal structure of MipZ in different nucleotide states, dissected its ATPase cycle, and investigated its interaction with FtsZ, ParB, and the nucleoid. Our results suggest that the polar ParB complexes locally stimulate the formation of ATP-bound MipZ dimers, which are then retained near the cell poles through association with chromosomal DNA. Due to their intrinsic ATPase activity, dimers eventually dissociate into freely diffusible monomers that undergo spontaneous nucleotide exchange and are recaptured by ParB. These findings clarify the molecular function of a conserved gradient-forming system and reveal mechanistic principles that might be commonly used to sustain protein gradients within cells.

  10. Orbital-selective singlet dimer formation and suppression of double exchange in 4d and 5d systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, Sergey; Cao, Gang; Khomskii, Daniel

    One of the main mechanisms of ferromagnetic ordering in conducting materials is the double exchange (DE). It is usually supposed in DE model that the Hund's coupling JH is much larger than electron hopping t; in this case one stabilizes the state with maximum spin per pair of ions, which finally leads to ferromagnetism in bulk systems. We show that in the dimerized 4 d / 5 d transition metal oxides for which JH is reduced and t is in contrast enhanced, another situation is possible, when formation of the spin-singlets on delocalized orbitals is more favorable. This leads to suppression of the DE and to a strong decrease of the total spin. The model calculations using the dynamical mean-field theory show that this effect survives even in the extended systems, not only for dimers. Such a situation is realized, e.g., in Y5Mo2O12, CrO2 under pressure and in many other 4 d / 5 d based materials. Another mechanism, which may suppress DE and which is also typical for 4 d / 5 d compounds is the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We show on the example of Ba5AlIr2O11, that in this system it is the combination of molecular-orbital formation and SOC that strongly decreases magnetic moment on Ir. Civil Research and Development Foundation via FSCX-14-61025-0.

  11. Formation of the Antarctic ozone hole by the ClO dimer mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, J. W.; Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R. L.; Jaramillo, M.; Emmons, L.

    1988-01-01

    New measurements of the low-altitude ClO profile, made during September 1987, are presented along with detailed observations of ozone depletion over McMurdo Station, Antarctica during the same period. The results show that both the rate and altitude range of ozone depletion can be quantitatively accounted for by a mechanism in which the ClO dimer is the important intermediary in the catalytic destruction of ozone. An alternative bromine mechanism appears capable of contributing only 5-15 percent to the ozone loss rate.

  12. Formation of macrocyclic lactones in the Paternò-Büchi dimerization reaction.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Junya; Mizuta, Tsutomu; Hiraga, Yoshikazu; Abe, Manabu

    2011-02-28

    Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (hν > 290 nm) was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with C(i) symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò-Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkoxyoxetane and 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives, were not detected in the photolysate.

  13. Electrical conductivity and luminescence in coordination polymers based on copper(I)-halides and sulfur-pyrimidine ligands.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Almudena; Castillo, Oscar; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Zamora, Félix; Delgado, Salome

    2012-01-02

    The solvothermal reactions between pyrimidinedisulfide (pym(2)S(2)) and CuI or CuBr(2) in CH(2)Cl(2):CH(3)CN lead to the formation of [Cu(11)I(7)(pymS)(4)](n) (pymSH = pyrimidine-2(1H)-thione) (1) and the dimer [Cu(II)(μ-Br)(Br)L](2) (L = 2-(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1,3-thiazole-4-carbaldehyde) (2). In the later reaction, there is an in situ S-S, S-C(sp(2)), and C(sp(2))-N multiple bond cleavage of the pyrimidinedisulfide resulting in the formation of 2-(pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-1,3-thiazole-4-carbaldehyde. Interestingly, similar reactions carried out just with a change in the solvent (H(2)O:CH(3)CN instead of CH(2)Cl(2):CH(3)CN) give rise to the formation of coordination polymers with rather different architectures. Thus, the reaction between pym(2)S(2) and CuI leads to the formation of [Cu(3)I(pymS)(2)](n) (3) and [CuI(pym(2)S(3))] (pym(2)S(3) = pyrimidiltrisulfide) (4), while [Cu(3)Br(pymS)(2)](n) (5) is isolated in the reaction with CuBr(2). Finally, the solvothermal reactions between CuI and pyrimidine-2-thione (pymSH) in CH(2)Cl(2):CH(3)CN at different ratios, 1:1 or 2:1, give the polymers [Cu(2)I(2)(pymSH)(2)](n) (6) and [Cu(2)I(2)(pymSH)](n) (7), respectively. The structure of the new compounds has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The studies of the physical properties of the novel coordination polymers reveal that compounds 3 and 5 present excellent electrical conductivity values at room temperature, while compounds 1, 3, and 5-7 show luminescent strong red emission at room temperature.

  14. On the adsorption and formation of Pt dimers on the CeO2(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Bruix, Albert; Nazari, Fariba; Neyman, Konstantin M; Illas, Francesc

    2011-12-28

    The direct adsorption of Pt(2) dimers on CeO(2)(111) and their formation from isolated adsorbed Pt atoms have been studied using periodic slab model calculations based on density functional theory and including the so-called on-site Hubbard parameter (GGA + U). In the most stable configuration Pt(2) is found to be almost parallel to the surface; the electronic ground state is closed shell and there is no evidence of charge transfer towards or from the surface. The formation of Pt(2) from two single adsorbed Pt atoms involves a rather small energy barrier of ~0.10 eV only. On the contrary, dissociation of adsorbed Pt(2) requires to overcome a considerable barrier of ~1.43 eV. This indicates that once Pt(2) is formed it will remain on the surface, thus likely triggering the growth of larger supported Pt particles.

  15. Equilibrium constants from spectrophotometric data: dimer formation in gaseous Br2.

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2008-07-03

    The equilibrium constant for the dimerization reaction, 2Br 2(g) right arrow over left arrow Br 4(g), is estimated using the classic spectrophotometric method with precise data and a multiwavelength fitting approach. The analysis is very sensitive to small errors in the data, requiring that parameters for the baseline absorption be included at each wavelength. To that end spectra for 18 Br 2 pressures in the range 6-119 Torr are augmented by six baseline scans to facilitate estimation of three baseline constants and two molar absorptivities at each wavelength, yielding K c = 2.5 +/- 0.4 L/mol at 22 degrees C. This value is more than double the only previous estimate, which was based on analysis of PVT data. With adoption of a literature estimate of Delta H degrees = -9.5 kJ/mol, the new K implies Delta S degrees = -51 J mol (-1) K (-1) (ideal gas, 1 bar reference). The spectra for monomer absorption (peak 227 nm) and dimer absorption (205 nm) are obtained with unprecedented precision.

  16. Mapping Thymine Dimer Splitting in Damaged DNA by Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheyun; Tan, Chuang; Li, Jiang; Guo, Xunmin; Wang, Lijuan; Zhong, Dongping

    2010-06-01

    Photolyases uses light energy to convert UV-damaged cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) to normal bases. We observed the formation and decay of semiquinone flavin and CPD anion intermediate, the recovery of hydroquinone flavin in ground state, and the formation of normal thymine bases in real time with femtosecond time resolution. By monitoring the decay and formation of all reactants, intermediates and products, the functional dynamics of the elementary steps during CPD repair have been mapped out. All elementary reaction steps, namely forward electron transfer, back electron transfer, bond breakage and electron return occur in sub-nanosecond scale. These dynamics are synergistically correlated for maximum of repair efficiency through a redox photocycle with no net change of electrons.

  17. Computational study of the hydration of sulfuric acid dimers: implications for acid dissociation and aerosol formation.

    PubMed

    Temelso, Berhane; Phan, Thuong Ngoc; Shields, George C

    2012-10-04

    We have investigated the thermodynamics of sulfuric acid dimer hydration using ab initio quantum mechanical methods. For (H(2)SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(n) where n = 0-6, we employed high-level ab initio calculations to locate the most stable minima for each cluster size. The results presented herein yield a detailed understanding of the first deprotonation of sulfuric acid as a function of temperature for a system consisting of two sulfuric acid molecules and up to six waters. At 0 K, a cluster of two sulfuric acid molecules and one water remains undissociated. Addition of a second water begins the deprotonation of the first sulfuric acid leading to the di-ionic species (the bisulfate anion HSO(4)(-), the hydronium cation H(3)O(+), an undissociated sulfuric acid molecule, and a water). Upon the addition of a third water molecule, the second sulfuric acid molecule begins to dissociate. For the (H(2)SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(3) cluster, the di-ionic cluster is a few kcal mol(-1) more stable than the neutral cluster, which is just slightly more stable than the tetra-ionic cluster (two bisulfate anions, two hydronium cations, and one water). With four water molecules, the tetra-ionic cluster, (HSO(4)(-))(2)(H(3)O(+))(2)(H(2)O)(2), becomes as favorable as the di-ionic cluster H(2)SO(4)(HSO(4)(-))(H(3)O(+))(H(2)O)(3) at 0 K. Increasing the temperature favors the undissociated clusters, and at room temperature we predict that the di-ionic species is slightly more favorable than the neutral cluster once three waters have been added to the cluster. The tetra-ionic species competes with the di-ionic species once five waters have been added to the cluster. The thermodynamics of stepwise hydration of sulfuric acid dimer is similar to that of the monomer; it is favorable up to n = 4-5 at 298 K. A much more thermodynamically favorable pathway forming sulfuric acid dimer hydrates is through the combination of sulfuric acid monomer hydrates, but the low concentration of sulfuric acid relative to

  18. Elucidation of the Dexter-Type Energy Transfer in DNA by Thymine-Thymine Dimer Formation Using Photosensitizers as Artificial Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Antusch, Linda; Gaß, Nadine; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2017-01-24

    C-nucleosides of 4-methylbenzophenone, 4-methoxybenzophenone, and 2'-methoxyacetophenone were synthetically incorporated as internal photosensitizers into DNA double strands. This structurally new approach makes it possible to study the distance dependence of thymidine dimer formation because the site of photoinduced triplet energy transfer injection is clearly defined. The counterstrands to these modified strands lacked the phosphodiester bond between the two adjacent thymidines that are supposed to react with each other. Their dimerization could be evidenced by gel electrophoresis because the covalent connection by cyclobutane formation between the two thymidines changes the mobility. A shallow exponential distance dependence for the formation of thymidine dimers over up to 10 A-T base pairs was observed that agrees with a Dexter-type triplet-triplet energy transfer mechanism. Concomitantly, a significant amount of photoinduced DNA crosslinking was observed.

  19. Accurate Calculations of Electronic Properties of Alkali Dimers for Ultracold Molecule Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

    2007-09-19

    The realization of ultracold samples of dipolar molecules is a current challenge which requires an accurate knowledge of their electronic properties to guide ongoing experiments. Using a standard quantum chemistry approach based on pseudopotentials for atomic core representation, Gaussian basis sets and effective core polarization potentials, we have investigated the properties of homonuclear and hetero-nuclear alkali dimers involving all pairs of atoms from Li to Fr. In addition to the potential curves for ground and excited states for various symmetries, we have calculated permanent and transition dipole moments as function of the interatomic distance and of the vibrational level. When appropriate, we will discuss the comparison with previous experimental or theoretical results.

  20. Dimer-formation in the bis(arene)chromium fulleride Cr(C7H8)2 C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnerscheid, Andreas; van Wüllen, Leo; Jansen, Martin; Rahmer, Jürgen; Mehring, Michael

    2001-10-01

    Bis(toluene)chromium fulleride Cr(C7H8)2 C60 has been synthesized as a microcrystalline powder from C60 and Cr(C7H8)2 in toluene. One electron is transferred from the chromium complex to the fullerene resulting in a magnetic moment of about 2.5±0.2μB at room temperature, which corresponds to two electron spins per formula unit. At 250 K a reversible phase transition from a primitive cubic high temperature paramagnetic phase to a triclinic low temperature dimer phase occurs. The high temperature phase (Pm3¯m, a=9.986 Å) is constituted of dynamically disordered fulleride anions and bis(toluene)chromium (I) cations in a CsCl-type arrangement. The low temperature modification is triclinic (P1¯, a=13.541 Å, b=13.864 Å, c=14.122 Å, α=120.59, β=91.78, γ=116.88) and carries one unpaired electron per formula unit (μ=1.72±0.01 μB), which according to ESR measurements is localized at the chromium site (giso=1.9870). The phase transition has been monitored by x-ray diffraction, ESR and solid state NMR spectroscopy as well as by SQUID measurements. All experimental results can consistently be described within the scenario of dimer formation of the C60 monoanions during the transformation.

  1. The acrylonitrile dimer ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervasti, Henri K.; Jobst, Karl J.; Burgers, Peter C.; Ruttink, Paul J. Ae; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2007-04-01

    Large energy barriers prohibit the rearrangement of solitary acrylonitrile ions, CH2CHCN+, into their more stable hydrogen-shift isomers CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+. This prompted us to examine if these isomerizations occur by self-catalysis in acrylonitrile dimer ions. Such ions, generated by chemical ionization experiments of acrylonitrile with an excess of carbon dioxide, undergo five dissociations in the [mu]s time frame, as witnessed by peaks at m/z 53, 54, 79, 80 and 105 in their metastable ion mass spectrum. Collision experiments on these product ions, deuterium labeling, and a detailed computational analysis using the CBS-QB3 model chemistry lead to the following conclusions: (i) the m/z 54 ions are ions CH2CHCNH+ generated by self-protonation in ion-dipole stabilized hydrogen-bridged dimer ions [CH2CHCN...H-C(CN)CH2]+ and [CH2CHCN...H-C(H)C(H)CN]+; the proton shifts in these ions are associated with a small reverse barrier; (ii) dissociation of the H-bridged ions into CH2CCNH+ or CHCH-CNH+ by self-catalysis is energetically feasible but kinetically improbable: experiment shows that the m/z 53 ions are CH2CHCN+ ions, generated by back dissociation; (iii) the peaks at m/z 79, 80 and 105 correspond with the losses of HCN, C2H2 and H, respectively. The calculations indicate that these ions are generated from dimer ions that have adopted the (much more stable) covalently bound "head-to-tail" structure [CH2CHCN-C(H2)C(H)CN]+; experiments indicate that the m/z 79 (C5H5N) and m/z 105 (C6H6N2) ions have linear structures but the m/z 80 (C4H4N2) ions consist of ionized pyrimidine in admixture with its stable pyrimidine-2-ylidene isomer. Acrylonitrile is a confirmed species in interstellar space and our study provides experimental and computational evidence that its dimer radical cation yields the ionized prebiotic pyrimidine molecule.

  2. Synthetic control to achieve lanthanide(III)/pyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylate compounds by preventing oxalate formation: structural, magnetic, and luminescent properties.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier; Balda, Rolindes; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; Fernández, Joaquín; Luque, Antonio; Pérez-Yáñez, Sonia; Román, Pascual

    2012-07-16

    Control over the synthetic conditions in many metal/diazinedicarboxylato systems is crucial to prevent oxalate formation, since dicarboxylato ligands easily undergo degradation in the presence of metal salts. We report here an efficient route to obtain oxalato-free compounds for the lanthanide/pyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylato (pmdc) system on the basis of the reaction temperature and nonacidic pH or oxygen free atmosphere. Two different crystal architectures have been obtained: {[Ln(μ-pmdc)(1.5)(H(2)O)(3)]·xH(2)O}(n) (1-Ln) and {[Ln(2)(μ(4)-pmdc)(2)(μ-pmdc)(H(2)O)(2)]·H(2)O}(n) (2-Ln) with Ln(III) = La-Yb, except Pm. Both crystal structures are built from distorted two-dimensional honeycomb networks based on the recurrent double chelating mode established by the pmdc. In compounds 1-Ln, the tricapped trigonal prismatic coordination environment of the lanthanides is completed by three water molecules, precluding a further increase in the dimensionality. Crystallization water molecules are arranged in the interlamellar space, giving rise to highly flexible supramolecular clusters that are responsible for the modulation found in compound 1-Gd. Two of the coordinated water molecules are replaced by nonchelating carboxylate oxygen atoms of pmdc ligands in compounds 2-Ln, joining the metal-organic layers together and thus providing a compact three-dimensional network. The crystal structure of the compounds is governed by the competition between two opposing factors: the ionic size and the reaction temperature. The lanthanide contraction rejects the sterically hindered coordination geometries whereas high-temperature entropy driven desolvation pathway favors the release of solvent molecules leading to more compact frameworks. The characteristic luminescence of the Nd, Eu, and Tb centers is improved when moving from 1-Ln to 2-Ln compounds as a consequence of the decrease of the O-H oscillators. The magnetic properties of the compounds are dominated by the spin

  3. Maintenance of Dimer Conformation by the Dengue Virus Core Protein α4-α4′ Helix Pair Is Critical for Nucleocapsid Formation and Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Teoh, Pak-Guan; Huang, Zhi-Shun; Pong, Wen-Li; Chen, Po-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The virion of dengue virus (DENV) is composed of a viral envelope covering a nucleocapsid formed by a complex of viral genomic RNA and core protein (CP). DENV CP forms a dimer via the internal α2 and α4 helices of each monomer. Pairing of α2-α2′ creates a continuous hydrophobic surface, while the α4-α4′ helix pair joins the homodimer via side-chain interactions of the inner-edge residues. However, the importance of dimer conformation and the α4 helix of DENV CP in relation to its function are poorly understood. Loss of association between CP and lipid droplets (LDs) due to mutation suggests that the CP hydrophobic surface was not exposed, offering a possible explanation for the absence of dimers. Further assays suggest the connection between CP folding and protein stability. Attenuation of full-length RNA-derived virus production is associated with CP mutation, since no significant defects were detected in virus translation and replication. The in vitro characterization assays further highlighted that the α4-α4′ helix pair conformation is critical in preserving the overall α-helical content, thermostability, and dimer formation ability of CP, features correlated with the efficiency of nucleocapsid formation. Addition of Tween 20 improves in vitro nucleocapsid-like particle formation, suggesting the role of the LD in nucleocapsid formation in vivo. This study provides the first direct link between the α4-α4′ helix pair interaction and the CP dimer conformation that is the basis of CP function, particularly in nucleocapsid formation during virion production. IMPORTANCE Structure-based mutagenesis study of the dengue virus core protein (CP) reveals that the α4-α4′ helix pair is the key to maintaining its dimer conformation, which is the basis of CP function in nucleocapsid formation and virus production. Attenuation of full-length RNA-derived virus production is associated with CP mutation, since no significant defects in virus

  4. Structural and ab initio studies of AgAg bonding in the silver(I) dimer bis-μ-(5,7-dimethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidine)dinitrato disilver(I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M. Angustias; Salas, Juan M.; Quirós, Miguel; Sánchez, M. Purificación; Molina, José; El Bahraoui, Jaouad; Faure, René

    1995-08-01

    This work is an attempt to address the issue of metal-metal bonding in d 10 systems. The compound [Ag(dmtp)(NO 3)] 2, where dmtp represents the ligand 5,7-dimethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidine, has been prepared, characterized by thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy and its structure has been solved by X-ray diffraction. The compound is triclinic, space group P 1¯, a = 5.1295(4), b = 9.6009(7), c = 10.332(2) Å, α = 103.73(1), β = 99.14(1), γ = 97.67(1)°, Z = 2, D cal = 2.200 g cm -3, R = 0.029 for 4144 observed reflections. The compound exhibits a [Ag 2(dmtp) 2] 2+ core structure with two silver atoms bridged by the dmtp ligands via N3 and N4 to give eight-membered Ag 2N 4C 2 rings. The nitrato groups are coordinated in a semibridging and semichelating way (distances AgO, 2.816(2) Å for non-bridging and 2.653(2) and 2.749(2) Å for bridging oxygens). The AgAg separation is 3.058(1) Å, only 0.17 Å greater than in metallic silver. In order to make checking of the possible AgAg bonding, a theoretical analysis has been performed, based on the properties of the charge density distribution derived from ab initio MO calculations using STO-3G∗ and 3-21G(∗) wavefunctions, a significant direction interaction between the two metal centres having been found. Similar conclusions have been obtained for the model compound [Ag(NHCHNH)] 2 after performing a geometry optimization and using improved LANL2DZ wavefunctions that take into account relativistic effect.

  5. Biofilm formation and antibiotic production in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate.

    PubMed

    D'Alvise, Paul W; Magdenoska, Olivera; Melchiorsen, Jette; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gram, Lone

    2014-05-01

    In many species of the marine Roseobacter clade, periods of attached life, in association with phytoplankton or particles, are interspersed with planktonic phases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether shifts between motile and sessile life in the globally abundant Roseobacter clade species Ruegeria mobilis are associated with intracellular concentrations of the signal compound cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate (c-di-GMP), which in bacteria regulates transitions between motile and sessile life stages. Genes for diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are involved in c-di-GMP signalling, were found in the genome of R. mobilis strain F1926. Ion pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed 20-fold higher c-di-GMP concentrations per cell in biofilm-containing cultures than in planktonic cells. An introduced diguanylate cyclase gene increased c-di-GMP and enhanced biofilm formation and production of the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). An introduced phosphodiesterase gene decreased c-di-GMP and reduced biofilm formation and TDA production. tdaC, a key gene for TDA biosynthesis, was expressed only in attached or biofilm-forming cells, and expression was induced immediately after initial attachment. In conclusion, c-di-GMP signalling controls biofilm formation and biofilm-associated traits in R. mobilis and, as suggested by presence of GGDEF and EAL domain protein genes, also in other Roseobacter clade species. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Crystal structure of N'-hy-droxy-pyrimidine-2-carboximidamide.

    PubMed

    Jasmine, Nithianantham Jeeva; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas; Stanley, Nithianantham

    2014-10-01

    The title compound, C5H6N4O, is approximately planar, with an angle of 11.04 (15)° between the planes of the pyrimidine ring and the non-H atoms of the carboximidamide unit. The mol-ecule adopts an E configuration about the C=N double bond. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 (2)(10) ring motif. The dimers are further linked via N-H⋯N and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into a sheet structure parallel to the ac plane. The crystal structure also features N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and offset π-π stacking inter-actions between adjacent pyrimidine rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.622 (1) Å].

  7. Evidence for Watson-Crick and not Hoogsteen or wobble base pairing in the selection of nucleotides for insertion opposite pyrimidines and a thymine dimer by yeast DNA pol eta.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hanshin; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2005-03-29

    We have recently reported that pyrene nucleotide is preferentially inserted opposite an abasic site, the 3'-T of a thymine dimer, and most undamaged bases by yeast DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). Because pyrene is a nonpolar molecule with no H-bonding ability, the unusually high efficiencies of dPMP insertion are ascribed to its superior base stacking ability, and underscore the importance of base stacking in the selection of nucleotides by pol eta. To investigate the role of H-bonding and base pair geometry in the selection of nucleotides by pol eta, we determined the insertion efficiencies of the base-modified nucleotides 2,6-diaminopurine, 2-aminopurine, 6-chloropurine, and inosine which would make a different number of H-bonds with the template base depending on base pair geometry. Watson-Crick base pairing appears to play an important role in the selection of nucleotide analogues for insertion opposite C and T as evidenced by the decrease in the relative insertion efficiencies with a decrease in the number of Watson-Crick H-bonds and an increase in the number of donor-donor and acceptor-acceptor interactions. The selectivity of nucleotide insertion is greater opposite the 5'-T than the 3'-T of the thymine dimer, in accord with previous work suggesting that the 5'-T is held more rigidly than the 3'-T. Furthermore, insertion of A opposite both Ts of the dimer appears to be mediated by Watson-Crick base pairing and not by Hoogsteen base pairing based on the almost identical insertion efficiencies of A and 7-deaza-A, the latter of which lacks H-bonding capability at N7. The relative efficiencies for insertion of nucleotides that can form Watson-Crick base pairs parallel those for the Klenow fragment, whereas the Klenow fragment more strongly discriminates against mismatches, in accord with its greater shape selectivity. These results underscore the importance of H-bonding and Watson-Crick base pair geometry in the selection of nucleotides by both pol eta and the

  8. Hypermutation of DPYD Deregulates Pyrimidine Metabolism and Promotes Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lauren; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian Volker

    2016-02-01

    New strategies are needed to diagnose and target human melanoma. To this end, genomic analyses was performed to assess somatic mutations and gene expression signatures using a large cohort of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project to identify critical differences between primary and metastatic tumors. Interestingly, pyrimidine metabolism is one of the major pathways to be significantly enriched and deregulated at the transcriptional level in melanoma progression. In addition, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and other important pyrimidine-related genes: DPYS, AK9, CAD, CANT1, ENTPD1, NME6, NT5C1A, POLE, POLQ, POLR3B, PRIM2, REV3L, and UPP2 are significantly enriched in somatic mutations relative to the background mutation rate. Structural analysis of the DPYD protein dimer reveals a potential hotspot of recurring somatic mutations in the ligand-binding sites as well as the interfaces of protein domains that mediated electron transfer. Somatic mutations of DPYD are associated with upregulation of pyrimidine degradation, nucleotide synthesis, and nucleic acid processing while salvage and nucleotide conversion is downregulated in TCGA SKCM. At a systems biology level, somatic mutations of DPYD cause a switch in pyrimidine metabolism and promote gene expression of pyrimidine enzymes toward malignant progression. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Distinct sensory pathways in Vibrio cholerae El Tor and classical biotypes modulate cyclic dimeric GMP levels to control biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Brian K; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS), or cell-cell communication in bacteria, is achieved through the production and subsequent response to the accumulation of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs). To identify AI-regulated target genes in Vibrio cholerae El Tor (V. cholerae(El)), the strain responsible for the current cholera pandemic, luciferase expression was assayed in an AI(-) strain carrying a random lux transcriptional reporter library in the presence and absence of exogenously added AIs. Twenty-three genes were identified and shown to require the QS transcription factor, HapR, for their regulation. Several of the QS-dependent target genes, annotated as encoding hypothetical proteins, in fact encode HD-GYP proteins, phosphodiesterases that degrade the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), which is important for controlling biofilm formation. Indeed, overexpression of a representative QS-activated HD-GYP protein in V. cholerae(El) reduced the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP, which in turn decreased exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. The V. cholerae classical biotype (V. cholerae(Cl)), which caused previous cholera pandemics and is HapR(-), controls c-di-GMP levels and biofilm formation by the VieA signaling pathway. We show that the VieA pathway is dispensable for biofilm formation in V. cholerae(El) but that restoring HapR in V. cholerae(Cl) reestablishes QS-dependent repression of exopolysaccharide production. Thus, different pandemic strains of V. cholerae modulate c-di-GMP levels and control biofilm formation in response to distinct sensory pathways.

  10. INHIBITION OF THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF THE PYRIMIDINE PORTION OF THIAMINE BY ADENOSINE

    PubMed Central

    Moyed, H. S.

    1964-01-01

    Moyed, H. S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.). Inhibition of the biosynthesis of the pyrimidine portion of thiamine by adenosine. J. Bacteriol. 88:1024–1029. 1964.—The bacteriostatic effects of adenosine and several other purines on Aerobacter aerogenes can be overcome by either thiamine or the pyrimidine portion of thiamine. Adenosine causes almost complete cessation of the synthesis of the pyrimidine and consequently also of thiamine. However, synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein persists in the absence of thiamine synthesis until a three-or fourfold increase has occurred, indicating that A. aerogenes has a surplus supply of either thiamine or the pyrimidine. The failure of cells to continue production of the thiazole portion of thiamine when the synthesis of the pyrimidine is blocked indicates that control over the thiazole is exerted by the thiazole itself rather than by the intact thiamine molecule. Bacteria blocked in the synthesis of the pyrimidine either as the result of mutation or because of inhibition by adenosine excrete an intensely fluorescent, but as yet unidentified, compound. The fluorescent compound bears the nutritional relationship to the pyrimidine characteristic of that between an intermediate and an end product: an excess of the pyrimidine prevents its formation, whereas a deficiency of the pyrimidine greatly stimulates its formation. Adenosine inhibition of the synthesis of the pyrimidine is partially relieved by histidine or succinate. It is suggested that these compounds either bypass the blocked reaction or participate in the detoxification of adenosine. PMID:14219014

  11. Co-Binding of Pharmaceutical Compounds at Mineral Surfaces: Molecular Investigations of Dimer Formation at Goethite/Water Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Marsac, Rémi; Costa, Dominique; Cheng, Wei; Wu, Feng; Boily, Jean-François; Hanna, Khalil

    2017-08-01

    The emergence of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents in aquatic and terrestrial systems is becoming a serious threat to human and animal health worldwide. Because pharmaceutical compounds rarely exist individually in nature, interactions between various compounds can have unforeseen effects on their binding to mineral surfaces. This work demonstrates this important possibility for the case of two typical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agents (nalidixic acid (NA) and niflumic acid (NFA)) bound at goethite (α-FeOOH) used as a model mineral surface. Our multidisciplinary study, which makes use of batch sorption experiments, vibration spectroscopy and periodic density functional theory calculations, reveals enhanced binding of the otherwise weakly bound NFA caused by unforeseen intermolecular interactions with mineral-bound NA. This enhancement is ascribed to the formation of a NFA-NA dimer whose energetically favored formation (-0.5 eV compared to free molecules) is predominantly driven by van der Waals interactions. A parallel set of efforts also showed that no cobinding occurred with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) because of the lack of molecular interactions with coexisting contaminants. As such, this article raises the importance of recognizing drug cobinding, and lack of cobinding, for predicting and developing policies on the fate of complex mixtures of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents in nature.

  12. Nature and possible mechanisms of formation of potential mutations arising at emerging of thymine dimers after irradiation of double-stranded DNA by ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebneva, H. A.

    2003-01-01

    The mutagenesis under ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation is discussed. It is assumed, that the basic damages resulting in transitions, transversions, mutations of the frameshift and complex mutations are changes of the tautomeric state of the bases. The bases may be a part of dimers or may be not the dimer components. We consider such rare tautomeric states, which may influence the character of base pairing. A model of the formation of the above rare tautomeric forms of nucleotide bases under the UV-irradiation of the DNA is proposed. In the case of a radiation deexcitation of the DNA, which has absorbed the UV-quantum of the triplet energy level, there occur strong forced oscillations. They may result in changes of the lengths of hydrogen bonds between DNA bases. As a result, at H-bond shortening, the hydrogen atom may be almost in the center of H-bond. In the case of H-bond elongation, it may remain near the partner atom. Because of the H-bond breaking, during the formation of dimers, rare tautomeric forms of bases influencing the character of pairing can be realized. If a pair of the bases is not a part of dimer, then the only new stable configuration of the hydrogen atoms is the one that occurred at double-proton phototautomerism. It is shown that only those dimers are mutational, in which the change of a tautomeric state of the DNA bases have taken place. This is one of the differences between the proposed model and the standard one. The latter assumes, that from the point of view of ability of forming the mutations all the dimers are identical, and the DNA-polymerase is sometimes mistaken, incidentally building uncomplementary bases in. The consideration is only of qualitative character, it needs experimental verification, subsequent study by methods of quantum chemistry and theoretical physics. A list of problems to be studied in this respect is given.

  13. Dimers in nucleating vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kulmala, M.

    1998-09-01

    The dimer stage of nucleation may affect considerably the rate of the nucleation process at high supersaturation of the nucleating vapor. Assuming that the dimer formation limits the nucleation rate, the kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is studied starting with the definition of dimers as bound states of two associating molecules. The partition function of dimer states is calculated by summing the Boltzmann factor over all classical bound states, and the equilibrium population of dimers is found for two types of intermolecular forces: the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and rectangular well+hard core (RW) potentials. The principle of detailed balance is used for calculating the evaporation rate of dimers. The kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is then investigated under the assumption that the trimers are stable with respect to evaporation and that the condensation rate is a power function of the particle mass. If the power exponent λ=n/(n+1) (n is a non-negative integer), the kinetics of the process is described by a finite set of moments of particle mass distribution. When the characteristic time of the particle formation by nucleation is much shorter than that of the condensational growth, n+2 universal functions of a nondimensional time define the kinetic process. These functions are calculated for λ=2/3 (gas-to-particle conversion in the free molecular regime) and λ=1/2 (formation of islands on surfaces).

  14. Dimer formation in radiation-irradiated aqueous solution of lysozyme studied by light-scattering-intensity measurement.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Seki, H; Masuda, T; Imamura, M; Kondo, M

    1981-07-01

    The reaction of lysozyme with OH., Br.-2 and e-aq, produced in an aqueous solution by pulsed electrons and gamma-rays, were investigated. Irradiated enzymes showed an increase in the light scattering intensity (LSI) which is proportional to the absorbed dose. Results obtained from SDS gel electrophoresis confirm dimerization of lysozyme, which is considered to be responsible for the increase in LSI. It was found that the rate constant of the dimerization of protein radicals produced in the reaction with OH. is 2K=(1.0 +/- 0.3) X 10(6)M-1 s-1 and the yield of the dimerization is 0.6 in G. The enzymatic activity of the dimer is shown to be reduced to about 30 per cent of that of the intact enzyme. It is concluded that the radiation-induced inactivation of lysozyme is largely due to dimerization.

  15. Dimerization Mechanism of Alzheimer Aβ40 Peptides: The High Content of Intrapeptide-Stabilized Conformations in A2V and A2T Heterozygous Dimers Retards Amyloid Fibril Formation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Sterpone, Fabio; Pouplana, Ramon; Derreumaux, Philippe; Campanera, Josep M

    2016-12-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomerization is associated with the origin and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the A2V mutation enhances aggregation kinetics and toxicity, mixtures of wild-type (WT) and A2V, and also WT and A2T, peptides retard fibril formation and protect against AD. In this study, we simulate the equilibrium ensemble of WT:A2T Aβ40 dimer by means of extensive atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics and compare our results with previous equivalent simulations of A2V:A2V, WT:WT, and WT:A2V Aβ40 dimers for a total time scale of nearly 0.1 ms. Qualitative comparison of the resulting thermodynamic properties, such as the relative binding free energies, with the reported experimental kinetic and thermodynamic data affords us important insight into the conversion from slow-pathway to fast-pathway dimer conformations. The crucial reaction coordinate or driving force of such transformation turns out to be related to hydrophobic interpeptide interactions. Analysis of the equilibrium ensembles shows that the fast-pathway conformations contain interpeptide out-of-register antiparallel β-sheet structures at short interpeptide distances. In contrast, the slow-pathway conformations are formed by the association of peptides at large interpeptide distances and high intrapeptide compactness, such as conformations containing intramolecular three-stranded β-sheets which sharply distinguish fast (A2V:A2V and WT:WT) and slow (WT:A2T and WT:A2V) amyloid-forming sequences. Also, this analysis leads us to predict that a molecule stabilizing the intramolecular three-stranded β-sheet or inhibiting the formation of an interpeptide β-sheet spanning residues 17-20 and 31-37 would further reduce fibril formation and probably the cytotoxicity of Aβ species.

  16. DNA Repair by DNA: The UV1C DNAzyme Catalyzes Photoreactivation of Cyclobutane Thymine Dimers in DNA More Effectively than Their de Novo Formation.

    PubMed

    Barlev, Adam; Sekhon, Gurpreet S; Bennet, Andrew J; Sen, Dipankar

    2016-11-01

    UV1C, a 42-nt DNA oligonucleotide, is a deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) that optimally uses 305 nm wavelength light to catalyze photoreactivation of a cyclobutane thymine dimer placed within a gapped, unnatural DNA substrate, TDP. Herein we show that UV1C is also capable of photoreactivating thymine dimers within an authentic single-stranded DNA substrate, LDP. This bona fide UV1C substrate enables, for the first time, investigation of whether UV1C catalyzes only photoreactivation or also the de novo formation of thymine dimers. Single-turnover experiments carried out with LDP and UV1C, relative to control experiments with LDP alone in single-stranded and double-stranded contexts, show that while UV1C does modestly promote thymine dimer formation, its major activity is indeed photoreactivation. Distinct photostationary states are reached for LDP in its three contexts: as a single strand, as a constituent of a double-helix, and as a 1:1 complex with UV1C. The above results on the cofactor-independent photoreactivation capabilities of a catalytic DNA reinforce a series of recent, unexpected reports that purely nucleotide-based photoreactivation is also operational within conventional double-helical DNA.

  17. The impact of thermal treatment on the stability of freeze dried amorphous pharmaceuticals: I. Dimer formation in sodium ethacrynate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingquan; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of heat treatment (annealing) on the molecular mobility and chemical stability of dried sodium ethacrynate (ECA). ECA was lyophilized with sucrose or trehalose, and some samples were held as control while others were annealed at temperatures below T(g). Enthalpy recovery was studied with DSC and free volume was estimated based on density measurements. Global mobility was measured by the thermal activity monitor (TAM), and fast local mobility was studied with neutron backscattering. Formation of ECA dimer was measured by reverse phase HPLC. Maximum enthalpy recovery and minimum fictive temperature were observed at about T(g)-15 degrees C for both ECA/saccharide formulations. Annealing ECA in amorphous solids improved chemical stability, as shown by the decrease in degradation rate constant relative to the control. Annealed samples exhibited larger structural relaxation time than the control, and thus annealing decreased global mobility in the system. However, annealing does not significantly impact the local mobility. Chemical stability correlates with structural relaxation time, fictive temperature, and free volume, which suggests that improved stability is mainly a result of the reduced global mobility upon annealing.

  18. A deoxyribozyme that harnesses light to repair thymine dimers in DNA.

    PubMed

    Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Sen, Dipankar

    2004-01-06

    In vitro selection was used to investigate whether nucleic acid enzymes are capable of catalyzing photochemical reactions. The reaction chosen was photoreactivation of thymine cyclobutane dimers in DNA by using serotonin as cofactor and light of wavelengths longer than the absorption spectrum of DNA. Curiously, the dominant single-stranded DNA sequence selected, UV1A, was found to repair its internal thymine dimer substrate efficiently even in the absence of serotonin or any other cofactor. UV1C, a 42-nucleotide fragment of UV1A, repaired the thymine dimer substrate in trans (k(cat)/k(uncat) = 2.5 x 10(4)), showing optimal activity with 305 nm light and thus resembling naturally occurring photolyase enzymes. Mechanistic investigation of UV1C indicated that its catalytic role likely exceeded the mere positioning of the substrate in a conformation favorable for photoreactivation. A higher-order structure, likely a quadruplex, formed by specific guanine bases within the deoxyribozyme, was implicated as serving as a light-harvesting antenna, with photoreactivation of the thymine dimer proceeding possibly via electron donation from an excited guanine base. In a primordial "RNA world," self-replicating nucleic acid populations may have been vulnerable to deactivation via UV light-mediated pyrimidine dimer formation. Photolyase nucleic acid enzymes such as the one described here could thus have played a role in preserving the integrity of such an RNA world.

  19. Interaction of DDP with bovine serum albumin facilitates formation of the protein dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belaya, I.; Chikhirzhina, E.; Polyanichko, A.

    2017-07-01

    Interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with cis- and trans- isomers of diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (DDP) was studied using electrophoretic analysis and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The application of FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to study the DDP/BSA complexes in D2O solutions using protein concentrations close to the physiological level (30 mg/ml) with platinum to BSA molar ratios in the range of 1:1 to 150:1. Under these conditions we have observed formation of relatively weak non-covalent intermolecular protein complexes, which dominated over the BSA-Pt-BSA crosslinks. Analysis of the IR spectra in the region of amide I‧ band revealed that the fraction of the α-helical regions in the protein decreases from ∼65% to approximately 55% and 48% in the complexes with cis- and trans-DDP respectively, while the amount of extended β-structures increases from ∼15 to 20% in BSA to 20-30% in its complexes with cis-DDP and up to 35-40% in trans-DDP/BSA complexes. Based on the data obtained we conclude that multiple intermolecular interactions take place in the solution facilitated by the changes in the BSA secondary structure, induced by DDP binding.

  20. In the absence of ATPase activity, pre-RC formation is blocked prior to MCM2–7 hexamer dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Evrin, Cecile; Fernández-Cid, Alejandra; Zech, Juergen; Herrera, M. Carmen; Riera, Alberto; Clarke, Pippa; Brill, Shlomo; Lurz, Rudi; Speck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds origin DNA and cooperates with Cdc6 and Cdt1 to load the replicative helicase MCM2–7 onto DNA. Helicase loading involves two MCM2–7 hexamers that assemble into a double hexamer around double-stranded DNA. This reaction requires ORC and Cdc6 ATPase activity, but it is unknown how these proteins control MCM2–7 double hexamer formation. We demonstrate that mutations in Cdc6 sensor-2 and Walker A motifs, which are predicted to affect ATP binding, influence the ORC–Cdc6 interaction and MCM2–7 recruitment. In contrast, a Cdc6 sensor-1 mutant affects MCM2–7 loading and Cdt1 release, similar as a Cdc6 Walker B ATPase mutant. Moreover, we show that Orc1 ATP hydrolysis is not involved in helicase loading or in releasing ORC from loaded MCM2–7. To determine whether Cdc6 regulates MCM2–7 double hexamer formation, we analysed complex assembly. We discovered that inhibition of Cdc6 ATPase restricts MCM2–7 association with origin DNA to a single hexamer, while active Cdc6 ATPase promotes recruitment of two MCM2–7 hexamer to origin DNA. Our findings illustrate how conserved Cdc6 AAA+ motifs modulate MCM2–7 recruitment, show that ATPase activity is required for MCM2–7 hexamer dimerization and demonstrate that MCM2–7 hexamers are recruited to origins in a consecutive process. PMID:23376927

  1. Thiamin Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans: A Remarkable Reaction between Histidine and Pyridoxal Phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Rung-Yi; Huang, Siyu; Fenwick, Michael K.; Hazra, Amrita; Zhang, Yang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Philmus, Benjamin; Kinsland, Cynthia; Sanders, Jennie Mansell; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2012-06-26

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thiamin pyrimidine is formed from histidine and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The origin of all of the pyrimidine atoms has been previously determined using labeling studies and suggests that the pyrimidine is formed using remarkable chemistry that is without chemical or biochemical precedent. Here we report the overexpression of the closely related Candida albicans pyrimidine synthase (THI5p) and the reconstitution and preliminary characterization of the enzymatic activity. A structure of the C. albicans THI5p shows PLP bound at the active site via an imine with Lys62 and His66 in close proximity to the PLP. Our data suggest that His66 of the THI5 protein is the histidine source for pyrimidine formation and that the pyrimidine synthase is a single-turnover enzyme.

  2. Prebiotic syntheses of purines and pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Basile, B; Lazcano, A; Oró, J

    1984-01-01

    The work done in many laboratories during the last two decades has confirmed that hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene are the two major precursors for the prebiotic synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, respectively. Although several different pathways for the synthesis of purines have been described, they are all variations of the initial mechanism proposed by Oró and Kimball, where hydrogen cyanide leads first to the formation of a 4,5-di-substituted imidazole derivative, and then to the closing of the purine ring with a C1 compound. A number of experiments have shown that purines and pyrimidines can also be obtained from methane, ammonia (nitrogen), and water mixtures, provided an activating source of energy (radiation, electric discharges, etc.) is available. However, in this case the yields are lower by about two orders of magnitude because of the intermediate formation of hydrogen cyanide and cyanoacetylene. The latter two compounds have been found in interstellar space, Titan and other bodies of the solar system. They were probably present in the primordial parent bodies from the solar nebula in concentrations of 10(-2) to 10(-3) M as inferred from recent calculations by Miller and coworkers obtained for the Murchison meteorite. These concentrations should have been sufficient to generate relatively large amounts of purine and pyrimidine bases on the primitive Earth.

  3. Methyl 2-[2-(benzyl-oxycarbonyl-amino)-propan-2-yl]-5-hy-droxy-6-meth-oxy-pyrimidine-4-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Sumangala, V; Prasad, D Jagadeesh; Poojary, Boja; Chantrapromma, Suchada

    2011-01-08

    In the title compound, C(18)H(21)N(3)O(6), a pyrimidine derivative, the dihedral angle between the benzene and pyrimidine rings is 52.26 (12)°. The carboxyl-ate unit is twisted with respect to the pyrimidine ring, making a dihedral angle of 12.33 (7)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by a pair of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an inversion dimer. The dimers are stacked into columns along the b axis through weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  4. Formation of trans-2-[4-(Dimethylamino)Styryl]-3-Ethyl-1,3-Benzothiazolium Perchlorate Dimers in the Presence of Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavysh, A. V.; Maskevich, A. A.; Lugovskii, A. A.; Voropai, E. S.; Sulatskaya, A. I.; Kuznetsova, I. M.; Turoverov, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral properties of a novel thioflavin T derivative, trans-2-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-3-ethyl-1,3-benzothiazolium perchlorate (DMASEBT), were studied in aqueous solutions in the presence of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS). It was shown that SPS either could interact with dye monomers or initiate the formation of non-fluorescent dye dimers depending on the concentration ratio of dye and polyelectrolyte. DMASEBT dimer formation in the presence of SPS produced a hypsochromic shift by 40 nm in the absorption spectrum and quenched fluorescence. A bathochromic shift of the absorption spectrum and an increase of the fluorescence intensity by an order of magnitude were observed if DMASEBT monomers interacted with SPS. Quantum-chemical analysis found that sandwich dimers (H-aggregates) were most stable. A comparison of DMASEBT spectra in the presence of SPS and amyloid fibrils showed that DMASEBT molecules were incorporated into amyloid fibrils as monomers. The spectral changes associated with this incorporation could not be explained by the formation of dye aggregates.

  5. One-electron oxidation pathway of thiols by peroxynitrite in biological fluids: bicarbonate and ascorbate promote the formation of albumin disulphide dimers in human blood plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, G; Minetti, M

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that peroxynitrite oxidizes thiol groups through competing one- and two-electron pathways. The two-electron pathway is mediated by the peroxynitrite anion and prevails quantitatively over the one-electron pathway, which is mediated by peroxynitrous acid or a reactive species derived from it. In CO2-containing fluids the oxidation of thiols might follow a different mechanism owing to the rapid formation of a different oxidant, the nitrosoperoxycarbonate anion (ONOOCO2(-)). Here we present evidence that in blood plasma peroxynitrite induces the formation of a disulphide cross-linked protein identified by immunological (anti-albumin antibodies) and biochemical criteria (peptide mapping) as a dimer of serum albumin. The albumin dimer did not form in plasma devoid of CO2 and its formation was enhanced by ascorbate. However, analysis of thiol groups showed that reconstituting dialysed plasma with NaHCO3 protected protein thiols against the oxidation mediated by peroxynitrite and that the simultaneouspresence of ascorbate provided further protection. Ascorbate alone did not protect thiol groups from peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation. ESR spin-trapping studies with N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) revealed that peroxynitrite induced the formation of protein thiyl radicals and their intensity was markedly decreased by plasma dialysis and restored by reconstitution with NaHCO3. PBN completely inhibited the formation of albumin dimer. Moreover, the addition of iron-diethyldithiocarbamate to plasma demonstrated that peroxynitrite induced the formation of protein S-nitrosothiols and/or S-nitrothiols. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that NaHCO3 favours the one-electron oxidation of thiols by peroxynitrite with formation of thiyl radicals, ;NO2, and RSNOx. Thiyl radicals, in turn, are involved in chain reactions by which thiols are oxidized to disulphides. PMID:9425126

  6. Excited states of proton-bound DNA/RNA base homodimers: pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Féraud, Géraldine; Berdakin, Matias; Dedonder, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe; Pino, Gustavo A

    2015-02-12

    We are presenting the electronic photofragment spectra of the protonated pyrimidine DNA base homodimers. Only the thymine dimer exhibits a well structured vibrational progression, while the protonated monomer shows broad vibrational bands. This shows that proton bonding can block some nonradiative processes present in the monomer.

  7. Formation of a new copper(II) dimer through heterocyclic ligand ring opening reaction: Supramolecular features and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Bruna Lisboa; Gervini, Vanessa Carratu; Flores, Alex Fabiani Claro; Junior, Jorge Luiz Pimentel; Bortoluzzi, Adailton João; Burrow, Robert Alan; Duarte, Rafael; da Silva, Robson Ricardo; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Two new compounds were synthesized and characterized in this work: the heterocycle (Z)-1-(4-(hydroxyimino)-3,5-dimethyl-1-(methylcarbamothioyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)-4-methylthiosemicarbazide and a copper(II) thiosemicarbazonato dimeric complex. Green prismatic single crystals of the dimer were obtained by the reaction of the heterocycle with copper(II) chloride dihydrate. Both compounds were essentially characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction crystallography. The crystal structures revealed molecules connected through supramolecular hydrogen bond interactions and copper(II) centers in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal environment. SQUID magnetometry performed for the dimer revealed both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions in the studied complex, presenting a critical temperature of 19 K.

  8. Pyrimidine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas veronii and its regulation by pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2012-05-20

    Pyrimidine biosynthesis in the nutritionally versatile bacterium Pseudomonas veronii ATCC 700474 appeared to be controlled by pyrimidines. When wild type cells were grown on glucose in the presence of uracil, four enzyme activities were depressed while all five enzyme activities increased in succinate-grown cells supplemented with uracil. Independent of carbon source, orotic acid-grown cells elevated aspartate transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase or OMP decarboxylase activity. Pyrimidine limitation of glucose-grown pyrimidine auxotrophic cells lacking OMP decarboxylase activity resulted in at least a doubling of the enzyme activities relative to their activities in uracil-grown cells. Less derepression of the enzyme activities was observed after pyrimidine limitation of succinate-grown mutant cells possibly due to catabolite repression. Aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in Ps. veronii was regulated at the level of enzyme activity since the enzyme was strongly inhibited by pyrophosphate, UDP, UTP, ADP, ATP and GTP. Overall, the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in Ps. veronii could be used to differentiate it from other taxonomically related species of Pseudomonas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. High sensitivity detection of cancer in vivo using a dual-controlled activation fluorescent imaging probe based on H-dimer formation and pH activation.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Regino, Celeste A S; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2010-05-01

    The key to improving the sensitivity of in vivo molecular imaging is to increase the target-to-background signal ratio (TBR). Optical imaging has a distinct advantage over other molecular imaging methods in that the fluorescent signal can be activated at the target thus reducing background signal. Previously, we found that H-dimer formation quenches fluorescence of xanthene fluorophores, and among these, TAMRA had the highest quenching ratio. Another approach to lowering background signal is to employ pH activation based on the photon-induced electron transfer (PeT) theory. We hypothesized that combining these two strategies could lead to greater quenching capacity than was possible with either probe alone. A pH-sensitive fluorophore, pHrodo or TAMRA was conjugated to the cancer targeting molecules, avidin (Av) and trastuzumab (Tra). As expected, both pHrodo and TAMRA formed H-dimers when conjugated to avidin or antibody and the dimerization resulted in efficient fluorescence quenching. In addition, pHrodo conjugated probes showed pH-dependent fluorescence activation. When the probes were used in an in vivo animal model, fluorescence endoscopy with Av-pHrodo depicted tumors with high TBR 1 h and 2 h after injection. Av-TAMRA also visualized tumors 1 h and 2 h after the injection, however, TBR was lower due to the background signal from non-specific binding 1 h after the injection as well as background fluorescence from the unbound agent. Thus, we demonstrate that a dual-controlled activatable optical probe based on the combination of H-dimer formation and pH activation can achieve high TBR at early time points during in vivo molecular imaging.

  10. Multiple spectroscopic and magnetic techniques show that chloroquine induces formation of the μ-oxo dimer of ferriprotoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Kuter, David; Benjamin, Stefan J; Egan, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Interaction of the antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) with ferriprotoporphyrin IX, Fe(III)PPIX, was investigated in aqueous solution (pH7.4) and as a precipitate from aqueous medium at pH5.0. In solution, spectrophotometric titrations indicated strong association (logKobs 13.3±0.2) and a Job plot gave a stoichiometry of 1:2 CQ:Fe(III)PPIX. UV-visible absorbance and magnetic circular dichroism spectra of the complex were compared to various Fe(III)PPIX species. Close similarity to the spectra of the μ-oxo dimer, μ-[Fe(III)PPIX]2O, was revealed. The induction of this species by CQ was confirmed by magnetic susceptibility measurements using the Evans NMR method. The observed low-magnetic moment (2.25±0.02 μB) could only be attributed to antiferromagnetically coupled Fe(III) centers. The value was comparable to that of μ-[Fe(III)PPIX]2O (2.0±0.1 μB). In the solid-state, mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of CQ in the complex. Dissolution of this solid in aqueous solution (pH7.4) resulted in a solution with a UV-visible spectrum consistent with the same 1:2 stoichiometry observed in the Job plot. Magnetic susceptibility measurements made on the solid using an Evans balance produced a magnetic moment (2.3±0.1 μB) consistent with that in solution. Diffusion coefficients of CQ and its complex with Fe(III)PPIX were measured in aqueous solution (3.3±0.3 and 0.6±0.2×10(-10) m(2)·s(-1), respectively). The latter was used in conjunction with an empirical relationship between diffusion coefficient and molar volume to estimate the degree of aggregation. The findings suggest the formation of a 2:4 CQ:Fe(III)PPIX complex in aqueous solution at pH7.4.

  11. Studies on the Effect of Sub-zero Temperatures on the Formation of Extremely Low Volatility Dimer Esters in Secondary Organic Aerosol from Alpha-Pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Normann Jensen, Louise; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) is considered a major source of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Recently, extremely low volatility organic compounds, or ELVOC, formed from the oxidation of VOCs have been shown to play a crucial role in new particle formation (Ehn et al., 2014). In addition, higher molecular weight dimer esters originating from the oxidation of the biogenic VOC alpha-pinene have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient SOA (Kristensen et al., 2013). The low volatility of the dimer esters along with an observed rapid formation makes these high molecular weight compounds likely candidates involved in new particle formation from the oxidation of alpha-pinene. Furthermore, laboratory experiments show that the dimer esters only form in the presence of ozone, thus may be used as tracers for the ozone-initiated oxidation of alpha-pinene, and are therefore indicative of enhanced anthropogenic activities. In this work, we present the results of a series of oxidation experiments performed in the newly constructed cold-room smog chamber at Aarhus University. This unique and state-of-the-art Teflon chamber allows for atmospheric simulations of the oxidation VOCs and subsequent SOA formation at temperatures down to -16 °C. In this study, ozonolysis and photochemical oxidations of alpha-pinene are performed at temperatures ranging from +20 to -16 °C. Chemical characterization of the formed SOA is performed using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results show significant differences in the chemical composition related to the experiment temperature. In particularly, the concentration of the high molecular weight dimer esters showed to be highly affected by temperature. Interestingly, preliminary results show higher formation of dimer esters related to increased SOA formation rate, thus indicating that these particle-phase ELVOCs may be linked with new particle

  12. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation of Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in Different Alkane Diluents: FTIR Study.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Unangst, Jaclynn L; Nguyen, Hung D; Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous metal-ion-extracting reagents, is an important ligand used in solvent extraction processes for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, as well as other non-nuclear applications. Ligand-ligand and organic solvent-ligand interactions play an important role in these processes. The self-association behavior of TBP in various alkane diluents of different chain lengths (8, 12, and 16 carbons) and a branched alkane (iso-octane) was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. By careful deconvolution of the spectra into multiple peaks, our results indicate that TBP self-associates to form not only dimers, as previous studies showed, but also trimers in the practical concentration range. Using a mathematical fitting procedure, the dimerization and trimerization constants were determined. As expected, these equilibrium constants are dependent on the solvent used. As the alkane chain for linear hydrocarbon solvents becomes longer, dimerization decreases whereas trimerization increases. For the more branched hydrocarbon, we observe a significantly higher dimerization constant. These effects are most likely due to the intermolecular van der Waals interactions between the butyl tails of each TBP molecule and the diluent hydrocarbon chain as all solvents in this study are relatively nonpolar.

  13. Ligand-free highly effective iron/copper co-catalyzed formation of dimeric aryl ethers or sulfides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoming; Li, Tingyi; Zhu, Yan; Sun, Peng; Yang, Hailong; Mao, Jincheng

    2011-07-21

    Highly selective coupling of diiodoarenes with phenols or phenthiols can be performed by using a low-cost, benign character and readily available Fe/Cu catalytic system in the absence of ligands. It is noteworthy that the desired dimeric aryl ethers or sulfides could be obtained in high yields by coupling between diiodoarenes and phenols, or diphenols with aryl iodides.

  14. An AIMD study of the CPD dimer repair mechanism in water: reaction free energy surface and mechanistic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hassanali, Ali A.; Zhong, Dongping; Singer, Sherwin J.

    2011-01-01

    In a series of two papers we report the detailed mechanism of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair in aqueous solvent using ab initio simulations. Umbrella sampling is used to determine the free energy surface for dimer splitting. The two dimensional free energy surface for splitting of the C5-C5′ and C6-C6′ bonds on the anion surface is reported. The splitting of the C5-C5′ and C6-C6′ bonds occurs on a picosecond timescale. The transition state along the splitting coordinate in the anion state coincides with a maximum in the free energy along the same coordinate on the neutral surface. The implication is that back electron transfer occurring before the anion reaches the transition state leads to re-formation of the cyclobutane dimer, while back electron transfer after transit through the transition state, leads to successful repair. Based on our calculations for CPD splitting in water, we propose a framework for understanding how various factors, such as solvent polarity, can control repair efficiency. This framework explains why back electron transfer leads predominantly to unsuccessful repair in some situations, and successful repair in others. A key observation is that the same free energy surfaces that control dimer splitting also govern how the back electron transfer rate changes during the splitting process. Configurational changes of the dimer along the splitting coordinate are also documented. PMID:21417374

  15. Mechanism and evolution of protein dimerization.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, D.; Tsai, C. J.; Nussinov, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism and the evolutionary pathway of protein dimerization through analysis of experimental structures of dimers. We propose that the evolution of dimers may have multiple pathways, including (1) formation of a functional dimer directly without going through an ancestor monomer, (2) formation of a stable monomer as an intermediate followed by mutations of its surface residues, and (3), a domain swapping mechanism, replacing one segment in a monomer by an equivalent segment from an identical chain in the dimer. Some of the dimers which are governed by a domain swapping mechanism may have evolved at an earlier stage of evolution via the second mechanism. Here, we follow the theory that the kinetic pathway reflects the evolutionary pathway. We analyze the structure-kinetics-evolution relationship for a collection of symmetric homodimers classified into three groups: (1) 14 dimers, which were referred to as domain swapping dimers in the literature; (2) nine 2-state dimers, which have no measurable intermediates in equilibrium denaturation; and (3), eight 3-state dimers, which have stable intermediates in equilibrium denaturation. The analysis consists of the following stages: (i) The dimer is divided into two structural units, which have twofold symmetry. Each unit contains a contiguous segment from one polypeptide chain of the dimer, and its complementary contiguous segment from the other chain. (ii) The division is repeated progressively, with different combinations of the two segments in each unit. (iii) The coefficient of compactness is calculated for the units in all divisions. The coefficients obtained for different cuttings of a dimer form a compactness profile. The profile probes the structural organization of the two chains in a dimer and the stability of the monomeric state. We describe the features of the compactness profiles in each of the three dimer groups. The profiles identify the swapping segments in domain swapping dimers

  16. Dimerization of VirD2 Binding Protein Is Essential for Agrobacterium Induced Tumor Formation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Padavannil, Abhilash; Jobichen, Chacko; Qinghua, Yang; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Yang, Liu; Pan, Shen Q.; Sivaraman, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Type IV Secretion System (T4SS) is the only bacterial secretion system known to translocate both DNA and protein substrates. The VirB/D4 system from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a typical T4SS. It facilitates the bacteria to translocate the VirD2-T-DNA complex to the host cell cytoplasm. In addition to protein-DNA complexes, the VirB/D4 system is also involved in the translocation of several effector proteins, including VirE2, VirE3 and VirF into the host cell cytoplasm. These effector proteins aid in the proper integration of the translocated DNA into the host genome. The VirD2-binding protein (VBP) is a key cytoplasmic protein that recruits the VirD2–T-DNA complex to the VirD4-coupling protein (VirD4 CP) of the VirB/D4 T4SS apparatus. Here, we report the crystal structure and associated functional studies of the C-terminal domain of VBP. This domain mainly consists of α-helices, and the two monomers of the asymmetric unit form a tight dimer. The structural analysis of this domain confirms the presence of a HEPN (higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding) fold. Biophysical studies show that VBP is a dimer in solution and that the HEPN domain is the dimerization domain. Based on structural and mutagenesis analyses, we show that substitution of key residues at the interface disrupts the dimerization of both the HEPN domain and full-length VBP. In addition, pull-down analyses show that only dimeric VBP can interact with VirD2 and VirD4 CP. Finally, we show that only Agrobacterium harboring dimeric full-length VBP can induce tumors in plants. This study sheds light on the structural basis of the substrate recruiting function of VBP in the T4SS pathway of A. tumefaciens and in other pathogenic bacteria employing similar systems. PMID:24626239

  17. 2-Acylamino- and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines as supramolecular synthons analyzed by multiple noncovalent interactions. DFT, X-ray diffraction, and NMR spectral studies.

    PubMed

    Ośmiałowski, Borys; Kolehmainen, Erkki; Ikonen, Satu; Valkonen, Arto; Kwiatkowski, Adam; Grela, Izabela; Haapaniemi, Esa

    2012-11-02

    Intermolecular interactions of ten 2-acylamino and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines (7 of which are previously unknown) have been investigated by X-ray structural, quantum chemical (DFT), and NMR spectral methods. Especially the concentration dependencies of the (1)H NMR chemical shifts and titrations with other molecules capable of multiple hydrogen bonding provided useful information regarding their association via triple or quadruple hydrogen bonding, which is controlled by the conformational preferences of 2-acylamino- and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines. On comparison of the properties of 2-acylamino- and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines with the corresponding pyridines, an additional nitrogen in the heterocyclic ring is the crucial factor in explaining the stability of various conformers and dimers of pyrimidines. Computational modeling of their dimerization (self-association) and heteroassociation supports the experimental findings. The substituent effects in 2-acylamino- and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines are discussed via inter- and intramolecular terms. The subtle balance between several structural factors and their influence on the aggregation of studied pyrimidines was confirmed also by variable-temperature NMR and NOE experiments. X-ray structures of 2-methyl- and 2-adamantyl-CONH-pyrimidines revealed very different intermolecular interactions, showing the importance of the substituent size on the self-assembly process. As a whole NMR spectral, X-ray structural, and computational data of 2-acylamino- and 2,4-bis(acylamino)pyrimidines can be interpreted in terms of multiple intra-/intermolecular interactions.

  18. A helical bundle in the N-terminal domain of the BLM helicase mediates dimer and potentially hexamer formation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Chen, Wei-Fei; Zhang, Bo; Fan, San-Hong; Ai, Xia; Liu, Na-Nv; Rety, Stephane; Xi, Xu-Guang

    2017-04-07

    Helicases play a critical role in processes such as replication or recombination by unwinding double-stranded DNA; mutations of these genes can therefore have devastating biological consequences. In humans, mutations in genes of three members of the RecQ family helicases (blm, wrn, and recq4) give rise to three strikingly distinctive clinical phenotypes: Bloom syndrome, Werner syndrome, and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, respectively. However, the molecular basis for these varying phenotypic outcomes is unclear, in part because a full mechanistic description of helicase activity is lacking. Because the helicase core domains are highly conserved, it has been postulated that functional differences among family members might be explained by significant differences in the N-terminal domains, but these domains are poorly characterized. To help fill this gap, we now describe bioinformatics, biochemical, and structural data for three vertebrate BLM proteins. We pair high resolution crystal structures with SAXS analysis to describe an internal, highly conserved sequence we term the dimerization helical bundle in N-terminal domain (DHBN). We show that, despite the N-terminal domain being loosely structured and potentially lacking a defined three-dimensional structure in general, the DHBN exists as a dimeric structure required for higher order oligomer assembly. Interestingly, the unwinding amplitude and rate decrease as BLM is assembled from dimer into hexamer, and also, the stable DHBN dimer can be dissociated upon ATP hydrolysis. Thus, the structural and biochemical characterizations of N-terminal domains will provide new insights into how the N-terminal domain affects the structural and functional organization of the full BLM molecule.

  19. Formation and dimerization of the phosphodiesterase active site of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa MorA, a bi-functional c-di-GMP regulator.

    PubMed

    Phippen, Curtis William; Mikolajek, Halina; Schlaefli, Henry George; Keevil, Charles William; Webb, Jeremy Stephen; Tews, Ivo

    2014-12-20

    Diguanylate cyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE), respectively synthesise and hydrolyse the secondary messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP), and both activities are often found in a single protein. Intracellular c-di-GMP levels in turn regulate bacterial motility, virulence and biofilm formation. We report the first structure of a tandem DGC-PDE fragment, in which the catalytic domains are shown to be active. Two phosphodiesterase states are distinguished by active site formation. The structures, in the presence or absence of c-di-GMP, suggest that dimerisation and binding pocket formation are linked, with dimerisation being required for catalytic activity. An understanding of PDE activation is important, as biofilm dispersal via c-di-GMP hydrolysis has therapeutic effects on chronic infections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hypermutation of DPYD Deregulates Pyrimidine Metabolism and Promotes Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lauren; Gupta, Rohit; Filipp, Fabian V.

    2016-01-01

    New strategies are needed to diagnose and target human melanoma. To this end, genomic analyses was performed to assess somatic mutations and gene expression signatures using a large cohort of human skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project to identify critical differences between primary and metastatic tumors. Interestingly, pyrimidine metabolism is one of the major pathways to be significantly enriched and deregulated at the transcriptional level in melanoma progression. In addition, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and other important pyrimidine-related genes: DPYS, AK9, CAD, CANT1, ENTPD1, NME6, NT5C1A, POLE, POLQ, POLR3B, PRIM2, REV3L, and UPP2 are significantly enriched in somatic mutations relative to the background mutation rate. Structural analysis of the DPYD protein dimer reveals a potential hotspot of recurring somatic mutations in the ligand binding sites as well as the interfaces of protein domains that mediated electron transfer. Somatic mutations of DPYD are associated with upregulation of pyrimidine degradation, nucleotide synthesis, and nucleic acid processing while salvage and nucleotide conversion is downregulated in TCGA SKCM. PMID:26609109

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of pyrimidine

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Mingfu; Dyakov, Yuri A.; Tseng, C.-M.; Mebel, Alexander M.; Lin, S.H.; Lee, Yuan T.; Ni, C.-K.

    2006-02-28

    Photodissociation of pyrimidine at 193 and 248 nm was investigated separately using vacuum ultraviolet photoionization at 118.4 and 88.6 nm and multimass ion imaging techniques. Six dissociation channels were observed at 193 nm, including C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3}+H and five ring opening dissociation channels, C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}C{sub 3}NH{sub 3}+HCN, C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}2C{sub 2}NH{sub 2}, C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}CH{sub 3}N+C{sub 3}NH, C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}C{sub 4}NH{sub 2}+NH{sub 2}, and C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}{yields}CH{sub 2}N+C{sub 3}NH{sub 2}. Only the first four channels were observed at 248 nm. Photofragment translational energy distributions and dissociation rates indicate that dissociation occurs in the ground electronic state after internal conversion at both wavelengths. The dissociation rates were found to be >5x10{sup 7} and 1x10{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 193 and 248 nm, respectively. Comparison with the potential energies from ab initio calculations have been made.

  2. 6-Chloro-N 4,N 4-dimethyl­pyrimidine-2,4-diamine

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Kai; Sun, Bin; Guo, Dian-Shun

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C6H9ClN4, contains four independent mol­ecules (A, B, C and D). Their main difference is the torsion angles, ranging from 1.6 (5) to 5.9 (5)°, between the methyl group and the pyrimidine plane. A pair of inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link mol­ecules A and C into a twisted dimer with a dihedral angle of 32.9 (1)° between the two pyrimidine rings, creating an R 2 2(8) motif. In the packing, each two mol­ecules of B, C and D form centrosymmetric dimers through two inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, locally creating R 2 2(8) motifs. The dimers of C and D are alternately bridged by A into an infinite zigzag strip, locally creating two different R 2 2(8) motifs with dihedral angles of 32.9 (1) and 63.4 (1)° between the pyrimidine rings. Finally, these strips together with the dimers of B associate into a complicated three-dimensional framework. PMID:22590204

  3. Characterization of mAb dimers reveals predominant dimer forms common in therapeutic mAbs

    PubMed Central

    Plath, Friederike; Ringler, Philippe; Graff-Meyer, Alexandra; Stahlberg, Henning; Lauer, Matthias E.; Rufer, Arne C.; Graewert, Melissa A.; Svergun, Dmitri; Gellermann, Gerald; Finkler, Christof; Stracke, Jan O.; Koulov, Atanas; Schnaible, Volker

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of undesired high molecular weight species such as dimers is an important quality attribute for therapeutic monoclonal antibody formulations. Therefore, the thorough understanding of mAb dimerization and the detailed characterization mAb dimers is of great interest for future pharmaceutical development of therapeutic antibodies. In this work, we focused on the analyses of different mAb dimers regarding size, surface properties, chemical identity, overall structure and localization of possible dimerization sites. Dimer fractions of different mAbs were isolated to a satisfactory purity from bulk material and revealed 2 predominant overall structures, namely elongated and compact dimer forms. The elongated dimers displayed one dimerization site involving the tip of the Fab domain. Depending on the stress applied, these elongated dimers are connected either covalently or non-covalently. In contrast, the compact dimers exhibited non-covalent association. Several interaction points were detected for the compact dimers involving the hinge region or the base of the Fab domain. These results indicate that mAb dimer fractions are rather complex and may contain more than one kind of dimer. Nevertheless, the overall appearance of mAb dimers suggests the existence of 2 predominant dimeric structures, elongated and compact, which are commonly present in preparations of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:27031922

  4. An interlocked dimer of the protelomerase TelK distorts DNA structure for the formation of hairpin telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Hideki; Huang, Wai Mun; Ellenberger, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Summary The termini of linear chromosomes are protected by specialized DNA structures known as telomeres that also facilitate the complete replication of DNA ends. The simplest type of telomere is a covalently closed DNA hairpin structure found in linear chromosomes of prokaryotes and viruses. Bidirectional replication of a chromosome with hairpin telomeres produces a catenated circular dimer that is subsequently resolved into unit-length chromosomes by a dedicated DNA cleavage-rejoining enzyme known as a hairpin telomere resolvase (protelomerase). Here we report a crystal structure of the protelomerase TelK from Klebseilla oxytoca phage φKO2, in complex with the palindromic target DNA. The structure shows the TelK dimer destabilizes base pairing interactions to promote the refolding of cleaved DNA ends into two hairpin ends. We propose that the hairpinning reaction is made effectively irreversible by a unique protein-induced distortion of the DNA substrate that prevents re-ligation of the cleaved DNA substrate. PMID:17889664

  5. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation by Tri-n-butyl Phosphates in n-Dodecane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Vo, Quynh N; Dang, Liem X; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous ligands, is an important extractant used in the solvent extraction process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Microscopic pictures of TBP isomerism and its behavior in n-dodecane diluent were investigated utilizing MD simulations with previously optimized force field parameters for TBP and n-dodecane. Potential mean force (PMF) calculations on a single TBP molecule show seven probable TBP isomers. Radial distribution functions (RDFs) of TBP suggest the existence of TBP trimers at high TBP concentrations in addition to dimers. 2D PMF calculations were performed to determine the angle and distance criteria for TBP trimers. The dimerization and trimerization constants of TBP in n-dodecane were obtained and match our own experimental values using the FTIR technique. The new insights into the conformational behaviors of the TBP molecule as a monomer and as part of an aggregate could greatly aid in the understanding of the complexation between TBP and metal ions in a solvent extraction system.

  6. Diphenylphosphine-Oxide-Fused and Diphenylphosphine-Fused Porphyrins: Synthesis, Tunable Electronic Properties, and Formation of Cofacial Dimers.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keisuke; Kasuga, Yuko; Fukui, Norihito; Osuka, Atsuhiro

    2017-05-17

    Diphenylphosphine-oxide-fused Ni(II) porphyrin 8 was synthesized from 3,5,7-trichloroporphyrin 5 via a reaction sequence of nucleophilic aromatic substitution with lithium diphenylphosphide, oxidation with H2 O2 , and palladium-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization. Reduction of 8 with HSiCl3 gave diphenylphosphine-fused Ni(II) porphyrin 9. The embedded P=O and P moieties serve as a strong electron-accepting and electron-donating group to perturb the optical and electrochemical properties of the Ni(II) porphyrin. Ni(II) porphyrin 9 is diamagnetic with a low-spin Ni(II) center in solution but becomes paramagnetic with a five-coordinated Ni(II) center with high-spin (S=1) state in the solid state. Diphenylphosphine-oxide-fused Zn(II) porphyrin 10 was also synthesized and shown to form a face-to-face dimer with mutual O-Zn bonds in the crystal and in nonpolar and moderately polar solvents. The dimerization of 10 in CDCl3 has been revealed to be an entropy-driven process with a large entropy gain (ΔSD =207 J K(-1)  mol(-1) ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Control of two-electron four-center (2e-/4c) C-C bond formation observed for tetracyanoethenide dimerization, [TCNE]2(2-).

    PubMed

    Novoa, Juan J; Novoa, Juan N; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; Shum, William W; Miller, Joel S

    2007-01-08

    Cu(PPh3)3(TCNE) (TCNE = tetracyanoethylene) and 14 other examples form [TCNE]22- dimers possessing a long 2.89 +/- 0.05 A two-electron four-center (2e-/4c) C-C bond in the solid state. This bond arises from the overlap of the b2g pi* singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) on each [TCNE]*- fragment, forming a filled bonding orbital of b2u symmetry, and the stabilizing effect of the cation...anion interactions in the crystal that exceed the anionic repulsion. In contrast, Mn(C5H5)(CO)2(TCNE) exhibits a related, but different, [TCNE]*-...TCNE]*- motif in the solid state that lacks the 2e-/4c C-C bonding. To better understand the unusual nature of 2e-/4c C-C bonding, the genesis of the differences between their respective pi-[TCNE]*-...TCNE]*- interactions was sought. The lack of 2e-/4c C-C bond formation is attributed to the weaker radical character of the [TCNE]*- ligand, which has a total spin population of only 0.5 electron, half of that required for two S = 1/2 [TCNE]*- moieties to form a [TCNE]22- dimer. Hence, the antiferromagnetic MnII-[TCNE]*- intramolecular interaction (between the formally S = 1/2 Mn-bound [TCNE]*- and the paramagnetic Mn(II)) dominates over the intermolecular pi-[TCNE]*--[TCNE]*- spin coupling (between two S = 1/2 [TCNE]*- needed to form [TCNE]22-). Therefore, by selecting specific metal ions that can interact with sigma-[TCNE]*-, dimerization forming [TCNE]22- can be favored or disfavored.

  8. Molecular approach to the mechanisms of C-C bond formation and cleavage on metal surfaces: Hydrogenolysis, homologation, and dimerization of ethylene over Ru/SiO sub 2 catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E.; Leconte, M.; Basset, J.M.; Tanaka, K. )

    1989-09-01

    At temperatures above ca. 50 C, over Ru/SiO{sub 2} catalysts and in the presence of hydrogen, ethylene undergoes hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, homologation, and dimerization reactions. The influence of contact times and reaction temperatures on conversions and selectivities has been examined. At low temperatures (dimerization reaction. With increasing temperature, hydrogenolysis of ethylene to methane and homologation to propene increase. Hydrogenolysis and homologation seem to be mechanistically related in terms of elementary steps of C-C bond cleavage and formation; two mechanisms are proposed which involve either metallocarbene insertion-elimination reactions or formation and decomposition of dimetallacyclic intermediates. Several mechanisms are envisioned for dimerization of ethylene; experimental data seem to support a mechanism which involves formation and coupling of two ethylidene species.

  9. DNA repair in B. subtilis: an inducible dimer-specific W-reactivation system

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, P.I.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The W-reactivation system of Bacillus subtilis can repair pyrimidine dimers in bacteriophage DNA. This inducible repair system can be activated by treatment of the bacteria with uv, alkylating agents, cross-linking agents and gamma irradiation. However, bacteriophage treated with agents other than those that cause pyrimidine dimers to be produced was not repaired by this unique form of W-reactivation. In contrast, the W-reactivation system of Escherichia coli can repair a variety of damages placed in the bacteriophage DNA.

  10. The Auger spectroscopy of pyrimidine and halogen-substituted pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Storchi, L; Tarantelli, F; Veronesi, S; Bolognesi, P; Fainelli, E; Avaldi, L

    2008-10-21

    The C 1s and N 1s Auger spectra of pyrimidine, 2-chloropyrimidine, and 5-bromopyrimidine have been measured in an electron impact experiment at 1000 eV. In the case of the halogen-substituted pyrimidines, also the Cl 2p and Br 3d Auger spectra have been recorded. We have thoroughly analyzed and interpreted all the Auger spectra recorded here with the aid of accurate Green's function calculations with a large basis set. The spectra are extremely complex with thousands of states contributing and almost no single-state feature even near the double ionization threshold. Besides reproducing and explaining with great detail nearly all the main spectral features observed, the calculations have successfully unraveled the interplay among the different C 1s core hole chemical shifts in each molecule and how this affects some fingerprinting details in the composite C 1s Auger spectra.

  11. Reactions of ultracold alkali-metal dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Zuchowski, Piotr S.; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the energetics of reactions involving pairs of alkali-metal dimers. Atom exchange reactions to form homonuclear dimers are energetically allowed for some but not all of the heteronuclear dimers. We carry out high-level electronic structure calculations on the potential energy surfaces of all the heteronuclear alkali-metal trimers and show that trimer formation reactions are always energetically forbidden for low-lying singlet states of the dimers. The results have important implications for the stability of quantum gases of alkali-metal dimers.

  12. Metabolism of Pyrimidines and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christoph F.; Ingraham, John L.; Neuhard, Jan; Thomassen, Elisabeth

    1972-01-01

    The pathways by which uracil, cytosine, uridine, cytidine, deoxyuridine, and deoxycytidine are metabolized by Salmonella typhimurium are established. The various 5-fluoropyrimidine analogues are shown to exert their toxic effects only after having been converted to the nucleotide level, and these conversions are shown to be catalyzed by the same enzymes which similarly convert the natural substrates. Methods for isolating mutant strains blocked in various steps of metabolism of pyrimidine bases and nucleosides are described. PMID:4259664

  13. Influence of exogenous silicon on UV-B radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimmers in soybean leaves and its alleviation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiana; Zhang, Mingcai; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    The DNA is particularly sensitive to UV-B radiation and can readily be damaged by UV-B stress, resulting to the formation of photoproducts like cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Silicon has multifarious benefits to plants, especially under biotic and abiotic stress. In this study, we used soybean seedlings to determine whether silicon could alleviate damage to DNA caused by UV-B stress. Silicon significantly reduced the accumulation of CPDs, lessening the damage of UV-B stress to the seedlings by the following three mechanisms: (1) increasing the concentration of UV-B absorbing compounds to reduce damage; (2) strengthening the antioxidant capacity of plants represented by higher levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and (3) increasing the photolyase gene expression, thus accelerating photorepair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of N-substituted pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines for the large-scale production of self-assembled rosettes and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Asuman; Gunbas, Gorkem; Farmer, Steven C; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Mascal, Mark; Legese, Belete; Cho, Jae-Young; Beingessner, Rachel L; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Fenniri, Hicham

    2013-11-15

    N-substituted pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines are heterocycles which exhibit the asymmetric hydrogen bonding codes of both guanine and cytosine at 60° angles to each other, such that the molecules self-organize unambiguously into a cyclic hexamer, assembled via 18 intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The synthesis is straightforward and can be concluded in six steps from the commercially available malononitrile dimer. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the supermacrocyclic structure shows an undulating disk with a ca. 10.5 Å cavity, the centers of which do not overlap sufficiently to describe a channel in the solid state. However, AFM, SEM, and TEM imaging in solution reveals the formation of 1D nanostructures in agreement with their self-assembly into rosette supermacrocycles, which then stack linearly to form rosette nanotubes.

  15. Stochastic analysis of dimerization systems.

    PubMed

    Barzel, Baruch; Biham, Ofer

    2009-09-01

    The process of dimerization, in which two monomers bind to each other and form a dimer, is common in nature. This process can be modeled using rate equations, from which the average copy numbers of the reacting monomers and of the product dimers can then be obtained. However, the rate equations apply only when these copy numbers are large. In the limit of small copy numbers the system becomes dominated by fluctuations, which are not accounted for by the rate equations. In this limit one must use stochastic methods such as direct integration of the master equation or Monte Carlo simulations. These methods are computationally intensive and rarely succumb to analytical solutions. Here we use the recently introduced moment equations which provide a highly simplified stochastic treatment of the dimerization process. Using this approach, we obtain an analytical solution for the copy numbers and reaction rates both under steady-state conditions and in the time-dependent case. We analyze three different dimerization processes: dimerization without dissociation, dimerization with dissociation, and heterodimer formation. To validate the results we compare them with the results obtained from the master equation in the stochastic limit and with those obtained from the rate equations in the deterministic limit. Potential applications of the results in different physical contexts are discussed.

  16. Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürten, A.; Münch, S.; Rondo, L.; Bianchi, F.; Duplissy, J.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Almeida, J.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Franchin, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kupc, A.; Makhmutov, V.; Petäjä, T.; Praplan, A. P.; Riccobono, F.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Wagner, P. E.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary (H2SO4-H2O) system and the ternary system involving ammonia (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary system the formation of H2SO4·NH3 is very likely an essential step in the formation of sulfuric acid dimers, which were measured at 210, 223, and 248 K. We estimate the thermodynamic properties (dH and dS) of the H2SO4·NH3 cluster using a simple heuristic model and the measured data. Furthermore, we report the first measurements of large neutral sulfuric acid clusters containing as many as 10 sulfuric acid molecules for the binary system using chemical ionization-atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometry.

  17. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) thermal collision pairs.

    PubMed

    Galvin, T C; Wagner, C J; Eden, J G

    2016-06-28

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p(6) (1)S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe2 (∗)(a(3)Σu (+),A(1)Σu (+)) by the three body process: Xe(∗)(6s) + 2Xe ⟶ Xe2 (∗) + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ∼ 172 nm, A(1)Σu (+)→X(1)Σg (+)). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe((1)S0)](∗) complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ϵ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for the dimer formation of beta amyloid peptide 1-42 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Yoshiki; Iwaya, Naoko; Goda, Natsuko; Matsuzaki, Mizuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Narita, Akihiro; Hoshi, Minako; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease involves accumulation of senile plaques in which filamentous aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are deposited. Recent studies demonstrate that oligomerization pathways of Aβ peptides may be complicated. To understand the mechanisms of Aβ(1-42) oligomer formation in more detail, we have established a method to produce (15)N-labeled Aβ(1-42) suited for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. For physicochemical studies, the starting protein material should be solely monomeric and all Aβ aggregates must be removed. Here, we succeeded in fractionating a "precipitation-resistant" fraction of Aβ(1-42) from an "aggregation-prone" fraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), even from bacterially overexpressed Aβ(1-42). However, both Aβ(1-42) fractions after 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) treatment formed amyloid fibrils. This indicates that the "aggregation seed" was not completely monomerized during HFIP treatment. In addition, Aβ(1-42) dissolved in HFIP was found to display a monomer-dimer equilibrium, as shown by two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N NMR. We demonstrated that the initial concentration of Aβ during the HFIP pretreatment altered the kinetic profiles of Aβ fibril formation in a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The findings described here should ensure reproducible results when studying the Aβ(1-42) peptide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Formation of cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts upon far-UV photolysis of 5-methylcytosine-containing dinucleotide monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Douki, T; Cadet, J

    1994-10-04

    The far-UV photochemistry of 5-methylcytosine, a minor DNA base, was studied in three dinucleoside monophosphates, including m5dCpT, Tpm5dC, and m5dCpdC. The model compounds were exposed to 254-nm radiation, and the resulting photoproducts were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized as cyclobutane dimers, (6-4) adducts, and the related Dewar valence isomers by UV, mass, and 1H NMR spectroscopies. The rate of formation of the different photoproducts was compared with those obtained by photolysis of TpT and the corresponding cytosine dinucleoside monophosphates, including dCpT, TpdC, and dCpdC. The formation of deaminated m5dC-containing photoproducts was observed in each of the far-UV irradiated solution of m5dCpT, Tpm5dC, and m5dCpdC. They were shown to be generated mainly through a photochemical process since methylation of the C5 atom of the cytosine ring appeared to dramatically decrease the deamination rate of the C5-C6 saturated photoproducts.

  20. Interruption of electronically excited Xe dimer formation by the photoassociation of Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) thermal collision pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, T. C.; Wagner, C. J.; Eden, J. G.

    2016-06-01

    The diatomic collisional intermediate responsible for the formation of an electronically excited molecule by teratomic recombination has been observed in both the spectral and temporal domains by laser spectroscopy. We report experiments demonstrating thermal Xe(6s[3/2]2)-Xe(5p6 1S0) atomic collision pairs to be the immediate precursor to the formation of Xe 2∗ ( a 3 Σu + , A 1 Σu +) by the three body process: Xe∗(6s) + 2Xe ⟶ Xe 2∗ + Xe, where the asterisk denotes an excited electronic state. Photoassociating Xe(6s)-Xe atomic pairs by free ⟵ free transitions of the collision complex interrupts the production of the electronically excited Xe dimer, thereby suppressing Xe2 spontaneous emission in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, λ ˜ 172 nm, A 1 Σu + → X 1 Σg +). Intercepting Xe(6s)-Xe pairs before the complex is stabilized by the arrival of the third atom in the teratomic collision process selectively depletes the pair population in a specific Franck-Condon region determined by the probe laser wavelength (λ). Measurements of the variation of VUV emission suppression with λ provide a spectral signature of the [Xe(6s[3/2]2) - Xe(1S0)]∗ complex and map the probe laser wavelength onto the thermal energy (ɛ″) of the incoming collision pairs.

  1. Tracking Rh Atoms in Zeolite HY: First Steps of Metal Cluster Formation and Influence of Metal Nuclearity on Catalysis of Ethylene Hydrogenation and Ethylene Dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong; Xu, Pinghong; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2016-07-07

    The initial steps of rhodium cluster formation from zeolite-supported mononuclear Rh(C2H4)2 complexes in H2 at 373 K and 1 bar were investigated by infrared and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The data show that ethylene ligands on the rhodium react with H2 to give supported rhodium hydrides and trigger the formation of rhodium clusters. STEM provided the first images of the smallest rhodium clusters (Rh2) and their further conversion into larger clusters. The samples were investigated in a plug-flow reactor as catalysts for the conversion of ethylene + H2 in a molar ratio of 4:1 at 1 bar and 298 K, with the results showing how the changes in catalyst structure affect the activity and selectivity; the rhodium clusters are more active for hydrogenation of ethylene than the single-site complexes, which are more selective for dimerization of ethylene to give butenes

  2. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(2,4-di-methyl-phen-yl)acetamide and 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(3-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acetamide.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Manisha; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Timiri, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-07-01

    In the title compounds, C14H17N5OS (I) and C13H15N5O2S (II), the dihedral angle between the pyrimidine and benzene rings is 58.64 (8)° in (I) and 78.33 (9)° in (II). In both compounds, there is an intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond, and in (II) there is also an intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond present. In the crystals of both compounds, a pair of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds links the individual mol-ecules to form inversion dimers with R2(2)(8) ring motifs. In (I), the dimers are linked by N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, enclosing R2(1)(14), R2(1)(11) and R2(1)(7) ring motifs, forming layers parallel to the (100) plane. There is also an N-H⋯π inter-action present within the layer. In (II), the inversion dimers are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds enclosing an R4(4)(18) ring motif. The presence of N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate an R2(1)(6) ring motif. The combination of these various hydrogen bonds results in the formation of layers parallel to the (1-11) plane.

  3. Dimerization of Human Growth Hormone by Zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian C.; Mulkerrin, Michael G.; Wells, James A.

    1991-08-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography and sedimentation equilibrium studies demonstrated that zinc ion (Zn2+) induced the dimerization of human growth hormone (hGH). Scatchard analysis of 65Zn2+ binding to hGH showed that two Zn2+ ions associate per dimer of hGH in a cooperative fashion. Cobalt (II) can substitute for Zn2+ in the hormone dimer and gives a visible spectrum characteristic of cobalt coordinated in a tetrahedral fashion by oxygen- and nitrogen-containing ligands. Replacement of potential Zn2+ ligands (His18, His21, and Glu174) in hGH with alanine weakened both Zn2+ binding and hGH dimer formation. The Zn2+-hGH dimer was more stable than monomeric hGH to denaturation in guanidine-HCl. Formation of a Zn2+-hGH dimeric complex may be important for storage of hGH in secretory granules.

  4. Condensed tannins: The formation of a diarylpropanol-catechinic acid dimer from base-catalyzed reactions of (+)-catechin

    Treesearch

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1991-01-01

    Reaction of (+ )-catechin at pH 12 and 40 DC results in the stereoselective (if not stereospecific) formation of an enolic form of 1-[6-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-hydroxybicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione-3-yl]-1-(3,4-dihyroxyphenyl)-3-(2,-4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-propan-2-ol. The n.m.r. chemical shift assignments determined by a variety of two-dimensional...

  5. Formation of environmentally relevant brominated dioxins from 2,4,6,-tribromophenol via bromoperoxidase-catalyzed dimerization.

    PubMed

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Andersson, Patrik L; Haglund, Peter

    2012-07-03

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDD) are emerging environmental pollutants with structural similarities to the highly characterized toxicants polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The geographical and temporal variations of PBDD in biota samples from the Baltic Sea do not display features that are normally related to anthropogenic sources such as incineration, and therefore the natural formation of PBDDs has been suggested. This study of the bromoperoxidase mediated oxidative coupling of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (an abundant substance that is naturally formed in marine systems) identified the formation of ppb-level yields of 1,3,6,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,3,6,8-TeBDD) through direct condensation. Additional TeBDDs (1,3,7,9-TeBDD, 1,2,4,7-TeBDD, and/or 1,2,4,8-TeBDD) and tri-BDDs (1,3,7-TrBDD and 1,3,8-TrBDD) were frequently formed but at lower yields. The formation of these TeBDDs probably proceeds via bromine shifts or Smiles rearrangements, whereas the TrBDDs may result from subsequent debromination processes. Because all of the congeners formed by oxidative coupling and subsequent reactions are also found in Baltic Sea biota, the results support the theory that PBDDs are formed from natural precursors.

  6. Mechanism of Clathrate Formation through Binding Nature of Si-X and Ge-X dimers: ab initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumuraya, Kazuo; Eguchi, Haruki; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akihiko

    2003-03-01

    The Si-clathrates have been synthesized when alkaline or alkaline-earth atoms are coexisted with the host Si atoms, which is also the case for the Ge-clathrates. The I-encapsulating Si-clathrates have been also synthesized recently. In the case of the hydrate clathrates, the formation has been controlled by both the sizes and the hydrophobic interactions of the endohedral molecules.[1] We study the mechanism of the clathrate formation through the binding nature of the Si-X and Ge-X dimmers, where X is selected elements in the periodic table. We calculate the charge transfers (population analysis), the binding energies, and the bonding distances using the ab-initio molecular dynamics method with planewaves and pseudo-potentials. We discuss the mechanism of the formation comparing with that of hydrate clathrates and evaluate the stability of clathrates predicted by the present study. [1]E.Dendy Sloan,Jr, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gasses, Marcel Dekker, 1998.

  7. Ultraviolet irradiation of DNA complexed with. alpha. /. beta. -type small, acid-soluble proteins from spores of Bacillus or Clostridium species makes spore photoproduct but not thymine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.L.; Setlow, B.; Setlow, P. )

    1991-10-01

    UV irradiation of complexes of DNA and an {alpha}/{beta}-type small, acid-soluble protein (SASP) from Bacillus subtilis spores gave decreasing amounts of pyrimidine dimers and increasing amounts of spore photoproduct as the SASP/DNA ratio was increased. The yields of pyrimidine dimers and spore photoproduct were < 0.2% and 8% of total thymine, respectively, when DNA saturated with SASP was irradiated at 254 nm with 30 kJ/m{sup 2}; in the absence of SASP the yields were reversed - 4.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Complexes of DNA with {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, or Clostridium bifermentans spores also gave spore photoproduct upon UV irradiation. However, incubation of these SASPs with DNA under conditions preventing complex formation or use of mutant SASPs that do not form complexes did not affect the photoproducts formed in vitro. These results suggest that the UV photochemistry of bacterial spore DNA in vivo is due to the binding of {alpha}/{beta}-type SASP, a binding that is known to cause a change in DNA conformation in vitro from the B form to the A form. The yields of spore photoproduct in vitro were significantly lower than in vivo, perhaps because of the presence of substances other than SASP in spores. It is suggested that as these factors diffuse out in the first minutes of spore germination, spore photoproduct yields become similar to those observed for irradiation of SASP/DNA complexes in vitro.

  8. C-N bond formation under Cu-catalysis: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of N-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones against chorismate mutase.

    PubMed

    Adepu, Raju; Shiva Kumar, K; Sandra, Sandhya; Rambabu, D; Rama Krishna, G; Malla Reddy, C; Kandale, Ajit; Misra, Parimal; Pal, Manojit

    2012-09-01

    A series of novel N-aryl substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones were designed and synthesized as potential inhibitors of chorismate mutase. Synthesis of this class of compounds was carried out by using Cu-mediated C-N bond forming reaction between thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones and aryl boronic acids. The reaction can be performed in an open flask as the conversion was found to be not sensitive to the presence of air or atmospheric moisture. A range of compounds were prepared by using this method and single crystal X-ray diffraction study was performed using a representative compound. In vitro pharmacological data of some of the compounds synthesized along with dose response studies using active molecules are presented. In silico interactions of these molecules with chorismate mutase are also presented.

  9. Role of Human DNA Polymerase kappa in Extension Opposite from a cis-syn Thymine Dimer

    SciTech Connect

    R Vasquez-Del Carpio; T Silverstein; S Lone; R Johnson; L Prakash; S Prakash; A Aggarwal

    2011-12-31

    Exposure of DNA to UV radiation causes covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines. The most common lesion found in DNA from these UV-induced linkages is the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Human DNA polymerase {Kappa} (Pol{Kappa}), a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, is unable to insert nucleotides opposite the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer, but it can efficiently extend from a nucleotide inserted opposite the 3'T of the dimer by another DNA polymerase. We present here the structure of human Pol{Kappa} in the act of inserting a nucleotide opposite the 5'T of the cis-syn T-T dimer. The structure reveals a constrained active-site cleft that is unable to accommodate the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer but is remarkably well adapted to accommodate the 5'T via Watson-Crick base pairing, in accord with a proposed role for Pol{Kappa} in the extension reaction opposite from cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in vivo.

  10. Role of human DNA polymerase κ in extension opposite from a cis-syn thymine dimer.

    PubMed

    Vasquez-Del Carpio, Rodrigo; Silverstein, Timothy D; Lone, Samer; Johnson, Robert E; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Aggarwal, Aneel K

    2011-04-29

    Exposure of DNA to UV radiation causes covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidines. The most common lesion found in DNA from these UV-induced linkages is the cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer. Human DNA polymerase κ (Polκ), a member of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, is unable to insert nucleotides opposite the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer, but it can efficiently extend from a nucleotide inserted opposite the 3'T of the dimer by another DNA polymerase. We present here the structure of human Polκ in the act of inserting a nucleotide opposite the 5'T of the cis-syn T-T dimer. The structure reveals a constrained active-site cleft that is unable to accommodate the 3'T of a cis-syn T-T dimer but is remarkably well adapted to accommodate the 5'T via Watson-Crick base pairing, in accord with a proposed role for Polκ in the extension reaction opposite from cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potassium Hexacyanoferrate (III)-Catalyzed Dimerization of Hydroxystilbene: Biomimetic Synthesis of Indane Stilbene Dimers.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing-Shan; Wen, Jin; Wang, Xian-Fen; Zhang, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Ji-Fa; Kang, Yu-Long; Hui, You-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Suo

    2015-12-18

    Using potassium hexacyanoferrate (III)-sodium acetate as oxidant, the oxidative coupling reaction of isorhapontigenin and resveratrol in aqueous acetone resulted in the isolation of three new indane dimers 4, 6, and 7, together with six known stilbene dimers. Indane dimer 5 was obtained for the first time by direct transformation from isorhapontigenin. The structures and relative configurations of the dimers were elucidated using spectral analysis, and their possible formation mechanisms were discussed. The results indicate that this reaction could be used as a convenient method for the semi-synthesis of indane dimers because of the mild conditions and simple reaction products.

  12. Oxidative cyclization, 1,4-benzothiazine formation and dimerization of 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Monks, T J; Highet, R J; Lau, S S

    1990-07-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the renal-specific toxicity of quinol-linked GSH conjugates is probably a result of their metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and selective accumulation by proximal tubular cells. Transport of the resultant quinol-cysteine and/or cystein-S-ylglycine conjugate followed by oxidation to the quinone may be important steps in the mechanism of toxicity of these compounds. Factors modulating the intracellular and/or intralumenal concentration of the cystein-S-yl and cystein-S-ylglycine conjugate will, therefore, be important determinants of toxicity. We have now studied the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase-mediated metabolism of 2-bromo-3-(glutathion-S-yl)hydroquinone. The product of this reaction, 2-bromo-3-(cystein-S-ylglycyl)hydroquinone, undergoes an intramolecular cyclization to yield a 1,4-benzothiazine derivative that retains the glycine residue. A similar cyclization reaction occurs with 2-bromo-3-(cystein-S-yl)hydroquinone, which is unstable in aqueous solutions and undergoes a pH-dependent rearrangement that requires initial oxidation to the quinone. UV spectroscopy revealed that, at neutral pH, further reaction results in the formation of a chromophore, consistent with 1,4-benzothiazine formation. This product arises via cyclization of the cysteine residue via an intramolecular 1,4 Michael addition. Further reaction results in the precipitation of a pigment that exhibits properties of a pH indicator. The pigment undergoes a marked pH-dependent bathochromic shift (approximately 100 nm); it is red in alkali (lambda max, 480 nm) and violet in acid (lambda max, 578 nm). These properties are similar to those of the trichochrome polymers that are formed during melanin biosynthesis from S-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)-L-cysteine. Because the intramolecular cyclization reactions remove the reactive quinone moiety from the molecules, they may be regarded as detoxication reactions. 1,4-Benzothiazine formation represents a novel

  13. Determination of pK(a)'s for thymol blue in aqueous medium: evidence of dimer formation.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Hernández, P; Ramírez, M T; Rojas-Hernández, A; Gutiérrez, A

    1998-08-01

    Formation constants for recrystallized thymol blue were determined in water, using the SQUAD and SUPERQUAD programs. The best model correlating spectrophotometric, potentiometric and conductimetric data was fitted with the dissociation of HL(-)=L(2-)+H(+)-log K=8.918+/-0.070 and H(3)L(2)(-)=2L(2-)+3H(+)-log K=29.806+/-0.133 with the SUPERQUAD program at variable low ionic strength (1.5x10(-4)-3.0x10(-4) M); and HL=L(2-)+H(+)-log K=8.9+/-0.000, H(3)L(2)(-) =2L(2-)+3H(+)-log K=30.730+/-0.032, H(4)L(2)=2L(2-)+4H(+)-log K=32.106+/-0.033 with SQUAD at 1.1 M ionic strength.

  14. Structural Basis for Dimer Formation of Human Condensin Structural Maintenance of Chromosome Proteins and Its Implications for Single-stranded DNA Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Susumu; Kawahara, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Yuki; Fukakusa, Shunsuke; Oki, Hiroya; Nakamura, Shota; Kojima, Yukiko; Noda, Masanori; Takino, Rie; Miyahara, Yuya; Maruno, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yuji; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic structural maintenance of chromosome proteins (SMC) are major components of cohesin and condensins that regulate chromosome structure and dynamics during cell cycle. We here determine the crystal structure of human condensin SMC hinge heterodimer with ∼30 residues of coiled coils. The structure, in conjunction with the hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry analyses, revealed the structural basis for the specific heterodimer formation of eukaryotic SMC and that the coiled coils from two different hinges protrude in the same direction, providing a unique binding surface conducive for binding to single-stranded DNA. The characteristic hydrogen exchange profiles of peptides constituted regions especially across the hinge-hinge dimerization interface, further suggesting the structural alterations upon single-stranded DNA binding and the presence of a half-opened state of hinge heterodimer. This structural change potentially relates to the DNA loading mechanism of SMC, in which the hinge domain functions as an entrance gate as previously proposed for cohesin. Our results, however, indicated that this is not the case for condensins based on the fact that the coiled coils are still interacting with each other, even when DNA binding induces structural changes in the hinge region, suggesting the functional differences of SMC hinge domain between condensins and cohesin in DNA recognition. PMID:26491021

  15. The dimers of cyanamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, J. B.

    Ab initio calculations have been performed on various dimeric forms of cyanamide. The "nondissociative" dimerization of cyanamide leads to cyclic molecules all of which are unstable with respect to cyanamide. However, the molecules produced by "dissociative" dimerization are stable relative to cyanamide. Dicyandiamide is found to be the most stable of nine dimeric configurations.

  16. The catalytic effect of water, water dimers and water trimers on H2S + (3)O2 formation by the HO2 + HS reaction under tropospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianlei; Yang, Chen; Feng, Xukai; Kang, Jiaxin; Song, Liang; Lu, Yousong; Wang, Zhiyin; Xu, Qiong; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Zhuqing

    2016-06-29

    In this article, the reaction mechanisms of H2S + (3)O2 formation by the HO2 + HS reaction without and with catalyst X (X = H2O, (H2O)2 and (H2O)3) have been investigated theoretically at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2pd)//B3LYP/6-311+G(2df,2p) level of theory, coupled with rate constant calculations by using conventional transition state theory. Our results show that in the presence of catalyst X (X = H2O, (H2O)2 and (H2O)3) into the channel of H2S + (3)O2 formation, the reactions between the SH radical and HO2(H2O)n (n = 1-3) complexes are more favorable than the corresponding reactions of the HO2 radical with HS(H2O)n (n = 1-3) complexes due to the lower barrier of the former reactions and the higher concentrations of HO2(H2O)n (n = 1-3) complexes. Meanwhile, the catalytic effect of water, water dimers and water trimers is mainly taken from the contribution of a single water vapor molecule, since the total effective rate constant of HO2H2O + HS and H2OHO2 + HS reactions was, respectively, larger by 7-9 and 9-12 orders of magnitude than that of SH + HO2(H2O)2 and SH + HO2(H2O)3 reactions. Besides, the enhancement factor of water vapor is only 0.37% at 240 K, while at high temperatures, such as 425 K, the positive water vapor effect is enhanced up to 38.00%, indicating that at high temperatures the positive water effect is obvious under atmospheric conditions. Overall, these results show how water and water clusters catalyze the gas phase reactions under atmospheric conditions.

  17. Equilibrium unfolding of dimeric and engineered monomeric forms of lambda Cro (F58W) repressor and the effect of added salts: evidence for the formation of folded monomer induced by sodium perchlorate.

    PubMed

    Maity, Haripada; Mossing, Michael C; Eftink, Maurice R

    2005-02-01

    The equilibrium unfolding transitions of Cro repressor variants, dimeric variant Cro F58W and monomer Cro K56[DGEVK]F58W, have been studied by urea and guanidine hydrochloride to probe the folding mechanism. The unfolding transitions of a dimeric variant are well described by a two state process involving native dimer and unfolded monomer with a free energy of unfolding, DeltaG(0,un)(0), of approximately 10-11 kcal/mol. The midpoint of transition curves is dependent on total protein concentration and DeltaG(0,un)(0) is independent of protein concentration, as expected for this model. Unfolding of Cro monomer is well described by the standard two state model. The stability of both forms of protein increases in the presence of salt but decreases with the decrease in pH. Because of the suggested importance of a N2<-->2F dimerization process in DNA binding, we have also studied the effect of sodium perchlorate, containing the chaotropic perchlorate anion, on the conformational transition of Cro dimer by CD, fluorescence and NMR (in addition to urea and guanidine hydrochloride) in an attempt both to characterize the thermodynamics of the process and to identify conditions that lead to an increase in the population of the folded monomers. Data suggest that sodium perchlorate stabilizes the protein at low concentration (<1.5 M) and destabilizes the protein at higher perchlorate concentration with the formation of a "significantly folded" monomer. The tryptophan residue in the "significantly folded" monomer induced by perchlorate is more exposed to the solvent than in native dimer.

  18. RNA Dimerization Promotes PKR Dimerization and Activation

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Laurie A.; Wong, C. Jason; Lary, Jeffrey; Nallagatla, Subba Rao; Diegelman-Parente, Amy; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Cole, James L.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays a major role in the innate immune response in humans. PKR binds dsRNA non-sequence specifically and requires a minimum of 15 bp dsRNA for one protein to bind and 30 bp dsRNA to induce protein dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation. PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, a translation initiation factor, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis. We investigated the mechanism of PKR activation by an RNA hairpin with a number of base pairs intermediate between these 15 to 30 bp limits: HIV-I TAR RNA, a 23 bp hairpin with three bulges that is known to dimerize. To test whether RNA dimerization affects PKR dimerization and activation, TAR monomers and dimers were isolated from native gels and assayed for RNA and protein dimerization. To modulate the extent of dimerization, we included TAR mutants with different secondary features. Native gel mixing experiments and analytical ultracentrifugation indicate that TAR monomers bind one PKR monomer and that TAR dimers bind two or three PKRs, demonstrating that RNA dimerization drives the binding of multiple PKR molecules. Consistent with functional dimerization of PKR, TAR dimers activated PKR while TAR monomers did not, and RNA dimers with fewer asymmetrical secondary structure defects, as determined by enzymatic structure mapping, were more potent activators. Thus, the secondary structure defects in the TAR RNA stem function as antideterminants to PKR binding and activation. Our studies support that dimerization of a 15–30 bp hairpin RNA, which effectively doubles its length, is a key step in driving activation of PKR and provide a model for how RNA folding can be related to human disease. PMID:19445956

  19. D-Dimer elevation and adverse outcomes.

    PubMed

    Halaby, Rim; Popma, Christopher J; Cohen, Ander; Chi, Gerald; Zacarkim, Marcelo Rodrigues; Romero, Gonzalo; Goldhaber, Samuel Z; Hull, Russell; Hernandez, Adrian; Mentz, Robert; Harrington, Robert; Lip, Gregory; Peacock, Frank; Welker, James; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Gibson, C Michael

    2015-01-01

    D-Dimer is a biomarker of fibrin formation and degradation. While a D-dimer within normal limits is used to rule out the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among patients with a low clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the prognostic association of an elevated D-dimer with adverse outcomes has received far less emphasis. An elevated D-dimer is independently associated with an increased risk for incident VTE, recurrent VTE, and mortality. An elevated D-dimer is an independent correlate of increased mortality and subsequent VTE across a broad variety of disease states. Therefore, medically ill subjects in whom the D-dimer is elevated constitute a high risk subgroup in which the prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic therapy is warranted.

  20. Purine and pyrimidine metabolism in man V

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, W.L.; Thompson, L.F.; Watts, R.W.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book comprises the proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Human Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism. Its papers are organized under the following categories: adenosine receptors; purine receptors and the central nervous system; nucleoside and base transport; studies with antimetabolites; deoxynucleotide and nucleoside toxicity and metabolism; enzymes; purine and pyrimidine metabolism during lymphocyte differentiation; purine metabolism in skeletal muscle; purine nucleotide metabolism in the heart; purine and pyrimidine metabolism in primary cell cultures and in parasites; nucleoside kinases and drug activation; phosphoribosylpyrophosphate; S-adenosylmethionine metabolism; and the metabolic effects of interferon.

  1. Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis in Pseudomonas nitroreducens and the regulatory role of pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    Control of pyrimidine biosynthesis in the commercially important, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas nitroreducens ATCC 33634 was investigated. When glucose-grown wild-type cells were supplemented with uracil or orotic acid, the pyrimidine biosynthetic activities were depressed. Pyrimidine limitation of glucose-grown cells of an orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mutant caused aspartate transcarbamoylase and dihydroorotase activities to increase by about 4-fold while the other enzyme activities about doubled. In succinate-grown phosphoribosyltransferase mutant cells subjected to pyrimidine limitation, transcarbamoylase and dehydrogenase activities rose by about 5-fold while dihydroorotase activity more than tripled. In an OMP decarboxylase mutant, pyrimidine limitation of glucose-grown cells increased transcarbamoylase, dihydroorotase, dehydrogenase and phosphoribosyltransferase activities by 4-, 10-, 6- and 3.8-fold, respectively. Pyrimidine limitation of the succinate-grown decarboxylase mutant cells increased aspartate transcarbamoylase or dihydroorotase by more than 4-fold and the other activities by about 2-fold. Pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme synthesis appeared to be regulated by pyrimidines with the regulation being influenced by the carbon source present. Aspartate transcarbamoylase activity in Ps. nitroreducens was regulated at the level of enzyme activity since the enzyme was strongly inhibited by UDP, pyrophosphate, ATP and ADP. Overall, the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis in Ps. nitroreducens can be used to differentiate it from other taxonomically related species of Pseudomonas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural studies of 4-aryloctahydro-pyrido[1,2- c]pyrimidine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisklak, Maciej; Herold, Franciszek; Anulewicz-Ostrowska, Romana; Wawer, Iwona

    2002-02-01

    13C cross-polarisation magic angle spinning NMR data have been reported for four derivatives of 4-aryl-octahydro-pyrido[1,2- c]pyrimidine-1,3-dione and the X-ray diffraction data for two (with 2'-Me and 2'-OMe). The crystal structures show the presence of centrosymmetric cyclic dimers with intermolecular C1O⋯H-N or C3O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds, the configuration at the chiral centres (C4 and C4 a) was determined as RR (SS). The twisting of aromatic ring at C4 with respect to the pyrido[1,2- c]pyrimidine skeleton is about 68-109°.

  3. The Pyrimidine Operon pyrRPB-carA from Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Martinussen, Jan; Schallert, Jette; Andersen, Birgit; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    The four genes pyrR, pyrP, pyrB, and carA were found to constitute an operon in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363. The functions of the different genes were established by mutational analysis. The first gene in the operon is the pyrimidine regulatory gene, pyrR, which is responsible for the regulation of the expression of the pyrimidine biosynthetic genes leading to UMP formation. The second gene encodes a membrane-bound high-affinity uracil permease, required for utilization of exogenous uracil. The last two genes in the operon, pyrB and carA, encode pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes; aspartate transcarbamoylase (pyrB) is the second enzyme in the pathway, whereas carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase subunit A (carA) is the small subunit of a heterodimeric enzyme, catalyzing the formation of carbamoyl phosphate. The carA gene product is shown to be required for both pyrimidine and arginine biosynthesis. The expression of the pyrimidine biosynthetic genes including the pyrRPB-carA operon is subject to control at the transcriptional level, most probably by an attenuator mechanism in which PyrR acts as the regulatory protein. PMID:11292797

  4. Interaction with the 5D3 monoclonal antibody is regulated by intramolecular rearrangements but not by covalent dimer formation of the human ABCG2 multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Ozvegy-Laczka, Csilla; Laczkó, Rozália; Hegedus, Csilla; Litman, Thomas; Várady, György; Goda, Katalin; Hegedus, Tamás; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Sorrentino, Brian P; Váradi, András; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2008-09-19

    Human ABCG2 is a plasma membrane glycoprotein working as a homodimer or homo-oligomer. The protein plays an important role in the protection/detoxification of various tissues and may also be responsible for the multidrug-resistant phenotype of cancer cells. In our previous study we found that the 5D3 monoclonal antibody shows a function-dependent reactivity to an extracellular epitope of the ABCG2 transporter. In the current experiments we have further characterized the 5D3-ABCG2 interaction. The effect of chemical cross-linking and the modulation of extracellular S-S bridges on the transporter function and 5D3 reactivity of ABCG2 were investigated in depth. We found that several protein cross-linkers greatly increased 5D3 labeling in ABCG2 expressing HEK cells; however, there was no correlation between covalent dimer formation, the inhibition of transport activity, and the increase in 5D3 binding. Dithiothreitol treatment, which reduced the extracellular S-S bridge-forming cysteines of ABCG2, had no effect on transport function but caused a significant decrease in 5D3 binding. When analyzing ABCG2 mutants carrying Cys-to-Ala changes in the extracellular loop, we found that the mutant C603A (lacking the intermolecular S-S bond) showed comparable transport activity and 5D3 reactivity to the wild-type ABCG2. However, disruption of the intramolecular S-S bridge (in C592A, C608A, or C592A/C608A mutants) in this loop abolished 5D3 binding, whereas the function of the protein was preserved. Based on these results and ab initio folding simulations, we propose a model for the large extracellular loop of the ABCG2 protein.

  5. Synthesis of defined ubiquitin dimers.

    PubMed

    Eger, Silvia; Scheffner, Martin; Marx, Andreas; Rubini, Marina

    2010-11-24

    Many proteins are post-translationally modified by the attachment of poly-ubiquitin (Ub) chains. Notably, the biological function of the attached Ub chain depends on the specific lysine residue used for conjugate formation. Here, we report an easy and efficient method to synthesize site-specifically linked Ub dimers by click reaction between two artificial amino acids. In fact, we were able to synthesize all seven naturally occurring Ub connectivities, providing the first example of a method that gives access to all Ub dimers. Furthermore, these synthetic Ub dimers are recognized by the natural ubiquitination machinery and are proteolytically stable, making them optimal candidates to further investigate the function of differently linked Ub chains.

  6. Dimeric bis (heptyl)-Cognitin Blocks Alzheimer's β-Amyloid Neurotoxicity Via the Inhibition of Aβ Fibrils Formation and Disaggregation of Preformed Fibrils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sheng-Quan; Wang, Rui; Cui, Wei; Mak, Shing-Hung; Li, Gang; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Lee, Ming-Yuen; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Han, Yi-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Fibrillar aggregates of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) are the main constituent of senile plaques and considered to be one of the causative events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Compounds that could inhibit Aβ fibrils formation, disaggregate preformed Aβ fibrils as well as reduce their associated neurotoxicity might have therapeutic values for treating AD. In this study, the inhibitory effects of bis (heptyl)-cognitin (B7C), a multifunctional dimer derived from tacrine, on aggregation and neurotoxicity of Aβ1-40 were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay was carried out to evaluate Aβ aggregation, MTT and Hoechst-staining assays were performed to investigate Aβ-associated neurotoxicity. Fluorescent probe DCFH-DA was used to estimate the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen stress (ROS). Morris water maze was applied to determine learning and memory deficits induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of Aβ in rats. B7C (0.1-10 μM), but not tacrine, effectively inhibited Aβ fibrils formation and disaggregated preformed Aβ fibrils following co-incubation of B7C and Aβ monomers or preformed fibrils, respectively. In addition, B7C markedly reduced Aβ fibrils-associated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line, as evidenced by the increase in cell survival, the decrease in Hoechst-stained nuclei and in intracellular ROS. Most encouragingly, B7C (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), 10 times more potently than tacrine (1 and 2 mg/kg), inhibited memory impairments after intracerebroventricular infusion of Aβ in rats, as evidenced by the decrease in escape latency and the increase in the spatial bias in Morris water maze test along with upregulation of choline acetyltransferase activity and downregulation of acetylcholinesterase activity. These findings provide not only novel molecular insight into the potential application of B7C in treating AD, but also an effective approach for screening anti-AD agents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  7. Universality in fermionic dimer-dimer scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltuva, A.

    2017-08-01

    Collisions of two fermionic dimers near the unitary limit are studied using exact four-particle equations for transition operators in momentum space. Universal properties of dimer-dimer phase shifts and effective range expansion (ERE) parameters are determined. The inclusion of the fourth-order momentum term in the ERE significantly extends its validity to higher collision energies. The dimer-dimer scattering length and effective range are determined in the unitary limit as well as their corrections arising due to the finite range of the two-fermion interaction. These results are of considerably higher accuracy as compared to previous works, but confirm most of the previous results except for the lattice effective field theory calculations.

  8. Significant change of alignment effect by dimer formation in the dissociative energy transfer reaction of Ar(3P2)+(N2O)n and (H2O)n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, D.; Ohoyama, H.; Matsumura, T.; Kasai, T.

    2006-12-01

    An alignment effect in the dissociative energy transfer reaction of Ar(P23)+(X2O)n(X=N,H) was directly measured using an oriented Ar(P23,MJ=2) beam. The chemiluminescence intensity of N2(B,Πg3) for (N2O)n and OH(A,Σ+2) for (H2O)n was measured as a function of the magnetic orientation field direction in the collision frame. The relative reaction cross section for each magnetic substate in the collision frame, σMJ', was determined. In both the reaction systems, it is observed that the dimer formation significantly enhances the alignment effect and decreases the reactivity, especially for σ∣1∣ and σ∣2∣. A significant contribution of rank 4 moment is recognized in the dimer reaction.

  9. The coupling of tautomerization to hydration in the transition state on the pyrimidine photohydration reaction path.

    PubMed

    Franzen, S; Skalski, B; Bartolotti, L; Delley, B

    2014-10-07

    The ground state reaction path for formation of the pyrimidine hydrates was calculated using a nudged elastic band (NEB) approach, combined with a calculation of the transition state, and implemented using a numerical basis set in the density functional theory (DFT) code DMol(3). The model systems used for study consist of 1-methyl pyrimidines with a H2O molecule as the reactant, and the corresponding C5-hydro-C6-hydroxypyrimidine as the product. The barrier to addition of water across the C5-C6 π-bond ranges from 43-48 kcal mol(-1) in the 1-methylpyrimidines (1-MP) studied. Similar but slightly smaller barriers of 34-45 kcal mol(-1) were found for the tautomers of the 1-MPs, i.e. the enols of uridine and thymine and imine of cytosine. Comparison of these calculations with previous computational and experimental work suggests that a hot ground state formed by the rapid internal conversion of pyrimidines has sufficient energy to permit crossover from the common form to the tautomeric form of the pyrimidine at the transition state. The hot ground state mechanism can account for the experimentally observed yield and thermal reversion of pyrimidine photohydrates, while simultaneously explaining the effect of photohydrates on the mutation rate.

  10. Selective synthesis of 1-substituted 4-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Babu, Suresh; Morrill, Christie; Almstead, Neil G; Moon, Young-Choon

    2013-04-19

    Strategies for carrying out the reaction of 4,6-dichloropyrimidine-5-carboxaldehyde with various hydrazines to generate 1-substituted 4-chloropyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in a selective and high-yielding manner are presented. For aromatic hydrazines, the reaction is performed in the absence of an external base, which promotes exclusive hydrazone formation. The hydrazones subsequently cyclize at an elevated temperature to form the desired pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine products. For aliphatic hydrazines, the reaction sequence proceeds as a single step in the presence of an external base.

  11. Nucleobases and other Prebiotic Species from the Ultraviolet Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Astrophysical Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, S. A.; Nuevo, M.; Materese, C. K.; Milam, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleobases are N-heterocycles that are the informational subunits of DNA and RNA, and are divided into two families: pyrimidine bases (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Nucleobases have been detected in meteorites and their extraterrestrial origin confirmed by isotope measurement. Although no Nheterocycles have ever been observed in the ISM, the positions of the 6.2-m interstellar emission features suggest a population of such molecules is likely to be present. In this work we study the formation of pyrimidine-based molecules, including nucleobases, as well as other species of prebiotic interest, from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in combinations of H2O, NH3, CH3OH, and CH4 ices at low temperature, in order to simulate the astrophysical conditions under which prebiotic species may be formed in the interstellar medium and icy bodies of the Solar System. Experimental: Gas mixtures are prepared in a glass mixing line (background pressure approx. 10(exp -6)-10(exp -5) mbar). Relative proportions between mixture components are determined by their partial pressures. Gas mixtures are then deposited on an aluminum foil attached to a cold finger (15-20 K) and simultaneously irradiated with an H2 lamp emitting UV photons (Lyman and a continuum at approx.160 nm). After irradiation samples are warmed to room temperature, at which time the remaining residues are recovered to be analyzed with liquid and gas chromatographies. Results: These experiments showed that the UV irradiation of pyrimidine mixed in these ices at low temperature leads to the formation of several photoproducts derived from pyrimidine, including the nucleobases uracil and cytosine, as well as their precursors 4(3H)-pyrimidone and 4-aminopyrimidine (Fig. 1). Theoretical quantum calculations on the formation of 4(3H)-pyrimidone and uracil from the irradiation of pyrimidine in pure H2O ices are in agreement with their experimental formation pathways. In

  12. Pyrimidine salvage in Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms and the trypanocidal action of halogenated pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Ali, Juma A M; Creek, Darren J; Burgess, Karl; Allison, Harriet C; Field, Mark C; Mäser, Pascal; De Koning, Harry P

    2013-02-01

    African trypanosomes are capable of both pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage of preformed pyrimidines from the host. However, uptake of pyrimidines in bloodstream form trypanosomes has not been investigated, making it difficult to judge the relative importance of salvage and synthesis or to design a pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Detailed characterization of pyrimidine transport activities in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei found that these cells express a high-affinity uracil transporter (designated TbU3) that is clearly distinct from the procyclic pyrimidine transporters. This transporter had low affinity for uridine and 2'deoxyuridine and was the sole pyrimidine transporter expressed in these cells. In addition, thymidine was taken up inefficiently through a P1-type nucleoside transporter. Of importance, the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil was an excellent substrate for TbU3, and several 5-fluoropyrimidine analogs were investigated for uptake and trypanocidal activity; 5F-orotic acid, 5F-2'deoxyuridine displayed activity in the low micromolar range. The metabolism and mode of action of these analogs was determined using metabolomic assessments of T. brucei clonal lines adapted to high levels of these pyrimidine analogs, and of the sensitive parental strains. The analysis showed that 5-fluorouracil is incorporated into a large number of metabolites but likely exerts toxicity through incorporation into RNA. 5F-2'dUrd and 5F-2'dCtd are not incorporated into nucleic acids but act as prodrugs by inhibiting thymidylate synthase as 5F-dUMP. We present the most complete model of pyrimidine salvage in T. brucei to date, supported by genome-wide profiling of the predicted pyrimidine biosynthesis and conversion enzymes.

  13. Nucleobases and Other Prebiotic Species from the UV Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Astrophysical Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott; Materese, Christopher; Nuevo, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Nucleobases are aromatic N-heterocycles that constitute the informational subunits of DNA and RNA and are divided into two families: pyrimidine bases (uracil, cytosine, and thymine) and purine bases (adenine and guanine). Nucleobases have been detected in meteorites and their extraterrestrial origin confirmed by isotope measurement. Although no N-heterocycles have been individually identified in the ISM, the 6.2-micron interstellar emission feature seen towards many astronomical objects suggests a population of such molecules is likely present. We report on a study of the formation of pyrimidine-based molecules, including nucleobases and other species of prebiotic interest, from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of pyrimidine in low temperature ices containing H2O, NH3, C3OH, and CH4, to simulate the astrophysical conditions under which prebiotic species may be formed in the Solar System.

  14. Synthesis, structure and spectral and redox properties of new mixed ligand monomeric and dimeric Ru(II) complexes: predominant formation of the "cis-alpha" diastereoisomer and unusual 3MC emission by dimeric complexes.

    PubMed

    Murali, Mariappan; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2006-02-07

    The tetradentate ligands 1,8-bis(pyrid-2-yl)-3,6-dithiaoctane (pdto) and 1,8-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)-3,6-dithiaoctane (bbdo) form the complexes [Ru(pdto)(mu-Cl)](2)(ClO(4))(2) 1 and [Ru(bbdo)(mu-Cl)](2)(ClO(4))(2) 2 respectively. The new di-mu-chloro dimers 1 and 2 undergo facile symmetrical bridge cleavage reactions with the diimine ligands 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and dipyridylamine (dpa) to form the six-coordinate complexes [Ru(pdto)(bpy)](ClO(4))(2) 3, [Ru(bbdo)(bpy)](ClO(4))(2) 4, [Ru(pdto)(dpa)](ClO(4))(2) 5 and [Ru(bbdo)(dpa)](ClO(4))(2) 6 and with the triimine ligand 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine (terpy) to form the unusual seven-coordinate complexes [Ru(pdto)(terpy)](ClO(4))(2) 7 and [Ru(bbdo)(terpy)](ClO(4))(2) 8. In 1 the dimeric cation [Ru(pdto)(mu-Cl)](2)(2+) is made up of two approximately octahedrally coordinated Ru(II) centers bridged by two chloride ions, which constitute a common edge between the two Ru(II) octahedra. Each ruthenium is coordinated also to two pyridine nitrogen and two thioether sulfur atoms of the tetradentate ligand. The ligand pdto is folded around Ru(II) as a result of the cis-dichloro coordination, which corresponds to a "cis-alpha" configuration [DeltaDelta/LambdaLambda(rac) diastereoisomer] supporting the possibility of some attractive pi-stacking interactions between the parallel py rings at each ruthenium atom. The ruthenium atom in the complex cations 3a and 4 exhibit a distorted octahedral coordination geometry composed of two nitrogen atoms of the bpy and the two thioether sulfur and two py/bzim nitrogen atoms of the pdto/bbdo ligand, which is actually folded around Ru(II) to give a "cis-alpha" isomer. The molecule of complex 5 contains a six-coordinated ruthenium atom chelated by pdto and dpa ligands in the expected distorted octahedral fashion. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral data of the complexes throw light on the nature of metal-ligand bonding and the conformations of the chelate rings, which indicates that the dithioether

  15. Structure of cyanase reveals that a novel dimeric and decameric arrangement of subunits is required for formation of the enzyme active site.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M A; Otwinowski, Z; Perrakis, A; Anderson, P M; Joachimiak, A

    2000-05-15

    Cyanase is an enzyme found in bacteria and plants that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. In Escherichia coli, cyanase is induced from the cyn operon in response to extracellular cyanate. The enzyme is functionally active as a homodecamer of 17 kDa subunits, and displays half-site binding of substrates or substrate analogs. The enzyme shows no significant amino acid sequence homology with other proteins. We have determined the crystal structure of cyanase at 1.65 A resolution using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method. Cyanase crystals are triclinic and contain one homodecamer in the asymmetric unit. Selenomethionine-labeled protein offers 40 selenium atoms for use in phasing. Structures of cyanase with bound chloride or oxalate anions, inhibitors of the enzyme, allowed identification of the active site. The cyanase monomer is composed of two domains. The N-terminal domain shows structural similarity to the DNA-binding alpha-helix bundle motif. The C-terminal domain has an 'open fold' with no structural homology to other proteins. The subunits of cyanase are arranged in a novel manner both at the dimer and decamer level. The dimer structure reveals the C-terminal domains to be intertwined, and the decamer is formed by a pentamer of these dimers. The active site of the enzyme is located between dimers and is comprised of residues from four adjacent subunits of the homodecamer. The structural data allow a conceivable reaction mechanism to be proposed.

  16. The cytoplasmic PASC domain of the sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli: role in signal transduction, dimer formation, and DctA interaction

    PubMed Central

    Monzel, Christian; Degreif-Dünnwald, Pia; Gröpper, Christina; Griesinger, Christian; Unden, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplasmic PASC domain of the fumarate responsive sensor kinase DcuS of Escherichia coli links the transmembrane to the kinase domain. PASC is also required for interaction with the transporter DctA serving as a cosensor of DcuS. Earlier studies suggested that PASC functions as a hinge and transmits the signal to the kinase. Reorganizing the PASC dimer interaction and, independently, removal of DctA, converts DcuS to the constitutive ON state (active without fumarate stimulation). ON mutants were categorized with respect to these two biophysical interactions and the functional state of DcuS: type I-ON mutations grossly reorganize the homodimer, and decrease interaction with DctA. Type IIA-ON mutations create the ON state without grossly reorganizing the homodimer, whereas interaction with DctA is decreased. The type IIB-ON mutations were neither in PASC/PASC, nor in DctA/DcuS interaction affected, similar to fumarate activated wild-typic DcuS. OFF mutations never affected dimer stability. The ON mutations provide novel mechanistic insight: PASC dimerization is essential to silence the kinase. Reorganizing the homodimer and its interaction with DctA activate the kinase. The study suggests a novel ON homo-dimer conformation (type IIB) and an OFF conformation for PASC. Type IIB-ON corresponds to the fumarate induced wild-type conformation, representing an interesting target for structural biology. PMID:24039243

  17. Pyrimidine Metabolism in Lemna minor

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Hugh

    1978-01-01

    Cytidine deoxyriboside (Cdr), uridine deoxyriboside (Udr), and guanosine deoxyriboside (Gdr), induce quantitative bleaching of the fronds of Lemna minor (duckweed) during growth in continuous light on photoheterotrophic medium. Cdr-induced bleaching is not accompanied by a reduction in frond multiplication rate, but Udr- and Gdr-induced bleaching is. Bleaching by Cdr is fully prevented by thymidine (Tdr), cytidine (Cr), or uridine (Ur), but not by orotic acid (OA) which itself inhibits growth. Bleaching by Udr is not antagonized by Tdr, Cdr, Cr, Ur, or OA. The ability of Cdr to induce phenocopies of chlorophyll-deficient mutants in the absence of effect on growth rate is interpreted as indicating a functional compartmentation of pyrimidine metabolism between chloroplast and whole cell. On the assumption that Cdr induces bleaching by regulating the biosynthesis of deoxynucleoside triphosphates, and in analogy with the antagonism of fluorodeoxyuridine effects on growth by Tdr, Cr, or Ur, the suggestion is made that deoxycytidine is converted to thymidylate by a step other than that utilizing thymidylate synthetase. PMID:16660440

  18. Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Homogenous 2-Hydroxypyridine Dimer Electron Induced Proton Transfer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlk, Alexandra; Stokes, Sarah; Wang, Yi; Hicks, Zachary; Zhang, Xinxing; Blando, Nicolas; Frock, Andrew; Marquez, Sara; Bowen, Kit; Bowen Lab JHU Team

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopic (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) studies on the dimer anion of (2-hydroxypyridine)2-are reported. The experimentally measured vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 1.21eV compares well with the theoretically predicted values. The 2-hydroxypyridine anionic dimer system was investigated because of its resemblance to the nitrogenous heterocyclic pyrimidine nucleobases. Experimental and theoretical results show electron induced proton transfer (EIPT) in both the lactim and lactam homogeneous dimers. Upon electron attachment, the anion can serve as the intermediate between the two neutral dimers. A possible double proton transfer process can occur from the neutral (2-hydroxypyridine)2 to (2-pyridone)2 through the dimer anion. This potentially suggests an electron catalyzed double proton transfer mechanism of tautomerization. Research supported by the NSF Grant No. CHE-1360692.

  19. UTILIZATION OF PYRIMIDINES AND PYRIMIDINE DEOXYNUCLEOSIDES BY THERMOBACTERIUM ACIDOPHILUM (LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS)

    PubMed Central

    Løvtrup, Søren; Shugar, David

    1961-01-01

    Løvtrup, Søren (University of Göteborg, Sweden) and David Shugar. Utilization of pyrimidines and pyrimidine deoxynucleosides by Thermobacterium acidophilum (Lactobacillus acid-ophilus). J. Bacteriol. 82:623–631. 1961.—The utilization of pyrimidine deoxynucleosides was investigated by means of deoxyribosides of unnatural pyrimidines, especially by halogen-substituted uracil derivatives. All investigated deoxyribosides could be used, except that of N-methylthymidine. It was concluded that this substance cannot be a substrate for the enzyme trans-N-deoxyribosylase, which has been shown to be active in the utilization of deoxyribosides in this microorganism. With uracil as the only pyrimidine source, the halogen-substituted deoxyuridines had a certain inhibitory effect on growth. Contrary to previous findings, it was observed that normal growth occurs in the presence of thymine as the only pyrimidine source. The utilization of this substance is less efficient than that of uracil; a 1:10 dilution leads to a decrease in the extent of growth with the former, but not with the latter. From these results, complemented with experiments in which halogen-substituted uracil derivatives and the corresponding ribosides or deoxyribosides were used as inhibitors, it has been possible to account for most of the metabolic interconversions of pyrimidines in the investigated microorganism. PMID:14466913

  20. Glycal Formation in Crystals of Uridine Phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Debamita; O’Leary, Sen E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Bu, Weiming; Toms, Angela; Settembre, Ethan C.; Sanders, Jennie M.; Begley, Tadhg P.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-06-22

    Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2{prime}-deoxyuridine to 2{prime}-deoxyribose 1-phosphate). Here we report the structure of hexameric Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluorouridine and sulfate and dimeric bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluoro-2{prime}-deoxyuridine or uridine, plus sulfate. In each case the electron density shows three separate species corresponding to the pyrimidine base, sulfate, and a ribosyl species, which can be modeled as a glycal. In the structures of the glycal complexes, the fluorouracil O2 atom is appropriately positioned to act as the base required for glycal formation via deprotonation at C2{prime}. Crystals of bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 2{prime}-deoxyuridine and sulfate show intact nucleoside. NMR time course studies demonstrate that uridine phosphorylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of the fluorinated nucleosides in the absence of phosphate or sulfate, without the release of intermediates or enzyme inactivation. These results add a previously unencountered mechanistic motif to the body of information on glycal formation by enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of glycosyl bonds.

  1. Regioselectivity and competition of the Paternò-Büchi reaction and triplet-triplet energy transfer between triplet benzophenones and pyrimidines: control by triplet energy levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu-Ling; Wang, Jian-Bo; Tong, Yao; Song, Qin-Hua

    2013-09-23

    The photochemical reaction of a pyrimidine and a ketone occurs either as a Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction or as energy transfer (ET) from the triplet ketone to the pyrimidine. It is rare for the two types of reactions to occur concurrently, and their competitive mechanism remains unknown. In this work, two classes of products, regioisomeric oxetane(s) (2, 3) from a PB reaction and three isomeric dimers of 5-fluoro-1,3-dimethyl uracil (FDMU) (4-6) from a photosensitized dimerization of FDMU, are obtained through the UV irradiation of FDMU with various benzophenones (BPs). The ratio of the two products (oxetanes to dimers) reveals that the two competitive reactions depend strongly on the triplet energy levels (ET ) of the BPs. The BPs with higher ET values lead to higher proportions of dimers, whereas those with lower ET values give higher proportions of oxetane(s), with the generation of just two regioisomeric oxetanes for the BP with the lowest ET of the eight BPs investigated. The ratio of the two oxetanes (2:3) decreases with the BP ET value. The competitive mechanism for the two types of photochemical reactions is demonstrated through quenching experiments and investigation of temperature effects. Kinetic analysis shows that the rate constants of the two [2+2] photocycloadditions are comparable. Furthermore, in combination with the results of previous studies, we have gained insight into the dependence of the photochemical type and the regioselectivity in the PB reaction on the triplet energy gaps (ΔE) between the pyrimidines and ketones. For ketones with higher ET values than the pyrimidines, the photochemical reaction is a photosensitized dimerization of the pyrimidine. In the opposite case, a PB reaction occurs, and the lower the ET of the ketones, the lower the ratio of oxetanes (2:3). When the ET of values of the ketones are close to those of the pyrimidines, the two reactions occur concurrently, and the higher the ET of the ketones, the higher the

  2. Differential DNA lesion formation and repair in heterochromatin and euchromatin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chunhua; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Cui, Tiantian; Wang, Qi-En; Wani, Altaf A.

    2016-01-01

    Discretely orchestrated chromatin condensation is important for chromosome protection from DNA damage. However, it is still unclear how different chromatin states affect the formation and repair of nucleotide excision repair (NER) substrates, e.g. ultraviolet (UV)-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP), as well as cisplatin-induced intrastrand crosslinks (Pt-GG). Here, by using immunofluorescence and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we have demonstrated that CPD, which cause minor distortion of DNA double helix, can be detected in both euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, while 6-4PP and Pt-GG, which cause major distortion of DNA helix, can exclusively be detected in euchromatin, indicating that the condensed chromatin environment specifically interferes with the formation of these DNA lesions. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 is responsible for restricting the formation of 6-4PP and Pt-GG in cells, probably by facilitating the maintenance of highly condensed heterochromatin. In addition, we also showed that the repair of CPD in heterochromatin is slower than that in euchromatin, and DNA damage binding protein 2 (DDB2) can promote the removal of CPD from heterochromatic region. In summary, our data provide evidence for differential formation and repair of DNA lesions that are substrates of NER. Both the sensitivity of DNA to damage and the kinetics of repair can be affected by the underlying level of chromatin compaction. PMID:26717995

  3. Steric and electronic control over the reactivity of a thiolate-ligated Fe(II) complex with dioxygen and superoxide: reversible mu-oxo dimer formation.

    PubMed

    Theisen, Roslyn M; Shearer, Jason; Kaminsky, Werner; Kovacs, Julie A

    2004-11-29

    The reactivity between a thiolate-ligated five-coordinate complex [FeII(SMe2N4(tren))]+ (1) and dioxygen is examined in order to determine if O2 activation, resembling that of the metalloenzyme cytochrome P450, can be promoted even when O2 binds cis, as opposed to trans, to a thiolate. Previous work in our group showed that [FeII(SMe2N4(tren))]+ (1) reacts readily with superoxide (O2-) in the presence of a proton source to afford H2O2 via an Fe(III)-OOH intermediate, thus providing a biomimetic model for the metalloenzyme superoxide reductase (SOR). Addition of O2 to 1 affords binuclear mu-oxo-bridged [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))]2(mu2-O)(PF6)2.3MeCN (3). At low temperatures, in protic solvents, an intermediate is detected, the details of which will be the subject of a separate paper. Although the thiolate ligand does not appear to perturb the metrical parameters of the unsupported mu-oxo bridge (Fe-O= 1.807(8) A, and Fe-O-Fe= 155.3(5) degrees fall in the usual range), it decreases the magnetic coupling between the irons (J=-28 cm(-1)) and creates a rather basic oxo site. Protonation of this oxo using strong (HBF4, HCl) or weak (HOAc, NH4PF6, LutNHCl) acids results in bridge cleavage to cleanly afford the corresponding monomeric anion-ligated (OAc- (6), or Cl- (7)) or solvent-ligated (MeCN (4)) derivatives. Addition of OH- converts [FeIII(SMe2N4(tren))(MeCN2+ (4) back to mu-oxo 3. Thus, mu-oxo bridge cleavage is reversible. The protonated mu-hydroxo-bridged intermediate is not observed. In an attempt to prevent mu-oxo dimer formation, and facilitate the observation of O2-bound intermediates, a bulkier tertiary amine ligand, tren-Et4= N-(2-amino-ethyl)-N-(2-diethylamino-ethyl)-N',N'-diethyl-ethane-1,2-diamine, and the corresponding [FeII(SMe2N4(tren-Et4))]+ (5) complex was synthesized and structurally characterized. Steric repulsive interactions create unusually long FeII-N(3,4) amine bonds in 5 (mean distance=2.219(1) A). The [(tren-Et4)N4SMe2]1- ligand is unable to

  4. Effect of pressure on the e{sup -} + pyrimidine pyrimidine{sup -} equilibrium in nonpolar solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Holroyd, R.A.

    1996-03-14

    The thermodynamics of the equilibrium reaction e{sup -} + pyrimidine pyrimidine{sup -} was studied in tetramethylsilane (TMS) and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) as solvents. In hexane, only the forward attachment reaction could be observed. The attachment rate constants (k{sub a}) increase with temperature in all solvents. The equilibrium shifts to the right with increasing pressure because of the large, negative reaction volumes (-200 to -330 cm{sup 3}/mol). The volume changes are consistent with electrostriction by the pyrimidine anion when a glass shell of solvent molecules is included. The free energy of reaction at 299 K is -0.43 eV in tetramethylsilane at 1 bar and -0.70 eV in 2,2,4-trimethylpentane at 150 bar. The solution free energies indicate the gas-phase (adiabatic) electron affinity of pyrimidine is -0.24 eV. 31 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. 4-{2-[(3,4-Dichloro-phen-yl)(meth-yl)amino]-4-methyl-1,3-thia-zol-5-yl}-N-(3-methyl-phen-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Bo; Shi, Hai-Bo; Hu, Wei-Xiao

    2011-01-08

    In the title compound, C(22)H(19)Cl(2)N(5)S, the thia-zole and pyrimidine rings are almost co-planar, making a dihedral angle of 6.48 (7)°. In the crystal, intermolecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds link pairs of molecules into centrosymmetric dimers..

  6. 4-{4-Methyl-2-[(meth-yl)(2-methyl-phen-yl)amino]-1,3-thia-zol-5-yl}-N-(3-methyl-phen-yl)pyrimidin-2-amine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Bo; Xu, Feng; Li, Hai-Bo; Hu, Wei-Xiao

    2011-01-08

    In the title compound, C(23)H(23)N(5)S, the thia-zole ring and pyrimidine ring are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 4.02 (9)°. in the crystal, weak inter-molecular N-H⋯N inter-actions link pairs of molecules into centrosymmetric dimers.

  7. Enzymology of Pyrimidine Metabolism and Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Vincenzetti, Silvia; Polzonetti, Valeria; Micozzi, Daniela; Pucciarelli, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that disorders of pyrimidine pathways may lead to neurological, hematological, immunological diseases, renal impairments, and association with malignancies. Nucleotide homeostasis depends on the three stages of pyrimidine metabolism: de novo synthesis, catabolism and recycling of these metabolites. Cytidine and uridine, in addition to be used as substrates for pyrimidine nucleotide salvaging, also act as the precursors of cytidine triphosphate used in the biosynthetic pathway of both brain's phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine via the Kennedy cycle. The synthesis in the brain of phosphatidylcholine and other membrane phosphatides can utilize, in addition to glucose, three compounds present in the blood stream: choline, uridine, and a polyunsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid. Some authors, using rat models, found that oral administration of two phospholipid precursors such as uridine and omega-3 fatty acids, along with choline from the diet, can increase the amount of synaptic membrane generated by surviving striatal neurons in rats with induced Parkinson's disease. Other authors found that in hypertensive rat fed with uridine and choline, cognitive deficit resulted improved. Uridine has also been recently considered as a neuroactive molecule, because of its involvement in important neurological functions by improving memory, sleep disorders, anti-epileptic effects, as well as neuronal plasticity. Cytidine and uridine are uptaken by the brain via specific receptors and successively salvaged to the corresponding nucleotides. The present review is devoted to the enzymology of pyrimidine pathways whose importance has attracted the attention of several researchers investigating on the mechanisms underlying the physiopathology of brain.

  8. Pathways for Fluorescence Quenching in 2-Aminopurine π-Stacked with Pyrimidine Nucleobases

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jingxin; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2011-05-04

    Fluorescent analogues of nucleobases are very useful as probes to study DNA dynamics, because natural DNA does not fluoresce significantly. In many of these analogues, such as 2-aminopurine (2AP), the fluorescence is quenched when incorporated into DNA through processes that are not well understood. This work uses theoretical studies to examine fluorescence quenching pathways in 2AP-containing dimers. The singlet excited states of π-stacked dimer systems containing 2AP and a pyrimidine base, thymine or cytosine, have been studied using ab initio computational methods. Computed relaxation pathways along the excited-state surfaces reveal novel mechanisms that can lead to fluorescence quenching in the π-stacked dimers. The placement of 2AP on the 5’ or 3’ terminus of the dimers has different effects on the excitation energies and the relaxation pathways on the S₁ excited state. Conical intersections between the ground and first excited states exist when 2AP is placed at the 3’ side, whereas the placement of 2AP at the 5’ side leads to the switching of a bright state to a dark state. Both of these processes can lead to fluorescence quenching and may contribute to the fluorescence quenching observed in 2AP when incorporated in DNA.

  9. Pathways for fluorescence quenching in 2-aminopurine π-stacked with pyrimidine nucleobases.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingxin; Matsika, Spiridoula

    2011-05-04

    Fluorescent analogues of nucleobases are very useful as probes to study DNA dynamics, because natural DNA does not fluoresce significantly. In many of these analogues, such as 2-aminopurine (2AP), the fluorescence is quenched when incorporated into DNA through processes that are not well understood. This work uses theoretical studies to examine fluorescence quenching pathways in 2AP-containing dimers. The singlet excited states of π-stacked dimer systems containing 2AP and a pyrimidine base, thymine or cytosine, have been studied using ab initio computational methods. Computed relaxation pathways along the excited-state surfaces reveal novel mechanisms that can lead to fluorescence quenching in the π-stacked dimers. The placement of 2AP on the 5' or 3' terminus of the dimers has different effects on the excitation energies and the relaxation pathways on the S(1) excited state. Conical intersections between the ground and first excited states exist when 2AP is placed at the 3' side, whereas the placement of 2AP at the 5' side leads to the switching of a bright state to a dark state. Both of these processes can lead to fluorescence quenching and may contribute to the fluorescence quenching observed in 2AP when incorporated in DNA. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Direct Observation of Thymine Dimer Repair in DNA by Photolyase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongping

    2006-03-01

    Departments of Physics, Chemistry, and Biochemistry, Programs of Biophysics, Chemical Physics, and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, OH 43210. Photolyase uses light energy to split ultraviolet-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in damaged DNA, but its molecular mechanism has never been directly revealed. We report here the direct mapping of catalytic processes through femtosecond synchronization of the enzymatic dynamics with the repair function. We observed direct electron transfer from the excited flavin cofactor to the dimer in 170 ps and back electron transfer from the repaired thymines in 560 ps. Both reactions are strongly modulated by active-site solvation to achieve maximum repair efficiency. These results show that the photocycle of DNA repair by photolyase is through a radical mechanism and completed on subnanosecond time scale at the dynamic active site with no net electron change in redox states of the flavin cofactor.

  11. Isoflavonoid formation as an indicator of UV stress in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, C.J.; Stolzer-Jehle, A.; Wellmann, E.

    1985-11-01

    Induction of the isoflavonoid pigment, coumestrol (3,9-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro-(3,2-c)(1) benzopyran-6-one), in primary leaves of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Saxa) by ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used as a quantifiable marker for UV damage to a plant system. Coumestrol was induced only by wavelengths below 300 nanometers and its formation could be reversed by treatment with white, but not red light after the UV irradiation period. Formation of coumestrol by UV could also be prevented over a period of 14 hours by simultaneous irradiation with blue light provided that the blue fluence rate was high enough. The results suggest that coumestrol formation is mediated via UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plant DNA and the photorepair properties of blue light are discussed with respect to possible increases in solar UV due to stratospheric ozone depletion.

  12. Isoflavonoid Formation as an Indicator of UV Stress in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Christopher J.; Stolzer-Jehle, Andrea; Wellmann, Eckard

    1985-01-01

    Induction of the isoflavonoid pigment, coumestrol (3,9-dihydroxy-6H-benzofuro-[3,2-c][1] benzopyran-6-one), in primary leaves of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var Saxa) by ultraviolet (UV) radiation was used as a quantifiable marker for UV damage to a plant system. Coumestrol was induced only by wavelengths below 300 nanometers and its formation could be reversed by treatment with white, but not red light after the UV irradiation period. Formation of coumestrol by UV could also be prevented over a period of 14 hours by simultaneous irradiation with blue light provided that the blue fluence rate was high enough. The results suggest that coumestrol formation is mediated via UV-induced pyrimidine dimer formation in the plant DNA and the photorepair properties of blue light are discussed with respect to possible increases in solar UV due to stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:16664463

  13. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Crabtree, Robert H.; Brown, Stephen H.; Muedas, Cesar A.; Ferguson, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    At least one of selectivity and reaction rate of photosensitized vapor phase dimerizations, including dehydrodimerizations, hydrodimerizations and cross-dimerizations of saturated and unsaturated organic compounds is improved by conducting the dimerization in the presence of hydrogen or nitrous oxide.

  14. Coexistence of spin ordering on ladders and spin dimer formation in a new-structure-type compound Sr2Co3S2O3

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Kwing To; Valldor, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We report on the syntheses and characterizations of single crystalline and polycrystalline Sr2Co3S2O3 with a novel crystal structure type. It contains Co–O 2-leg rectangular ladders and necklace ladders. The two ladders share common legs and construct a hybrid spin ladder. A rare meridional heteroleptic octahedral coordination is found for the Co2+ ions in the 2-leg ladder. Within the necklace ladders, the Co2+ ions are in trans-octahedral coordination. An antiferromagnetic order is observed at TN ~ 267 K, while a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility is found below TN. This relatively high ordering temperature among Co-based ladder compounds is related to the highly anisotropic mer-coordination of the Co2+ ions. The trans-octahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions, on the other hand, corresponds to the possible short-range magnetic correlations through dimers with an effective . This results in a rare situation that spin ordering and spin dimers coexist down to 2 K. PMID:28256576

  15. Coexistence of spin ordering on ladders and spin dimer formation in a new-structure-type compound Sr2Co3S2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Kwing To; Valldor, Martin

    2017-03-01

    We report on the syntheses and characterizations of single crystalline and polycrystalline Sr2Co3S2O3 with a novel crystal structure type. It contains Co–O 2-leg rectangular ladders and necklace ladders. The two ladders share common legs and construct a hybrid spin ladder. A rare meridional heteroleptic octahedral coordination is found for the Co2+ ions in the 2-leg ladder. Within the necklace ladders, the Co2+ ions are in trans-octahedral coordination. An antiferromagnetic order is observed at TN ~ 267 K, while a broad maximum in magnetic susceptibility is found below TN. This relatively high ordering temperature among Co-based ladder compounds is related to the highly anisotropic mer-coordination of the Co2+ ions. The trans-octahedrally coordinated Co2+ ions, on the other hand, corresponds to the possible short-range magnetic correlations through dimers with an effective . This results in a rare situation that spin ordering and spin dimers coexist down to 2 K.

  16. Quantifying Dimer and Trimer Formation by Tri- n -butyl Phosphates in n -Dodecane: Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Quynh N.; Dang, Liem X.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D.

    2016-07-21

    Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), a representative of neutral organophosphorous ligands, is an important extractant used in solvent extraction process for the recovery of uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Microscopic pictures of TBP isomerism and its behavior in n-dodecane diluent were investigated utilizing MD simulations with previously optimized force field parameters for TBP and n-dodecane. Potential Mean Force (PMF) calculations on a single TBP molecule show seven probable TBP isomers. Radial Distribution Functions (RDF) of TBP suggests the existence of TBP trimers at high TBP concentrations in addition to dimers. 2D PMF calculations were performed to determine the angle and distance criteria for TBP trimers. The dimerization and trimerization constants of TBP in n-dodecane were obtained and match our own experimental values using FTIR technique. The new insights into the conformational behaviors of TBP molecule as a monomer and as part of an aggregate could greatly aid the understanding of the complexation between TBP and metal ions in solvent extraction system. The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences funded the work performed by LXD.

  17. Novel Covalently Linked Insulin Dimer Engineered to Investigate the Function of Insulin Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Vinther, Tine N.; Norrman, Mathias; Strauss, Holger M.; Huus, Kasper; Schlein, Morten; Pedersen, Thomas Å.; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jensen, Knud J.; Hubálek, František

    2012-01-01

    An ingenious system evolved to facilitate insulin binding to the insulin receptor as a monomer and at the same time ensure sufficient stability of insulin during storage. Insulin dimer is the cornerstone of this system. Insulin dimer is relatively weak, which ensures dissociation into monomers in the circulation, and it is stabilized by hexamer formation in the presence of zinc ions during storage in the pancreatic β-cell. Due to the transient nature of insulin dimer, direct investigation of this important form is inherently difficult. To address the relationship between insulin oligomerization and insulin stability and function, we engineered a covalently linked insulin dimer in which two monomers were linked by a disulfide bond. The structure of this covalent dimer was identical to the self-association dimer of human insulin. Importantly, this covalent dimer was capable of further oligomerization to form the structural equivalent of the classical hexamer. The covalently linked dimer neither bound to the insulin receptor, nor induced a metabolic response in vitro. However, it was extremely thermodynamically stable and did not form amyloid fibrils when subjected to mechanical stress, underlining the importance of oligomerization for insulin stability. PMID:22363506

  18. The Photochemistry of Pyrimidine in Realistic Astrophysical Ices and the Production of Nucleobases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Materese, Christopher K.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2014-10-01

    Nucleobases, together with deoxyribose/ribose and phosphoric acid, are the building blocks of DNA and RNA for all known life. The presence of nucleobase-like compounds in carbonaceous chondrites delivered to the Earth raises the question of an extraterrestrial origin for the molecules that triggered life on our planet. Whether these molecules are formed in interstellar/protostellar environments, in small parent bodies in the solar system, or both, is currently unclear. Recent experiments show that the UV irradiation of pyrimidine (C4H4N2) in H2O-rich ice mixtures that contain NH3, CH3OH, or CH4 leads to the formation of the pyrimidine-based nucleobases uracil, cytosine, and thymine. In this work, we discuss the low-temperature UV irradiation of pyrimidine in realistic astrophysical ice mixtures containing H2O, CH3OH, and NH3, with or without CH4, to search for the production of nucleobases and other prebiotic compounds. These experiments show the presence of uracil, urea, glycerol, hexamethylenetetramine, small amino acids, and small carboxylic acids in all samples. Cytosine was only found in one sample produced from ices irradiated with a higher UV dose, while thymine was not found in any sample, even after irradiation with a higher UV dose. Results are discussed to evaluate the role of the photochemistry of pyrimidine in the inventory of organic molecules detected in meteorites and their astrophysical/astrobiological implications.

  19. The pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway modulates production of biofilm determinants in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garavaglia, Marco; Rossi, Elio; Landini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are often found in multicellular communities known as biofilms, which constitute a resistance form against environmental stresses. Extracellular adhesion and cell aggregation factors, responsible for bacterial biofilm formation and maintenance, are tightly regulated in response to physiological and environmental cues. We show that, in Escherichia coli, inactivation of genes belonging to the de novo uridine monophosphate (UMP) biosynthetic pathway impairs production of curli fibers and cellulose, important components of the bacterial biofilm matrix, by inhibiting transcription of the csgDEFG operon, thus preventing production of the biofilm master regulator CsgD protein. Supplementing growth media with exogenous uracil, which can be converted to UMP through the pyrimidine nucleotide salvage pathway, restores csgDEFG transcription and curli production. In addition, however, exogenous uracil triggers cellulose production, particularly in strains defective in either carB or pyrB genes, which encode enzymes catalyzing the first steps of de novo UMP biosynthesis. Our results indicate the existence of tight and complex links between pyrimidine metabolism and curli/cellulose production: transcription of the csgDEFG operon responds to pyrimidine nucleotide availability, while cellulose production is triggered by exogenous uracil in the absence of active de novo UMP biosynthesis. We speculate that perturbations in the UMP biosynthetic pathways allow the bacterial cell to sense signals such as starvation, nucleic acids degradation, and availability of exogenous pyrimidines, and to adapt the production of the extracellular matrix to the changing environmental conditions.

  20. yDNA versus yyDNA pyrimidines: computational analysis of the effects of unidirectional ring expansion on the preferred sugar-base orientation, hydrogen-bonding interactions and stacking abilities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Purshotam; Lait, Linda A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2013-02-21

    The properties of natural, y- and yy-pyrimidines are compared using computational (B3LYP, MP2) methods. Ring expansion upon incorporation of benzene or naphthalene into the natural pyrimidines affects the preferred orientation of the base about the glycosidic bond in the corresponding nucleoside to a similar extent. Specifically, although the natural pyrimidines preferentially adopt the anti orientation with respect to the 2'-deoxyribose moiety, the expanded analogues will likely display (anti/syn) conformational heterogeneity, which may lead to alternate hydrogen-bonding modes in double-stranded duplexes. Nevertheless, the A:T Watson-Crick hydrogen-bond strengths do not significantly change upon base expansion, while the G:C interaction energy is slightly strengthened upon incorporation of either expanded pyrimidine. The largest effect of base expansion occurs in the stacking energies. Specifically, the maximum (most negative) stacking energies in isolated dimers formed by aligning the nucleobase centers of mass can be increased up to 45% by inclusion of a single y-pyrimidine and up to 55% by consideration of a yy-pyrimidine. Similar increases in the stacking interactions are found when a simplified duplex model composed of two stacked (hydrogen-bonded) base pairs is considered, where both the intrastrand and interstrand stacking interactions can be increased and the effects are more pronounced for the yy-pyrimidines. Moreover, the total stability (sum of all hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions) is greater for duplexes containing expanded yy-pyrimidines compared to y-pyrimidines, which is mainly due to enhanced stacking interactions. Thus, our calculations suggest that multiple unidirectional increases in the size of the nucleobase spacer can continuously enhance the stability of expanded duplexes.

  1. Dimerization of thymol blue in solution: Theoretical evidence.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Vargas, Rubicelia; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto; Ramírez-Silva, Ma Teresa; Galván, Marcelo

    2007-02-28

    The possibility of dimerization of thymol blue was addressed by ab initio and force field calculations. In agreement with experimental information, a dimer forming symmetrical chemical environments for hydrogen bond formation was determined. This dimer is stable in vacuum and aqueous media and corresponds to the same protonated state proposed by the experiment. A comparison of the CVFF and MM3 force fields and ab initio results shows the suitability of CVFF to qualitatively describe this system.

  2. A 3D-analysis of cluster formation and dynamics of the X(-)-benzene (X = F, Cl, Br, I) ionic dimer solvated by Ar atoms.

    PubMed

    Albertí, Margarita; Huarte-Larrañaga, Fermín; Aguilar, Antonio; Lucas, José M; Pirani, Fernando

    2011-05-14

    The specific influence of X(-) ions (X = F,Cl, Br, I) in the solvation process of halide-benzene (X(-)-Bz) ionic heterodimers by Ar atoms is investigated by means of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. The gradual evolution from cluster rearrangement to solvation dynamics is discussed by considering ensembles of n (n = 1-15 and n = 30) Ar atoms around the X(-)-Bz stable ionic dimers. The potential energy surfaces employed are based on an atom/ion-atom and atom/ion-bond decomposition, which has been developed previously by some of the authors. The outcome of the dynamics is analyzed by employing radial distribution functions (RDF) and tridimensional (3D) probability densities.

  3. Proteomic identification of 14-3-3zeta as a mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 substrate: role in dimer formation and ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Powell, David W; Rane, Madhavi J; Joughin, Brian A; Kalmukova, Ralitsa; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Tidor, Bruce; Dean, William L; Pierce, William M; Klein, Jon B; Yaffe, Michael B; McLeish, Kenneth R

    2003-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) mediates multiple p38 MAPK-dependent inflammatory responses. To define the signal transduction pathways activated by MAPKAPK2, we identified potential MAPKAPK2 substrates by using a functional proteomic approach consisting of in vitro phosphorylation of neutrophil lysate by active recombinant MAPKAPK2, protein separation by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and phosphoprotein identification by peptide mass fingerprinting with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and protein database analysis. One of the eight candidate MAPKAPK2 substrates identified was the adaptor protein, 14-3-3zeta. We confirmed that MAPKAPK2 interacted with and phosphorylated 14-3-3zeta in vitro and in HEK293 cells. The chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulated p38-MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of 14-3-3 proteins in human neutrophils. Mutation analysis showed that MAPKAPK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3zeta at Ser-58. Computational modeling and calculation of theoretical binding energies predicted that both phosphorylation at Ser-58 and mutation of Ser-58 to Asp (S58D) compromised the ability of 14-3-3zeta to dimerize. Experimentally, S58D mutation significantly impaired both 14-3-3zeta dimerization and binding to Raf-1. These data suggest that MAPKAPK2-mediated phosphorylation regulates 14-3-3zeta functions, and this MAPKAPK2 activity may represent a novel pathway mediating p38 MAPK-dependent inflammation.

  4. Synthesis and spectral characterization of new bis(2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethoxy)alkanes and their pharmacological activity.

    PubMed

    Rani, Vangavaragu Jhansi; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Polireddy, Kishore; Jagadeeswarareddy, Kanala

    2012-08-01

    The pyrimidine nucleus is an important component of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and vitamins (B(2) and folic acid). It is evident from the literature that pyrimidine derivatives possess a wide spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. On the basis of diverse biological activities, we attempted to synthesize a series of novel bis(2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethoxy)alkanes 5a-j in four steps with good yields. 2-Chloropyrimidine (1) was reacted with diethyl malonate in the presence of sodium hydride in dry dimethyl formamide to yield the intermediate diethyl 2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)malonate (2), which on further reaction with sodium chloride and dimethyl sulfoxide yielded ethyl 2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethanoate (3). Reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH(4) ) resulted in the formation of 2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethanol (4). This was further reacted with various dibromoalkanes to obtain the title compounds 5a-j. In this current study, we evaluated the antioxidant properties of the title compounds using four in vitro test systems: the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-, superoxide radical-, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays, and the anti-lipid peroxidation activity test. The title compounds showed promising antioxidant activity when compared to butylated hydroxytoluene. The potency of their antioxidant activity was mainly influenced by the alkyl fragment attached to 2-(pyrimidin-2-yl)ethanol. The ethyl and butyl fragments linked to oxygen led to increased antioxidant activity of the title compounds (i.e., 5b and 5d) in all our in vitro assays.

  5. Repair of UV dimers in skin DNA of patients with basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Segerbäck, Dan; Strozyk, Malgorzata; Snellman, Erna; Hemminki, Kari

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sunlight is the primary etiologic agent for basal cell carcinoma. Formation of UV-induced DNA damage is believed to be a crucial event in the process leading to skin cancer. In this study, repair of photoproducts in DNA was followed in the skin of patients with basal cell carcinoma and control subjects. The subjects were exposed to 800 J/m(2) Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairag of solar-simulating radiation on buttock skin. Biopsies were taken at 0 hour, 24 hours, and 3 weeks after the exposure. Two cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, TT=C and TT=T, were measured using a sensitive (32)P-postlabeling assay. Initial levels of both TT=C and TT=T differed between individuals in both groups. The levels of TT=T in patients with basal cell carcinoma and controls were similar (9.9 +/- 4.0 and 9.2 +/- 2.9 products per 10(6) normal nucleotides), whereas the level of TT=C was significantly lower in controls than in patients with basal cell carcinoma (6.2 +/- 3.1 versus 10.9 +/- 4.5 products per 10(6) normal nucleotides). The fractions of TT=T remaining after 24 hours and 3 weeks were significantly higher in patients with basal cell carcinoma (72% and 11%) compared with controls (48% and 5%). A slower removal in patients with basal cell carcinoma than in controls was indicated also for TT=C (52% versus 42% remaining at 24 hours); however, the difference between groups was not significant. When including data from our previously reported small-scale study, the fraction of dimers remaining at 24 hours was significantly higher in patients with basal cell carcinoma for both TT=C and TT=T. The data suggest that patients with basal cell carcinoma have a reduced capacity to repair UV-induced DNA lesions.

  6. A facile environment-friendly one-pot two-step regioselective synthetic strategy for 3,7-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines related to zaleplon and 3,6-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amines assisted by KHSO[Formula: see text] in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Devi, Asem Satyapati; Kaping, Shunan; Vishwakarma, Jai Narain

    2015-11-01

    3-Aminopyrazoles required for the synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines were obtained by the reaction of enaminonitriles with hydrazine hydrate. The resulting aminopyrazoles are reacted with formylated acetophenones under reflux at [Formula: see text] assisted by KHSO[Formula: see text] in aqueous media to form regioselectively 3,7-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and 3,6-diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amines. X-ray crystallography of selected compounds 5b and 7i further confirmed the regioselective formation of these products.

  7. Pyrimidine derivatives as potential agents acting on central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Deep, Aakash; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Pyrimidine and its derivatives are present in many of the bioactive aromatic compounds that are of wide interest because of their diverse biological and clinical applications. The utility of pyrimidines as synthon for various biologically active compounds has given impetus to these studies. The review article aims to review the work reported on pharmacological activities of central nervous system (CNS) such as anticonvulsant and antidepressant, which created interest among researchers to synthesize variety of pyrimidine and their derivatives. The present study shows, objective of the work can be summarized as pyrimidine derivative constitute an important class of compounds for new drug development. These observations have been given novel idea for the development of new pyrimidine derivative that possess varied biological activities. This article aims to review the recent works on pyrimidine moiety together with the biological potential during the past year.

  8. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  9. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  10. Protein dimerization. Inside job.

    PubMed

    Metzger, H

    1994-04-01

    In a sophisticated combination of genetic engineering and organic synthesis, a general method for dimerizing recombinant intracellular proteins has been devised; the usefulness of the method should now be testable.

  11. Discovery tactics to mitigate toxicity risks due to reactive metabolite formation with 2-(2-hydroxyaryl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3h)-one derivatives, potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists and clinical candidate(s) for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Kalgutkar, Amit S; Griffith, David A; Ryder, Tim; Sun, Hao; Miao, Zhuang; Bauman, Jonathan N; Didiuk, Mary T; Frederick, Kosea S; Zhao, Sabrina X; Prakash, Chandra; Soglia, John R; Bagley, Scott W; Bechle, Bruce M; Kelley, Ryan M; Dirico, Kenneth; Zawistoski, Michael; Li, Jianke; Oliver, Robert; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Liu, Kevin K C; Walker, Daniel P; Benbow, John W; Morris, Joel

    2010-06-21

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones as antagonists of the human calcium receptor (CaSR) have been recently disclosed [ Didiuk et al. ( 2009 ) Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19 , 4555 - 4559 ). On the basis of its pharmacology and disposition attributes, (R)-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(1-phenylpropan-2-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (1) was considered for rapid advancement to first-in-human (FIH) trials to mitigate uncertainty surrounding the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) predictions for a short-acting bone anabolic agent. During the course of metabolic profiling, however, glutathione (GSH) conjugates of 1 were detected in human liver microsomes in an NADPH-dependent fashion. Characterization of the GSH conjugate structures allowed insight(s) into the bioactivation pathway, which involved CYP3A4-mediated phenol ring oxidation to the catechol, followed by further oxidation to the electrophilic ortho-quinone species. While the reactive metabolite (RM) liability raised concerns around the likelihood of a potential toxicological outcome, a more immediate program goal was establishing confidence in human PK predictions in the FIH study. Furthermore, the availability of a clinical biomarker (serum parathyroid hormone) meant that PD could be assessed side by side with PK, an ideal scenario for a relatively unprecedented pharmacologic target. Consequently, progressing 1 into the clinic was given a high priority, provided the compound demonstrated an adequate safety profile to support FIH studies. Despite forming identical RMs in rat liver microsomes, no clinical or histopathological signs prototypical of target organ toxicity were observed with 1 in in vivo safety assessments in rats. Compound 1 was also devoid of metabolism-based mutagenicity in in vitro (e.g., Salmonella Ames) and in vivo assessments (micronuclei induction in bone marrow) in rats. Likewise, metabolism

  12. Genetic dissection of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Zachary N; Gilroy, Caslin A; Boitz, Jan M; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A

    2012-04-13

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Genetic Dissection of Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Salvage in Leishmania donovani*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Zachary N.; Gilroy, Caslin A.; Boitz, Jan M.; Ullman, Buddy; Yates, Phillip A.

    2012-01-01

    Protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus express the metabolic machinery to synthesize pyrimidine nucleotides via both de novo and salvage pathways. To evaluate the relative contributions of pyrimidine biosynthesis and salvage to pyrimidine homeostasis in both life cycle stages of Leishmania donovani, individual mutant lines deficient in either carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), the first enzyme in pyrimidine biosynthesis, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a salvage enzyme, or both CPS and UPRT were constructed. The Δcps lesion conferred pyrimidine auxotrophy and a growth requirement for medium supplementation with one of a plethora of pyrimidine nucleosides or nucleobases, although only dihydroorotate or orotate could circumvent the pyrimidine auxotrophy of the Δcps/Δuprt double knockout. The Δuprt null mutant was prototrophic for pyrimidines but could not salvage uracil or any pyrimidine nucleoside. The capability of the Δcps parasites to infect mice was somewhat diminished but still robust, indicating active pyrimidine salvage by the amastigote form of the parasite, but the Δcps/Δuprt mutant was completely attenuated with no persistent parasites detected after a 4-week infection. Complementation of the Δcps/Δuprt clone with either CPS or UPRT restored infectivity. These data establish that an intact pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway is essential for the growth of the promastigote form of L. donovani in culture, that all uracil and pyrimidine nucleoside salvage in the parasite is mediated by UPRT, and that both the biosynthetic and salvage pathways contribute to a robust infection of the mammalian host by the amastigote. These findings impact potential therapeutic design and vaccine strategies for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:22367196

  14. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-03-28

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.

  15. Urine Pyrimidine Metabolite Determination by HPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrimidine diseases result from deficiencies in pyrimidine de novo synthesis, degradation, and salvage pathways. Enzymatic deficiencies in pyrimidine catabolism lead to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE), pyrimidinuria, dihydropyrimidinuria, ureidopropionic aciduria, and other disorders. While MNGIE presents with gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, and leukoencephalopathy, pyrimidinuria and dihydropyrimidinuria may show symptoms of epilepsy, autism, mental retardation, and dysmorphic features. The application of HPLC-MS/MS facilitates rapid screening of pyrimidine metabolites. Here we describe an LCMS method for determination of uracil, thymine, thymidine, dihydrouracil, and dihydrothymine that are diagnostic biomarkers of MNGIE, pyrimidinuria, and dihydropyrimidinuria.

  16. Unusual transformation of substituted-3-formylchromones to pyrimidine analogues: synthesis and antimicrobial activities of 5-(o-hydroxyaroyl)pyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Raj, Tilak; Singh, Narinder; Ishar, M P S

    2013-11-15

    Substituted-3-formylchromones (4a-e) on reaction with 1,3-bis-dimethylaminomethylene-thiourea (5) in refluxing toluene solution give novel substituted 5-(o-hydroxyaroyl)pyrimidines (6a-e) in high yields. A mechanistic rationalization of the formation of products (6a-e) is proffered. Antimicrobial activities of all the synthesized compounds (6a-e) were evaluated against various fungal and bacterial strains. Compound 6d display significant antifungal activity (MIC 15) against Geotrichum candidum in comparison fluconazole used as positive control. Some of the compounds also display good antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic profile of compound 6d against HeLa cells indicates that at concentration (20 μM) no significant cell death (~2%) was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DNA photochemistry: geometrically unconstrained pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts do photoisomerize.

    PubMed

    Douki, Thierry; Rebelo-Moreira, Silvestre; Hamon, Nadège; Bayle, Pierre-Alain

    2015-01-16

    Structural features are of major importance for the formation of mutagenic photoproducts in DNA. It was recently reported that lack of constraints between two adjacent nucleosidic units prevents the conversion of pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts into their Dewar valence isomers. We here report that this is not the case for the thymidine photoproducts which, although unconstrained, are quantitatively converted into photolysis products identified as Dewar valence isomers by mass spectrometry and NMR and infrared spectroscopies.

  18. Crystal structure of 4-allyl­sulfanyl-1H-pyrazolo­[3,4-d]pyrimidine

    PubMed Central

    El Fal, Mohammed; Ramli, Youssef; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H8N4S, the pyrazolo­[3,4-d]pyrimidine ring system is essentially planar, with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.025 (3) Å. The allyl group is disordered over two sites in a 0.512 (6):0.488 (6) ratio. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 2(8) graph-set motif. PMID:25309213

  19. Isolation and characterization of pyrimidine-psoralen-pyrimidine photodiadducts from DNA. [Ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, D.; Straub, K.; Hearst, J.E.; Rapoport, H.

    1982-12-01

    The isolation and characterization of pyrimidine-psoralen-pyrimidine photodiadducts from DNA are reported for the first time. For each of the four psoralens studied, a single pair of diastereomeric thymidine-psoralen-thymidine photodiadducts, each with cis-syn stereochemistry, was found to account for > 90% of the diadducts formed. Additionally, pulse-chase experiments that establish that these photo cross-links are formed by cycloaddition of a second thymidine residue to the 3,4 double bond (pyrone side) of an initially formed 4',5' (furan-side) psoralen-thymidine photomonoadduct have been carried out.

  20. Chemistry of isoflavone heterocyclic analogs. 10. Synthesis of pyrimidines by recyclization of isoflavones and their heterocyclic analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Khilya, V.P.; Kornilov, M.Yu.; Gorbulenko, N.V.; Golubushina, G.M.; Kovtun, E.N.; Kolotusha, N.V.; Panasenko, G.V.

    1986-05-01

    Isoflavones and their thiazole and pyrazole analogs are recyclized into the corresponding 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyrimidine derivatives under the effect of amidines. Their PMR spectra were studied. The effects related to the formation and strength of the intramolecular hydrogen bond were examined.

  1. What factors control dimerization of coniferyl alcohol?

    Treesearch

    Carl J. Houtman

    1999-01-01

    Data suggest that the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol is not under thermodynamic control. In this study, molecular dynamics calculations were used to estimate the effect of the solvent environment. In water, the coniferyl alcohol radicals were forced to associate by the formation of a solvent cage. In glycerol, the solvent cage effect appeared to be absent. These...

  2. Self-association of pyrimidine and some of its methyl derivatives in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peral, F.; Gallego, E.

    1995-12-01

    The self-association of pyrimidine and some of its methyl derivatives (4- and 5-methylpyrimidine; 4-6-dimethylpyrimidine) was studied in aqueous solution, at different pH values, by UV spectroscopy. The variation in molar absorptivity with the concentration of these compounds was measured for the π → π∗ bands, at nearly 240 nm, and for the n → π∗ band, at nearly 270 nm, whenever this band was observable separately. Hyperchromic or hypochromic deviations from Beer's law with increasing concentration were detected. These effects were interpreted in terms of two processes of self-association: dimerization and polymerization. From the experimental data, self-association constants for dimerization ( K2) and polymerization ( Kn) were calculated. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the structural features of each compound. In this work, the different behaviours of the π → π∗ and n → π∗ bands in the same compound have been observed for the first time. These behaviours can be interpreted, according to the theory of hypochromism in polynucleotides, in terms of horizontal (colinear) interactions for the dimerization and vertical (stacking) interactions for the polymerization.

  3. Influence of Exciplex formation on the electroluminescent properties of dimeric Zn (II) bis-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole complex and monomeric Zn (II) 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Sattey; Anand, R. S.; Manoharan, S. Sundar

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present the factors affecting electroluminescent properties of Zinc complexes of oxazole & thiazole derivatives. Electroluminescent spectra of the Zinc (II) complex of bis-[2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole], [Zn (HPBO)2]2 and 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] show unusual broadening and shows structural and photophysical similarity with [Zn (HPBT)2]2, a dimeric complex. The [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex as an emissive layer in the device structure ITO /PEDOT:PSS /TPD (30nm) /[Zn (HPBO)2]2 (60nm) /BCP (6nm) /Ca (3nm) /Al (200nm) shows a broad bluish green emission, with a full width at half maxima (FWHM1˜70nm). The EL spectra is much broader compared to the PL spectra because of exciplex formation at the interfacial region between the emissive layer (EML) & hole transport layer (HTL). We also show the device performance of Zinc 2-(1'-hydroxynaphthyl) benzothiazole [Zn (HNBT)2] complex as emissive layer. Distinctly this device shows a broad greenish yellow emission with a peak maxima at 535nm and 690nm, owing to the exciplex formation between electron transport layer (ETL) and emissive layer (EML), which is in sharp contrast to the exciplex formation across the HTL-EML interface observed for the [Zn (HPBO)2]2 complex.

  4. Glycine Transporter Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette; Dutertre, Sébastien; Hastrup, Hanne; Jha, Alok; Gether, Ulrik; Sitte, Harald H.; Betz, Heinrich; Eulenburg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Different Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. Endoglycosidase treatment and surface biotinylation further revealed that complex-glycosylated GlyTs form dimers located at the cell surface. Furthermore, substitution of tryptophan 469 of GlyT2 by an arginine generated a transporter deficient in dimerization that was retained intracellulary. Based on these results and GlyT structures modeled by using the crystal structure of the bacterial homolog LeuTAa, as a template, residues located within the extracellular loop 3 and at the beginning of transmembrane domain 6 are proposed to contribute to the dimerization interface of GlyTs. PMID:18252709

  5. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide and 2-[(4,6-di­amino­pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan­yl]-N-(4-fluoro­phen­yl)acetamide

    PubMed Central

    Subasri, S.; Kumar, Timiri Ajay; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-01-01

    The title compounds, C16H15N5OS, (I), and C12H12FN5OS, (II), are [(di­amino­pyrimidine)­sulfan­yl]acetamide derivatives. In (I), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 55.5 (1)°, while in (II), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 58.93 (8)°. In (II), there is an intra­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bond and a short C—H⋯O contact. In the crystals of (I) and (II), mol­ecules are linked by pairs of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with R 2 2(8) ring motifs. In the crystal of (I), the dimers are linked by bifurcated N—H⋯(O,O) and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100). In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, also forming layers parallel to (100). The layers are linked by C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional architecture. PMID:28217364

  6. Crystal structures of 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(naphthalen-1-yl)acetamide and 2-[(4,6-di-amino-pyrimidin-2-yl)sulfan-yl]-N-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)acetamide.

    PubMed

    Subasri, S; Kumar, Timiri Ajay; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Viswanathan, Vijayan; Velmurugan, Devadasan

    2017-02-01

    The title compounds, C16H15N5OS, (I), and C12H12FN5OS, (II), are [(di-amino-pyrimidine)-sulfan-yl]acetamide derivatives. In (I), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 55.5 (1)°, while in (II), the pyrimidine ring is inclined to the benzene ring by 58.93 (8)°. In (II), there is an intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond and a short C-H⋯O contact. In the crystals of (I) and (II), mol-ecules are linked by pairs of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with R2(2)(8) ring motifs. In the crystal of (I), the dimers are linked by bifurcated N-H⋯(O,O) and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to (100). In the crystal of (II), the dimers are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, also forming layers parallel to (100). The layers are linked by C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional architecture.

  7. Superbackscattering nanoparticle dimers.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Iñigo; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Ziolkowski, Richard W

    2015-07-10

    The theory and design of superbackscattering nanoparticle dimers are presented. We analytically derive the optimal configurations and the upper bound of their backscattering cross-sections. In particular, it is demonstrated that electrically small nanoparticle dimers can enhance the backscattering by a factor of 6.25 with respect to single dipolar particles. We demonstrate that optimal designs approaching this theoretical limit can be found by using a simple circuit model. The study of practical implementations based on plasmonic and high-permittivity particles has been also addressed. Moreover, the numerical examples reveal that the dimers can attain close to a fourfold enhancement of the single nanoparticle response even in the presence of high losses.

  8. Collective motion of dimers.

    PubMed

    Penington, Catherine J; Korvasová, Karolína; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2012-11-01

    We consider a discrete agent-based model on a one-dimensional lattice and a two-dimensional square lattice, where each agent is a dimer occupying two sites. Agents move by vacating one occupied site in favor of a nearest-neighbor site and obey either a strict simple exclusion rule or a weaker constraint that permits partial overlaps between dimers. Using indicator variables and careful probability arguments, a discrete-time master equation for these processes is derived systematically within a mean-field approximation. In the continuum limit, nonlinear diffusion equations that describe the average agent occupancy of the dimer population are obtained. In addition, we show that multiple species of interacting subpopulations give rise to advection-diffusion equations. Averaged discrete simulation data compares very well with the solution to the continuum partial differential equation models. Since many cell types are elongated rather than circular, this work offers insight into population-level behavior of collective cellular motion.

  9. 5,7-Substituted thiazolo[2,3- a]pyrimidines: Synthesis, stereochemistry and crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaremenko, Fedor; Beryozkina, Tetyana; Khvat, Alexander; Svidlo, Irina; Shishkin, Oleg; Shishkina, Svetlana; Orlov, Valeriy

    2008-02-01

    Reaction of 2-aminothiazoline ( 1) with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds 2 under mild conditions (acetone, room temperature) gives two diastereomers 5-R-7-hydroxy-5 H-tetrahydrothiazolo[2,3- a]pyrimidines 3. According to 1H NMR, major isomers of 3 have axial OH-groups whereas minor isomers have equatorial OH-groups. The X-ray investigation of compound 3i reveals only A type diastereomer in the crystal phase. The asymmetric unit contains two forms (A1 and A2) with slightly different geometrical parameters. Each of them consists of a pair of enantiomers E1 and E2. As a result, the asymmetric unit contains the centrosymmetric dimers (A1E1 … A1E2 and A2E2 … A2E1), due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. 5,7-Diaryl-5 H-2,3-dihydrothiazolo[2,3- a]pyrimidines 4 were obtained via reaction of 1 with 2 under stronger conditions (DMF or chloroform, heating). Structure of product 4p was confirmed by X-ray structural analysis.

  10. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kevin D.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37°C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [14C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA–G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively. PMID:16540542

  11. The effect of purine and pyrimidine analogues and virazole on adenovirus replication.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, P; Haghchenas, D; Wigand, R

    1975-04-01

    The multiplication of adenovirus 19 in HeLa cells was inhibited by various purine and pyrimidine analogues and by virazole. The formation of infectious virus and of capsid proteins (haemagglutin, group-specific complement-fixing antigen) was inhibited to the same degree, while the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) was not inhibited. The reversibility of the inhibition after removal of the substances was more complete for purine than for pyrimidine analogues. The inhibition was counteracted by simulataneous addition of the corresponding nucleosides. Adenosine was more effected than guanosine against purine analogues; both were partially effective against virazole, but none of them against arabinofuranosyladenine. The time-dependence of inhibition, the ensuing eclipse period after removal of the inhibitors, and the successive application of two inhibitors led to the conclusion that most of them affect the viral multiplication mainly by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Azacytidine inhibits the synthesis of structural proteins as well.

  12. Partition-DFT on the water dimer.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; Nafziger, Jonathan; Restrepo, Albeiro; Wasserman, Adam

    2017-02-21

    As is well known, the ground-state symmetry group of the water dimer switches from its equilibrium Cs-character to C2h-character as the distance between the two oxygen atoms of the dimer decreases below RO-O∼2.5 Å. For a range of RO-O between 1 and 5 Å, and for both symmetries, we apply Partition Density Functional Theory (PDFT) to find the unique monomer densities that sum to the correct dimer densities while minimizing the sum of the monomer energies. We calculate the work involved in deforming the isolated monomer densities and find that it is slightly larger for the Cs geometry for all RO-O. We discuss how the PDFT densities and the corresponding partition potentials support the orbital-interaction picture of hydrogen-bond formation.

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopic and computational study of hydrated pyrimidine anions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John T; Xu, Shoujun; Graham, Jacob; Nilles, J Michael; Radisic, Dunja; Buonaugurio, Angela M; Bowen, Kit H; Hammer, Nathan I; Tschumper, Gregory S

    2014-12-26

    The stabilization of the pyrimidine anion by the addition of water molecules is studied experimentally using photoelectron spectroscopy of mass-selected hydrated pyrimidine clusters and computationally using quantum-mechanical electronic structure theory. Although the pyrimidine molecular anion is not observed experimentally, the addition of a single water molecule is sufficient to impart a positive electron affinity. The sequential hydration data have been used to extrapolate to -0.22 eV for the electron affinity of neutral pyrimidine, which agrees very well with previous observations. These results for pyrimidine are consistent with previous studies of the hydrated cluster anions of uridine, cytidine, thymine, adenine, uracil, and naphthalene. This commonality suggests a universal effect of sequential hydration on the electron affinity of similar molecules.

  14. A 14-3-3γ dimer-based scaffold bridges CtBP1-S/BARS to PI(4)KIIIβ to regulate post-Golgi carrier formation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Carmen; Turacchio, Gabriele; Mariggiò, Stefania; Pagliuso, Alessandro; Gaibisso, Renato; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Santoro, Michele; Formiggini, Fabio; Spanò, Stefania; Piccini, Daniele; Polishchuk, Roman S; Colanzi, Antonino; Luini, Alberto; Corda, Daniela

    2012-02-26

    Large pleiomorphic carriers leave the Golgi complex for the plasma membrane by en bloc extrusion of specialized tubular domains, which then undergo fission. Several components of the underlying molecular machinery have been identified, including those involved in the budding/initiation of tubular carrier precursors (for example, the phosphoinositide kinase PI(4)KIIIβ, the GTPase ARF, and FAPP2), and in the fission of these precursors (for example, PKD, CtBP1-S/BARS). However, how these proteins interact to bring about carrier formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a protein complex that mediates carrier formation and contains budding and fission molecules, as well as other molecules, such as the adaptor protein 14-3-3γ. Specifically, we show that 14-3-3γ dimers bridge CtBP1-S/BARS with PI(4)KIIIβ, and that the resulting complex is stabilized by phosphorylation by PKD and PAK. Disrupting the association of these proteins inhibits the fission of elongating carrier precursors, indicating that this complex couples the carrier budding and fission processes.

  15. Dynamic maps of UV damage formation and repair for the human genome.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinchuan; Adebali, Ogun; Adar, Sheera; Sancar, Aziz

    2017-06-27

    Formation and repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells are affected by cellular context. To study factors influencing damage formation and repair genome-wide, we developed a highly sensitive single-nucleotide resolution damage mapping method [high-sensitivity damage sequencing (HS-Damage-seq)]. Damage maps of both cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts [(6-4)PPs] from UV-irradiated cellular and naked DNA revealed that the effect of transcription factor binding on bulky adducts formation varies, depending on the specific transcription factor, damage type, and strand. We also generated time-resolved UV damage maps of both CPDs and (6-4)PPs by HS-Damage-seq and compared them to the complementary repair maps of the human genome obtained by excision repair sequencing to gain insight into factors that affect UV-induced DNA damage and repair and ultimately UV carcinogenesis. The combination of the two methods revealed that, whereas UV-induced damage is virtually uniform throughout the genome, repair is affected by chromatin states, transcription, and transcription factor binding, in a manner that depends on the type of DNA damage.

  16. Structural probing of a pathogenic tRNA dimer

    PubMed Central

    ROY, MARC D.; WITTENHAGEN, LISA M.; KELLEY, SHANA O.

    2005-01-01

    The A3243G mutation within the human mitochondrial (hs mt) tRNALeu(UUR) gene is associated with maternally inherited deafness and diabetes (MIDD) and other mitochondrial encephalopathies. One of the most pronounced structural effects of this mutation is the disruption of the native structure through stabilization of a high-affinity dimeric complex. We conducted a series of studies that address the structural properties of this tRNA dimer, and we assessed its formation under physiological conditions. Enzymatic probing was used to directly define the dimeric interface for the complex, and a discrete region of the D-stem and loop of hs mt tRNALeu(UUR) was identified. The dependence of dimerization on magnesium ions and temperature was also tested. The formation of the tRNA dimer is influenced by temperature, with dimerization becoming more efficient at physiological temperature. Complexation of the mutant tRNA is also affected by the amount of magnesium present, and occurs at concentrations present intracellularly. Terbium probing experiments revealed a specific metal ion-binding site localized at the site of the A3243G mutation that is unique to the dimer structure. This metal ion-binding site presents a striking parallel to dimeric complexes of viral RNAs, which use the same hexanucleotide sequence for complexation and feature a similarly positioned metal ion-binding site within the dimeric structure. Taken together, these results indicate that the unique dimeric complex formed by the hs mt tRNALeu(UUR) A3243G mutant exhibits interesting similarities to biological RNA dimers, and may play a role in the loss of function caused by this mutation in vivo. PMID:15701731

  17. Specialized transduction of D-serine deaminase genes: formation of lysogens that yield high lambda-d dsd/lambda ratios and formation of a dimeric lambda-d dsd.

    PubMed

    Palchaudhuri, S; McFall, E; Carothers, A M

    1976-08-01

    We have obtained two classes of double lysogens that on induction yield higher titers of lambda-d dsd transducing phage than of helper phage. One class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM6116 (dsddelta attlambdadelta HfrC) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+, head-tail substitution). In the absence of either a normal attlambda or the homology of a chromosomal dsd region, the transducing phage integrated at other sites, at least one of which, in strain EM6177, is near the origin of HfrC. On induction, strain EM6177 yields a phage burst of 20 to 50 with a lambdadsd:lambda ratio of 10(4):1. The asnychronously high yield of lambda dsd is attributed to an efficiency of excision greater than that of lambda. The other class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM1407 (dsdA attlambda+) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdO6 dsdA, partial deletion of dsdC). The DNA of mature lambda-dsd type 2 is a complete dimer. It lacks nearly all the phage late genes and b2 and carries about five bacterial genes. It could not be packaged as a monomer but is just within the packaging size limit as a dimer. Models for the derivation of these lambda dsd phages and the high-yielding lysogens are presented.

  18. Specialized transduction of D-serine deaminase genes: formation of lysogens that yield high lambda-d dsd/lambda ratios and formation of a dimeric lambda-d dsd.

    PubMed Central

    Palchaudhuri, S; McFall, E; Carothers, A M

    1976-01-01

    We have obtained two classes of double lysogens that on induction yield higher titers of lambda-d dsd transducing phage than of helper phage. One class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM6116 (dsddelta attlambdadelta HfrC) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+, head-tail substitution). In the absence of either a normal attlambda or the homology of a chromosomal dsd region, the transducing phage integrated at other sites, at least one of which, in strain EM6177, is near the origin of HfrC. On induction, strain EM6177 yields a phage burst of 20 to 50 with a lambdadsd:lambda ratio of 10(4):1. The asnychronously high yield of lambda dsd is attributed to an efficiency of excision greater than that of lambda. The other class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM1407 (dsdA attlambda+) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdO6 dsdA, partial deletion of dsdC). The DNA of mature lambda-dsd type 2 is a complete dimer. It lacks nearly all the phage late genes and b2 and carries about five bacterial genes. It could not be packaged as a monomer but is just within the packaging size limit as a dimer. Models for the derivation of these lambda dsd phages and the high-yielding lysogens are presented. Images PMID:783126

  19. Quantum Dimer Model: Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Chamon, Claudio; Castelnovo, Claudio

    We present new theoretical analysis of the Quantum Dimer Model. We study dimer models on square, cubic and triangular lattices and we reproduce their phase diagrams (which were previously known only numerically). We show that there are several types of dimer liquids and solids. We present preliminary analysis of several other models including doped dimers and planar spin ice, and some results on the Kagome and hexagonal lattices.

  20. Allosteric Modulation of Purine and Pyrimidine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Göblyös, Anikó; IJzerman, Adriaan P.

    2011-01-01

    Among the purine and pyrimidine receptors, the discovery of small molecular allosteric modulators has been most highly advanced for the A1 and A3 ARs. These AR modulators have allosteric effects that are structurally separated from the orthosteric effects in SAR studies. The benzoylthiophene derivatives tend to act as allosteric agonists, as well as selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the A1 AR. A 2-amino-3-aroylthiophene derivative T-62 has been under development as a PAM of the A1 AR for the treatment of chronic pain. Several structurally distinct classes of allosteric modulators of the human A3 AR have been reported: 3-(2-pyridinyl)isoquinolines, 2,4-disubstituted quinolines, 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines, endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol and the food dye Brilliant Black BN. Site-directed mutagenesis of A1 and A3 ARs has identified residues associated with the allosteric effect, distinct from those that affect orthosteric binding. A few small molecular allosteric modulators have been reported for several of the P2X ligand-gated ion channels and the G protein-coupled P2Y receptor nucleotides. Metal ion modulation of the P2X receptors has been extensively explored. The allosteric approach to modulation of purine and pyrimidine receptors looks promising for development of drugs that are event-specific and site-specific in action. PMID:21586360

  1. Mineral catalysis of the formation of dimers of 5'-AMP in aqueous solution: The possible role of montmorillonite clays in the prebiotic synthesis of RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, James P.; Ertem, Gözen; Agarwal, Vipin

    1989-03-01

    The reaction of the 5'-AMP with water soluble carbodiimide (EDAC) in the presence of Na+-montmorillonite 22A results in the formation of 2',5'-(pA)2 (18.9%), 3',5'-(pA)2 (11%), and AppA (4.8%). When poly(U) is used in place of the clay the product yields are 2',5'-(pA)2 (15.5%), 3',5'-(pA)2 (3.7%) and AppA (14.9%). The 3',5'-cyclic dinucleotide, 3',5'-c(pA)2, is also formed when poly(U) is used. AppA is the principal reaction product when neither clay nor poly(U) is present in the reaction mixture. Products which contain the phophodiester bond are formed at different ionic strengths, pH and temperatures using Na+-montmorillonite. Phosphodiester bond formation was not observed when Cu2+-montmorillonite was used or when DISN was used in the place of EDAC. The extent catalysis of phophodiester bond formation varied with the particular clay mineral used. Those Na+-clays which bind 5'-AMP more strongly are better catalysts. Cu2+-montmorillonite, which binds 5'-AMP strongly, exhibits no catalytic activity.

  2. Evidence for dimerization of dimers in K+ channel assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, L; Deutsch, C

    1999-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ channels are tetrameric, but how the four subunits assemble is not known. We analyzed inactivation kinetics and peak current levels elicited for a variety of wild-type and mutant Kv1.3 subunits, expressed singly, in combination, and as tandem constructs, to show that 1) the dominant pathway involves a dimerization of dimers, and 2) dimer-dimer interaction may involve interaction sites that differ from those involved in monomer-monomer association. Moreover, using nondenaturing gel electrophoresis, we detected dimers and tetramers, but not trimers, in the translation reaction of Kv1.3 monomers. PMID:10096897

  3. UVB sensitivity and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyase genotypes in cultivated and wild rice species.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Yutaka; Aoki, Chizuru; Takahashi, Masaaki; Teranishi, Mika; Ding, Yuanying; Sun, Chuanqing; Kumagai, Tadashi; Hidema, Jun

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the UVB-sensitivity in 12 rice strains belonging to two cultivated species (O. sativa and O. glaberrima) and three wild species (O. barthii, O. meridionalis and O. rufipogon) of rice possessing the AA genome, while focusing on the CPD photolyase activity and the genotypes of CPD photolyase. Although the UVB sensitivity, CPD photolyase activity, and CPD photolyase genotype varied widely among these rice species, the sensitivity to UVB radiation depended on the activity of the CPD photolyase, regardless of grass shape, habitat, or species. The rice strains examined here clearly divided into three groups based on the CPD photolyase activity, and the activity of the strains greatly depended on amino acid residues at positions 126 and 296, with the exception of the W1299 strain (O. meridionalis). The amino acid residues 126 and 296 of CPD photolyase in Sasanishiki strain (O. sativa), which showed higher enzymatic activity and more resistance to UVB, were glutamine (Gln) and Gln, respectively. An amino acid change at position 126 from Gln to arginine ("Nori"-type) in the photolyase led to a reduction of enzymatic activity. Additionally, an amino acid change at position 296 from Gln to histidine led to a further reduction in activity. The activity of the W1299 strain, which possesses a "Nori"-type CPD photolyase, was the highest among the strains examined here, and was similar to that of the Sasanishiki. The CPD photolyase of the W1299 contains ten amino acid substitutions, compared to Sasanishiki. The alterations in amino acid residues in the W1299 CPD photolyase compensated for the reduction in activity caused by the amino acid substitutions at positions 126. Knowledge of the activity of different CPD photolyase genotypes will be useful in developing improved rice cultivars.

  4. Fluorescence and electrochemical detection of pyrimidine/purine transversion by a ferrocenyl aminonaphthyridine derivative.

    PubMed